ETHICAL ISSUES IN ARMED FORCES
Submitted by: Arun Pawar Abhijeet Singh Karan Chopra Gajinder Yadav (68) (66) (67) (69)
16 crore (US$2.2 billion) dedicated. and others as well. Sino-Indian War. Kargil War and others.03 billion for FY2011 (or 1. This will be one of the world's largest. Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.ABOUT INDIAN ARMED FORCES (IAF)
The Indian Armed Forces (IAF) are the military forces of the Republic of India encompassing the Indian Army. the Indian Navy. the Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) and the Strategic Forces Command. India is the world's largest arms importer accounting for 9% of all global imports and ranks among the top thirty in arms export. with Israel.14 million reserve forces thus giving India the thirdlargest active troops in the world as of 2006. India has also maintained close military relation with Israel as well since 1992. the President Pratibha Patil and managed by Ministry of Defense A. India's official defense budget stands at US$36. including development cooperation.83% of GDP) but the actual spending on the armed forces is estimated to be much higher than that. K. Russia and the United States as its top military suppliers. Antony. Following 1962. The IAF served as India's armed forces in all the country's major military operations — including the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1947. Auxiliary services include the Indian Coast Guard. The country’s defense expenditure will be around US$112 billion by 2016. Indian Coast Guard and various other inter-service institutions. The IAF is headed by its Commander-in-Chief. highly secure and state-of-the-art optical fiber cable (OFC) network for the Army. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish. Navy and Air Force. Currently. the Indian Air Force. The Armed Forces of India possess nuclear weapons and operate short and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as well as nuclear-capable aircraft.
. such as on the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA). The IAF is one of the world's largest military force. India is currently moving to build a 9. after the People's Liberation Army and US Armed Forces. the IAF has had close military relations with the Russia. Undergoing rapid expansion and modernization. and naval vessels. India imports close to 70% of its weapons requirements.970. with roughly 1.32 million active standing army and 2. closed user group (CUG) networks for exclusive use by the million-plus personnel of the Indian armed forces. the Indian Armed Forces plans to have an active military space program and is currently developing a missile defense shield and nuclear triad capability. Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA).
The headquarters of the Indian Armed Forces is in New Delhi.SERVICE BRANCHES
India maintains the third-largest military force in the world. the Coast Guard. each under the control of different Lieutenant Generals.[The Indian Armed Forces has six branches. Navy. The Indian Air Force is divided into five operational and two functional commands. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) is the ministry charged with the responsibilities of countering insurgency and ensuring external security of India. Air Force and auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces.
. The Indian Coast Guard operations are split into 4 regions. The Indian Army is administratively divided into 7 tactical commands. which includes Indian Army. Each Command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief in the rank of Vice Admiral. The Indian Navy operates four Commands. Each Command is headed by an Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Air Marshal. the capital city of India. which are: Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard Strategic Nuclear Command Integrated Space Cell
Gen V K Singh is the head of army Chiefs panel. and the Strategic Forces Command. each region is headed by an Inspector General or a Deputy Inspector General. The President acts as de jure Commander in chief of the Armed Forces while de facto control lies with the executive. Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma is the head of navy Chiefs panel and Air Chief Marshal Pradeep Vasant Naik is the head of air forces Chiefs panel. The Indian armed force is split into different groups based on their region of operation.
To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation. To send own amphibious warfare equipment to take the battle to enemy shores. These include the National Defence Academy. Ezhimala. Pune. Chennai. Hyderabad and Officers Training Academy. flooding). These officers are accorded high status of the nature of the officers of the Indian Administrative Service. For entrance. Indian Naval Academy. The complete list of institutions training Indian army were listed in Military academies in India section. Indian Military Academy.
. one must display that they are both physically and mentally fit to be in the military by written examinations. Air Force Academy. They are at the helm of affairs not only inside the nation but also at abroad.g. To support the civil community in case of disasters (e. Cold start which means Indian Armed Forces being able to quickly mobilize and take offensive actions without crossing the enemy's nuclearuse threshold. After being commissioned.
RECRUITMENT & TRAINING
Recruitment is through four military related academies. The officers are appointed and removed only by the President of India. Dehradun.these officers are posted and deputed.DOCTRINE
The Indian Armed Forces have six main tasks To assert the territorial integrity of India. physicial endurance tests and passing medical fitness tests. Participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.
Selfless Service Put the welfare of the nation. and your subordinates before your own. Honour Live up to all the Army values. you may not produce well or may perhaps leave the company. your attitude and behaviors would have been more positive. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior. legally and morally.ARMY VALUES
Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. It is likely that if the company had had a more egalitarian policy. values reflect a person’s sense of right and wrong or what “ought” to be. if you value equal rights for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better than it does its workers. Personal Courage Ability to face fear. both physical and moral courage. consequently. These values are: Loyalty Be loyal to the nation and its heritage. Duty Fulfil your obligations. Respect Respect everyone. you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work. the Army. For example. danger or adversity. Integrity Do what is right.
. As such. “Equal rights for all” and “People should be treated with respect and dignity” are representative of values. There are certain set of values which are to be inculcated in each and every Army personnel during the time of training and it should be made sure that the personnel follow these values and imbibe them in their code of conduct.
Appointing proper body for looking into issues related to the ethical code of conduct of army personnel and their non compliance. They must showcase highest levels of integrity and should indulge in activities which are correct morally. following measures must be adopted by the senior level executives: Proper training on ethics at the time of induction.
So it has become even more important than ever for the Armed Forces as a whole to impart training on ethics to its personnel. Media and so on. ethically and legally.ETHICS AS A VALUE
The most important element of all the army values is the ethical and moral code of conduct. In order to promote ethical code of conduct throughout the Armed forces. Promoting whistle blowing. Rewarding ethical behavior. In today’s scenario it’s even more important to maintain high ethical integrity because of various factors which are listed below: Army/Government guidelines. be it the War-Time or Peace-Time. Senior level executives should try to be role models for the new entrants and their juniors. Human right activists and other related NGOs Image of the Armed forces. Periodic training.
. It is desired from army personnel to be ethical in every aspect. Punishing unethical behavior.
As mentioned. By ordering. If we know why we owe what we do. Before getting to the third O. by which I mean an understanding of what airmen or soldiers should do or ought to do. instead to moral structuring and ethical priorities. ordering. and oughting Army ethics based upon "me-ism" or "egotism" cannot function. Every time we act. the third O stands for oughting.
. ordering. we are much more unlikely to do what we should not do. we are able to recognize the obligation. and oughting. airmen. by telling a lie. we become what we have done. in effect. If we think that.THE THREE Os
Army ethics is rooted in three Os: owing. responsibility. I become what I do. It is a defence to any offense that the accused was acting pursuant to orders unless the accused knew the orders to be unlawful or a person of ordinary sense and understanding would have known the orders to be unlawful. Army ethics cannot properly exist without the concept of owing. We know that army ethics demands that we look out for more than ourselves. Army ethics is about knowing whom and what we owe. thinking about owing.
. and people (countrymen. purpose (mission accomplishment and duty) second. it does not mean telling subordinates what to do. and then I do what I have become. and soldiers) third. the way to think about the Os is in the context of three Ps: principle (truth-telling and honor) first. lest we become what we do not want to be. and duty which give rise to moral thinking and ethical reasoning. we are. we are becoming liars (not just committing an act). In this process of moral reasoning. Sensible people do not want to think of themselves as liars even though they may have lied at one time or another. Neither can army ethics properly exist without the concept of ordering. In a sense.
and they are by definition persons of integrity-.The Death of Outrage
. to speak up for truth. One more D actually comes into play here.William Bennett . or thinking over.
Persons of strong character are the ultimate resource for any army organization. at appropriate times. and then to act in truth. 2). Without such authorities. For we cannot act as we should or be what we ought to unless we are grounded in what is true. we court moral and army disaster. for this is a process of moral decision. There are standards and authorities against which one ought to measure his or her life." In fact. By the same token. talk. .individuals whose actions are consistent with their beliefs. USA . We "cut ourselves off" from deception and distortion. if the armed services have no ultimate standards by which to judge their actions and orders.THE THREE Ds
The three Os work in conjunction with the three Ds: We must try to discern the truth. from lies and lunacies. and then we do what we have discerned and declared (fig. a word that the dictionary tells us means "the idea of coming to a conclusion after some question. from prejudice and self promotion. and we seek truth." for we cut ourselves off from alternatives that we reject as unworthy of what we should do or of who we are. we will find ourselves morally and intellectually disarmed. If we do not confront the soft relativism that is now disguised as virtue.Moral Issues in Army Decision Making The three Ds tell us that we have a moral charge to educate ourselves as best we can in light of the truth. the word decide comes to us from the Latin meaning to "cut off. as we have discerned it. one has only the impetus of one’s ego as a moral criterion. . Hartle.Col Anthony E. we declare the truth.
The pacifists’ challenge Since self defence against an attack is considered to be justified whereas when there is no attack how the self defence is justifiable. The moral issue It is one of the fundamental contentions of army that their costs can be morally justified if they are related to benefits for individual human beings. engineers etc.ETHICAL ISSUES OF PERSONNEL
Professionals and non-professionals Army doctors. The main reason has been that the money borne to the army is from these individuals. are considered to be professionals and they are the people who have no issues in getting a career settled outside army whereas the sweeper. cook etc are considered to be non-professionals. Individual and social defence Sometimes the question might arise ‘Why am I putting my life at stake for others?’ The problem of security
ETHICAL ISSUES OF PEACE TIME
The costs and benefits of standing army There is always a debate on the issue that the money spend on Indian National Army during peace time for buying ammunitions and other trainings etc forms a major chunk of our Gross Domestic Product. So there might be discrimination on the basis of activities one performs. Recommendations During certain stages the army personnel might have to look into the recommendations given by government that might not be feasible or in favour of the army. clothing. This money could be used to satisfy needs for food. maturity and medical fitness. medicine etc. Recruitment Army selection has the maximum number of rounds and it requires attention.
An important element is often to make sure that the opponent is given a face-saving way of changing their mind. is war cannot be prevented? The usual solution is non violence. Another view: Some people don't think that 'last' in last resort refers to the sequence of time. If the cause is just. Terrorists are inherently uninterested in morality. then no restrictions should be placed on achieving it. They argue that last resort means that the use of force is ethical only when it is really necessary and when no
. The alternatives might include diplomacy. and people have been discussing the rights and wrongs of it for almost as long. withdrawal of financial aid. Non-violent protest seeks a 'win-win' solution whenever possible. so following any ethical theory of war handicaps those whom terrorists attack. The overriding aim of war should be to achieve victory as quickly and cheaply as possible. These alternatives should be tried exhaustively and sincerely before violence is used. non-violent alternative first. War must be the last resort. political pressure from other nations. and so on. The traditional view: A state should only go to war if it has tried every sensible. The aim of non-violent conflict is to convert your opponent.ETHICAL ISSUES OF WAR-TIME
Human beings have been fighting each other since prehistoric times. There are differing views as to what the term 'last resort' actually means in the context of an ethical war. Is it right to start a war. economic sanctions. Here are some of the arguments that have been put forward: All war is unjust and has no place in any ethical theory morality must always oppose deliberate violence. This is because a state should not put lives at risk unless it's tried other remedies first. Non-violence doesn't just mean not doing violence. it's also a way of taking positive action to resist oppression or bring about change. condemnation in the United Nations. to win over their mind and heart and persuade them that your point of view is right.
It is carried out before the other side attacks with military force. There are two ways of looking at this: The goal of the war should be in proportion to the offence. but it would not be ethical for B to go to war to conquer country A and take over all of it. If the victim country uses military force in response it appears to be the aggressor and so to be in the wrong according to international law. They argue that sometimes it will be morally better to go to war sooner rather than later.reasonable alternative is left. it is ethical for B to go to war to get the captured territory back. it must prevent more human suffering than it causes
. So if country A invades part of country B. This definition poses a problem when one country takes 'aggressive action' against another without using military force. Thus a state should not set itself a goal that is out of scale to the wrong to be righted. The benefits of waging the war must be in proportion to the costs. The war must be in proportion. Pre-emptive strikes A pre-emptive strike is military action taken by a country in response to a threat from another country . Who is the aggressor? The aggressor is the country that starts the war. But the United Nations definition which is quoted below defines the aggressor more narrowly. so it must prevent more evil than it causes. as the country that first uses armed force. but morally it may be in the right. or kill more people than an early war would have done. or may allow the enemy to become so established in another country's territory than far greater force will have to be used to remove him than would have been needed earlier.This might be because waiting too long would allow the enemy to do much more damage. If aggressive countries lead to a war. and so appears to make the side carrying out the strike the aggressor it is usually carried out before a formal declaration of war.the purpose of it is to stop the threatening country from carrying out its threat.
.a war which is just in case can be unjust in the way it is fought. The conduct of war. For a war to be a just war it must be fought according to certain rules .Preserving colonial power
Lawfully declared war.Revenge 12. A war is only a Just War if it is waged from the right motives. or the other way around. or enslaving people Hatred of the enemy Genocide 10. restoring or keeping a just peace Righting a wrong Assisting the innocent Bad intentions could include: Seeking power Demonstrating the power of a state Grabbing land or goods. Good intentions could include: Creating.Personal or national glory 11. This is the issue of how a war should be fought. rather than why or if it should be fought. Good intention.
Now the Army needs LT Alioto as well--for an unaccompanied assignment in the Pacific where the US is building a major new forward support base for naval forces as well as for an Army unit. was born with a severe physical abnormality which requires four hours of administered exercise a day. LT Aliotos only daughter. She depends on him to assist in family financial affairs. What would you advise him to do?
LT Alioto grew up on a remote Pacific island before his family moved to the US. His widowed mother has never learned English and now lives with him. LT Alioto is considering whether to ask that his PCS orders be revoked for compassionate reasons and what to do if he does submit such a request and it is denied. will be critical in working with some local ethnic groups who are resisting the long-term agreement into which the island government has entered with the US. he is told. He is apparently the only officer in the Army who speaks a language variant called Tagalog D. three years old. The lieutenant faces a difficult personal situation. a task he shares with his wife who otherwise would have difficulty coping. where they prospered through hard work. LT Aliotos language skill.
The Lieutenant has been called to duty on a mission that would require his language skills and knowledge of his native culture. His widowed mother. who does not speak English and depends on his financial assistance.
. Allow Lt Alioto to remain in the US.RESPONSE
Analysis: The case involves an Officer (Lt Alioto) in the US Army who possesses proficiency in a language critical to a military mission. Unfortunately. B.
Issue: Lt Alioto feels that his duty at home should supersede his unaccompanied mission to the Pacific and requests that his orders be rescinded so that he may remain at home to care for his family. Require Lt Alioto to PCS to the Pacific Island and allow accompaniment of his family.
Options: A. with no accompaniment. He shares this duty with his wife. Maintain the original PCS orders. C. yet it is being met with resistance from the local Islanders. now in his care. performing his regular military duties. The mission would allow the military to obtain a strategic stronghold in the Pacific. the Lieutenant has hardships at home. The hardships Lt Alioto face at home include: A disabled daughter who requires at least four hours of physical care a day. thus allowing him to care for his family. He is requesting that his PCS orders be rescinded on grounds of hardship and compassion. Not only does he speak the language. but it is his native language and apparently the only officer with these skills.
payment for dependant travel will not be authorized. As unfortunate as Lt Alioto’s hardships may be. and serve his country and support missions as needed. Since Lt Alioto is an Officer in the US Army. If Lt Alioto’s request is denied. B. he will be required to complete the mission as stated in the orders with no amendments. he has chosen the life of a military officer and must perform his duties to his country as required. Lt Alioto is fully aware that he retains a critical skill that is mission essential to the Army. Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH) will continue to be paid. Lt Alioto chose to remain in the Army. it is decided that he shall have a flag placed in his permanent record and allow him to resign his commission and be granted an Honourable or General Discharge status dependant on previous or future disciplinary actions. he is obligated to fulfil that duty. He will be given 30 days to arrange for care for his family while he is away. Instead. C. and found work in the private sector that could accommodate his hardships.
. Due to constricted funding and potential dangers in the mission area. an accompanied PCS will not be authorized. Lt Alioto has every right to resign his commission at any time if he feels he cannot perform his military duties.
Conclusion: Modern day military duty is optional and based on volunteers. Lt Alioto’s permanent record shall be flagged to reflect denial of critical mission. one must do so knowing what could be in store for him or her in the future. If Lt Alioto submits a request to have his orders revoked.Possible Solutions for each option: A. If PCS orders are rescinded. When the Lieutenant’s hardships were bestowed upon him. it is assumed that Lt Alioto will accept the mission as required. When one takes the Oath to serve. Lt Alioto will also be required to acquire his own housing since family would not be allowed to live in US Government quarters. The critical language skill that Lt Alioto possesses is needed for an important mission. Lastly. If PCS orders are amended to allow for dependant accompaniment. The Army feels he could have resigned his commission.
Gerard Elfstrom. Retd. Carl Ficarrotta Military Ethics: Reflections on Principles-The Profession of Arms. Yadav and Lt. S. Case study by Major J. Yadava. Military edited by Malham M.SCRIBD. Col. Waki.COM.COM. Gen R.BING.
. WWW. Conversations with Gentleman Cadet Pranav Seth. Fotion. WWW.WIKI.BIBLIOGRAPHY
Military ethics by N.COM. WWW.