This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Roger P. Ashley Deposit geology These deposits include quartz and quartz-carbonate veins mined primarily for gold. They are found in accreted terranes dominated by greenstone and slate sequences that have been metamorphosed to greenschist, or less commonly to amphibolite or granulite facies (Berger, 1986a; Goldfarb and others, 1995). These veins generally contain no more than a few percent sulfide minerals. Wall rocks, which in some deposits include disseminated ore bodies, contain abundant carbonate minerals, quartz, sericite, and sulfides. Mineralization is commonly associated with regional shear zones, which may include melange zones with varied lithologies and tectonically-emplaced ultramafic rocks and serpentinite. Deposits spatially associated with plutonic rocks tend to have more varied suites of metals, and are more likely to contain more silver and to yield copper, lead, and zinc as byproducts. Arsenic is the minor element most commonly enriched in alteration haloes. These deposits are also known as mesothermal, Mother Lodetype, orogenic, metamorphic rock-hosted, shear zone-hosted, greenstone-hosted or greenstone gold, turbidite-hosted, and slate-belt gold (Groves and others, 1998). Low-sulfide gold-quartz veins are found in deformed metamorphic rocks of all ages, world-wide; they are the most widespread type of gold-bearing mineral deposit. Since the late 1970’s, accreted terranes of all ages in the United States have been explored for these deposits, resulting in production from the southern Appalachians, the Lake Superior region, the Sierra Nevada region of California, and southeastern and central Alaska. Individual deposits have yielded from a few tonnes to more than 100 tonnes of gold. Examples Yilgarn Block, Western Australia; Abitibi Belt, Superior Province, Canada; Yellowknife, Northwest Territory, Canada; Bendigo/Ballarat, Victoria, Australia; Murantau, Uzbekistan; Otago Schist Belt, South Island, New Zealand; Sierra Nevada (including Mother Lode), California; Juneau Gold Belt, Alaska; Tintina Gold Belt, Alaska; Slate Belt, North and South Carolina; Dahlonega Belt, Georgia; Virginia GoldPyrite Belt, Virginia. Related deposit types The deposit type most closely related genetically to low-sulfide gold-quartz veins is Homestake gold (Berger, 1986b; Klein and Day, 1994), which is produced by similar hydrothermal systems superimposed on Precambrian iron formation host rocks. Related deposits found at shallower depths in accreted terranes include gold-antimony deposits (Berger, 1993), and silica-carbonate mercury deposits (Rytuba, 1986). Either of these deposit types could conceivably represent the near-surface expression of the hydrothermal systems that produce low-sulfide gold-quartz lodes at depth (fig. 1). All these deposits form from carbonic fluids derived from metamorphic dewatering reactions. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of all types (Cyprus, Kuroko, and Besshi; see Singer, 1986a, 1986b; Cox, 1986b) are spatially associated with, but not genetically related to, low-sulfide gold-quartz veins, because both are found in greenstone or greenstone-slate terranes. Podiform chromite deposits (Albers, 1986) may be spatially associated in regional shear zones that host ultramafic rocks as well as lowsulfide gold-quartz veins. Polymetallic vein deposits (Cox, 1986a) may also be spatially associated, especially where plutons intrude accreted terranes. Indeed there may be a continuum between low-sulfide gold-quartz veins produced by fluids that show no clear evidence of magmatic fluid contributions, and precious-metal bearing polymetallic veins produced by alkali chloride-rich magmatic-dominated fluids. For example, deposits of the Tintina Gold Belt, Alaska and Yukon, although spatially and temporally associated with the mid-Cretaceous Tombstone and Tungsten plutonic suites, have many characteristics in common with low-sulfide gold quartz veins (Lang and others, 2000; Goldfarb and others, 1997a), and are included in this geoenvironmental model.
Depth km 0 Hg, Hg-Sb Au-Sb 5
Amphibolite Greenschist Brittle-ductile transition
Mesozonal Au-As 10 Hypozonal Au-As 15
Figure 1. Schematic representation of shear-zone setting of low-sulfide gold-quartz veins and related deposits. Mod-ified from Groves and others (1998), and McCuiag and Kerrich (1998). In almost all areas where low-sulfide gold quartz veins are exposed, gold released by erosion is concentrated in placers (Yeend, 1986). In regions where erosion is deep and geomorphic history is favorable, as in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, and Seward Peninsula, Alaska, the bulk of the gold endowment may be found in the placer deposits. Low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits subjected to deep tropical or temperate-humid weathering can produce lateritic or saprolitic (eluvial placer) deposits (McKelvey, 1992). Deposit size The size of low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits varies considerably from region to region. Archean deposits are the largest, but their greater median size may be the result of particularly favorable regional tectonic and structural features rather than any factors directly related to age. Table 1 shows summary statistics for four tonnage models available for various groups of low-sulfide gold-quartz veins. It is important to note that some historic deposits include mineralized wall rock (called “gray ore” in the Sierra Nevada), which usually results in higher tonnages and lower grades, and many recently mined deposits have exploited bulk-minable mineralized wall rock or densely-veined stockworks. The historic disseminated deposits are included in the present models, whereas many recently-mined deposits are not included. Table 1 Deposit group Archean Phanerozoic California (Mesozoic) Chugach, AK (Cenozoic)
Median size, million mt 1.1 0.03 0.025
90th %tile size, million mt 0.089 0.001 0.0008
10th %tile size, million mt 13 0.91 0.78
Reference Klein & Day, 1994 Bliss, 1986 Ashley, unpub (derived from Bliss, 1986) Bliss, 1992
which usually reach amphibolite grade. sphalerite. quartz. but gold tends to be concentrated at the margins of the ribbons and wall-rock fragments.g. and most deposits show no notable vertical or along-strike zoning of vein minerals. 1989). H2O. especially in the case of the Archean deposits. size of the vein system. Slates. Pre-ore plutons may also host deposits. and chalcopyrite. on the other hand. e. and include multiple veins. Surrounding geologic terrane Most low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits occur in highly-deformed metamorphosed accreted volcanicsedimentary terranes of greenschist facies. but orebearing zones are typically larger. and lack albite. may contain disseminated sedimentary pyrite or pyrite porphyroblasts. free-milling grains. Proportions of gold associated with sulfides vary. Among deposits that show such zoning. Nature of ore Individual veins are generally 1 to 10 meters wide and less than a few hundred meters long. Components most notably added are CO2. and iron silicates of the wall rocks with carbonate minerals. and abundance of minor faults. located on grain boundaries or on microfractures within grains. The most common minor sulfide minerals are galena. especially the larger ones. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks and dikes of all compositions may be associated with the shear zones. and arsenopyrite. quartz. and usually pre-date gold mineralization. siderite. whereas others are always present regardless of rock type. but may occur locally in melange belts associated with mineralized regional shear zones. In typical ore. Widths of alteration zones vary with lithology. but ranging from sub-greenschist to granulite facies. or forming inclusions. Carbonate and other types of sedimentary rocks are not usually associated with low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. Veins commonly show ribbon texture or contain wall-rock fragments. Ultramafic rocks and serpentinite occur in some mineralized shear zones. magnesite. Some ore minerals and alteration minerals are restricted to certain host rock types. Some gold is associated with sulfides. Veins and ore zones are equally persistent laterally and vertically. both gold and sulfide grains occur scattered through the quartz. and sulfur. potassium-mica. magnesite. pyrite. Unaltered greenschist-facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks usually have moderate buffering capacity because mineral assemblages include albite. ankerite. and calcite. and sulfides.Host rocks Mafic to intermediate metavolcanic rocks (greenstones) are the most important host rocks for lowsulfide gold-quartz veins. whereas sulfides tend to be concentrated within the ribbons and fragments. Assemblages in altered serpentinite also include talc. Rocks in the contact aureoles of plutons. and the rest is intimately associated with sulfides. Many deposits. ore minerals. and fuchsite/mariposite. Alteration can extend away from deposits for many kilometers along shear zones and fault zones. are associated with major regional shear zones. and still others vary from deposit to deposit but are not associated with any particular rock type. chlorite. Assemblages vary with host rock lithology (Böhlke. these major shear zones are commonly sites of mineralization. and may include relict pyroxenes and amphiboles. patterns vary from deposit to deposit. High-angle faults that either splay from. and are generally better developed in metavolcanic rocks than in slates. albite. or are cut by. Albite is particularly abundant in altered granitic rocks. chlorite. Synkinematic and late-kinematic intermediate to felsic plutons are common in accreted terranes. commonly near or at the vein 178 . and carbonate. typically about two-thirds of the gold occurs as isolated. Carbonic hydrothermal fluids replace calcium. mica. and add potassium mica. in Sierra Nevada deposits. tend to have lower buffering capacity. Carbonate in the veins tends to occur in discrete growth bands.. epidote. potassium. Although the dominant carbonate mineral is frequently described as ankerite. it is usually ferroan dolomite. magnesium. or alteration minerals. or redistributed from wall rocks into veins. especially in Phanerozoic rocks. Typical assemblages include ferroan dolomite. Hydrothermal carbonate minerals include dolomite. Silica may be added. Slate and graywacke are also important hosts. Wall-rock alteration Alteration zones are always present.
and gold grades are generally lower than in veins (e. For efficient cyanidation. The recommended amount of mercury in early practice was 2 to 3 avoirdupois ounces (57 to 85 grams) per troy ounce gold to be saved (Churchill. unpub. and 1 to 2 avoirdupois ounces (28 to 57 grams) in later practice (Dufourcq. the mercury that formed amalgam was recovered and recycled. in Ridley and others. the amalgam was usually retorted on site to produce sponge gold and recover mercury for reuse. At the Kennedy and Argonaut mines. In some districts both ore-bearing veins and disseminated ore occur.. Developments in milling technology also had an impact on mining methods.g. Thus the maximum possible loss of mercury into tailings for ore with an anticipated grade of 0. However. as efficient classifiers developed in the late 1800’s allowed coarser tailings (sands) to be separated and used underground as backfill. tend to be more abundant in such disseminated ore. improved explosives and power drills) permitted efficient development and ore removal. data). Western Australia. and in a few districts the veins are low-grade or even barren. underground methods were used in most historic mines. some will dissolve. although not enough to consume significant cyanide (Dufourcq. As cyanidation was introduced beginning in the early 1890’s. which will not amalgamate or reunite.walls. especially where the ground is unstable or timber is expensive. 1918). In many districts ore bodies are restricted to veins.5 troy ounce free-milling gold per avoirdupois ton would be about 43 grams per ton (47 g/tonne). The pulp produced in the battery box was discharged through a screen onto secondary plates coated with mercury. data for deposits of the Yilgarn Block. into which coarsely crushed ore. indicating that except perhaps in unusually Hg-rich samples. It consisted of cylindrical mortars raised by rotating cams and allowed to drop on dies set in an enclosure called a battery box. commonly with no associated sulfide minerals (e. 1996). 1995. the tonnage-weighted average gold grade for historic mines in California is about 14 g/tonne). The stamps were used for coarser crushing. 1999a). where precipitates were 179 . Flouring refers to breakup of mercury into very fine particles. to catch any gold that escaped amalgamation in the battery box. 1918). It has long been common practice to use waste rock from underground development drifts to backfill stopes. Nelson and Leicht. Amador County. R.. and many mills abandoned battery box amalgamation entirely. they were not effectively exploited until the 1870’s. with the result that mercury contamination could be found around sites of refining furnaces. water.g. greatly reducing the time that pulp remained in the battery box. some tailings that were subjected to amalgamation were reprocessed using cyanidation. but most mines chose to keep their stamp mills rather than invest in completely new equipment. California. cyanidation does not result in significant removal of mercury from tailings. owing to “flouring” caused by the battering action of the stamps.. Because these deposits are equally likely to extend to depth or laterally (see above). finer pulverizing was needed than could be achieved economically with stamp mills. and are still used in the majority of active mines worldwide. 1999a). typical mercury losses had been reduced to 2-3 grams per avoirdupois ton (Finlay. especially pyrite and arsenopyrite. Ziarkowski. Most mercury loss occurred in the battery box. High-grade ore consists of coarse crystalline or leaf gold intergrown with quartz. of course. adding grinders of various types to achieve the necessary fine grinding. From the early 19th century to World War II the most common device used world-wide for fine ore crushing and pulverizing was the stamp mill (Richards. At mines where amalgamation was employed. and the ore bodies are restricted to altered wall rocks. If mercury is present in pulp subjected to cyanide leaching. mercury losses into mill tailings averaged 14 grams per avoidupois ton (Churchill. Sulfides also tend to be more abundant in altered rocks that host stockworks. By about 1910. Ashley and D. 1918). Areas around retort sites are likely to have mercury contamination. 1918). mercury taken into cyanide solution will precipitate with gold when zinc is added. 1994). Around 1890 in California. as much as about 10 percent. when several technological developments (steel cable.g. Mercury concentrations in the reprocessed tailings are not significantly lower than those in the original tailings (Dames & Moore. and mercury were fed. Mining and ore processing methods Because low-sulfide gold-quartz veins are relatively small and high-grade (e. milling practices changed. In practice. Parts of the alteration zones may contain enough gold to be ore-grade. Sulfides. Thus at some mines a significant proportion of the waste rock and ore processed (but not more than 50 percent) was disposed of underground rather than on the surface.
Modern milling practice involves grinding of ore in various types of rotary mills. Bureau of Mines. the plot provides an indication of maximum amounts of arsenic to be expected in mining wastes. and shipped to an off-site smelter. so that only a small fraction of the sulfide was passed to tailings. Cyanide itself is generally not a problem because it degrades rapidly under oxidizing conditions (U. and factors for arsenic range from about 100 to 10. Such residual sulfide. The gold-silver ratio averages 5:1 (McCuaig and Kerrich. Mercury is still used. 1999b. 1998). zinc. The base metals lead. 1994). highly reactive particles that were passed to the tailings. and therefore not removed but reduced to small.000 for most deposits. cobalt. and cadmium are commonly present in accessory sulfides (galena. Data compiled for the same Sierra Nevada districts as above show no enrichment in ores in some districts and maximum enrichment factors generally less than 20 in others. Because arsenic was not recovered from the ores. or operators do not have the necessary know-how to do so. arsenic concentrations do not increase notably with increasing gold grade. however. Clark. The flotation process. On the other extreme. and boron (Berger. Where it is not economic to remove and concentrate sulfides. and cyanidation with adsorption of the gold on activated carbon. including arsenic and lead. 2000). 1994). it is essential to know whether and how sulfide minerals were treated in the milling process. and in some deposits one or more of these elements may be depleted relative to average crustal abundance (McCuaig and Kerrich. 1970. At one extreme. and ores from individual mining districts show distinctive ranges of arsenic values. where the ores have relatively little arsenic.S. Modest enrichment of these elements in deposits hosted by greenstone or slate may be attributed to hydrothermal scavenging from 180 . The lower cut-off of 1 g/tonne gold is arbitrary. Most compounds used for flotation. bismuth. 2000. California. concentrated. With the possible exception of the Alleghany district. tungsten. installed at some gold mines beginning in the 1930’s to remove and concentrate sulfides (which were often shipped to regional smelters). altered wall rocks (<1 mg/kg gold) have about the same amounts of arsenic as ores. Uncontrolled roasting of sulfides results in dispersal of airborne sulfur gases and toxic metals. platinum-group elements (PGE). Figure 2 shows arsenic concentrations in ore-grade rocks from several districts in the Sierra Nevada. chalcopyrite and sphalerite).000 to 10. and scandium.000 (McCuaig and Kerrich. The element most consistently enriched along with the precious metals is arsenic. arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite are frequently reported (Bliss and Jones. Klein and Day. Ashley and Ziarkowski. Savage and others. tellurium. and no enrichment in altered wall rocks with low gold grades in any district (Ashley. material of this grade is processed in modern open-pit mining operations. selenium. but enrichment factors are generally less than 10. 1998). antimony. resulted in another class of processing chemicals being introduced to mill sites and tailings. however. they may have been ignored. whereas in the districts where arsenic is more abundant in the ores. tends to be dominated by the extremely fine particles that could not be captured. but usually not much within deposits. the ore may be roasted. Enrichment factors for gold range from about 1. Bureau of Mines. mercury is no longer used. 1988. however. 1998). vanadium. separation of free gold by gravity concentration.smelted to produce bullion. and within regions and districts. they may have been separated. Savage and others. in small operations in less developed countries. which will decompose very rapidly and release metals when exposed to oxidizing conditions. molybdenum. California. figure 3). usually ball mills. but minimum grades of ores processed at historic mines were probably higher. U. To predict composition of mill tailings and their environmental impacts. copper. 1994. Other elements that may show enrichment in low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits include chromium. are organic compounds that are not highly toxic or persistent. In the Jamestown and Hodson districts. and before World War II only a few reagents were used (mainly pine oil and xanthate. 1986a. 1998. altered wall rocks have less arsenic than ores. nickel. Relatively few high-quality analyses are available for mercury in low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. McCuaig and Kerrich. however. from less than 10 g/tonne to more than 1 percent. 1998. The degree of enrichment of these elements varies greatly among regions. It shows that amounts of arsenic in ore-grade materials vary greatly.S. 2000). minor elements most strongly enriched in low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits include arsenic. Trace element geochemistry In addition to gold and silver.
McCuaig and Kerrich. lithium. Gao and Kwak. 181 . thorium. 1994) Harvard mine. gersdorffite. Ashley. California. data) N. 100000 10000 As. Alteration produces little change in rare-earth elements (REE) or in the minor high field-strength elements (HFSE). This group of elements includes potassium. cesium. The only element of possible environmental concern here is thallium. and cobaltite (Savage and others. tantalum. niccolite. yttrium. and thallium. and cobalt may be substantially enriched in deposits in which host rocks include altered ultramafics and serpentinite. mg/kg 1000 300 100 10 1 1 10 100 Au.metavolcanic rocks in the host terrane (Gao and Kwak. Bierlein and others. and uranium (McCuaig and Kerrich. Chromium. nickel. R. zirconium. Spanish Flat. 1999).. 1997). 1998. Wall-rock alteration in rocks of the greenschist facies involves addition of large-ion lithophile elements (LILE. 1997. 1998). Kelsey. mg/kg Alleghany district (Böhlke. The chromium is retained in fuchsite/mariposite. 1988) Hodson district (Chaffee and Sutley. unpub. 1998. including titanium. barium. unpub. gallium. 1986) Shingle Springs district (Nash. including millerite. Analytical data for thallium are scarce. unpub. Groves and others. loellingite. Arsenic concentrations in ores from selected gold districts. rubidium. Mother Lode districts (Sutter Cr. data) Figure 2. Sierra Nevada region. niobium. data). Ashley. arsenides. Nashville. and sulfarsenides. but absolute values appear to be generally low (a few ppm. 2000a). and nickel and cobalt form accessory sulfides. Jamestown district (Ashley.
In most deposits tellurides are scarce or absent. pyrite is commonly the most abundant. silver may occur in sulfosalts (ruby silvers) and tetrahedrite (freibergite) (Ashley and Ziarkowski. Among them. pyrrhotite.1 0. chalcopyrite. arsenopyrite. 1986) Northern Mother Lode districts (Sutter Creek. 1999). Spanish Flat. All of these minerals except scheelite can potentially generate acid and release metals. are pyrite. Jamestown district (Ashley. The important ore-related minerals. Stibnite and scheelite vary greatly from deposit to deposit. Ashley. and scheelite (Bliss and Jones. data) Figure 3. arsenopyrite. galena. sphalerite. listed in decreasing order of frequency reported. stibnite. mg/kg 1. California. Primary mineralogy and zonation In most low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits native gold containing 15 to 20 weight percent silver is the ore mineral. Galena. 1970). Sierra Nevada region. Chalcopyrite. In some relatively base-metal rich and high-silver deposits. Kelsey.001 1 10 100 Au. and pyrrhotite are commonly second in abundance (pyrrhotite tends to be relatively abundant if it is present at all). and tetrahedrite are subsidiary in abundance.01 0. Nashville. Mercury concentrations in ores from selected gold districts. 1988) Hodson district (Chaffee and Sutley. unpub. mg/kg Alleghany district (Böhlke. (Bliss 182 . Nevada City. tetrahedrite. Jackson. 1994) Harvard mine. unpub.100 10 300 Hg. and neither gold nor silver occur in any other minerals. but in a few deposits they account for much of the gold and silver (Clark. 1988). sphalerite. data) Shingle Springs district (Nash.0 0.
walls of open pits. 1998). 2000a). Arsenian pyrite may be fairly common in low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. Deep and intense weathering of deposits removes most geochemical signatures except for gold itself. Bismuth and boron. consistent zoning patterns are not observed. Arsenian pyrite oxidizes more rapidly than arsenic-free pyrite (Plumlee and others. unpub. 1999). releasing calcium and magnesium. although it may not always be recognized and reported. Secondary mineralogy Much work has been done on weathered residual soils over low-sulfide gold-quartz veins and their alteration haloes. especially copiapite and jarosite. Less attention has given to identifying specific binding sites and binding mechanisms for minor and trace metals and metalloids. Savage and others. even though these elements are not enriched in ores or altered rocks. Savage. Where iron is abundant and sulfate scarce. data. are reported from certain veins or stopes within individual mines. however. Until oxidation is complete. Details of the mechanism of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solutions have been extensively investigated (e. Where sulfides have been removed during milling. efflorescent salts are dominated by epsomite. data). Low-sulfide gold-quartz veins are likely the ultimate source of gold in most economic laterite-saprolite gold deposits. Calcite/aragonite dripstone forms on some pit walls and underground workings. especially goethite.. data). Ashley. 2000b). 1998) and significant proportions of available transition metals and other metalloids (Plumlee and others. aluminum and gallium in ferruginous zones that form near the surface in laterite-saprolite gold deposits (McKelvey. and scandium has been noted along with iron. As stated above. Because total sulfide contents are generally less than 5 percent in veins and 10 percent in disseminated ores.and Jones. weathering involves formation of iron oxyhydroxide minerals. ferric sulfates do not form. hexahydrite. for geochemical exploration. Where sulfide concentrates have been stockpiled. 2000b. Although gold itself is the primary target element in geochemical soil-sampling exploration programs. Typically. arsenic has been used as a pathfinder element. molybdenite. and significant amounts of arsenic can substitute in such jarosite (Savage and others. may also form (Savage and others. Because acid generated by decomposing sulfides reacts promptly with carbonates. however. Bowell and others. Ashley and K. The anomalies have been attributed to 183 . Residual enrichment of arsenic. unpub. the bulk mineralized rock is generally well buffered. each tend to be characteristic of certain gold regions or mineral belts. tin. which adsorb arsenic (Smith and others. 2000a. 1988). especially in pyritic slates with relatively low carbonate contents. Sutter Gold Mining Company.000 ppm. It appears that significant amounts of arsenic may be associated with the iron-free salts. soluble efflorescent salts form during dry periods. 1999). Oxidation of low-grade ore and sulfide-bearing altered rock exposed in mine workings. especially where arsenopyrite is scarce or absent. Evangelou and others. data). 1992). but usually enough sulfate remains to form hydrated calcium and magnesium sulfates. Locally pyrite oxidation may produce conditions sufficiently acidic to form jarosite. and waste rock piles should ultimately result in mineral assemblages similar to those in natural outcrops. and gypsum (R. unpub. 2000a. Savage.g. The arsenic content of such pyrite is generally less than 2 weight percent. unpub. 1994. Anomalous concentrations of REE and HFSE have been observed in soils overlying deposits. however. or tellurides. The same efflorescent minerals form on tailings. Foster and others. and concentrations in soils over surrounding alteration zones range from tens to several hundreds of ppm (Savage and others. particularly scheelite. efflorescent salts form similar to those that form on other metal sulfide-rich ores (R. which occur in bismuthinite and tourmaline respectively. The focus of these studies has been on bulk mineralogy and behavior of minor elements with respect to various leaches. scorodite forms. although unusual concentrations of certain minerals. Pre-mining soil and sediment signatures Arsenic concentrations in soils overlying unmined deposits reach about 1. possibly owing to formation of hydrated calcium arsenate minerals (K. 1999. Locally. 2000). 1994). but 5 to 15 percent or more in altered wall rocks). and carbonate minerals are abundant (variable in veins. hydrated ferric sulfates that store metals. lead. but individual grains may contain as much as 4 weight percent (Savage and others. Antimony may also show anomalies.
Alteration zones.0 and 8. showing no topographic expression. The areas of highest arsenic in ground waters are not spatially associated with known gold occurrences. figures 4 and 5). Ore-bearing veins are rarely well exposed. indicate that there are significant contributions from oxidizing sulfides. but to date no specific cases clearly related to gold mineralization have been documented or publicized. manganese (≤5. data. are near neutral (6. In continental margin tectonic settings (e. 1997. especially where associated with shear zones or melange. 1975. California). and base-metal loadings are consistently low. some areas with poor water quality (owing to high levels of sulfate and hardness) correlate with gold mineralization and associated altered rocks (California State Water Resources Board. 1999). Values for pH.. Ashley and Savage. particularly apatite.release of these elements from dissolution of accessory minerals. Hawkins and others. The best example of elevated arsenic in ground water that may be related to gold mineralization is the Fairbanks area. 1982). Widespread hydrothermal fluid flow associated with this thermal event was responsible for abundant gold vein formation (McCoy and others. southeast Alaska). wall-rock fragments. Drainage signatures Owing to low sulfide content of ores and buffering capacity of carbonates associated with mineralization. scorodite. which exploited ore bodies on the Melones Fault Zone in the southern Mother Lode belt. sulfate concentrations between about 500 and 1200 mg/L. are likely to be prominently exposed. arsenic concentrations between 100 µg/L and about 1 mg/L.3 to 7. where many inhabitants rely on ground water from private domestic wells.5. however. the pit has been filling rapidly. Vuggy textures are enhanced by weathering of sulfides. mainly from sulfate-rich but arsenic-poor water entering along open low-dipping fractures in the slate of the hanging-wall.5 to 10 mg/L) waters (Farmer and others. compilation of water well data from County of Tuolumne. The Harvard pit. but abundant sulfide minerals disseminated in the schist indicate that the 90 Ma hydrothermal event was likely responsible for very widespread sulfidation of some strata. Elevated arsenic levels (about 1 mg/L) in the lake. Although there are complicating factors including evapo-concentration and contributions from rain-water runoff and process waters. although it is generally assumed to reflect dissolution of widespread arsenopyrite and its oxidation product. Dissolved antimony (≤50 µg/L). 1999). resistant low-grade or barren quartz veins (“bull veins”). Disseminated arsenopyrite and pyrite are the most likely sources for the ppm-level arsenic concentrations in water. unpub. The area is mainly underlain by schist of Late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic age which was intruded by felsic to intermediate plutons at about 90 Ma. carbonate-rich bands. the pit lakes provide an indication of what might be expected in ground waters affected by mineralized rocks undergoing oxidation. Natural background concentrations as high as 10 mg/L have been measured (Wilson. Background levels of dissolved arsenic in stream and spring waters from most areas underlain by the schist are <5 µg/L (Goldfarb et al. High levels of arsenic could be present in domestic wells in these areas. but these levels increase by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude locally. Alaska. unpub. 2000).g. which may be found in the same fault zones as productive veins. and vugs. Since the pit was abandoned in 1994 at a depth of about 160 m. however. Mueller and others. California. Tuolumne County.1. demonstrates possible complexities of hydrologic regimes around lowsulfide gold deposits. and Harvard pit at the Jamestown mine) have pH values between 7. resulting from the breakdown of sulfides during oxidation (Bierlein and others. where a large rural population depends upon domestic water wells. 2001. owing to presence of ribbon structure.6 mg/L) and/or iron (≤2 mg/L) are also elevated in some but not all of the arsenic-rich (0. Topography and physiography Many deposits are located in belts within Precambrian cratons and are poorly exposed. and suggest that water also enters the pit after traversing hydrothermally altered rocks in the Melones Fault Zone. Three pit lakes at two recently mined deposits in the Sierra Nevada foothills (Skyrocket and North pits at the Royal-Mountain King mine. Near-neutral sulfate-bicarbonate waters that result from contact with these 184 . 2000). Hydrology Fault zones that localize low-sulfide gold-quartz veins vary greatly in permeability and hydraulic conductivity. significant acid drainage is generally not associated with this deposit type. In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California. and very low iron concentrations (Meridian Gold Company. also tend to be poorly exposed. because they are heterogeneous and carbonate. California. The source for the arsenic remains unclear. Sonora Mining Corporation.and sulfidebearing. 1997).
where U. data) Argonaut mine. unpub. 1000000 100000 10000 As. several N. concentrates (Ashley. tailings (Dames & Moore. unpub. however. 185 . Ashley.S. Jackson district. pH and arsenic concentrations of mine drainage. Sierra Nevada region. California. 1997) North pit lake. The following discussion will rely mostly on examples from deposits in Alaska and the Sierra Nevada. unpub. Hodson district (Meridian Gold Company. tailings (Ashley. Mother Lode mines (Ashley. chemical data are available.G. Jamestown district (County of Tuolumne. and molybdenum. selenium. Jackson district. unpub. 1995) Lava Cap mine.1 0 2 4 6 8 10 pH Mine drainage. Jackson district. tailings (Ashley. are effective for mobilizing metalloids and metals that form oxyanions. 1997) Figure 4. Drainage waters from both mine workings and mill tailings in the Sierra Nevada tend to contain similar molar amounts of Ca+Mg and SO4. and pit lake waters from low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. µg/L 1000 100 10 1 0.S. drainage from mill tailings and concentrates. Hodson district (Meridian Gold Company. antimony. unpub. as is expected if acid formed from oxidizing pyrite is neutralized by carbonate minerals (R. data) Kennedy mine. including arsenic. data) Argonaut mine. Nevada City district. data). 1998) Skyrocket pit lake.ores and altered rocks. data) Harvard mine pit lake.
Natural drainage: Rivers that drain the gold-mining region of the northern Sierra Nevada and their major tributaries generally show low arsenic concentrations (1 to 3 µg/L). a tributary of the North Fork Yuba River that is impacted by numerous gold mines of the Alleghany district. An exception is Kanaka Creek. tailings (Ashley. data) Argonaut mine. Nevada City district. 1995) Lava Cap mine. 1997) North pit lake. Jamestown district (County of Tuolumne. and very low concentrations of other metals where they are not impacted by drainage from VMS deposits (Montoya and Pan. background concentrations of arsenic in waters are generally 186 . Jackson district. Mother Lode mines (Ashley. drainage from mill tailings. 1992). unpub.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 SO4. unpub. 1998) Skyrocket pit lake. California.10000 1000 As. which shows arsenic concentrations of 15 to 25 µg/L. tailings (Ashley. Hodson district (Meridian Gold Company. data) Harvard mine pit lake. µg/L 100 10 1 0. mg/L Mine drainage. several N. tailings (Dames & Moore. and pit lake waters from low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. no significant unmined near-surface deposits are known. and consequently there are no data on natural drainage from in-place ore bodies. Because the terranes that host low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits in California have been intensively explored beginning 150 years ago. Jackson district. unpub. In Alaska. Sulfate and arsenic concentrations of mine drainage. Sierra Nevada region. 1997) Figure 5. data) Kennedy mine. Hodson district (Meridian Gold Company.
but these values are rapidly diluted to background levels once they enter larger streams within a few tens of meters of the mine workings (Cieutat and others. 7. and 8). Ashley. pH is 2. arsenic concentrations consistently in the range 90 to 100 µg/L. 1994. 1995.7. and in the shafts an unusually large proportion of this mercury (as much as about one-third to one-half) is dissolved methylmercury (Seal and others. 1998.7 (Seal and others. Lost Lake. These waters. and at the Hi-Yu mine from 24 µg/L to 80 µg/L. with extreme concentrations of arsenic (more than 100 mg/L. The source of mercury in the waters is suspected to be mercury used for amalgamation at the site. figure 4). the largest mine in the Willow Creek district. and 8). can 187 . drainage waters from adits and tailings piles at small. Nevada County. At the head of the plume. Granitoidhosted veins in the Fairbanks district (Fort Knox deposit) are extremely low in sulfide content. contains 37 µg/L arsenic. and in many cases a relatively large proportion of the mercury is dissolved. at sampled sites above and below the associated tailings piles (Goldfarb. Mine drainage: Data for mine drainage waters from a dozen sites scattered through the Sierra Nevada region show pH values mostly between 6. 1995).less than 5 µg/L. Drainage from the Independence mine. if concentrated and removed from buffering carbonates. unpub. Within 500 m downstream. and waters in contact with undeveloped gold occurrences of this type increase by no more than a few µg/L (Goldfarb and others. Arsenic concentrations in waters draining gold mine tailings piles in southeastern Alaska and in the Fairbanks district are similar to the concentrations in mine drainage waters described above. 1999. and arsenic concentrations ranging from 2 µg/L to about 1 mg/L (Montoya and Pan. data from Fairbanks Gold Mining Company. 1998. Discharge from the Alaska-Juneau mine. Arsenic concentrations in the lake cycle seasonally from wintertime lows less than 10 µg/L to summertime highs just over 100 µg/L. Goldfarb. Inc.0 and arsenic is reduced to <2 µg/L owing to adsorption on the iron oxyhydroxides (Ashley and Ziarkowski. 1996). dissolved arsenic levels at the Scrafford mine increased from 5 µg/L to 92 µg/L. Sulfide concentrates stockpiled at the Argonaut mine mill tailings site.0). arsenic values above 100 µg/L are restricted to lowvolume discharges (less than 5 to 6 L/sec). California. which is attenuated to about one-third that level within 1. sulfate concentrations ranging from 3 to 3. figures 4 and 5). Amador County. and pH values range from 5. however. figs. 1998a. arsenic concentrations generally less than 100 µg/L. Ashley. 1999). and waters in contact with the ores do not contain more than about 2 µg/L arsenic (R. Obviously sulfides from these deposits. Arsenic concentrations in pore waters immediately below the tailings-water interface of Lost Lake range from 1 mg/L to 30 mg/L (Ashley and Ziarkowski. In southeastern Alaska. waters in shafts and surface water down-gradient from the shafts all have no more than 1 µg/L arsenic. Arsenic levels. Kennedy. 1998b). has pH values of 6.0 and 8. California. sulfate concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Total mercury concentrations range from about 1 to 100 ng/L. Tailings drainage: Data for three Sierra Nevada sites (Argonaut. Arsenic concentrations locally may reach 100 to 150 µg/L in small discharge volumes from a few mine workings. 1999. figures 4 and 5). 6. Trainor and others. 7.0. however. 1997. 1997). does not exceed 7 µg/L arsenic and has an average pH of about 8. At a small deposit in Virginia. In the Fairbanks district.000 mg/L. the remaining impoundment for the Lava Cap mine. and Lava Cap mines) show that waters which have percolated through mill tailings have pH values between 6. and iron concentrations around 5 mg/L. figure 4).5 km downstream (Goldfarb and others. produce an acid drainage plume in the wet season. are drastically reduced with increasing pH and continuous iron oxyhydroxide precipitation downstream from the stockpile area. the largest historic gold mine in Alaska.0 and 8. 1998b). Mercury and methylmercury values are generally the same as for mine drainage. 1997). show total mercury values at the high end of the range given above. Although there are few data available on arsenic loadings in drainage waters.1 (generally above 7.). and alkalinity values ranging from 20 to 500 mg/L (Dames & Moore.2 to 6. 1998. figures 6.5 and metal values are very high.9 to 6.(less than 2 tonnes gold) to medium-sized (2 to 25 tonnes gold) deposits are generally not greatly enriched in dissolved arsenic. 1997). methylation rates are mostly in the usual range of 5 percent or less (Ashley. 1992. pH increases to about 5. except that water containing suspended tailings particles may have high total mercury levels (as much as 60 µg/L observed.0 (Goldfarb and others.
ng/L 10 1 0. 1999. California. unpub. In arid. 100 THg (filtered). it is no surprise that they occur in almost all climates and ecosystems. In wet climates with abundant water available. Lava Cap mine (Ashley & Ziarkowski. impacts on water quality are minimal. data) Mill tailings impoundment and drainage. Even the relatively benign hydrated magnesium and calcium sulfates associated with these deposits may store some metals (K. Savage. personal communication. efflorescent salts accumulate in the dry season. mg/L Drainage. Sierra Nevada region. data) Mine drainage. and release them at the beginning of the rainy season. semi-arid. such as California. Argonaut mine mill tailings (Ashley. In climates with pronounced seasonal wet and dry cycles. low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. Climatic effects Because low-sulfide gold-quartz veins are the most common and widespread type of gold deposit world wide. fortunately abandoned sulfide concentrate stockpiles are rare at historic gold mine sites. mainly by increasing sulfate and oxyanion contents. Sulfate and mercury concentrations of mine drainage and drainage from mill tailings. from subarctic to humid tropical. and seasonally-dry areas these deposits may have significant negative impacts on ground water quality. store metals in the summer months. data) Figure 6. and hardness. 6 sites in 5 Sierra Nevada districts (Ashley. Ashley. unpub. 2000).01 1 10 100 1000 10000 SO4. 188 . unpub.have the same impacts as sulfides from any other type of deposit.
data) Figure 7.H dis s .103 dis s 10 0% 102 . tailings can suddenly be exposed to oxidizing conditions. 1999. total mercury (unfiltered) for mine drainage and drainage from mill tailings. ng/L 101 100 10-1 10-2 10-1 g 105 THg (unfiltered). ng/L Drainage. data) Mill tailings impoundment and drainage. because mine drainage and tailings drainage discharges generally involve relatively small metal loadings. unpub. lowsulfide gold-quartz deposits.H dis s 10 % 1% 100 101 102 103 104 g . arsenic and base metals in 60-year-old tailings proved to be easily leached and highly mobile when released and exposed to oxidation in the winter of 1996-1997 (Ashley and Ziarkowski. iron. Under such circumstances at the Lava Cap mine. especially during major storm events. Also arsenic. If such impoundments are breached. Sierra Nevada region. tailings impoundments may remain saturated and largely under reducing conditions. Perhaps one of the more important implications of climate relates to stability of stored mill tailings. Argonaut mine mill tailings (Ashley. data) Mine drainage.H g THg (filtered). as described above. and other metals are attenuated. as demonstrated by the recently-formed pit lakes at two California 189 . unpub. In wet or even cyclically wet climates. 6 sites in 5 Sierra Nevada districts (Ashley. 1999). and sulfate is usually quickly diluted. Ashley. Ground water contamination is a potential problem. Total dissolved mercury (filtered) vs. Potential environmental concerns Human health risks: Surface water contamination associated with low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits does not appear to be a significant problem. California. Lava Cap mine (Ashley & Ziarkowski. unpub. within a short distance downstream.
1 Me 105 THg. low-sulfide gold-quartz deposits. unpub. 6 sites in 5 Sierra Nevada districts (Ashley. however. data) Mill tailings impoundment and drainage. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of mercury. 1999). which have arsenic concentrations in the range of 100-1. ng/L Drainage.g. for barrel amalgamation of coarsely-crushed material) and burning of mercury in open pans for recovery of gold from amalgam (Filho and Maddock. unpub. Analysis of mercury production and use in California. Sierra Nevada region. Wells in hydrothermally altered rocks. data) Figure 8. total mercury in mine drainage and drainage from mill tailings. exist in the rivers draining the gold-mining region of the Sierra Nevada (Domagalski.0 1% 104 1% MeHg. which tends to discourage completion and use of wells in potentially arsenic-bearing rocks. are also likely to have relatively high iron and sulfate. 1999. 1997). Ashley. 1999a. 1997). 1998). Methylmercury vs. % Me Hg Me % 103 101 Me Hg 10 Hg 0. owing to inefficient use of mercury in milling (e. indicates that 90 percent or more of the mercury lost to the environment was used in placer operations (mainly hydraulic mines) rather than the lode mines (Churchill. unpub. and that mercury becomes available to the aquatic food chain through methylation (Slotton and others. ng/L 100 10-1 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 0. Lava Cap mine (Ashley & Ziarkowski. 190 Hg .gold mines. Both lode gold mines and placer mines are commonly sources of substantial mercury contamination of soil and water in less-developed parts of the world. Hunerlach and others. 1999b. Argonaut mine mill tailings (Ashley.000 µg/L (see Hydrology section). data) Mine drainage. where high arsenic concentrations are most likely. California. in dissolved and suspended fractions as well as bedload sediments.
Ashley. and arsenic has proved to be the only component that consistently exceeds California and USEPA screening levels.. Mercury concentrations in water are likely low enough that they are not a problem for organisms at lower trophic levels. sponsor. 34. and Gough. Department of Toxic Substances Control (1998).S. D.P. Book of Abstracts. Environmental impacts of lode gold mining in the Sierra Nevada. 2000.. California. R. in Wanty. 1999a.. A-35. D.B. v. California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.P.. the California Environmental Protection Agency has required formal Preliminary Endangerment Assessments of four gold mine tailings sites in the Sierra Nevada. p. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-074. Program with Abstracts: U. P.In recent years. Department of Toxic Substances Control.. California. Marsh. Golub and others. 1994.. K. a subdivision built directly on tailings of the Central Eureka mine in Amador County. Tuolumne County. Geological Survey Open File Report 97-496. In the early 1990’s concerns over arsenic concentrations at Mesa de Oro. in Assessing and Managing Mercury from Historic and Current Mining Activities. R. 483. reduced populations of fish and various insects were reported in the reparian habitat area of the receiving creek. L.. R. 1997. R. Calif. Thus. Physical hazards: As described above. 2001. 2000. 21-26 January. California. Rio de Janeiro. and Singer. San Francisco. California. 6.S. 7. Environmental geochemistry of gold deposits in the Mother Lode Belt. and Savage. R. A54. 1999b.. culminating in the human health concern discussed above.. 191 . Mercury... but through biomagnification they may be a problem for organisms at higher trophic levels. no. were not separated in this reconnaissance study (State of California Environmental Protection Agency. concern has risen over exposure to mill tailings in the Sierra Nevada foothills.gov/open-file/of01-074/. 1997). P.S. Ashley. p. p. 31. May 23-28. in Cox. p. Mercury associated with lode gold mining in the Sierra Nevada region. Ashley. S.S.P. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard open pit. especially the levels for children (California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Sequential leaching studies and a later in vivo study demonstrated that significant amounts of arsenic in the Mesa de Oro tailings are bioavailable (Walker and others. List of Speakers.S. were well publicized (Time Magazine. even small gold mines with little or no recorded production may be relatively hazardous.S. file reports. however. Extended Abstracts.A. where tailings blanketed the stream terraces. Further details on physical hazards are available in handbooks by U. Bureau of Mines (1994) and State of California Environmental Protection Agency. Ecosystem risks: Aquatic organisms are more sensitive to base metals (copper and zinc) in water than arsenic. Historical gold mining in California and its environmental consequences: AAAS Annual Meeting and Science Innovation Exposition. available at http://geopubs. p.. Mercury associated with lode gold mining in the Sierra Nevada region. 1994-1997). R.P. 4th International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry. most historic mining of these deposits was done by underground methods.. Nov.P. Site Mitigation Unit. 1999c. P. vertical workings (shafts and winzes) are almost always present. and resulted in a substantial remediation program. Ashley. Physical and chemical effects.usgs.. Anaheim.wr. where housing developments are encroaching on historic mining areas. March 1998-September 1999: U. unpub. Final Agenda. Based on a biological assessment done shortly after tailings were released at the Lava Cap mine. Ashley. lead.P. Descriptive model of podiform chromite. Mineral deposit models: U. 28-30. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. Ashley.. 13 p. REFERENCES CITED Albers. 1986.. Slide Presentations: U. so impacts are generally minor because acid drainage and associated high base-metal concentrations rarely occur. Owing to the tabular geometry of the veins and ore bodies and the tendency of ore shoots to pitch at high angles. 1999). Cathedral Hill Hotel. In recent years. p. September 25. Jamestown mine. S59-S70. 42-45. R. and unstable glory holes are sometimes present at the surface. J. California. and cadmium exceed screening levels in some cases. plus 3 tables. P. California: 5th International Conference Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development. 1995). eds. the main pathways being inhalation of dust and dermal exposure. eds. Challenges for a New Century.
. 6. California: Economic Geology. in Cox. Berger. Inc.S. J. Geological Survey Bulletin 2004. California.J.A. 1: unpub. 239-243... A.. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. no. 1999a.Ashley.. p. Robert. Geological Survey Open-file Report 93-194.. v. Goldfarb.J. University of California.S.A.. 1986b. Jackson.. and Taylor.S.. Churchill. Final environmental assessment. ed. D. Mineral deposit models: U. and Ziarkowski. 308 p.B. 31. and Ziarkowski. 1986a. 1994. J.R. Gold amalgamation and cyanidation. Mineral deposit models: U. July 12-15. W. p. A-45. 1918... in Cox. D. 1998. eds. eds.K..P.A. Descriptive and grade and tonnage model for gold-antimony deposits: U. Cieutat. Berger. A. Kennedy mine tailings site. and distributions of anomalies for elements and minerals in three Mother Lode-type gold deposits.. v..S.V.A. annual and fourth quarter 1997 report to California Regional Water Quality Control Board. D.D. 1970. Bliss. New York. Mineral deposit models: U. Mineralogic and grade-tonnage information on low-sulfide Au-quartz veins: U. 31. v. J. p. J.. 186 p. J. Descriptive model of Homestake Au. v.K..H. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. Descriptive model of polymetallic veins. Morley. Geological Studies in Alaska by the U. D.. 291-327. Böhlke. p.. 1st Ed. 216 p. CA. Lode gold deposits of the Sierra Nevada region. Jamestown mine. California: U. 31. and Singer. p. Berger. Bliss. Chaffee. County of Tuolumne. D. Book of Abstracts. 1986.F. eds. Churchill. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. Analytical results. p.P. Gold districts of California: California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 193.. S. 244.D. Hodson mining district.. mass transfers and Au mineralization at Alleghany. and Moore. D.. 9. E. Developments in mineral deposit modelling: U.A. R. and Holt. Occurrence and transport of total mercury and methyl mercury in the Sacramento River Basin. V. no. R.K.. D. N.. and Jones.C. 1993: U. G. 96.S. in Cox. 1989..A... Evangelou. p. 1999. Mineral deposit models: U. 192 . Insights into California mercury production and mercury availability for the gold mining industry from the historical record: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Central Valley Region: Water Quality Compliance Monitoring Report. V.M.I. 239. as sources of environmental arsenic: Third International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects. Mercury losses from milling lode gold ores in California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Clark. T.B. Ashley.A. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. p. California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. and Singer. 15-22. 1994. Dames & Moore.P. D. A-45. ed. 64.L. 1986a.: John Wiley & Sons. Environmental geochemistry of mesothermal gold deposits. eds. D. p. Calaveras County. eds. p. Ghana: Applied Geochemistry. San Diego. McHugh. D. 1998. Geological Survey Open-file Report 94-640. 277-291. C. V. Dufourcq. D. Grade and tonnage model of low-sulfide Au-quartz veins. B....S. and Din. California: PhD dissertation. Comparison of metasomatic reactions between a common CO2-rich vein fluid and diverse wall rocks: intensive variables. R. 2084-2091.. in Bliss. Potential role of bicarbonate during pyrite oxidation: Environmental Science and Technology.P. Section 33 in Peele..D. 1998.P. Mining Engineers Handbook. Geological Survey. Bliss. 44-46. B. no.S. Descriptive model of low-sulfide Au-quartz veins. Seta.. 1986. and Singer. R. Geological Survey Open-file Report 88-229. p.K.P. Berkeley.S.P. and Singer. v. 99 p. J. Arsenic speciation in soil porewaters from the Ashanti mine..J. A-35. J.. Borden..S. M. A. p. in Cox.. 21-25. Alleghany. mineralogical data. Arsenic in waters affected by mill tailings at the Lava Cap mine. 125.P. D. 1986b. Domagalski. v.S. 61 p. Geological Survey Bulletin 2107..K. 32.. p.K..D.. p.. and Sutley.P. 24 p.D.. Cox. Böhlke.. in Till. 6. Descriptive model of Besshi massive sulfide. 1993.V. 136.. Bowell. v.84. Cox.... 1998.. 6.P.. J. eds. J. 1994. v. Kenai Fjords National Park. CA. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693.R. 1995.S..... R. Nevada County. D. 1992. south-central Alaska. D.P. and Singer. Local wall rock control of alteration and mineralization reactions along discordant gold quartz veins.1988. California: Journal of Geochemical Exploration. in Cox. Grade and tonnage model of Chugach-type low-sulfide Au-quartz veins. p. p. 1999b. B. R. 1809-1841.. Mineral deposit models: U. report for Oro de Amador.
and plants of the Ester dome area of Alaska: Institute of Water Resources. p. C. California: U. Alaska. Geological Survey 1997: U. J. Bakke. Hunerlach.. Newberry. Hagemann.. 9.. v.. p. A.D. L.L.. A. and Klein... Royal Mountain King mine. A.. An exploration moldel for intrusionrelated gold systems: SEG Newsletter.P.B. The geochemistry of wall rock alteration in turbidite-hosted gold vein deposits. Keen. DiMarchi..S. v. R. Gao.S. D. E. 381-453.J. B. C. in Goldfarb. L. p. Mineral Deposits of Alaska: Economic Geology Monograph 9.S. 1996: Water Quality Compliance Monitoring Report (Volumes I and II). R.L..A. and Robert. J... annual report to California Regional Water Quality Control Board.R. in Kelley... v. McCoy. A. Robert. M. R. 1997. M. McCuaig..1995. Mineral Deposits of Alaska: Economic Geology Monograph v. and Meier. M. and Parks. J. and Gray.. Meridian Gold Company. A. Quantitative arsenic speciation in mine tailings using x-ray absorption spectroscopy: American Mineralogist... Tingle. Salocks.... J. p.E. Robert.C. Rytuba. L. in Bliss..R. Geological Survey Bulletin 2004.J.E. J. Pickthorn.A. and Alpers. in Kelley. Meier.R. D. 2000. 1999. D. W. C. and Miller. Arsenic tissue concentration of immature mice one hour after oral exposure to gold mine tailings: Environmental Geochemistry and Health.. ed. and strontium isotope systematics of natural waters in the Fairbanks mining district--Constraints from local geology. 1.. p. and O'Leary. B. J. Tim. Fairbanks.: John Wiley & Sons..S. and Sanzolone. 6-15. G. Australia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration. and Dinkel. ed. p. 179-189.R. D. 1998. Layer.P. T. 1997. 261-267. 1997a..D.. Mercury contamination from hydraulic placer-gold mining in the Dutch Flat mining district. Number 40..S... Geological Survey Open-file Report 94-250. Geological Studies in Alaska by the U. Cost of mining.. Hart. Goldfarb. 29 p. J. University of Alaska. 1998. G. soil.S.L. Miller.. Gebre-Mariam.I. and Kwak. 259-274. Geological Studies in Alaska by the U... Geological Survey Professional Paper 1574.L.. Klein. R. 21.A. 151-190.. and Hathaway.J. 191-241. T. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1615. p.D. 1982. 1992.J..S. v. 1918. 1998. B. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1614.S.M.D. 1999. Meier.J. 1997.. J. Plutonic-related gold deposits of interior Alaska. R. 58. Finlay. 3-17. R.Farmer. v... J. Goldfarb. R.. P.E.. Baker.. 1997. L.. Report IWR-103.. trace element.C.S. Geological Survey 1995: U.L. K. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B.. p. Goldfarb. D..F. p. p. 199-209. C. Hawkins.B. S.. Mining Engineers Handbook. Arsenic in water..B. Goldfarb. Geological Survey Open-file Report 95-831..J.J..N.A. eds. 82 p.R. 1282-1355. Lang. Klein. Major element. T. 13. and Mortensen.. 193 . Mercury pollution in two gold mining areas of the Brazilian Amazon: Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 12.E. p. ed. Masterman.L. Developments in mineral deposit modelling: U. ed. Preliminary compilation of descriptive geoenvironmental mineral deposit models: U. p.N. p. d'Angelo... Jr.J. 59.. Leach. R. and Minehane.I. bedrock.W.J.D. Taylor. Hydrogeochemistry of mine drainage waters associated with low sulfide gold quartz veins in Alaska in Dumoulin. R.S..J. Berger. C. 139-150. Brown. M.. L.S. T.R. Goldfarb.R. in Goldfarb... p. Commisso. Lilly. R. W. v. T.G. Foster. eds..J. G. W. 2000. central Victoria..L. p.L. S.. R. D. McKelvey. Low sulfide Au quartz veins. and Miller. Forbes.. 1994. Geological Survey 1998: U.P. P-T-t-deformation-fluid characteristics of lode gold deposits: evidence from alteration systematics: Ore Geology Reviews. Groves.L...A. 1999. Golub. G.M. Hok. T... G. New York. Cieutat. in duBray. 7-27. 553-568. and Maddock. D. Gold deposits in metamorphic rocks in Alaska. and Snee. Filho. K. Orogenic gold deposits--A proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types.K. Z. Descriptive model of laterite-saprolite gold. J. p. Ore Geology Reviews.P.. Geological Studies in Alaska by the U.L.. 1997b.. R. and Gough.L.. Descriptive and grade-tonnage models of Archean low-sulfide Au-quartz veins and a revised grade-tonnage model of Homestake Au: U. Goldfarb. 83.. Farmer. and Kerrich. C. Central Valley Region. and Day.L.....L. 167-178. eds. Bolton.J.S.. Section 21 in Peele..J. The chemical characteristics of groundwater near Fairbanks. J. 231-240.D. F. 1st Ed...D... 47-49.
1994. 1918. 2000a.J. G. v. J. R. C... ed.. Tuolumne County.. and Groves. and Huber. A-57. K.. Apurva. State of California Environmental Protection Agency.S. A..S. 1996. Goldfarb. Mikucki. Alaska: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Savage. 112 p. F377. The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits.L. no.E. O’Day. Reuter.. Wildeman. Archean lode-gold deposits: fluid flow and chemical evolution in vertically extensive hydrothermal systems: Ore Geology Reviews. State of California Environmental Protection Agency... California Regional Water Quality Control Board. Singer. American Geophysical Union. Robert.A. W. B. Ore dressing. New York.A.L. Slotton. T. Gold mining impacts on food chain mercury in northwestern Sierra Nevada steams (1997 revision).I. M.S. and Dumoulin. 6A. Descriptive model of Kuroko massive sulfide. Mineral deposit models: U. The environmental geology of mineral deposits: in Plumlee. plus 12 appendices. and Goldman. 1986a.Montoya. Geological Survey. Mineral deposit models: U..L. and Leicht. Native gold from the Jamestown mine. Transactions. Geological Survey Bulletin 2152.S. 71-116.. J. eds. p. S.. Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases.. 10. 76 p. Central Valley Region. in Cox. Seal. 1986b.. v. Appendix B in Larry Walker Associates. Inactive mine drainage in the Sacramento Valley. p.P. Mining Engineers Handbook. 32.H. 131.. Environmental geochemistry of the McKinley Lake gold district. D. 189-190. 1998. v.S. D.. E. 1998a.H. M. S. Department of the Interior. 1997.S..A.. Virginia: implications for mercury geochemistry: U. Department of Toxic Substances Control. Descriptive model of Cyprus massive sulfide. California: Applied Geochemistry. eds. and Bird.. Chugach National Forest. R. K. 40 p. D. and Singer.. Singer. 19 p. Plumlee.. p..S. R... 4 p. 1994: U. II.. 279-293.A. 14 p. Savage.. Legacy of the California gold rush: environmental geochemistry of arsenic in the southern Mother Lode gold district: International Geology Review. Bird. 1988. 1st Ed.P. Characterization of synthetic and natural arsenian jarosite using synchrotron-based techniques [abstract]: EOS.K.S. Mother Lode gold district. Department of Toxic Substances Control. Nelson..G. eds.H.P. p.. 1986.. T.K.. II. p. 1999.. and Meier.. T. p. R.A.J. Mineral deposit models: U.P. 1999 Fall Meeting. in Cox.S. D. Tuolumne County. R. D. Richards. Richmond. and Pan.. G. W. C. and Singer. 2000. D.S.P.. 6.R. Geological Survey Open-file Report 98-756. p.A..A.A. U.. G.P.. 1620-1729.. Goldfarb. Geological Survey Open-file Report 98-326.S.. M. 181..A.. California: Mineralogical Record. 7-14.R. Seal. Section 28 in Peele. Xiaomang. D.J. 162 p. in press. Ayers. D. Geology and geochemistry of gold deposits of the Big Canyon area. Bird. Geological Studies in Alaska by the U. Trainor... California: U. Abandoned mine lands preliminary assessment handbook: 75 p.. R. Alaska.. Predicting water contamination from metal mines and mining wastes: U. in Moore. Descriptive model of silica-carbonate Hg. 1997.R. G. 1998b.N.J.. eds. Bureau of Mines...K. Nash..S.A. El Dorado County. T. 1997..P. 1994. Environmental characteristics of the abandoned Greenwood mine area.. Abandoned mine land inventory and hazard evaluation handbook (draft): U. Sanzalone. 80. p. Prince William Forest Park. Virginia: U. in Cox. Prince William Forest Park. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693.: John Wiley & Sons. D. 74 p. Smith. 1992.... eds. Controls on the Concentration and Mobility of Arsenic in Groundwaters.S. S. p. D. v. in press. P. A. G. Geological Survey Open-file Report 94-264. Tingle. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. 3-15. California: Staff Report. 1994. Haffner. D. Farmer. Ridley. and Mehta...L. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. and Logsdon.R. and Ashley. Mueller. D.. Waychunas. Savage. G. Geochemical data including mercury speciation for surface waters at the abandoned Greenwood mine area.. K. and Ficklin. 2000b. and Singer.E. and Meier. Geological Survey Bulletin 1854. Techniques. p. D.. Part A: Processes. J... S. J.S. 1999. Little Clipper Creek. D. and Adams. Lost Lake: Fact Sheet.S. Bureau of Mines. 1996. Plumlee.S. Fleisher.S.M. Rytuba. D.T. Update: Lava Cap mine. K. Sacrameto River watershed mercury control planning project—report for the Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District..S. v. 25. R. and Health Issues: Reviews in Economic Geology. 194 . J.. Haffner. O’Day. P.J. Fairbanks.
S.E.. 261. in Cox. and Dragoo J. J. 1975... Galleni A.. D. University of Alaska—Fairbanks. Arsenic speciation and solubility in mine tailings from Mesa de Oro. M. 195 .H. of Toxic Substances Control Site Mitigation Unit.. 1986. 1994. and Singer.. Alaska: M. Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area. 1994.A.. P.P. F. D. Arsenic and water. Mineral deposit models: U. W. eds. California: Science and Engineering Analysis Corporation (SEACOR) Report N2901. Descriptive model of placer Au-PGE.Walker W. Wilson. submitted to Dept. Yeend. thesis. August 31. 80 p. p. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693..S.