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What is job analysis? As an HR Manager, how can y o u m a k e u s e o f t h e information it provides? Also discuss, in brief, the process of conducting a jobanalysis?

Ans:Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people who should be hired for them. The analysis produces information on job requirements, which is then used for developing jobdescriptions (what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job).A supervisor or HR specialist normally aims to collect one or more of the following typesof information via the job analysis.Work activities: Information is usually collected on the actual work activities performed.Such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting. Such a list may also indicate how, why,and when the worker performs each activity. Human behaviors: Information on human behaviors like sensing, communicating,decision making, and writing may also be collected. Included here would be informationregarding human job demands such as lifting weights, walking long distances, and so on. Machines, tools. equipment, and work aids used: Included here would be informationregarding products made, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied (such asfinance or law), and services rendered (such as counseling or repairing). Performance standards: Information is also collected regarding performance standards(in terms of quantity, quality, or speed for each job duty, for instance) by which anemployee in this job will be evaluated. Job context: Included here is information about such matters as physical workingconditions, work schedule, and the organizational and social context-for instance, in termsof the number of people with whom the employee would normally have to interact. Alsoincluded here might be information regarding incentives for doing the job. Human requirements: Finally, information is usually compiled regarding humanrequirements of the job, such as job-related knowledge or skills (education, training, work experience) and required personal attributes (aptitudes, physical characteristics, personality, interests). Steps in Job Analysis: The six steps in doing a job analysis are as follows: Step 1: Identify the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine thetypes of data you collect and how you collect them. Some data collection techniqueslikeinterviewing the employee and asking what the job entails and what his or her responsibilities are-are good for writing job description and selecting employees for the job. Other job analysis techniques (like the position analysis questionnaire described later)do not provide qualitative information for job description, but rather numerical ratings for each job; these can be used to compare jobs to one another for compensation purposes. Figure 3.2 Process Chart for Analyzing a Job's Work FlowStep 2:

Review relevant background information such as organization charts, processcharts, and job descriptions. Organization charts show how the job in question relates toother jobs and where it fits in the overall organization. The chart should identify the titleof each position and, by means of its interconnecting lines, show who reports to whomand with whom the job incumbent is expected to communicate. A process chart provides a more detailed understanding of the work flow than isobtainable from the organization chart alone. In its simplest form, a process chart (like theone in Figure 3.2) shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job under study. (InFigure 3.2 the inventory control clerk is expected to receive inventory from suppliers, takerequests for inventory from the two plant managers, provide requested inventory to thesemanagers, and give information to these managers on the status of in-stock inventories).Finally, the existing job description, if there is one, can provide a starting point for building the revised job description. Step 3: Select representative positions to be analyzed. This is done when many similar jobs are to be analyzed, and it is too time-consuming to analyze, say, the jobs of allassembly workers. Step 4: Next actually analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, requiredemployee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform

the job. For this, you would use one or more of the job analysis techniques explained inthe remainder of this chapter. Step 5: Review the information with job incumbents. The job analysis information should be verified with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor.This will help to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. This"review" step can also help gain the employee's acceptance of the job analysis data andconclusions by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of hisor her job activities. Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification. A job description and a jobspecification are usually two concrete products of the job analysis. The job description (torepeat) is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, aswell as important features of the job such as working conditions and safety hazards. The job specifications summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and backgroundrequired for getting the job done; it may be either a separate document or on the samedocument as the job description. 2.Distinguish between job description and job specification? What items aretypically included in the job description?Ans; - A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how he or she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed. This information is inturn used to write a job specification that lists the knowledge, abilities, and skills neededto perform the job satisfactorily.There is no standard format you must use in writing a job description, but mostdescriptions contain sections on:1. Job identification2. Job summary3. Relationship, responsibilities, and duties.4. Authority of incumbent5. Standards of performance6. Working conditions7. Job specification 3.Do you agree that selection is a negative process? Yes or No, W h y ? G i v e y o u r comments and also explain the process of selection you would prefer to follow if you were to select an HR Manager for your organization.Ans :- The theory of testing in industry is based upon the individual differences amongworkers: Indeed, the purpose of the selection process is to take full advantage of suchdifferences in order to select primarily those persons who possess the greatest amount of attributes important for success on the job.Figure 2.4 diagrams the basic selection model. Each of the steps shown is important indeveloping a proper selection procedure.Step 1 : Examination of the job (s) having vacancies. This step consists of detailed studyof job analysis. Job analysis is a most critical and basic problem area in industrial phychology and is, or should be, the foundation of any industrial testing. A thoroughknowledge and understanding of a job is of paramount importance and must precede theuse of any test in the selection and placement of workers.Step 2 :

Selection of criterion and predictor. The second step involves two parts -choosing an indicator which measures the extent of how "good" or successful a worker is(typically referred to as the criterion) and choosing a particular measure that can be usedto predict how successful a worker will be on the job (typically referred to as the selectiondevice or predictor). Criterion selection is an involved but basic problem; the solutiondecides how job success is defined and/or measured.On the predictor side, the psychologist finds a wide variety of potentially useful deviceswhich can be successful in discriminating between "good" and "poor" workers. Oftenused are such predictors as tests, interviews, application blanks, and letter of recommendation, among others.Step 3 : Measurement of performance. Once the criterion and the predictor have beenselected it is necessary to obtain measures on both from a sample of workers on the job.This can be done either by giving the predictor to present employees, and simultaneouslyobtaining criterion measures, or by giving the predictor to new hires and waiting aspecified time before obtaining the criterion measures (thus allowing enough time for thenew hires to establish themselves as successful or unsuccessful). Both methods are used,and each has its advantages and disadvantages. These will be covered in more detail whenwe discuss kinds of validity.

Step 4: Relating predictor to criterion. The fourth step in the selection process involvesdetermining whether a true and meaningful relationship exists between employee scoreson the predictor and the criterion. Only if such a relationship exists can the selection process be considered successful. Establishing the existence of such a relationship iscalled assessing the validity of a predictor. This is usually a statistical process whichinvolves the use and understanding of co relational methods and significant tests.Step 5: Deciding upon the utility of the selection device. Making the final decision as towhether to use the predictor to select new job hires depends not only upon the sire of thcrelationship found (in step 4) and its significance, but also upon many other conditions:the number of applicants, number of job openings, proportion of present employeesconsidered successful (the base rate), and respective variances of the successful andunsuccessful worker groups. All of these additional aspects concerning the use of a predictor are discussed in later portions of this chapter.Step 6: Reevaluation. The fact that the predictive situation is a dynamic, ever-changingone should never be forgotten. What makes for good selection today may not be at allappropriate tomorrow; applicants change, job change, and employment conditionschange. Thus any good selection program should be reevaluated periodically to makecertain it is doing the job for which it has been designed. 2. Forecasts and Plans which constitute the second are important basic premises for manpower planning. Human resource forecasting is very similar to human resourceauditing except that forecasting emphasizes the similar to human resource auditing exceptthat forecasting emphasizes the future while auditing is concerned with the present.Again, human resource auditing focuses on internal organisational adjustments whereashuman resource forecasting concentrates on organisational adaptations resulting fromexternal pressures and changes.Forecasting of future manpower requirement, both qualitatively and quantitatively,depends upon various factors like amount of production, technological changes, supplyand demand conditions, and careers planning.Formulating coherent forecasts and plans to determine personnel strategy for theorganisation is crucial part of manpower planning and there are various techniquesavailable to assist in preparting forecasts-ranging from sophisticated statistical models to basic managerial judgement. The methods used will depend on the back-up data available,the size and nature of the organisation and the degree of expertise available.The manpower plan will normally be sub-divided on a basis similar to that outlined below: Recruitment: the number and types of employees required over the period of the plan together with details of any potential supply problems. Training: the amount and types of training required for both new recruits andexisting employees. Employee development:

closely linked to training, this programme must providefor projected promotions and transfers. Productivity: methods for maintaining or improving productivity including work methods, incentives, productivity bargaining and other methods of improvingmotivation. Redundancy: specific plans regarding the number of potential redundancies andhow these will be dealt with. Accommodation: plans for expansion, contraction or re-location including buildings, equipment and for improving working conditions. 3. Utilisation and control constitute the third stage of the process of manpower planning.Here the focus is on ensuring that the plans will materialise. Manpower control is asystem for measunng achievements in terms of utIlisation against what was expected inorder to check that things are keeping up with the expectations. Constant monitoring of information flow helps in warning the organisation when forecasts or targets of utilisationare going awry so that corrective action may be taken.It has been rightly observed that manpower planning is a strategic approach to managinghuman resources at work. It is in practice an organised flow of information feeding acontinuously updated picture of future manpower needs and availabilities through whichthe various aspects of manpower management (recruitment, selection, training,

promotion, career development, remuneration and productivity) can be integrated into acohesive manpower strategy linked to the economic and ethical objectives of theorganisation. 4. Career Planning & Succession Planning Systematic career planning and succession planning of employees reveals the extent of current and potential utilisation of manpower and proves to be an important input in themanpower planning process. Personnel function has a typical responsibility for matchingthe career expectations of the employees to the requirements of the organisation as well asmaking certain that the individual employee's experience and training are suitable for possible promotions and transfers.Career planning is important for several reasons:a) In order to build commitment between the individual and the organisation. b) In order to develop long-range perspective.c) In order to reduce personnel turnover expenses.d) In order to lessen employee obsolescence.e) In order to ensure the effectiveness of the organisation.f) In order to allow the individual to achieve personal and work-related goals.Career planning significantly helps the organisation to be successful in translating itsgoals and objectives into meaningful tasks that will ultimately lead to high quality performance of individual employees.Career as a concept has very broad meaning as "a lifelong sequence of professional,educational, and developmental experiences that project an individual through the worldof work".Career is viewed as a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of hislife time. This is the objective career. Career may also be viewed as an amalgam of changes in values, attitudes and motivation that occur as a person grows older. This iscalled the subjective career. Both of these perspectives have their focus on the individual.The individual better understands his own career expectations and his assets andliabilities. He can make critical decisions to influence his destiny over time and can adjustin a manner that would help him to advance along the best career path. Career planning isimportant because it helps the individuals to explore, choose and strive to derivesatisfaction with his own career objectives.Career planning is the process or activities offered by the organisation to individuals toidentify strengths weaknesses, specific goals and jobs they would like to occupy.Succession planning is the process or activities connected with the succession of personsto fill key positions in the organisation hierarchy as vacancies arise. The focus of attentionis towards which person. In career planning the organisation is concerned with strategicquestions of career development, distinguished from succession planning because the

concern is less with the individual employee and more with the type of person required tofill a particular post. For instance, in succession planning the concern is with suchquestions as who will be the next Chief Executive Officer or what will happen if theMarketing Manager retires in March and so on. In career planning, on the other hand, theconcern is whether the organisation should employ more graduates, more engineers, morescientists, or more accountants, whether the Chief Executive Officer should be anaccountant or a marketing expert and so on.Succession planning focuses on identification of vacancies and locating the probablesuccessor. It provides succession chart in respect of a particular position. Career planning provides picture of succession plan for employees as per organisational needs. It focuseson who on the basis of performance, experience, could be placed where, when and how.Thus both career planning and succession planning constitute an important input tomanpower planning process. Thus, it becomes easier to have planned programmes for internal HRD than outside recruitment, when need arises suddenly due to any reason or retirement. It becomes convenient to map the careers of employees in the organisationsuitable to their ability and skill, and to gain their willingness to be trained and developedfor higher positions. Individual employee comes to know in advance the level to which hecan rise if he has the ability and aptitude for it. He also feels happy when he realizes thatthe organisation is taking care of his talents and aspirations. This helps in generatingloyalty towards organisation and improved motivation and morale of individualemployees. Organisation gains stable workforce and low employee turnover. Ultimatelythe organisation becomes successful in accomplishing its goals effectively and efficiently.Career planning is essentially a process of integrating the employees needs and aspirationswith organisational requirements. This is most challenging task which has assumed greatimportance today since organisations are becoming increasedly interested in attracting,retaining and utilising the potential of highly talented, technically specialised, professionally trained experts. This is how the stream of qualified personnel is keptflowing into the organisation. Career planning and succession planning act as animportant tool for harnessing the human potential; and HR managers play a major role. 5.How do firms make use of information technology to facilitate its recruitment process? Quote some examples also.Ans :- Recruitment is the field where IT provides the widest range of possibleapplications. Some IT programs are designed to provide a scalable solution, fromstandalone behavioral profiling, through networked assessments, up to a completelyintegrated recruitment package.At whatever level you approach automation in recruitment, you can expect IT to give yousome key advantages that will not only help to streamline the process itself, and offer newways of looking at the practice of recruitment itself. Examples of these key advantages include: