# 1 Class XI: Math Chapter 8: Binomial Theorem Top Concepts 1.

A binomial expression is an algebraic expression having two terms, for example (a+b),(a-b) etc. 2. The expansion of a binomial for any positive integral n is given by Binomial Theorem. The binomial theorem says that (x+y)n = xn + nC1xn-1y+nC2xn-2y2+----+nCr xn-ryr+ -----+nCnn + cnyn 1xy

n-1

In summation notation (x+y)

n

=

∑

k =0

n

n

Ck x

n−k

y

k

3. (i) In the binomial expansion of (x+y)n the number of terms is (n+1) i.e. one more than the exponent. (ii) The exponent of x goes on decreasing by unity and y increases by unity. Exponent of x is n in the first term, (n - 1) in the second term, and so on ending with zero in the last term. (iii) The sum of the indices of x and y is always equal to the index of the expression. 4. The coefficients ⁿCr is the number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time, occurring in the binomial theorem and are known as binomial coefficients. 5. Binomial coefficients when arranged in the form given below is known as Pascals Triangle.

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add the number directly above and to the left with the number directly above and to the right to find the new value. It is also known as Meru Prastara by Pingla.2
6. In order to construct the elements of following rows. after the name of French mathematician Blaise Pascal. Pascal's Triangle is a special triangle of numbers. If either the
Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. The array of numbers arranged in the form of triangle with 1 at the top vertex and running down the two slanting sides is known as Pascal’s triangle. It has an infinite number of rows.com
. Pascal's Triangle is a storehouse of patterns.
7.topperlearning. 8.

General term in the expansion of (x+y)n is Tk+1 =nCk xn-k yk 12. there is only one middle term in the expansion of (x + y)n and will be the + 1 2
n
th
term
14. In the expansion x + x 2n + 1 + 1 2
th 2n
n + 1
th
and 2
n + 3
th
term.com
. General term in the expansion of (x-y)n is Tk+1 = nCk (-1)k xn-k yk 13. 9. If n is even .topperlearning. 11.e. Using binomial theorem (x – y)ⁿ = [x + (-y)]ⁿ (x – y)ⁿ = C0 x − C1x y + C2 x
n n n n −1 n n− 2 2
for
y − C3 x
n n
non
n− 3 3
–negative
n n
index
n
y + … + ( −1)
k n
Cny
In summation notation (x – y)ⁿ =
∑ (−1)
k =0
Ck x
n−k
y
k
10.
. substitute a zero in its place. there are two middle terms in the expansion of (x + y)n and they are 2
1 15. (n + 1)th term. Binomial theorem can be used to expand trinomial by applying the binomial expansion twice. If n is odd. where x ≠ 0.. as 2n is even.
Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. the middle term is
i.3 number to the right or left is not present.

1a. This array is called Pascal’s triangle.com
. if n is even.
Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. then he middle term is the + 1 2
th
n
th
term.topperlearning. If n is odd. which is (a + b)ⁿ = ⁿC0aⁿ + ⁿC1an-1b + ⁿC2an-2b² + …+ ⁿCnn-1 + ⁿCnbⁿ. br.b The coefficients of the expansions are arranged in an array. then the middle term are
th
n + 1 n + 1 2 and 2 + 1
terms.4 Summary
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
. The general term of an expansion (a + b)ⁿ is Tr+1 = ⁿCr an-r. In the expansion (a + b)ⁿ.