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Natural resources (economically referred to as land or raw materials) occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment. Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.


On the basis of origin, resources may be divided into: Biotic - Biotic resources are the ones which are obtained from the biosphere. Forests and their products, animals, birds and their products, fish and other marine organisms are important examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also included in this category because they were formed from decayed organic matter. Abiotic - Abiotic resources comprise of non-living things. Examples include land, water, air and ores such as gold, iron, copper, silver etc. Considering their stage of development, natural resources may be referred to in the following ways: Potential Resources - Potential resources are those which exist in a region and may be used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India having sedimentary rocks but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use, it remains a potential resource. Actual Resources are those which have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined and are being used in present times. The development of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved. That part of the actual resource which can be developed profitably with available technology is called a reserve.

With respect to renewability, natural resources can be categorized as follows: Renewable resources are the ones which can be replenished or reproduced easily. Some of them, like sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available and their quantity is not affected by human consumption. Many renewable resources can be depleted by human use, but may also be replenished, thus maintaining a flow. Some of these, like agricultural crops, take a short time for renewal; others, like water, take a comparatively longer time, while still others, like forests, take even longer. Non-renewable resources are formed over very long geological periods. Minerals and fossils are included in this category. Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they get depleted. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them. But coal and petroleum cannot be recycled. Examples Some examples of natural resources include the following: Agricultureagronomy is the science and technology of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. Air, wind and atmosphere Plants Animals Coal, fossil fuels, rock and mineral resources Forestry Range and pasture Soils Water, oceans, lakes, groundwater a


In recent years, the depletion of natural resources and attempts to move to sustainable development has been a major focus of development agencies. This is of particular concern in rainforest regions, which hold most of the Earth's natural biodiversity irreplaceable genetic natural capital. Conservation of natural resources is the major focus of natural capitalism, environmentalism, the ecology movement, and green politics. Some view this depletion as a major source of social unrest and conflicts in developing nations. Mining, petroleum extraction, fishing, hunting, and forestry are generally considered natural-resource industries. Agriculture is considered a man-made resource. Theodore Roosevelt, a well-known conservationist and former United States president, was opposed to unregulated natural resource extraction. The term is defined by the United States Geological Survey as "The Nation's natural resources include its minerals, energy, land, water, and biota."


Conservation biology is the scientific study of the nature and status of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitat, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on sciences, economics, and the practice of natural resource management. Habitat conservation is a land management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore, habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range. It is a priority of many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology.


Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. Natural resource management is congruent with the concept of sustainable development, a scientific principle that forms a basis for sustainable global land management and environmental governance to conserve and preserve natural resources. Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources. The term Environmental management is also similar to natural resource management. Natural resource management is a discipline in the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. Natural resource management is interrelated with the concept of sustainable development, a principle which forms a basis for land management and environmental governance throughout the world. In contrast to the policy emphases of urban planning and the broader concept of environmental management, Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources.


Land and Land Resources refer to a delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface, climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater and geohydrological reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.) The Land Tenure and Management Unit undertake the following activities in land resources:

Promotes the development of cost-effective methods for land and soil survey and classification including testing and identification of soil constraints, criteria and methods for assessment of land degradation and sustainable land management and monitoring trends.

Promotes and provides documentation, information and technical guidance for the assessment, conservation and productive management of land resources. Promotes the development and harmonisation of land evaluation methodology, land use analysis, land degradation assessments, agro-ecological zoning, indicators of land quality and criteria for monitoring land use systems and works towards their application through participatory land use planning approaches.

Promotes soil and land use classification and correlation methodologies and mapping. Maintains a database and web-based information system on land resources and land use at national and regional level for comparative studies and analysis. Advises governments and other stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of appropriate land use and land management policies, strategies and action plans.

Co-operates with UN and specialised agencies, international and national bodies, non-governmental organisations and the private sector to support sustainable and productive land use and land management practices.

Contributes to the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Rio Conventions and assists member countries in the preparation of National Action Plans that address sustainable use of land resources use and food security goals.

Supports member countries in the formulation and implementation of sustainable land and ecosystems management programmes/projects, with attention to land productivity, degradation, problem soils, biodiversity and climate change issues as well as emergency and relief operations.

Sustainable Land Management:

SLM can be defined as the use of land resources, including soils, water, animals and plants, for the production of goods to meet changing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring the long-term productive potential of these resources and the maintenance of their environmental functions (UN Earth Summit, 1992). TerrAfrica (2005) has further defined sustainable land management as the adoption of land use systems that, through appropriate management practices, enables land users to maximize the economic and social benefits from the land while maintaining or enhancing the ecological support functions of the land resources. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) is crucial to minimizing land degradation, rehabilitating degraded areas and ensuring the optimal use of land resources for the benefit of present and future generations. SLM is based on four common principles: land-user-driven and participatory approaches; integrated use of natural resources at ecosystem and farming systems levels; multilevel and multistakeholder involvement; and targeted policy and institutional support, including development of incentive mechanisms for SLM adoption and income generation at the local level.

Its application requires collaboration and partnership at all levels land users, technical experts and policy-makers to ensure that the causes of the degradation and corrective measures are properly identified, and that the policy and regulatory environment enables the adoption of the most appropriate management measures. SLM is considered an imperative for sustainable development and plays a key role in harmonizing the complementary, yet historically conflicting goals of production and environment. Thus one of the most important aspects of SLM is this critical merger of agriculture and environment through twin objectives: i) maintaining long term productivity of the ecosystem functions (land, water, biodiversity) and ii) increasing productivity (quality, quantity and diversity) of goods and services, and particularly safe and healthy food. To operationalize the sustained combination of these twin SLM objectives, it is essential to understand drivers and causes of land degradation and to take into account issues of current and emerging risks. SLM encompasses other established approaches such as soil and water conservation, natural resources management, integrated ecosystem management and involves an holistic approach to achieving productive and healthy ecosystems by integrating social, economic, physical and biological needs and values. It contributes to sustainable and rural development and requires great attention in national, subnational and community level programmes and investments. Thus it needs an understanding of: the natural resource characteristics of individual ecosystems and ecosystem processes (climate, soils, water, plants and animals); the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of those who live in, and/or depend on the natural resources of, individual ecosystems (population, household composition, cultural beliefs, livelihood strategies, income, education levels etc); the environmental functions and services provided by healthy ecosystems (watershed protection, maintenance of soil fertility, carbon sequestration, micro-climate amelioration, bio-diversity preservation etc); and the myriad of constraints to, and opportunities for, the sustainable utilisation of an

ecosystems natural resources to meet peoples welfare and economic needs (e.g. for food, water, fuel, shelter, medicine, income, recreation). SLM recognizes that people (the human resources) and the natural resources on which they depend, directly or indirectly, are inextricably linked. Rather than treating each in isolation, all ecosystem elements are considered together, in order to obtain multiple ecological and socio-economic benefits

Integrated Approach to SLM:

Land use and management practices do not only have impacts on the land unit itself and the direct land users but also on close or distant neighbours and ecosystems. Impacts include effects on land productivity, on runoff, soil erosion and sedimentation, movements of nutrients and chemicals, contamination by wastes, atmospheric deposits through burning and wind blow, as well as wider effects of floods, drought, landslides and climate change. To tackle these complex interactions and the necessary consideration of land use practices at a wider scale to address landscape, ecosystem and global dimensions, NRLA works closely with other units of FAO in developing inter-sectoral approaches and addressing the various goods and services provided by the land. FAO follows the recommendations for an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources. In collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and other national and international institutions, FAO has developed an improved framework for land resources development and management that addresses the evolving nature of integrated land management.

An improved approach must ensure: - development of policies which will result in the best use and sustainable management of land - improvement and strengthening of planning, management, monitoring and evaluation systems - strengthening of institutions and coordinating mechanisms

- creation of mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and participation of communities and people at local level. The integrated planning and management of land resources approach recognizes that different degrees of participation are dependent on context; however, participation should be interactive to be successful. The concept of an ecosystem provides a valuable framework for analyzing and acting on the linkages between people and their environment. For that reason, the ecosystem approach has been endorsed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) conceptual framework is entirely consistent with this approach. The CBD defines the ecosystem approach as follows: The Ecosystem Approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Thus, the application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention: conservation; sustainable use; and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization, which encompass the essential structure, processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of many ecosystems. According to the CBD, the term ecosystem can refer to any functioning unit at any scale. It does not preclude other management and conservation approaches, such as biosphere reserves, protected areas, and single-species conservation programs, or other approaches carried out under existing national policy and legislative frameworks; rather, it could integrate all these approaches and other methodologies to deal with complex situations. The conceptual framework of the Millennium Assessment provides a useful assessment structure that can contribute to the implementation of the CBDs ecosystem approach.

The MA conceptual framework is designed to assess the consequences of changes in ecosystems for human well-being. It assumes that the central components of human well-beingincluding health, the material minimum for a good life, freedom and choice, health, good social relations, and securitycan be linked to the status of the environment. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment examines the various services that ecosystems provide and how those services influence human well-being, as well as the forces that have the capacity to alter these services. More specifically, it considers ecosystem services to be the benefits people obtain from ecosystems.

Payments for Environmental Services :

The understanding of ecosystem services and their maintenance requires knowledge, organization and management capacities as well as dialogue and negotiation between user groups/stakeholders and incentive mechanisms to make the best use of resources. This includes the need for creating opportunities and developing new markets to finance a more sustainable development for example through benefit sharing mechanisms and Payments for Environmental Services (PES). This tool can encourage the conservation and enhanced provision of regulating and supporting ecosystem services, the basis for all other types of service. Different policy options for environmental management exist when there is discrepancy between the actual level of environmental quality and the preferred one: "decentralised" policies (liability laws, changes in property rights, voluntary action), "command-and-control" policies (environmental legislation , e.g. environmental standards) and "incentivebased" policies (taxes, subsidies and transferable discharge permit systems - so called "cap and trade" regimes).

Sustainable Land Management Measures:

Poor and inappropriate land management is the main cause of physical, chemical and biological degradation of cultivated land, pasture, rangeland and forest land. In many countries, especially in sub Saharan Africa, there is continuous stress on the limited


land resources since up to 80% of the population depend on natural resources for their livelihood. Increasing pressure on resources, particularly in vulnerable regions has caused serious soil productivity decline especially under extensive farming practices. This is manifested by declining yields, decreasing vegetation cover, salinization, fertility decline and increasing erosion. Food security is directly related to the ability of land to support the population. Reversing the degradation of soil, water and biological resources and enhancing crop and livestock production through appropriate land use and management practices are essential components in achieving food and livelihood security. Successful experience for enhancing land productivity and maintaining water ecosystem services (biodiversity, water supply, carbon sequestration) in specific countries have taken place but their wider dissemination for the benefit of other countries, even in the same region, is rather limited. There is an urgent need to develop and implement sub-regional and national programmes, as well as projects at community level to reverse land degradation and to improve land productivity. Causes for land degradation are numerous and include decline of soil fertility, development of acidity, salinization, alkalization, deterioration of soil structure, accelerated wind and water erosion, loss of organic matter and biodiversity. As a result, farm labour productivity and revenues from agriculture are falling, migration to urban areas is increasing, and rural poverty is exacerbated. Efforts to restore productivity of a degraded land must be coupled with efforts to recognize productive capacity of land resources. There is a need to encourage countries to scale up already known SLM measures and continue to develop new updated land use systems to meet economic, environmental and food security goals. In this effort FAO collaborates closely with WOCAT and other partners. WOCAT, World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies, launched in 1992, is a project of the World Association of Soil and Water Conservation (WASWC) in collaboration with several institutions and coordinated by the University of Bern, Switzerland. It aims to promote the integration of successful soil and water conservation approaches and techniques into land use systems world-wide. FAO is 11

involved in the ongoing regional workshops and data collection in Africa. The African overview now is taking shape and will serve as an entry point for the initiative of the International Scheme for Conservation and Rehabilitation of African Lands (ISCRAL) on a country by country basis. WOCAT uses the following distinctions: Soil and water conservation (SWC). In the context of WOCAT is defined as: activities at the local level which maintain or enhance the productive capacity of the land in areas affected by or prone to degradation. SWC includes prevention or reduction of soil erosion, compaction and salinity; conservation or drainage of soil water; maintenance or improvement of soil fertility. SWC technologies. SWC technologies are agronomic, vegetative, structural and management measures that control soil degradation and enhance productivity in the field. SWC approaches. SWC approaches are ways and means of support that help to introduce, implement, adapt and apply SWC technologies in the field.

Land Policy and Planning:

Land policy aims to achieve certain objectives relating to the security and distribution of land rights, land use and land management, and access to land, including the forms of tenure under which it is held. A land-use policy is essentially an expression of the government's perception of the direction to be taken on major issues related to land use and the proposed allocation of the national land resources over a fixed period of time. It has a production and a conservation component. A sound national land-use policy is effectively part of the enabling environment and should cover all uses of land. To achieve the policy objective of sustainable production and conservation of natural resources, governments should pursue strategies which actively promote forms of land use which are both attractive to the people and sustainable in terms of their impacts on land resources. By developing the national land-use policies through a participatory, integrated and iterative process, there is a much greater likelihood of achieving this.


In 1992, Agenda 21 recognized the need for integrated planning and management of land resources, stating that it should be a decision making process that "facilitates the allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits" (Agenda 21, paragraph 10.5). Land use planning is even more crucial today, with growing pressures from climate change, urbanization and biofuels. Much high potential land is being lost to settlements; land which previously grew food crops is being planted with feedstocks for biofuels rather than food; climate change is limiting arable cropping in drylands, reducing productivity of rangelands and increasing sea levels, creating problems in coastal areas. In 1997, the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD), in a special session convened to assess progress towards sustainable development (Earth Summit + 5), reiterated the needs and recommended that, at the international level, priority should go to developing and disseminating a new approach to land resources conservation and development. It specified that this approach should create social, economic and legal conditions that encourage sustainable development, meet the information needs of governments and land users, and involve all relevant institutions. This is in accordance with FAO's responsibility as Task Manager for Chapter 10 of Agenda 21, which resulted from UNCED. During the recent sessions of CSD, a major attention was placed on Agricultural land, CSD-16 (2008) which focused on technical review and CSD -17 (2009) which focused on policy implications. Every year 19.5 million hectares of agricultural land is converted to spreading urban centres and industrial developments, often forcing farmers onto shrinking and more marginal lands. The uncontrolled expansion of human settlements constitutes a challenge for sustainable land planning and management. Particularly the concentration of people and cities in coastal areas increases the demand for limited land resources. Coastal areas are among the most crowded regions in the world. Demands on land resources and the risks to sustainability are likely to intensify. Population growth, economic development and urbanization are driving demands for food, water, energy and raw materials; the continued shift in human diet from cereal to animal products, requiring a higher input in land and water resources, and the recent move towards biofuels add to the demand for farm production, all of this with


implications for land uses. As for any form of agriculture, expanded biofuel production may threaten land and water resources as well as biodiversity, and appropriate policy measures are required to minimize possible negative effects. The impacts will vary across feedstocks and locations and will depend on cultivation practices and whether new land is converted for production of biofuel feedstocks or other crops are displaced by biofuels. Expanded demand for agricultural commodities will exacerbate pressures on the natural resource base, especially if the demand is met through area expansion. On the other hand, the use of perennial feedstocks on marginal or degraded lands may offer promise for sustainable biofuel production, but the economic viability of such options may be a constraint at least in the short run.

Land-use (or Land Resources) Planning:

Land-use (or Land Resources) Planning is a systematic and iterative procedure carried out in order to create an enabling environment for sustainable development of land resources which meets peoples needs and demands. It assesses the physical, socio-economic, institutional and legal potentials and constraints with respect to an optimal and sustainable use of land resources, and empowers people to make decisions about how to allocate those resources.

These are matched through a multiple goal analysis and assessment of the intrinsic value of the various environmental and natural resources of the land unit. The result is an indication of a preferred future land use, or combination of uses. Through a negotiation process with all stakeholders, the outcome is improved, agreed decisions on the concrete allocation of land for specific uses (or non-uses) through legal and administrative measures, which will lead eventually to implementation of the plan.

Land-use planning at the national level


Land-use planning can be applied at three broad levels: national, district and local. These are not necessarily sequential but correspond to the levels of government at which decisions about land use are taken. Different kinds of decision are taken at each level, where the methods of planning and kinds of plan also differ. However, at each level there is need for a land-use strategy, policies that indicate planning priorities, projects that tackle these priorities and operational planning to get the work done. The greater the interaction between the three levels of planning, the better. The flow of information should be in both directions . At each successive level of planning, the degree of detail needed increases, and so too should the direct participation of the local people. At the national level, planning is concerned with national goals and the allocation of resources. In many cases, national land-use planning does not involve the actual allocation of land for different uses, but the establishment of priorities for district-level projects. A national land-use plan may cover: land-use policy: balancing the competing demands for land among different sectors of the economy food production, export crops, tourism, wildlife conservation, housing and


public amenities, roads, industry; national development plans and budget: project identification and the allocation of resources for development; coordination of sectoral agencies involved in land use; legislation on such subjects as land tenure, forest clearance and water rights. National goals are complex while policy decisions, legislation and fiscal measures affect many people and wide areas. Decision-makers cannot possibly be specialists in all facets of land use, so the planners' responsibility is to present the relevant information in terms that the decision-makers can both comprehend and act on. Planning at these different levels needs information at different scales and levels of generalization. Much of this information may be found on maps. The most suitable map scale for national planning is one by which the whole country fits on to one map sheet, which may call for a scale from 1:5 million to 1:1 million or larger. District planning requires details to be mapped at about 1:50000, although some information may be summarized at smaller scales, down to 1:250000. For local planning, maps of between 1:20000 and 1:5000 are best. Reproductions of air photographs can be used as base maps at the local level, since field workers and experience show that local people can recognize where they are on the photos.

Land-use planning at the district level:

District level refers not necessarily to administrative districts but also to land areas that fall between national and local levels. Development projects are often at this level, where planning first comes to grips with the diversity of the land and its suitability to meet project goals. When planning is initiated nationally, national priorities have to be translated into local plans. Conflicts between national and local interests will have to be resolved. The kinds of issues tackled at this stage include: the siting of developments such as new settlements, forest plantations and irrigation schemes; the need for improved infrastructure such as water supply, roads and marketing facilities;


the development of management guidelines for improved kinds of land use on each type of land.


Soil, water and vegetation are three basic natural resources. The survival of Gods creation depends upon them and nature has provided them as assets to human beings. The management of natural resources to meet peoples requirements has been practised since the pre-Vedic era. Farmers were ranked high in the social system and village management was in their hands. In order to manage land, water and vegetation, technical knowledge suitable to the specific conditions of a region was required. They gained this knowledge and developed skill through experience and learning by doing. Over-exploitation of natural resources by growing population resulted in various severe problems. Destruction of vegetation has resulted in land degradation, denudation, soil erosion, landslides, floods, drought and unbalanced ecosystems. A balanced ecosystem is an urgent need. The Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun, has activities in the rural areas of Garhwal for the management of resources with peoples participation. The present investigation was the outcome of experience gained in the villages of Outer Himalaya and the Doon Valley. The Institute began extending its technology in 1954 and has achieved grand success through watershed management and lab to land activities. In contact with the farmers, traditional wisdom was documented. A wealth of traditional knowledge could be harnessed through their cooperation. Their experiences are required to be shared and discussed to promote modern technology for development. 17


The investigation was carried out in villages of Dehradun district and Narendra Nagar (Tehri Garhwal). These villages were selected from the Doon Valley and the Outer Himalaya hill range with a view to obtaining comprehensive information on traditional knowledge of natural resource management in both foothills and mountainous regions. Eight villages from Sahaspur block of Doon Valley and eight from Narendra Nagar block in the hills were selected. Farmers were interviewed to obtain information on traditional knowledge. Individual contacts were made and questions were asked about traditional systems in the villages. Representation of women among the farmers was also ensured. By means of informal interviews and interaction with old and young farmers and farm women, responses were recorded for critical analysis. It was also observed how traditional knowledge is transmitted from one generation to another. In order to educate young farmers, elders communicate innovation through proverbs, short stories and examples. Information was collected with respect to the social and historical perspective of the Garhwal region, zoning system, depletion of natural resources, methods of conservation, concept of watershed management, prediction and beliefs, and cultural education. A total of 200 farmers including women were interviewed.


The Himalayan hill range of Uttar Pradesh is known as Uttarakhand. The region comprises two hill zones, Garhwal and Kumaon. The Garhwal Himalaya covers an area of 14,565 square miles and has 4,724 villages. After the British occupation the region was divided into British Garhwal and Tehri Garhwal. References to Garhwal are found in the Skanda Purana (Kedarkhanda) and the Vanaparva in the Mahabharata. The Skanda Purana defines the boundary of this holy land, Kedarkhand, 50 yojana long and 30 yojana wide. It extends from Haridwar in the south to perpetual snow (Himalaya) in the north. To its west is the river Tamsa (Tons) and in the east it is flanked by Baindhachal. Badhan is not only a paragana but a mountain range too, which demarcates Garhwal from Kumaon. In the Vanaparva, where Dhaumya is telling


Yudhisthira about the tirthas of India, Gangadwar, i.e., Haridwar and Kankhal, have been referred to. The hill tract of Garhwal in those days was known as Himvat. In the Garhwal region the Ganga, Yamuna, and many rivers and rivulets are seen in their blissful infancy. Garhwal is a constant source of spiritual attainment where people come to visit ancient holy places for realising their moksha. It is the expression of divinity, meditation, penance and attainment. Garhwal has a galaxy of peaks and glaciers, a vastness of meadows and valleys, and a wealth of colourful dales which have no parallel in the world. Mountain peaks are visible everywhere and because of altitude, complexities and physiographic features and geological structure, the region has several classifications. But the major divisions are Outer Himalaya, Middle Himalaya and Higher Himalaya.


The Doon Valley has its own significance in view of its culture and traditions. It has a historical background from the period of Dronacharya. Dehradun is formed from the name of Guru Drone (Dera + Drone). The valley occupies an area of 1,500 sq km (20 km by 76 km) between the Outer Himalaya, the Ganga, the Yamuna and the Shivalik hill range. The valley is known as Dronakshetra. The Himalaya of northern India was divided into five zones: Nepal Khand, Kurmanchal, Jalandhar, Kedarkhand and Kashmir Khand. In the Himalaya there were vast resources of forest, scenic beauty, agriculture, horticulture, minerals and, above all, hardy and painstaking people with their rich cultural heritage. The Kole were the first historically recorded people of Garhwal, descended from the Munda ethnic group. Subsequently the Kirats, Khasas and the Shakas settled in the region. Many other lineages also came and intermixed with those who had already settled. In the ancient period and even in modern days powerful races or castes dominated politics and the economy. In present-day Garhwal three main castes are found: Brahmans, Rajputs and Shilpkars. Shilpkars are descendants of Koles and are supposed to be the autochthonous of Garhwal.



During the ancient period Garhwal was full of dense forest and lush green vegetation. The Himalaya is the perennial source of water for rivers, streams and reservoirs. Undoubtedly, nature takes care of its resources through natural process over a period of time and maintains them. But ever-increasing population, developmental activities and technological modernisation have over-exploited available resources without taking into consideration the damage and consequences for coming generations. Vegetation plays an important role in protecting land and water. These resources are being depleted at an alarming rate because of human intervention. Degradation and destruction of forest cover in the Himalaya is directly responsible for the denudation of watersheds. In the absence of vegetative ground cover, during the monsoon rainwater comes down to the plains unchecked. Sudden swelling of streams, flash floods in the hills and severe floods in the plains and drought in upstream areas are the consequences. The downward rush of water has tremendous erosive force and moves millions of tonnes of fertile soil during the rainy season. It causes all types of erosion as well as devastating landslides in the Himalaya. Developmental activities, construction of roads, extraction of building material and mining, etc., are a constant threat. Denuded hills and other wastelands pose serious problems which adversely affect agriculture and human life in the region. Landslides and landslips block hill roads and charge streams with heavy sediment loads. The soil erosion taking place crosses the permissible limit of 4.5 to 11.5 tonnes/ha many times (Narayana and Ram Babu 1983).


Broadly, farmers have indicated three ways to protect resources by means of traditional technology. They are mechanical, agricultural and vegetative.

The main occupation of the hill farmers is agriculture. They usually construct terraces for cultivation known as nala with risers known as pusata. These terraces are small but there are many of them. In one acre of landholding a farmer possesses 50 nalas. In these it is possible to manage to rainwater. Construction of terraces depends upon space and grades of land. The farmers, with their expertise, are able to prepare fields for crop production.


According to scientific recommendations cultivation is allowed to 33 per cent of land slope. But in the hills, farmers are able to make terraces from top to bottom of the mountain terrain without taking into account the land slope. With terraces they construct loose boulder retention walls (risers) by putting grass over them. These grasses keep both stones and the land intact. Cement and sand are scarce materials in the hills. In making risers farmers simply arrange boulders of the proper size along the terrace wall. It retains the soil perfectly and gradually gets stabilised. Farmers make the slopes of the terraces inwards to check soil erosion and enhance in situ moisture conservation. Soils are gravelly and have a high rate of percolation. Due to rainwater retention enough moisture becomes available to the crops. On mild slopes farmers construct shoulder bunds to protect their lands from soil erosion and grow vegetation over the bunds, particularly grasses for binding the soil. Farmers of the hill region used to make brushwood or longwood check dams across the drainage channels for controlling soil loss by means of local materials. They are economical. Gabion walls and stone check dams are by and large cost intensive and beyond not affordable to hill farmers. Farmers in the Doon Valley in order to train torrents use Ipomea carnea and Arando donex plants sps. as vegetative spurs, and they are found to be very successful.


Farmers pointed out that watershed management had been introduced for the integrated management of a particular area that includes agriculture, natural resources, forest management, village development and above all the ecosystem. Virtually, a watershed was defined as a unit of development in which there is a highest point and a lowest point with common outlet. The Government of India has given special attention to watershed development to manage natural resources and schemes like NWDPRA, a watershed project with foreign collaboration, are being implemented. During the ancient period, village boundaries were decided upon on a watershed basis by the expert farmers in the villages. Such boundaries were socially acceptable to all the members of the system. Such age-old village boundaries are fixed at the common point


of the drainage system in between two villages. It is still in vogue and people do not go beyond the limits of their hydrological boundaries.

Farmers used to carry water to their fields through small irrigation channels known as gulas. These go from the source of water along the slopes to the fields. In order to avoid seepage losses farmers use pipes. By means of gravitational force they transport irrigation water from its source. In hills it is difficult to construct gulas for all the terraces, and pipes are convenient in transporting water to every field. In order to make judicious use of water, they use a sprinkler system through gravitational force and economical utilisation of water. In the Garhwal Himalaya farmers use tree trunks as rainwater irrigation channels by taking care of undulating topography and checking seepage losses (Sharma and Sinha 1993).

The region of Garhwal comes in the high rainfall area and in the lack of proper management system most of the rainwater goes waste as runoff. Farmers of the hill region have their traditional technology for making small dug-out ponds to harvest rainwater. They construct such ponds at several places and use the water for survival or for supplemental irrigation. Improvement over the traditional practices are that at the bottom LDPE sheets are placed to check seepage losses. Lined tanks are cost-intensive and beyond the reach of the farmers.


Streams are the source of water in the Himalaya. Farmers pay regard to these water resources. They use the water for drinking and make efforts to keep streams clean and unpolluted. They maintain vegetation on the banks to have a clean flow without sediment for human consumption. They do not permit their cattle at the places from 22

which they collect drinking water. They have their own traditional system for the management of drinking water. They do not allow anyone to throw garbage in its current to avoid pollution and infection.

In the hills flour mills are not available. Farmers have their indigenous technology to run flour mill by means of water fall. They use home-made wooden wheels as turbines to run the mills. These mills are locally known as gharat or panchaki. It is a local response to needs of the people without electric or any other complex machine systems.

Farmers traditional knowledge of agriculture includes tested technologies in the field. They use a special type of traditional plough. Other types of improved ploughs do not work in the hills as the soil is gravelly and not deep. Under rainfed conditions farmers in hill regions plough their land several times before the onset of rain to conserve water and increase water retention capacity. Farmers plough their land straight instead of in circles and open parallel furrows for rainwater harvesting and retaining moisture. However, there is a recommendation to plough the land across the slope to check erosion. Farmers of hill regions prefer mixed cropping for minimising risks under rainfed conditions and creating ground cover for checking runoff and soil loss. They grow legumes with maize and ginger or turmeric with maize. After sowing ginger, colocasia and turmeric, farmers use paddy straw, wheat straw or leaf litters as mulch to ensure proper germination. Farmers do not practice weeding and interculturing in the maize crop because of soil conditions and the requirement of fodder in the rainy season. Farmers of the Garhwal hills store seeds by selection for different plots with special identification and use them in those particular plots. In the outer Himalaya farmers were reluctant to grow maize because of wild animals such as bears, wild boars and monkeys. In khadar (lowland) areas they grow paddy and irrigated wheat and in uplands they take rainfed rabi crops.


In the hills farmers grow mainly mandua, jhingora and guar. Because of recent developments they have been attracted towards off-season vegetables, e.g., peas, tomatoes, etc.


Hill farmers grow trees of economic value and suited to their requirements. In order to have conserve soil and water they grow grasses for ground cover such as Eulaliopsis binnata, Chrysopogun fulvus and agave sps. Shrubs like Ipomea icarnea, Arando donex, Dendrocalamus strictus, napier grass, Vitex negundu, Morus alba and bagrera are grown, and in wild form are available bhang, lantana, sweet neem, etc. Among trees they grow Grewia pitiva, Bauhinia sps., Albezia labek, Timla, Gainthietic, to meet fuel and fodder requirements. For the development of horticulture in the Doon Valley the trees grown are citrus, mango, jackfruit, guava, pomegranate, pear, peach and plum. In the hills of Mussoorie and Narendranagar areas peach, pear, khumani and apple are grown at higher elevations. There is tremendous potential to develop horticulture in the hill ranges because of undulating topography and climatic conditions. Farmers are well aware of the potential of their lands, but due to poor economic conditions and infrastructure it is not possible for them to go ahead with alternative and more profitable land use. Hill farmers are hard-working that even in adverse topographic conditions they are devoted to agriculture for grain production. Hill farmers do not like to work as labourers or beg in villages for their livelihood; instead, they prefer to go to cities to earn. Many hill farmers migrate for jobs to the cities or join army service. The women and children look after the village property, while the men send them money to run their homes.

Water Resources and their Management in Kashmir


The valley of Kashmir has been a great seat of learning and erudition from its hoary past. Its beauty and verdure, snow-capped peaks, sparkling waters, rustling leaves of dense forests, lakes and springs, have charmed poets and creative minds to sing its praises, calling it a paradise on earth. Inspired and motivated by the pristine beauty of the landscape, the genius of Kashmir has contributed to almost all segments of human knowledge and creative ventures. Among the earlier settlers in Kashmir are believed to be Nagas. There are geological and mythological reasons to believe that the valley was once a vast span of water, similar to a huge dam, walled in by high mountains. The Nilamatapurana records how the valley was elevated out of water and left under the care of the Nagas, of whom Nila, the son of Kashyapa, was the chief. Although legends are legends and do not provide hard evidence in most cases, the present description regarding the drawing of water is reconcilable with the geological scenario of violent earthquakes accompanied by darkness and cloudburst. It is said that the valley is named Kashmir after Kashyapa. The term naga stands for spring, chesmah, and negin for small spring. Springs are the main source of water in Kashmir. The five primordial elements (earth, fire, water, air and sky) are, in fact, complementary to the peoples rituals, cognitive system, religious beliefs and sacrificial practices. Interestingly, the auspicious and famous river of Kashmir, the Vitasta (Jhelum) originates from a spring near Verinag and is responsible for the water supply to most parts of the valley. The religious significance of the river is established by the Nilamatapurana when it records the entire land of Kashmir as the material manifestation of Uma and describes her as the divine form of the Vitasta.1 Apart from meaning a spring, the term naga had tremendous theo-cultural relevance for the lives of the people of Kashmir. As the sacredness of water gets echoed in the worship of nagas, the Naga as spring is the source of life. Some scholars have identified the nagas as personified forces of nature.

With the vast majority of Kashmiri people living in villages and their income coming mainly out of land, the importance of irrigation is considerable. Being a hilly state, the


problem of irrigation is complicated in many areas. At higher altitudes the main source of water is naga or lift irrigation. The first claim on the water of a spring is of the village near it. Paddy, the staple food, is generally grown on the fertile lands adjoining the river Vitasta, although it is produced on some higher plateaus also. The autumn or kharif crops consist of maize, pulses (moong, mash and motha), etc. The spring or rabi crops include wheat, peas, beans and mustard. Thanks to the formation of the valley, irrigation is easy and in ordinary years abundant. If there is normal snowfall in the winter and the great mountains are well covered, the water supply for rice is sufficient. On both sides of the Vitasta, the valley rises in bold terraces, and water passes quickly from one village to another in years of good snow. In earlier times, at convenient points on the mountain, weirs or protecting snags were erected, and the water was taken into main channels which pass into small networks of ducts and eventually empty themselves in the Jhelum. Lower down in the valley, where the streams flow gently, dams were erected. On every main channel there was a mirab one of the villagers whose duty it was to maintain the system. In earlier days, in alluvial plateaus water was scarce. Many kings of Kashmir, therefore, tried to extend irrigation facilities there. The first known work of this kind was a canal called Suvarnamani (modern Suman Kul) constructed by king Suvarna in the preAshokan age. It irrigated a part of the Advin Pargana, situated on the alluvial plateau to the south of the Rembyar river. In the eighth century a great ruler of Kashmir, King Lalitaditya, is credited with having introduced a new device called the water wheel for raising water to the higher plateaus. In this device a peasant used a long pole at the top of which was a bucket to be with water, balancing it with his feet to draw the water from a well or channel. At present this inexpensive method is used in many parts of the valley, especially for the irrigation of house gardens, and the device is now called tol or dip-well. With the advance of technology diesel or electric pumps are preferred for the lift irrigation of agricultural lands. For this purpose the Government of Jammu and Kashmir has a department of irrigation which looks after the lift irrigation schemes. In Kashmir the problem of recurring floods, especially in the Vitasta, was often caused by heavy summer rains and melting of snow which flooded the arable land around. To protect cultivable lands from floods, attempts were made from early times. According to Kalhana, King Damodara built stone-lined dykes in order to guard against inundations. The minister of King Baladitya erected an embankment. The construction 26

of embankments was meant to protect cultivable land from floods, and the surplus water thus obtained could be passed into several channels to irrigate other fields. An important attempt in this direction was made by King Lalitaditya, who arranged for distributing the waters of the Vitasta at Cakradhara (modern Tsakadar) to various villages. These drainage operations made the valley productive to some extent. But the work of irrigation started by the monarch was neglected by his incompetent successors. However, an attempt was made by Suyya, the irrigation minister of King Avantivarman in the ninth century to regulate the waters of the Vitasta and to drain the whole valley. Near Yaksadara (modern Dyargul), large rocks which had rolled down from the mountain, lining both banks, obstructed the Vitasta. Suyya dragged out the rocks and the level of the river was lowered. He thus regulated the water of the Jhelum, constructed protective works and arranged for the supply of water to each village on a permanent basis. He dammed the lake, which by its depth and well-defined boundaries was naturally designed as a great reservoir to receive the surplus waters of the dangerous floods. The endeavours of Suyya met with unique success. Due to lawlessness and insecure conditions, agriculture steadily declined. With the advent of Islam in the valley, Hindu rule came to an end in the fourteenth century. The Muslim rulers did not give any attention to the development of the valley. Sultan Zainul-abidin (fifteenth century) was perhaps the only Muslim ruler who was keen to cure the miseries of the cultivators and promote their welfare. Agriculture occupied his special attention. One important measure was the construction of canals in the valley. To quote Srivara, There was not a piece of land, not a region and not a forest where the king did not excavate a canal. Some of these were the Kakapur canal, the Karla canal, the Chakdar canal, the Avantipur canal, the Shahkul canal (of Safapur), Lachham Kul or Zainaganga, Lall Kul or Pohri canal, Shah Kul on the Martanda canal and the Mar Canal. The Shah Kul was taken out on the left bank of the Lidder River and ran along the face of the limestone cliffs above Martanda. Here it split into four distributing channels, and finally fell over the edge of the plateau into the Jhelum valley at Anantnag. Some of these canals are still important sources of irrigation, but in most cases they have narrowed down. Before the Mar Canal was constructed, the surplus waters of the Dal Lake used to flow into the Jhelum river at Habba Kadal. This junction was closed, forcing the outflow of the lakes water into the Mar Canal, which then extended up to Shadipura. Several other earlier canals were revived and repaired, and some of them supplied water to otherwise dry Karewa lands. At present the Vitasta has 27

narrowed,3 which is the main cause of floods in the valley over last many years. The river needs a fresh drainage programme, and the traditional knowledge system can play an important role in its management. As tourism is an important industry in Kashmir and the Jhelum one of the main attractions, it is necessary to take up the task of drainage on a priority basis. Tourists also like to stay in the houseboats, which are either in the Jhelum or in Dal Lake.4 The net result of the above irrigation projects was the draining of marshes and the reclamation of large areas for cultivation, which is essential while looking to the growth of the population. We should keep in mind that the state of the environment of any place is an indication of its spiritual health, in which the deeper issues of culture, values, politics and the economic and social outlook of a community are involved. Besides, no eco-system is altogether self-contained; it is further linked to another system and so on. The scarcity of snowfall in the winter can lead to a famine. Although nature has endowed the valley with beautiful gifts, the inner forces of matter and mind are stamping these gifts out of existence at a rapid pace. The priorities and patterns of development, coupled with whimsical decision-making, have greatly contributed to the brutalisation of the landscape, 5 the silting of the great lakes and rivers, the pollution of air, water and soil. Not long ago, the high mountains of Kashmir supported one of the densest and richest subtropical and temperate forests of the world, covering more than 60 per cent of the total land area. But after the mid-1970s there has been a licensed massacre of green trees. Currently the jungles of Kashmir are destroyed in search of kuth, a highly priced medicinal plant. The smuggling of wood for building, etc., has been high for many years.6 As per a recent study about 91 thousand hectares of forest land were lost to various development projects during the period 1952 to 1976. The deforestation in the valley has unfortunately disturbed the ecological balance and has lessened the average snowfall. Because of it there is scarcity of irrigation and drinking water in the summer season. At many places drinking water is supplied by the Public Health Engineering Department in tanks, and irrigation is mostly dependent on rainwater. If all this is not controlled at this stage the economy will be shattered. The dream of industrialisation which we people also see in Kashmir will come to a stop, as most industries are dependent on electricity, which is produced by hydel projects in the valley. It will not be wrong to say that the economic progress of the place is largely dependent on water and its proper management. 28

Similarly, the problems arising from the pollution of air, water and soil caused by cement factories, stone crushers, brick kilns, smelting industries and the unchecked use of chemicals have become very serious. It seems that ecological consciousness is confined to words only. Even after 49 years of freedom there is not scientific sewerage system in the summer capital (Srinagar) of the Jammu and Kashmir state. The nightsoil, which is carried on the head or in poorly maintained vehicles, spreads a foul smell all along. The inhabitants of houseboats and the boatmen living in dongas dispose of their refuse in the Dal Lake or the Jhelum, thereby polluting the water. It has been shown that the drinking water supplied to some parts of Srinagar city was worse than the polluted water of the Jhelum. This polluted water does pose a serious threat, not only to human life only but also to wildlife, particularly in the Dachigam National Park. Militancy has added fuel to the fire. It has disturbed entire eco-system and the law of the jungle prevails these days. If this situation is not brought under control quickly the entire past of Kashmir will come to a sad end. From its seminal stages to the present state of civilisation, Kashmir has been famous for tolerance, mutual goodwill and humanism. The spirit of synthesis and assimilation is the key to Kashmiri culture. Kashmir has carved a niche for itself in the fabric of Indian culture. The present-day attempts to insulate her from humanism and synthetical modes of thinking cannot be overlooked as a mere aberration as these are aimed at destroying the essential genius of Kashmir.


Everything that we use or consume - food, clothes, vehicles, tools, petrol, furniture, medicines, books, toys, and the infrastructure of electricity, roads bridges, and buildings are obtained from resources on this earth. The only thing one gets from outside is the sun's energy and even this is converted by the biotic components of the environment and by physical and chemical based processes on the earth before one makes use of it. The recent concerns about the environment and natural resources have arisen because of the increasing awareness of the finite nature. What appeared as to be plentiful earlier, clean water and air, fuel energy, land for food, forests and trees are becoming increasingly scarce. If one depletes them too fast, without the possibility of their


regeneration, one will be creating untold misery for oneself and for the future generations.

Why have both governments and citizens not managed the environmental resources properly over the last 50 -100 years? One has not anticipated some of the impacts of industrial and technological advancement. When the industrial revolution started some 250 years ago, the world population was at 600 million - that seems like a lot of people but now the world population is now almost ten times at 6 billion and will grow to 8 billion by 2025! Better health and increased age limits have resulted in a net gain of over 200,000 people every day. Side by side, the global economy increased more than six fold between 1960 and 2000. One has experienced the fastest pace of development and modern lifestyle requirements ever achieved by humans.


How much resource are our modern cities demanding? To meet this demand worldwide, food production increased by roughly two-and-a-half times, water use doubled, wood harvests for pulp and paper production tripled, installed hydropower capacity doubled, and timber production increased by more than a half. For example, more land was converted to cropland in the thirty years since 1950 than had been converted in the whole of the period 1700 to 1850 (The Biodiversity Synthesis Report in the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment project). Forty percent of the earth's land surface is now used to grow crops and graze animals.

While we exploit these natural resources the amount of damages caused to the environment is staggering. Major rivers like the Ganga and Yamuna, the life line for the northern Gangetic plain food belt have become gravely polluted. The reason lies in industrial pollution and urban municipal waste. Agricultural runoff from over use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides add to soil contamination. The pressure to have more food crops, commercial crops and animal husbandry with the help of modern agricultural practices has led to the stripping of large areas of forests and using great amounts of water and energy. As a result large scale soil erosion and local climate change have occurred. Air pollution due to automobile exhausts and industrial emission levels has caused green house gases to rise and cause global warming. All these have combined to deplete and endanger some of our most valuable natural resources. Clearly, a good case exists to manage our natural resources, conserve the environment and have proper waste disposal in a more scientific and sustainable manner, with a long-term perspective rather than for short term gains. Governments should also ensure 31

that all the people affected by development of these resources get an equitable benefit not just a few privileged rich benefit from these developments.

While conservation and utilization of natural resources in a sustainable manner are what responsible citizens and the governments should aim to achieve, it might be useful to assess how we as students and youth can immediately contribute to helping out at our own level. To ensure sustainable use of resources in our environment utilize the principle of 'The Three R's.' - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Some of these illustrations may help you manage natural resources better.

Use less and do not waste. Resources saved are resources earned for your community. Do not waste water - switch of running and leaky taps, bathe with a bucket don't shower; Don't waste energy - turn out the lights and fans when you are not in a room, take public transport or walk short distances instead of using expensive motor fuel. Don't waste food. Give unused food to less fortunates or animals.

Use things again and again. Don't throw away materials such as glass containers, plastic bags, paper, cloth etc. Reuse them at domestic levels rather than being thrown. It reduces solid waste pollution.


Materials such as paper, some kinds of plastics and glass can are being recycled. Collect plastic, paper, glass and metal items and give them to people who recycle these materials. This decreases the volume of refuse and helps in the conservation of natural resources. A recovery of one tonne of paper can save 17 trees. One can add a fourth 'R'


Plant a tree during the rains. Look after it for a couple of years. Make your environment more cool, shady and green. Let the birds, squirrels, butterflies and animals dependant on trees return to their habitat; simultaneously, help control soil erosion.


Loss of habitat is a major threat to plants and animals around the world. If wildlife populations are to be successfully conserved, habitat must also be available on private land. Habitat management is especially critical in metropolitan centers, where development has eliminated most natural areas. As our populations grow and people settle in suburban and rural areas, urban sprawl can dramatically change the landscape. As sprawl progresses, areas that are free from housing or other development become increasingly rare. Consequently, fewer places are suitable as habitat for native plants and animals or as places for outdoor recreation and education. Almost any land holding that has open space can provide wildlife or natural habitat. Examples range from workplaces, schoolyards, golf courses, parks, cemeteries, and even backyards.



At some point in time, nearly everyone has felt a certain intrinsic appreciation of nature. Whether you have enjoyed watching the leaves change color in the autumn, a butterfly fluttering through the air, or finding deer tracks in freshly fallen snow, you were connecting with nature. a. Creating or enhancing wildlife habitat is beneficial in that it can bring beauty and enjoyment to our lives. Because wildlife habitats generally provide native trees and shrubs for cover. b. Managing for wildlife can also provide recreational opportunities for friends, family, and nearby residents. c. Millions of people across the state also enjoy viewing wildlife or searching for wildflowers.


a. By providing areas that are suitable for wildlife, land managers can increase access to more natural areas that are often lacking in metropolitan landscapes. b. Programs such as the National Wildlife Federations, Backyard Wildlife Habitat, and Schoolyard Habitat Project strive to bring people and nature together. c. These sites are places where friends, family, and the community can gather for activities such as picnicking, hiking, camping, and learning. Children and adults alike can interact and discover the wonders of nature together while nurturing an environmental ethic. d. Wildlife habitats and natural areas on your property also can provide your company or agency with opportunities for public relations and interacting with nearby residents. e. Children from local schools can be invited to participate in active habitat management, such as tree or wildflower planting or building nest boxes. f. Schools can be given specific areas to design and implement a wildlife habitat management plan. Schoolchildren benefit by learning about nature, ecology, and wildlife management, while landowners gain visibility within the community and get additional help.


g. Organizing clean-ups in neighborhoods and natural areas is another way to foster relationships between land-managers and members of the community, while benefiting the environment.

There are many ecological benefits to managing land for wildlife. a. Land that is suitable for native plants and animals also is healthy for people. b. Wetland ecosystems provide habitat for numerous species, such as frogs etc., as well as reduce the risk of flood damage, help to control run-off, and buffer shorelines against erosion. c. Wetlands also are capable of filtering many pollutants from our waters. d. Other ecosystems provide ecological services too. e. Forests produce oxygen and are essential in removing carbon dioxide from the air. f. By providing these and other types of wildlife habitat, one helps to ensure that essential processes within the ecosystem do not diminish and people continue to have cleaner water, air, and food sources. g. Every species serves a function that, to some extent, affects its surrounding community and ecosystem, including humans.

a. Maintaining wildlife habitat or other natural areas can be a cost-effective approach to land management. b. Planting a shelterbelt (rows of strategically placed evergreens, deciduous trees, and shrubs to reduce wind and erosion) creates habitat for wildlife, and provides the landowner with economic benefits as well. c. Properly designed shelterbelts, especially over 10 rows wide, offer shade and reduce air conditioning costs throughout the warm season. During the winter months, they serve as a windbreak, reducing heating costs by as much as 30 percent.


d. Planting trees on your land usually increases property values by thousands of dollars. e. Native plants are generally less timely and costly to maintain since they are well suited to local moisture and soil conditions. Choosing droughttolerant and sun-loving species can greatly reduce water and fertilizer demands. f. There may be economic incentives to marketing your wildlife-friendly management approaches. With each year, more consumers and clientele prefer to deal with socially and environmentally responsible businesses.

From the above report, we conclude that the natural resource are scarce and its management is very essential for the growth of economy and availability for the future generations. Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources. Govt. on the other hand should implement such policies which impose responsibilities on the corporates and the citizens to mange and conserve the natural resources so that our economy become more competitive in the world economy and future generations can also avail benefits from these resources.