PICTORIAL KEYS TO ANTHROPODS, REPTILES, BIRDS, AND MAMMALS OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlanta, Georgia 30333

This publication was previously issued under the same title by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the U. S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beetles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pictorial Keys: General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lice (Anoplura) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lepidoptera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crustacea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hymenoptera . . . . . . . . Termites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arachnida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collembola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centipedes . . . . Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rodents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earwigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scorpions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acarina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silverfish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lice (Mallophaga) . . . . . . . . . . . Lagomorphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cockroaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mosquitoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fleas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Millipedes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 16 19 20 21 22 23 26 38 41 45 46 55 63 64 65 66 92 94 96 98 100 120 134 167 175 179 181 185 186 187 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spiders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii CONTENTS Public Health Significance of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . Psocids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . African sleeping sickness. . . . . . yaws. . . . . used as indicator organisms for pesticide studies. . . . . venomous bite. . Spider . . . . . . . . . . Chewing Louse . . . . . . intermediate host of tapeworms. . . . . . Sowbug. Kissing Bug . . . . . cause dermatitis. damage wood. . infest stored food. . . . infest human intestine: cause dermatitis. Ant . . . . . . epidemic hemorrhagic fever. . . . Termite . . . murine typhus. paratyphoid. . . . . Centipede . . . . . . infest stored food. loiasis. . . Earwig . . . . . . infest stored food. . . . . leishmaniasis. . Bed Bug . . Bird . not known to transmit disease. Sea Spider . Psocid . . . . appearance causes fear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bite man occasionally. . . . . . filariasis. . . . . . . transmit plague. . harmless. . Pseudoscorpion . . . onchocerciasis. infest stored food. . . Lobster. . trachoma. . . Fly . . . . . . occasionally bite man. . . Rodent . . . . . cause dermatitis. Pillbug . . . . . . . . . . . . tularemia. . . . . transmit enteric diseases. Russian spring-summer encephalitis. infest stored food. associated with rabies. . and urinary tracts. . . giardiasis. Beetle . . . . . . . . . bite and sting. Mosquito . Tick . Book Louse. . . infest stored food. cause dermatitis. . . . . . . . . . . tularemia. . . . . . . . . relaps ing fever. infest intestinal tract. . . . . Mite . . etc. . . . . . Whip Scorpion . . . . . . Firebrat . . . . . ornithosis and many other diseases. conjunctivitis. . . transmit malaria. venomous bite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tick paralysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandfly fever. . . . infest stored food. . Ked or Louse Fly . . . . . secondary infection of bites. harmless. transmit enteric diseases. Caterpillar . . . sting. . . . . . . . . . helminths. . . . . Daddy Long-leg Spider . trench fever. relapsing fever. . . . . . . . . Bat . . . . . . . . . . . Snake . . . . . . . . lymphocytic choriomeningitis. . larvae infest human flesh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transmit typhoid. . . . . . Flea . Colorado tick fever. . infantile diarrhea. appearance causes fear. . . . . . . . . . . . . sting. involved in transmission of oriental lung fluke. amebic dysentery. Copepod . . Hornet. . infest human intestine. . . . . .iv PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF GROUPS INCLUDED IN THE KEY COMMON NAME PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE bite. Moth or Butterfly . . . . . Sucking Louse . harmless. intestinal. etc. harmless. . . some have stinging hairs. . . . . . . some bite. . . cause dermatitis. infest houses. . associated with histoplasmosis. housing deterioration. Cockroach . Lagomorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collembola . Bee. . . . histoplasmosis and many other diseases. . . . infest human intestine. . . Sun Spider . . . . . . . transmit spotted fever. . tapeworms. . . transmit scrub typhus. . venomous bite. . . . . harmless. . involved in transmission of broad fish tapeworm and guinea worm. . . . . household pests. transmit Chagas disease. . dengue. . bacillary dysentery. . . . . cholera. . . . . . . . . . . destroy wood. . . infest digestive and urinary tract. infest domestic birds and mammals. bartonellosis. . . . . . sting. . . . . transmit epidemic typhus. . Millipede . . . . . cause dermatitis. . . . . . encephalitis. . . . etc. rickettsialpox. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silverfish. . . . . . anthrax. . exude vesicating venom. . . . transmit tularemia and many other diseases. . . . . . . . . yellow fever. . . household pests. transmit leptospirosis. . . . . . . . . infest nasal. . . . Thrips . Crab. . . . . . . . Scorpion . . . . infest houses. . . . . . . . . . damage wood. . . . non-venomous bite. . . . . .

Public Health Service pictorial key was devised by Stanley B. Freeborn and Eugene J. After the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was founded (1946) additional keys were developed. After making the first choice offered at the top of each page. Precise identification of disease vectors is essential to their efficient control. in some cases. These are the major items incorporated into this booklet. follow the black lines or indicated numbers to secondary choices until the correct identification has been made. The pictorial keys are typical of identification keys found in reference works and scientific papers except that they are arranged as diagrams and are illustrated. the identification can be made in the first choice. Apropos morphological diagrams are also included.) without special training in taxonomy. Note: The differing formats and typography in this publication were deliberately selected to: (1) Provide a brood spectrum of taxonomic experience. veterinarians. Note that. . In using the following keys it should be remembered that only a few of them include all species in a group. and that determinations made using them are only tentative. physicians. The first U.1• INTRODUCTION Public health biologists are often responsible for teaching animal identification to personnel (sanitarians. Gerberg (1943) to guide personnel in the identification of anopheline mosquito larvae during our national malaria control program.S. At present the CDC utilizes more than 75 such keys in its regular training program. engineers. etc. (2) Avoid the stultifying effect of monotonous repetition. One of the most successful devices for such training has been the pictorial key.

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