The Tit-Bits Phenomenon: George Newnes, New Journalism and the Periodical Texts Author(s): Kate Jackson

Reviewed work(s): Source: Victorian Periodicals Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Fall, 1997), pp. 201-226 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20082998 . Accessed: 08/05/2012 11:49
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The Tit-Bits Phenomenon: New Newnes, Journalism

George and the

Periodical Texts
KATE JACKSON

JL here is one kind of journalism which directs the affairs of nations; itmakes and
unmakes cabinets; it upsets governments, builds up Navies and does many other

great things. It ismagnificent.
journalism year, giving which has no such and wholesome

This
great harmless and

is your journalism. There
ambitions. It is content to entertainment amusement. to crowds

is another kind of
after plod on, year of hardworking and unpreten

for a little fun craving people, tious. This is my journalism.1

It is quite

humble

to periodical litera Thus did George Newnes describe his contribution ture in 1890, when separating from W.T. Stead in their joint venture The was to become one of Britain's first media Review of Reviews. Newnes a huge number and variety of publications. But it magnates, publishing was through his first publication, that he established his place in Tit-Bits, British journalism. One of the most significant emphases of the developing metacriticism interactive and self of periodical research is an awareness of the uniquely text is in many text.2 The periodical referential form of the periodical an 'open' text which offers creative potential to its readers. It repre ways sents an active and dynamic process of communication, a mechanism of exchange between the popular press and the popular mind. It functions as social discourse rather than as direct social statement. This paper is an to demonstrate the ways inwhich the weekly paper Tit-Bits func attempt tioned within this paradigm of social discourse, with special reference to as the its creator and editor, George Newnes. It characterises Newnes friend, adviser, and representative (drawing upon the Editor's textual expositions upon this theme): an editor interested in editor-reader interaction and in supplying Like practical advice for daily problems. other editors of the period, Newnes had an interest in developing, publi reader's

stockpiling. A series of 'Literary Excerpts'.4 courses the backbone of university extension often and vocational the paper was . and pence). opened the Editor when it appeared on the publish 22. exemplified synthe sis. permeated inNewnes' the comments text from the outset. drawn from various well-known authors. a fact which carried class offered in this paper were expressed appealed to a class of reader in pos to awage in these terms) as opposed in pounds.P. relevant to its readers after the fashion of and synthesising information guage of industrialisation. Thompson has so clearly explained . Tit-Bits of modern life. competitions. distilling. Disraeli. Many were 'constant subscribers': middle-class readers with a regular wage and to subscribe. ing scene on October to place them and weekly best things that have been said or written.202 Victorian Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 the text of Tit-Bits as the site of a community of cising. and the 'Tit-Bits Insurance Scheme' was an indication that the audience of and professional implications. and formal characteristics. "to even glance at any large number of the immense variety of books and papers which have gone on accumulating. until now their number is fabulous. Macaulay. ownership. Competition the means payments prizes and contribution in guineas. largely commuting."3 The notion of industrial time. The Editor's invoked the lan opening and surplus conjuring up images of oversupply a "business" was to rationalise: to manufacture for the busy consumer with limited time and lim marketable commodity reduced the complexities ited means. and promoting and he did so in such a way as to create one of the mutual responsibility. class." "It will be the business of the con to find out from this immense field of literature the ductors of Tit-Bits times of the present". So who were the 'crowds of hardworking iden people' whom Newnes to all the indications given in the texts. 1881. the illustrations.was the work-discipline "It is impossible for any man in the busy very raison d'etre of Tit-Bits. most successful examples of the so-called 'New Journalism'. increased in the late-nineteenth This class was substantially century. The management of limited time (within limited space) .the ethos of which E. The success of the '"Tit-Bits shilling (expressed reflected the aspirations Villa" Competition' of readers towards home an essentially middle-class and aspiring middle-class ideal. They session of a salary (always expressed a pool of potential a commuting readers that population. before the public for one penny. and aspiring middle of Tit-Bits consisted of a lower-middle readership often salary-earning. mostly this process of manufactured and Arnold. tified as his audience? According in the language. self-helping public. writers middle-class canonical such as Dickens. implicit sermonette upon the two types of journalism. The editor's Review but in such the more middle-and nineteenth-century upper-class a way as to appeal to an upper-working and lower-middle class audience.

legal detail. as well as represented icantly. the family circle and the white-collar commuter.00o.000 to the Hospitals Fund if readers took the circula tion of the paper to 1million. of both the Inquiry organisations a fact which seems strongly to have influenced the major political parties. By 1890.6 A pictorial canvas titled 'A Few Incidents in Connection with Tit-Bits' a visual representation It of the readership of that publication. it seems. and juvenile reader.00 to 600.7 An offer to donate ?10. Clerical types. Column'. Answers and Pearson's Weekly.000 in in Easter Week. 1881. class. Regular columns and serials were short interspersed with jokes and sallies of the kind frequently furnished to newspaper and maga zines by literary types. and black suits that top-hats. to be the most by many historians and contemporaries Acknowledged century. before rising to the top of the professional middle class: a self-made man. The average weekly circulation of Tit-Bits during the years of Newnes' involvement (1881-1910) was 400.8 A competition 1897. were also among those that appeared. waistcoats. female. and one to expanding a commercial which Newnes himself belonged (as traveller). depicted well-dressed. the taste for which was met and of new constituency Newnes quickly established a successful format for Tit-Bits. and well-dressed children hats and the latest in sailor-suit fashion. romantic fiction. increased circulation 671. It catered to the male. Competitions tral feature. and he . Its readership was essentially the expanding lower-middle and upper-working classes. and by Beare. were a cen quips and queries.KATE JACKSON 203 by Newnes in the 'Tit-Bits evening classes. distin wearing their hats and collars. provided of the middle bonneted women. statistical information. (through the competitions discursively the text of this publication. and reader correspondence. obviously men in bowler hats. Itwas essentially a paper of the in the late nineteenth century: a variety that became popular miscellany sixteen page patchwork of advice. to Geraldine 1/2 million. It was a class that was rapidly language and editorial style of Tit-BitsJ in the latter decades of the nineteenth century.000 copies. collars.000-600. advertisement. Tit-Bits appeared on popular penny paper of the late-nineteenth scene on October the publishing 22. its sales had exceeded according to be the world's most 1893 itwas considered popular penny paper. Signif Newnes' readers were depicted visually. ties. was the 'crowd' to whom Newnes sought to appeal. (See Figure 1). guishable by This. in and correspondence columns).000. were the characteristic attire of the same class. but this figure as circulation-boosting fluctuated schemes came and went. to 1889.n a sub Tit-Bits also maintained figures stantial overseas circulation. humorous anecdotes.9 These figures were on par with the other most successful papers of the Tit-Bits variety. resulted inweekly circulation of 850. also with weekly circulation of 400. historical explanation.

3 .

General Anecdotes. the format of the paper had evolved even further. on the editor in No. and reflects the preoccupation and with the measurement with collecting statistics. carrying an in a kind of journal invitation to readers to send in literary contributions istic recruiting campaign. In each issue appeared the announcement: TO LITTERATEURS The price we pay for original contributions specially written for Tit-Bits is ONE GUINEA PER COLUMN Thus to establish the highly began a tradition which was to lead Newnes in 1890. On the front page. week with answers appearing two weeks 'Any question. page 4 Continental jokes. to be published 50 chapters averaging 2. The first serial to be published was a successful Strand Magazine fictional piece by James Payn entitled 'THE WORD WILL'. serial fiction. a period of three months . with its question 'depend upon receiving and answer format.Tit-Bits of humorous 13 General Anecdotes.received a reward of questions correctly over 10 guineas from the editor-teacher. 1890. On of ?1. As if to make the connection the reader who answered the largest number of the best student clearer. page 5 General Anecdotes. were position conducted by Tit-Bits. Tit-Bits. 'and each be asked'. 1885 was featured on page 13. The range of 'Tit-Bits of General of this society Information' was broad. in a very visible spondents' to readers about notices in the top left-hand corner. page pages 7 and 8 .12 AND THE By 1890. announced any subject. 11. of General Information.KATE JACKSON 20 5 it little in the course of the magazine's Page 1 con publication.500 words of Tit-Bits. page 14 . each afterwards. with self-assessment. 2 and 3 . 19. of progress and prosperity. pages 10. Readers might question will be published accurate replies'. and statistical organisation As Tit-Bits evolved. pages 6 . may in the "Inquiry Column"'. remuneration later in book each. page 16 Legal Information. page 15 Tit-Bits a column entitled to Corre From 'Answers General Anecdotes. it incorporated more original material. and otherwise. page 9 The Prize Tit-Bit.General Anecdotes. a form which .Inquiry Column.000 was offered for a story of 40 September 27. The Editor was thus recruitment form by the proprietor a form of exchange and Tit-Bits officer and employer. In 1889. 12. represented employer and wage-earner the 'cash nexus' that was charac between teristic of urban industrial life.11 The column. reflected the familiarity of the kind of exchange requi format to an audience that was newly integrated site for the examination varied tained into a system of compulsory schooling. and current competitions upcoming short questions were published In the Tit-Bits Inquiry Column.

Tit-Bits constitutes nucleus of Tit-Bits was George Newnes. definite ideas as to the manner He would held that. this column was one of the most popular. and. earnest. Friederichs.15 Known that Newnes posture adopted 'corres. 'The Editor'. and enabled Newnes to establish a and creative potential as the focus of a popu editorial presence. self-conscious. inwhich it should be conducted'. The the editor acted as a conduit between ing world. in fact. filtered through a complex construction of the nature of the editorial role.13 and at the same time. Tit-Bits functioned responsive a source of cultural identity.2o6 Victorian Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 basis in a way which often allowed engaged reader response on a weekly in the production the reading public to mediate of the story. pluralistic discursive that was at once innovative and sphere. he lance. and a cator. duced into Tit-Bits as an experiment in origin and format. which was partly a function of editorial persona). conveying rial presence and reader involvement. Newnes' long-time friend. As a publisher. the strategy. the way in which it offered connection. and it is infused with a deep sense of editorial presence. central to the Victorian period. It was a publication as Joel Wiener has pointed out. In an age characterised by the expansion of the publish text and audience. by his own account. a phe nomenon nalism. the vigi As editor. is concerned. innovative approach. the boldness of a commander-in-chief. together with very biographer. was the linchpin in Tit-Bits. dramatic.'. reading. a statistician. and the popular press. so far as all acquisition encyclopaedic'. The 'Answers to Correspondents' a sense of edito of the interactive at the office as 'For this page'. appealing. But the attraction of Newnes' paper was. the popular audience. characteristically editorially transparent. The figure of the editor was. a geographer. was intro in literary publishing. personalised. unique (the paper's 'personality'. associate and according 'the editor had a very special affection. an essayist. column. a dynamic process of interaction between editor-proprietor and audience. Newnes had to possess 'the skill. Newnes paper was closely involved in this metamorphosis by virtue of Newnes' interactive. all answers feel that should he was be treated in a manner special which consider to Huida given with correspondent .14 Through Tit evolved as an editor and a publisher. Newnes' genius lay largely in his ability to create publishing concepts. self-referential. that was characteristic of late nineteenth-century English jour Tit-Bits began as a collection of excerpts converted into 'text' purely by a process of creative editorial synthesis. was required to be 'a statesman. representation. and inclusive in style and Tit-Bits was commercial content. a lar cultural movement. make first each and foremost. marketable at the same time. the precision. and the reader of this Bits. popular social edu a legal and moral bond between readers and editor. to readers.

16 for personalised edi Thus. he should utilise a disused balloon and parachute argumentative. the masterful businessman and administrator. Friederichs adviser and friend. his ready wit. editor. 'it is impossible referring to the 'Legal Tit-Bits' to answer all we should like in this page: 'Those of our friends who find that it is not from want their questions omitted will please to understand Editorial of courtesy. was remonstrated with. as to make as well correspondent.18 itwas suggested. the (to borrow title of a recent work on the Victorian edited by Joel Wiener). He refused. It was one to which that was obviously success. that here affairs a behind were of this newspaper page. and answered them so fully. He was 'innovator and preacher'. social tact' was and above all his unfailing ideally suited. held that practical terms. the difficult. 'For years'. atives of economy. in order to 'earn his salary' in a quiet period of peace from 'malcontents'. business partner. it was suggested that. that in course of time people belonging editorial per class sought help and advice through "corres. upbraiding. As the editorial voice developed. often characterised by a familiar tone and con to readers as 'our friends'. column was not merely underpinned by the desire for commercial a factor. was the very essence of Tit taining references Bits: 'In consequence of the large numbers of queries we receive'.KATE JACKSON 207 ation. became angry. Mr Newnes there was who somebody and to whom tried to the give be to inquirer's his advice real human Secondly. went carefully through each. inti mated Newnes. but from want of space'. the answers them should interesting couched the general in such reader whenever as to the this was individual possible. 'he took these letters. sometimes interjection. sometimes jesting. turn. Newnes' sona was multiform. and higher. In a series of episodes in 'Answers to Correspondents'. characteristics which other products of the New Journalism. Newnes. sometimes cajoling. 'patriarch and pioneer'. the slightly impractical and vague intellectual. He appeared as the 'fighting Editor'. the 'august personage' of the press and public life. section. although 'with his vivid imagination. volatility was allegedly stored in the Tit-Bits cellar by making 'daily descents from the top of Tit-Bits office in the excellent balloon' and returning 'to earth in the elegant parachute'. demonstrative. the text of Tit-Bits represented both amedium tor-reader interaction and a commercial product with broad narrative and it shared journalistic appeal to a diverse audience."'. sympathised. in bundles twelve inches high.17 democratic representative. with This went on. . for instance. often avuncular. his innate good sense. so to every social wisely and so well. threatening editorial voice whose curbed by his staff. interest. the editorial persona was dramatised in various ways. competed with the imper Considerations of friendship.

000. Elwell argues. 'Entrepreneurs such as Newnes and in the 1880s and Lord Northcliffe stand out now because they discovered interest of the middle class 1890s how to define and exploit the common in inclusive rather than exclusive terms'21 Thus also. don publishing and thus various schemes to increase circulation Newnes employed revenue. aManchester firm six offered ?16. It is simply 'there is no philanthropy competition: the advertising instinct. The railway insurance scheme protected every com advertising on his or her person whilst muter with a current copy of the magazine . As Newnes his fine-tuned individual act. as an article entitled 'Editors and Social will be amply demonstrated here.2o8 Victorian and was Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 then soothed and finally overcome with emotion. As Newnes about the matter. popular amongst nineteenth century.19 Earlier. but was nevertheless to be discovered dignity' vulnerable as he trailed one of the curtains to be used in pho appealingly 'Tit-Bits Villa' on the ground. and there is no more generosity by prompted on bill-posting'. Thus. after a period of class-based journalism.000 for the publication by publishing weeks after the appearance of the first issue. and Tit-Bits became a kind of 'pro new competitions and features appeared each tool' in which motional himself felt bound to confess in relation to one such week. Magazines popular ence so that they were able to speak to the mass rather than to a discrete class of readers. In Change: A Case Study of Once A Week' Elwell argues that. the editor had appeared in 'all his editorial to inspect the prize villa. the 1880s and 1890s saw the emergence of a dis of the tinctly new editorial strategy that was based upon new conceptions like Tit-Bits redefined the idea of an audi audience. James Curran has themes stressed in the industrialised press. which approach. he resembled one of the great entertainers of the variety the working class of the later style of entertainment. although it could be argued that Tit-Bits had closer connec tions with music hall entertainment than with the more structured envi ronment of the nineteenth-century theatre. the type of 'inclusive' although opportunity. to borrow Stephen Elwell's it was characterised term.20 Such episodes confirm Raymond Williams' sug of 'new journalism' had links with a popular gestion that the products oral tradition. in the 'Tit-Bits Villa' Competition.22 pointed to the integrational Newnes was an astute businessman. and was reduced to contriving tographing to disguise the damage. in the period of New The magazines established Journalism were to take advantage of a lucrative commercial largely guided by the desire Tit-Bits was no exception. not simply amatter of supply and demand and commercial transaction.23 of pounds about it than if we had spent hundreds Tit-Bits with a capital of ?500 (raised from the sale of a vege Establishing Newnes was tarian restaurant which he opened for a time inManchester). a Lon firm offered ?30. and six months later.

?2.000 to the Hospitals Fund if the average circulation of the paper reached half-a million the scheme as 'a new kind of CO copies weekly. The appeal of these advertise ments lay in the bold visual techniques of formatting and and headlining. as a means of raising activities. eugenics and efficiency. by crude process of extrapolation] Newnes' crowd were not only readers. stimulation of a sense of communality those whom he referred to among as 'loyal Tit-Bitites' that commuters' club comprised of people who in their pockets carried a copy of Tit-Bits in accordance with religiously the conditions of the 'Tit-Bits Insurance Scheme'. anthropomet imacy.KATE JACKSON 209 offered a seven travelling on trains. Malaria. competitions. The language and visual iconography capital for his publishing from the textual transaction between advertisers and consumers emerging an insight into the tastes and preoccupations of the audience provides with whom the editor himself is engaged. 'per sionate endeavour as this search for gold'. that 'cleanliness [and therefore. They were consumers. The 'Tit-Bits Villa' Competition roomed free-hold house as the prize for a short story competition. through their allegiance to the paper. wrote Friederichs elemental cravings haps because it appeals to one of the most deep-seated of the human heart. Advertisements for Pears Translucent Soap played upon racist ideology. a buried tube of five hundred gold sovereigns. 'whiteness'.25 It was these loyal readers . and even 'The Epi Influenza. Nevertheless Newnes fashion.24 This was what Newnes referred to as 'advertisement investment'. and later the middle pages of the paper in 1885. And in a series of cryptic clues divulged the whereabouts of another competition. In fact Newnes created out of Tit-Bits a kind of cultural phenomenon which Robert Blatch something akin to the 'Merrie England' movement ford's series of that name in the Clarion created a popu inspired. in which in the way drew upon popular beliefs and ideologies. and was advertised within its nutritional value testified by various ries.500 was hidden in different locations. 'Nothing has ever occasioned such pas in 1911.'willing Tit-Bits canvassers' whom Newnes had attempted to rally in support of his scheme to pay ?10. A competition prize of ?1000 had been offered by a journal of the 1860s. Newnes lar movement with his advertising and general stunts. popular suggesting and godliness go together'. and the advertisement pages of Tit-Bits were an attempt to gain their allegiance to the advertisers' product. exploited this technique in a new and comprehensive He also introduced commercial advertising on the front and back cov ers. In the ensuing years. He promoted . Cholera' drew upon working-class traditions of self-medication. medical experts. The idea was not completely original. 'Frame demic') Food Bread' derived its market credibility from its alleged scientific legit the rhetoric of science. they for products such as 'Salt Regal' (prescribed as a cure for Advertisements 'Infectious Diseases.

people in his a penny to subscribe efforts. having no more of the world's goods than There they require for themselves. was carried to the phenomenon a rapport. have Tit-Bits certain. is Here (The Lord Mayor a penny is also he a week a chance of Lon by which can to the Hospi the agreeable expenditure consciousness in each that he town and canvassers. 'and in future may be looked for by announced Newnes.. through the had such Tit-Bits for the guidance of his readers inmulti became responsible name and facsimile became an emblem of farious settings.. instituted the 'Tit-Bits "Result" Launch'..'27 those who visit the race as conveying Thus an essentially exclusive Oxbridge with whom Newnes 'crowds'.' the first intimation of the result. and the Tit-Bits the Paris cultural identity for both domestic and overseas readers.. colour. will make village for which value. a launch employed by Tit-Bits for the day of the Uni informing versity boat race to steam up the river from the winning-post. and every other way of the front of which will be a facsimile in the front page of Tit-Bits..2io Victorian OPERATIVE cleverly Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 to benefit 'a good cause'. and thousands of photos of 'Tit-Bits Villa' being Newnes sold as souvenirs of the competition..This may arrangement practical described new kind of CO-OPERATIVE don is trying hope at the to get the working succeed of tals.) good willing helping success in the Kingdom.We try and make to enlist and anxious by personal effort in their know workers be to be who good will as a can for what promoting they the help of a large number of willing a success.z6 he will PHILANTHROPY. are yet willing leisure time to do what wish this they objects.we having purchased plot have erected A LARGE BUILDING. We anyone. This building will be placed at the disposal of readers of Tid-Bits.. designed and traditions of co-operation together working-class drawing and middle-class traditions of charity and philanthropy: solidarity PHILANTHROPY' are thousands of people who. responsibility stunt that was presented as a social initiative. the crowds about the result of the race by means of streamers announcing 'The Tit-Bits "Result" Launch has now become an annual the winner. thousands of people trooping off to Dulwich for the day to see the 'Villa'. attempt to co-opt his readers into another form of in an advertising mutual and communal identification. institution. popular movement.000 letters being posted The 'Tit-Bits Villa' Competition Thus did Newnes into the Tit-Bits offices. design. saw over 22.. a week. During and Inquiry Pavilion Exhibition of 1889 Newnes erected a Tit-Bits The Editor Office: a of land close to the central entrance to the Exhibition.z* .. gets good a A few cause...

South Africa. when they go upon their travels.29 Another attacks. He nominated constituted 'the real cure for bilious the world'. to Friederichs. 'will at the end of that who takes Tit-Bits for three months'. living on a mountaineering 'enthusiastic band of Tit-Bitites' expe (unsolicited) dition to paint in letters 12 ft high. Liberal instinctive . producer and con into a tangible interaction sumer. painted Orme's devoted reader and general melancholy'. relationships were established Tit-Bits became associated with the physical and spatial act of 'rendez vous'. The audience of Tit-Bits actually became writers. on the printed page was transformed the context of an institution that was perhaps the most popular symbol nineteenth The in of the Exhibition. competitors text. as he will then have at his command a time be an entertaining companion. stock of smart sayings and a fund of anecdote which make his society 33 Newnes envisaged Tit-Bits as a social asset.KATE JACKSON 211 The office was described as 'a rendezvous for all readers of Tit-Bits.000 MSS. and a In an extension of its textual func for obtaining full information'. led an reader. leave behind them some record of increased in the later nine their favourite paper'. entertaining. a form of dia agreeable. Tit-Bits. He himself was an interesting.' logue integral to social life. and they gained a sense of tributors. The interaction of editor and reading public. Newnes the reader socially by provid suggested that Tit-Bits actually empowered 'Any person ing him or her with a fund of useful conversational material. and his journalism in some sense reflected his desire to entertain his 'friends': in this case the loyal readers of Tit-Bits.32 Moreover. and by Grant Allen with attracted over 20. One from Newnes' response in a remote corner of Cape Colony. on a rock overlooking the village and visible from all directions including from the Orange River.30 As display advertising teenth century. he believed. The ?1000 prize story com identity from the process of creating the to choose the magazine's first serial story. through being con and correspondents. these words: in these parts of it 'the truest philosophy '"Read Tit-Bits". petition. from aspiring authors. 3IOne wonders what the reaction of locals to such signs as that described above would have been. homesickness 'Tit-Bits' in 'bold letters high up on the rocks of Great the word at Llandudno'. place tion as the site in. He was a natural host. represents sense of hospitality and sociability. he claimed. employed by Newnes won the story 'What's Bred in the Bone'. century material progress and capitalisation: readers was almost overwhelming.which and maintained. Newnes Head such acknowledged gracefully to those friendly readers esteem: 'We are very much obliged marks of who. and he saw in and genial after-dinner speaker. public criticism of the excesses of advertisers took various forms. according a kind of discursive the Tit-Bits version of the clubs he frequented: National Newnes' In a sense Tit-Bits and Devonshire Clubs.

that a general offer in an advertisement made repeated reference to his contract. evolved.a kind of moral bond as well as lishing a legal one . duction of commercial advertising on the front and back covers of Tit not serve to reduce the number of printed pages in the paper.'36 Later.212 Victorian Yet Newnes Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 took the relationship between himself and his readers very of it as a relationship bound by legal and moral seriously.35 He legal obligations terms of the contract as time went on. 'but at the same time our correspondents must understand that we in giving our opinions'. their loyalty to Newnes the new Bits.37 Thus Newnes a relationship of trust and loyalty .34 shall redound to the credit Aware of the decision. he announced: Let everyone remember that we have pledged our reputation in this matter . and all may be sure thatwe shall make this prize one which of Tit-Bits. and not one of which we shall be ashamed. as 'an absolute guarantee to the public that it has been given without favour'. he explained in one issue. He conceived petition. constantly obligations. derived from various Common Law cases relat to promotional schemes of the period and from Trade Marks Acts of ing could constitute 1875 and 1883. answered the questions of prospective in the weeks competitors to the judging. was thus process by which was engaged in estab characterised by its transperancy. Bits did Every change in format or content in Tit-Bits was discussed at length. invoking the idea of the contract which he strove to maintain with Tit-Bits readers. they displayed by boycotting comer. when Newnes he again employed the language of the law. not necessarily was negotiating of introduc the possibility faith. and on the entire process of awarding leading up reported and bestowing the prize. seriously. that he 'scarcely liked to intrude more pages of advertisements upon [his] To this end. Newnes part of an enforcable as publisher-promoter within the text of Tid-Bits.. In the 'Tit-Bits Villa' for Competition. In the same issue it disclaim any responsibility was stated that correspondents were required to 'give their names and for publication.38 Stephen Kern has suggested that the journalistic medium and communal by virtue of the way inwhich democratising itself is both it diminishes . 'We shall take pride in seeing that the house is one which all will admit is a fair and reasonable fulfilment of our con tract'. explaining ing advertising. Manchester readers took this bond very an imitation of Tit When Harmsworth introduced Answers. 'The greatest elaborated upon the care is taken to give correct answers to inquiries'. and indeed its editor.with his readers.. but as a guarantee of good addresses. he went into endless detail regarding the conditions of the com example. The the publication. the intro readers without giving them full compensation'.

In the 190th issue of Tit-Bits. the Westminster resident. Newnes introduced an 'Agony Column'. Spender.41 Under the masterful of its yet lively administration in chief. lay largely in its re-creation of this kind of community of mutual responsibility. J. Iwould contend.both social and geographical. In pursuit of the ideal of a common bond of citizenship. to engage in what Harold Perkin refers to as 'competitive libraries. lectures. in fact. and giving hospitals. advice.42 providing tens. town halls. and thus removed themselves from the responsibilities and net works tinued con of the communities they left behind. concerts. as a response to readers who had the innovation explaining applied to 'take advantage of the immense circulation of Tit-Bits to put in notices In the 1880s and . which had. public parks.A. philanthropy'. was a Toynbee in ship even permeated public policy. to a generation of Free Church pastors Newnes' father had belonged who brought to their work a strong sense of personal responsibility for and intimacy with the individual members of their congregations. here represented sibility. in newly-formed number of middle-class students resided 'settlement houses' such as Toynbee Hall.43 It ismy contention by Tit-Bits. Social segre the distance had been the legacy of industrialisation and gation and fragmentation and urban spread.KATE JACKSON "3 between individuals . 'commander Tit-Bits its readers offered engagement. the wealthy urbanisation. With urban segregation employing class tended tomove outside the boundaries of the larger towns and cities. libraries. It would seem entirely possible that Newnes the bond of sought to replicate human fellowship which the Church had provided in the secular medium of the popular. recreational facilities. discursive equivalent of a settlement house. who was to edit Newnes' liberal political weekly. a wide circulation. legal aid. like Newnes. The appeal of Tit-Bits. The gospel of fellow Gazette. 1890s. Only some. itself the kind of journalistic. was symbolic of just these currents in contemporary thought and was.39 This is certainly true both in the city and throughout of Tit-Bits. child-care classes. Jona thon Rose has argued that the movement in the late-nine for 'fellowship' teenth century was in fact a secular replacement for religion. many educated men and women acquired a to the ideals of human commitment and practical personal fellowship a social unity. and the move towards collectivism and the law was a manifestation of the same impulse public opinion towards the creation of a socially unified society based on mutual respon that the House of Newnes. which opened in 1885 and was followed by a range of social services: health care. George Newnes. kindergar many more. participation and a sense of community and citizenship for its audience. interaction and connection. providing social services. It is accessible to all classes and decreases the isolation of individuals equally the whole country. as has been noted.40 churches to the towns.

'44 The 'agony col regard to missing to the OED. In an in which traditional support networks had been destroyed. and say when and again? TED'. however. became a stage wherein personal dramas were enacted as well as a central organ of communication and identity. write to this paper (Agony Column). Lane. There was a certain element Tit-Bits of voyeurism. A lawyer answered readers' legal que answered 'Medical Questions'.46 in which people could voice their Thus Newnes created a community contact others. and no attempt will be made to prosecute you. in response to requests from contributors for legal information which he saw it as part of his duty to respond: We have received so many from our subscribers for tit-bits applications to our that we have important correspondents. issues only (190-194) itwas discontin 1885. according appeared only in about 1880. Newnes' age a common bond. can I see everywhere If so. was a journalistic innovation which first umn'. philanthropist visions of re-introducing whose friends and identifying great long-lost personal causes had been disappointed. The man is quite well. It could thus be seen as a fea ture of the sort of personal journalism that has been nominated as charac teristic of the New Journalism. Newnes society a variety of professionals to supply advice to and exert an edu employed cational influence upon his readers. relatives or lovers.48 gentleman give the required of legal information the services on matters of a legal secured .47 The column. and the editor himself ries. a kind of discursive If Tit-Bits of interest represented community of self-help institu within the popular press. to answers'.214 Victorian with Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 friends. Ultimately ued because the editor was reluctant to 'allow it to become simply a as itwas tending to do. The concerns. It offered mutual support and a wide range of in the manner of the settlement house.45 I have Another was addressed slightly more specifically to 'NAOMY C: looked you where- for you since our last interview in S. then this was a combination tion and paternalist State. a doctor and inquiries. to reassurances to exiles fearing persecution if 'there they returned to the family nest: 'HARRY'. He got better in a week'. supplied answers to readers' correspondence services to Newnes introduced the column entitled 'Tit-Bits of Legal Information' to in 1881. narrative interest of this column was implicit. to warnings to enemies. read one such message. The 'agonies' of Tit-Bits readers ranged from attempts to re-establish contact with lost friends. InNewnes' means of making appointments' with drawal of support for the column was not only a sense of its low circula tion value but of the disappointed and social worker. in the Times. and on other matters. vent their emotions and exchange gossip. ran over five paper symbolised from June-July. is no longer any reason why you should stay away.

hence the significant contingent of female correspondents laws had also altered the legal position of women.. of an advertisement offering reward for information legal editor. industrial life and to the legal preoccupations of this relating within it. and you obtain such decree on proving that your husband had been guilty of both adultery and desertion. All enter any wing. in the as is made if she were much unmarried. the question of marriage and property relations. a 'The publication crowded these columns. legal position in relation to property general as that of a man. Thus without to the obligations to the the son's consent.5? the married woman was made acquainted with her legal rights equivalent of a settlement house. the a few months being or legal or existence at least the woman being and common into suspended her hus marriage. hold and and perform a married of dispose her kind. 'you are entitled you would could only to a judicial separation': 'To enable you to marry another person. to the urban. of a patent-holder. journalistic version of the talkback radio pro a range of questions gram. to the conditions laws governing marriage and divorce. insurance policies. legal servant to unpaid wages Questions relating to the right of a domestic to debt recovery and the relationship between producer when dismissed. A series containing practical advice to readers on discursive 'How to Marry' provided an excellent description of the 'Legal Effect of Marriage' Until very during band.49 This advice column spawned other textual forms of social service and interaction. have to be divorced from your present husband. adapted for an through the discursive and lower middle-class audience preoccupied with such upper-working issues. January acquire. that into everything. Over the early years of the paper's publication. wrote in an obser the legal situation of his client-reader definite . woman can property of protection is now changed. in this regard: ago the husband of and wife were by as one the person in the law that of to law. years'. same way cover and be supposed ist last. to the right of a father to bind his son as an apprentice and consumer. Certain themes recurred: the nature of the con society emerged tract or legal agreement. Questions the ability of amarried woman tenancy concerning a will were common. to matters. sue and contracts. under incorporated and consolidated she was since sued..KATE JACKSON 215 column was a legal. The Married Women's Act of 1883 make Property The to initiate civil had newly granted her that right and also enabled women to law suits. Divorce cause for upwards of two 'Your husband having deserted you without read the Editor's response to one female correspondent. attached to life to the issues of income tax and of financial liability. clarifying the respecting a loss or a crime'. this column. the same whose .

was a result 'bad cooking' figuring heavily. headaches. 1885.2i6 Victorian vation Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 that was particularly relevant to the late nineteenth-century peri 'is a general offer to any person who is able to give the information odical. scramble townspeople. The People's Lawyer. and temperance. with phrases such as 'irregular living'. Indigestion. PROVIDEDA COPY OF THE CURRENT . take the form of a discourse on urban degeneration. cre asked. advice on emigration a series entitled creative participation and a 'Intelligent Emigration'). the food bolted. Newnes Newnes' announced 'THENEW SYSTEMOF LIFE ASSURANCE' itals. One scheme which guaranteed the circulation of Tit-Bits was the in May 'Tit-Bits Insurance introduced novel Scheme'. and the doctor's social responsibility. 'noises in advice tended to the ear'. The medical conditions treated included indigestion. on 'Medical Questions' supplied 'an explanation of of the various ailments of which our querists have on the general principles as 'knowledge of health'. a characteristic tion: journalistic ploy for drawing attention in bold cap to the innova OF ONE HUNDRED POUNDS WILL BE PAID BY THE PROPRIETOR "TIT-BITS" TO THE NEXT-OF-KIN OF ANY PERSON WHO ISKILLED IN A RAILWAYACCIDENT. conducive innovative to the voicing of critical views. is the daily tine of a large number The column was almost reformist in tone. of urban conditions: The cannot run and hurried but meals of a all of large number the laws of healthy to catch the bus clerks and warehousemen are violated. You therefore could. 'deficient care' and itwas suggested.52 to get back to the office. if you felt so disposed. then a smoke.51 Tit-Bits offered legal advice for its payment citizen-readers. and another of our digestion or train. to participation and strategies were the key to the success of publishing Tit-Bits. (in just as it offered medical advice. a title which had associations with the idea to the law. compel in the case you mention'. rou A access of democratic A two-part series the causes and cures as well complained' partaken by - produce indigestion or a scramble to a close restaurant. bunions and varicose veins. icantly. ates a valid contract.53 an exposition The discourse of these columns was not partisan or directly political. signif responsibility. A later feature-a competition to produce the best list of 'Ten Long-Felt Wants'-similarly precipitated on social reform and social responsibility. sense that editors and audience were bound in a community of mutual This column led to the publication of awork called. by giving such information. and the acceptance of that offer. But it created an atmosphere representation.

Long. The first insurance claim was ity guaranteeing 1885. son To should of a train while in this reckless jeopardise be capable.56 In this manner. She applied to Newnes for tion.55 A series of claims followed at the rate of about every two months. some compensation. and was sent ?100. hearing the testi investigator monies of the witnesses. The Coroner's testified to the fact that 'a copy of Tit-Bits had Death'. always billed on the front cover of the paper. their visibil their impact [see figure 2]. and to a public preoccupied with the notion of life insurance and concerned with the frequency of railway accidents. fulfilling his responsibilities insurance claims. . and handing down a judgement. and by September 1891. Newnes' publication appealed to a commuting market. taking the evidence. All claims generally followed the same format.KATE JACKSON 217 ISSUE OF "TIT-BITS" IS FOUND OF THE CATASTROPHE. He set himself as a guardian of social conscience and as a up figure of paternalistic benev to his community of readers by dis olence. A 40 year old coachbuilder with 4 children was paid in August killed when he was run over by a train after falling between the train and the platform at Hatfield verdict was 'Accidental Station. and four witnesses been found upon the unfortunate man at the time of the accident'. the editor-proprietor of Tit-Bits established himself and jury in these cases. a devoted reader of Tit-Bits who was almost due to be in accordance with an rewarded for his constancy with a sum of money to raise circula incentive scheme for subscribers introduced by Newnes had been killed in a railway accident.54 UPON THE DECEASED AT THE TIME the scheme had been suggested to Newnes Characteristically. a total of 36 claims had been paid. Appended to the eighteenth to this out life insurance claim was a moral: We means trust that the publicity which of giving of lamentable leaping the Tit-Bits occurrence in motion. and the recipient's receipt of payment was published Tit-Bits as proof of the transaction. the idea of railway insurance sold Tit-Bits. by a reader whose husband. A.57 But apart from anything else. There is something pensing symbolic (if a little morbid) in the fact that all of these victims were found with a copy of Tit-Bits on their person. and the stories that emerged were gripping stories. and were decided by 'THE PROPRIETOR OF "TIT-BITS'". fashion Insurance Scheme has been the a stop to extent put is so prevalent in young no sensible is an act of which per to some which may the habit men. Thus Claims were to the victim's 'the Proprietor of Tit-Bits' paid ?100 insurance money in widow.

Tuesday.' time a cyclone." WnxiAiiTvt?b.He must FIRST FOR THE i. "To only Why is it that theaverage :? '?thefollowing information youngladycan thatisthequestion" ! 300 remember P. moruiug John Long. wont1 of his 1can' children entered.""I only ' must understood although that.decidedviewof all the factsof the accord bea pickpocket. VIII.-?igaal-fitter. from the highest to the condition that lowest'. for ? ?nglyT-rrote the widow. rtung hasty quick thi< a to We at once dispatched representative treatment\Yosuppose theyshould by h if return Theseresulted to Hatfieldmake fall inquiries." as ooachbuilderi !?. theydidnot sjll yon matingfun "'-account assumed The stotw' them Edouard. The sending was that the winner main stipulation made by Newnes should call the house 'Tit-Bits Villa'. a ? said:"I carao jnstaftertheaccidentcanneverremembersingle pageof history up Httfield. wasonhis before arm.Mrs. What yon do London. CONDUCTED 0X0.Theyhid scarcely outof sight. come thefront this will to on to Red Hotel. when?toppingHatfield at and | Copenhagen X. we willdoas i no:belong Hatneld get to tor the train." Well. HuxdredPocxue. Long. Ticket very " Collector. T TailmanJonesisoneo?theluckiest of.the chairman the com we have bedistinctly to theheir a railway of night 'Nevermindnow. know. he first when depart Hatfield ploye*in the engineers' the littleteethof his sle'. are also The following witnesses sawthe search:of me . l T^B [?? U S: #I smif?mt? [t"?T5S??*tSo?i ? HE WORLD. would haveto ray. o? on account thesdeath my husband. away sty (or THE CLAIMANT?106still. deskwritingone"cveuing. inqueat held An of ot w being inconvenienced the presence t > by at oo body before ?.infinding rid of hn of no avail getting ' on death. rushing the and and to NewTown. bothbailiffs a was beat that coming. to on. of know Ybuheard hisarm blown dark.?Vol. 26.a copy discovers pearly i. two or three the past fewyearssnowing annuallossof life front an approaching \vj the of hansom or ''ms.tomorrow of paidtkia money welt" to ee. shot thena cry ofpain.or not to be?. " the fellows spotfound Irishman dead. of three * ! Although deceased a railway manask*two thousand pound was the servant. in and that gentlemen honey.218 Victorian Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 TI I?1 No. theattention tiou days ofTit-Biu beenfound had tuata copy upon thinks s a cyclone there thebees somarked. Sworder. coast On returning . is left-handed. was offered as a prize to the person free-hold dwelling-house in the story adjudged the best by the Tit-Bits adjudicators. a were also central competition to the prize was competitions. Havelock Street. Copenhagen Street. yon Railway Cottages. tfe|> mused it and fellon the train Ws we see aliea<l was to include tosaythat the statistic* way muchfranticdo inandabilityingettiug m tlien uuderneath train.ient the of Ureet Partner? Railwayai on in themselvesa tumbler her darling drowning ?pon hadan excursion Cleethorpes. in filled time his sheet note-paper.attend these wants towrite playwriter men tun nor for money. of goesthat which you a dead this towrite. dreawug-tablt? A.1 and* the Lion Red HoteL Hatfield. a of returnedverdict Accidentai ]ury a of and of on an. nn passengers.HayelookStreet.'' : "Thatwas succeededsetting pockets a short He blank Hert's Constabulary. he Why. givebelow cojiy We . you No.the i servant 1 ' to * -neld re-enter ' still of oardiscretion. August 1. Psychologists please ?ad thebody removed the Lion had a 1 uponsearch found copyof Tit-Bit?. men got out of the It thatpurpose several bedisturbed want to say goo. with that j receipt the something will be jopular the in lie ! JulyVtk. John If thereis a of of "A large of number the em in suicidal tendency a man itU at who accident apt todevelope after Long.The the rolled as energy of the in life they acrossthestn-et servants.a Cannon. money. instead a love-letter of looses. Saturday. was employed in ? 21.th July. was killedin a railway soon marriage. adhereintheexercise conditions the offer to toe original of on tmoved . Department. NXWSXS.atHatfield Station.. when manhasa barrel visitors. Mr. knowing custom. dodging railway of but immediately stopped. Herts Constabulary. after that iujured he dieddirectly being picked extend oderto the j and was of Deeeaaed fortyyears age. cab had nrriage* paved overhim. Cross. INSURANCE Interesting November stories 1883.the most lively la again Hatfield. eke) ' Tt-B+Uk?t foasMi hu body. He was.__ BT PRICE ONE PENNY. 104. incident. in*t.' andskipping in. will get up a drama sixteen ?a VHK following an account an o? to One short acta.I Sung an we A few afterwarde received intitna cyderit'ssurprising manytimes day he the was a how of for plan mostsuccessful. the heard pistol a afterwards guards immediately . sentme the other a presumably Lehman. bee.58 The editor stressed that the competition was open to 'every member of every family in the Kingdom. J. IS*:.1 now. theIrishmangone feet i.so as to givomoreopportunities Ricuvkd from ProprietorTit-BiU of the on accident whichoccurred the out. left himtobediscovered the about that" Itwashisright morning. P. A seven In revolutionary announced.C. the IkCeylonthecellaris theplacetogo in the wordswerepossession. the corooec. at was -ietime theaccident. King's aober the Loco. a fact which was guaranteed by the extraordinary roomed . i Lincolnshire YeW sJQ|d) LONG. lived Thedeceased them.andhe wasao amongst themto be ao greatthat darenot should beRothschilds we all before1390. 1885. andcasewe durasses the losstee? lingers. they V Yes. A Durham MONEY. to Uodon. noone so off with filled pockets his being around. He was?Utod be perfectly at It is statedthata householder Brighton.piii-i on 18th Station. a as . to in If men and women half wouldonlydisplay a paragraph and " regret following cannot:? our but platform. tieunfortunate at thetime theacoideut man of doubtless to the retreat. It issaidto bo the custom Moots at Carloto ?here ich mustharebeenthereat the timeof the fill thepockets suicides so of with bank-not??. darling for love ago. promised of day Tilbrook. downhisbeehive the floor. my my HatfiakL intended a love-letter. accurately pagesof a novel. 21." thatitmaybe Jbi : " I fancy. apparently It wsj Hatfield. heattempted jump the coutained the on .was endeavouring . in at onoeto pay the/100. 198. weekinthatexplosion "" butthere with last and is in Waui? Orekk. at was to Ax absent-minded trainstopped different at station* aet professor sitting hi? when one Street.After losing smallsumat the gaming toyoupassai description. hotweather. but No. to at of Ir someambitious a offices. Insurance money paid go being l>. nothing lucky whatif itwashisright however.

commented. even to the policing of community 'not a line was published 'For many years'. which he had not read and approved. was quick to the competition. Thus the competition required no great literary skill. Newnes the competition. The villa was that must have resembled a political rally. The villa. Friederichs explained. of guilty we offer and be and had such a dastardly ?5REWARD to anyone If we forgery. Introducing the conduct of the competition he answered the feature called 'MORE QUESTIONS ANSWERED'. He explained. 'We do not 'Let it run its reasonable intend to allow it to hang fire'. 100.59 it role of the editor-leader of this discursive extended. drawing better natures of his readers. as the ideal home. community interests.KATE JACKSON 219 entries could be selected from a published work rather than being origi to nal. played police. 'Tit-Bits Villa' became a place of pilgrimage for day-trippers and tourists. and throughout queries of competitors.000 photos of the house were developed at this point. Newnes was typically candid about this. 22. Even then. prosecution. did not meet demand. was to raise circulation.000 Newnes letters published were a 'REPORT some UPON containing THE up COMPETI to 20 entries. No detail was too slight to receive his personal attention. in reality unoccupied supply was an image constructed for publicity purposes. awarded in a public ceremony and sold. Newnes It was open for and was constructed by inspection. berated. or expense to prove that this act was comes laws. and always for those which had obviously inventing and adopting fresh ideas.61 course. who unearth and will disclose shall penal to us spare the name no pains of him we under this viper. substituting new The features ceased to interest. Ultimately. received. those who joined the 'followers of Tit-Bits' could expect an intimate and of responsive relationship with their leader. and at short intervals he made thorough inquiries as to his readers' opinion on this or that page or column. appealed editorial dilemmas. and publicised as a 'transaction' on the idea of the competition entered into in 'good faith' and precluding 'any breach of faith with the public' of course. he explained. and . to the answer objections. but The purpose of the competition. His approach a was typically interactive. At the conclusion for instance.'60 A constant stream of invention and innovation followed. TION'. who judiciary in passing sentence on the 'unprincipled miscreant' that he had won the prize: falsely informed a competitor We are of that the opinion act as this deserves an unnatural punishment ruffian of the who severest would kind. seems. and many hundreds took the trip by rail to visit. and then make room for some other novelty'. the Editor.

' Newnes' journal ism was far removed from the kind of political potency that characterised the journalism of Harmsworth. journalism and the dynamics of late-Victorian Tit-Bits. Tit-Bits featured little that was partisan or even explicitly political in . already done so. for its readers. political on and when smoothly.63 is denied to them in the perusal of of the paper went down by over 40. Newnes' politics journal ism in Tit-Bits was not political like that of his friend W. in a way that ismanifest in the text of this publi that he established between the dynamics of cation. He forged such 'the noble band of constant subscribers' strong links with his readers that they came to be something akin to constituents. section and 'Inquiry Column'. a pluralistic appeared as a 'benignant administrator'. As a result. Newnes articulated the democratic ideal inmaking the to every one of our readers. of the relationship that he developed with the reading public through Tit received not less than 33 requests from constituencies Bits. And in the context of explaining the conditions of the Tit-Bits Villa competition. and that of W.62 conducting the affairs of his publishing house in an interactive fashion as if he were a pluralist state. He had. Newnes' him to represent them during the years of his retirement from wishing (1895-1900). irrespective of age. their names and addresses accorded special attention. Winners of all competitions reality were publicised in the paper. The written word became a vehicle and a administering and became symptom of democracy. perhaps. Thus creative freedom was tor into political and social liberty and equality. himself of participation transformed by the edi the market relationship Tit-Bits representation. Stead.220 Victorian Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 The competitions. Stead. in effect. but his success was dependent. atmosphere In fact the circulation daily life. His journals were his public voice. sex. It thrived in an and in catching and creating the rhythms of of sociability. upon the relationship life.T. best when fed not the world on current moves but on crises. everyday people life: have to seek amongst its pages for that interest which commonplace current events*. 'Legal Tit-Bits' 'Answers to Correspondence' column in Tit-Bits represent the possibility of reader participation-the creative freedom of the open text as opposed to the prescriptive of the closed text.000 copies 'dur the excitement connected with and 'as the Whitechapel murders'. ing soon as the horrors ceased immediately went up again.T. the basis of a system of democratic becoming constituted discursive Newnes a kind of medium sphere. 'open competition nationality or colour'. Tit-Bits its editor thrives claimed. Newnes rarely spoke in Parliament disillusioned after entering it with high ideals and a young man's social and political visions.

086 voted 'Yes' to the question of whether they had in the present Conservative confidence and 18.KATE JACKSON 221 content. the spectre of increasing working and in conjunction with increasing liter lower-middle class political potency.66 higher Thus answer his critics. acy and purchasing power. and the results. He issued voting papers.64 Nevertheless. vein which into a wholesome to have led them they had may you may call but I will forms of literature. as a Liberal publicised have been encouraged.P. 1892. a act of negotiation performance. sporting not read Tit-Bits. Some 35. It represented a deep sense of editorial conscience underpinned a construction. carefully-balanced between editor-publisher and audience that was more than a timely but transient commercial an evolving discourse of triumph. would received. part of the 'gospel of fun' which Jonathon Rose sees as a characteristic element of the 'Edwardian Temperament'. 'No'. A Tit-Bits. amidst speculation in the government. the mass market and the popular literate audi ence. University of Sydney . In 1890 he con ducted a public opinion poll. Claiming about public confidence that Tit-Bits is 'the paper in this country which has the widest and most general circulation' and hence that an opinion poll conducted constitute would by Newnes to a General Election'. Liberals were to be returned to office.65 Oh.886 voted Government. and in so doing. Million. that it guided craved for light and would have read so-called if ers. Gladstone's to the currents of political and cultural Newnes' sensitivity change and the journalistic possibilities created by the development of the working class political electorate. was to prompt him to establish another penny weekly entitled The in 1892. clearly impressed the editor. although the general international and political climate did per meate the text. it liter you may say it combined journalism. It represented did Newnes of immense journalism. 'the very nearest approach that can be obtained Newnes instituted just that.. Itwas essentially light entertainment. and one which pervades the significance of periodical literature to this day: that of the tension historiography between commercial value and literary value in journalistic production. who papers reading. 17. cheap lottery with an enormous tell you class of superficial read this. in an attempt to gauge 'the feeling of the country' as regards the likely outcome of an election. Of these. The result was one by which Newnes. In August. ature. counted the votes (the public were admitted for the counting and the Secretaries of the Con servative and Liberal Clubs invited to attend to ensure fair play). The key to the success of Tit-Bits was brevity and good humour.972 voting papers were M. he identified an issue to contemporaries.

however. the upper Harm This was rose and proprietor's coming from the Observer. 7. 396. and the Strand Magazine.222 Victorian Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 ENDNOTES i. 116-17. W. The Origins ofModern English Society. 13. See Victorian Periodicals Review. 396." adviser. p. 1968].. Reynolds: Humpherys. Joel Wiener.. 17).418 (October for 1884). Industry and Empire [Lon (London: leaders of 5.Hobsbam. pp. to Anne informant. Huida Friederichs. 1882). Aled in Tit-Bits. 396.24 Madden 1990). A Social History of theMass Reading Public (Chicago: UCPress. public or private-school and heir to substantial Beare.19 17. rare before World of boy who War inwhich a poor boy could rise from the bottom. son of an Irish to editor's most labourer. This remains the only biography of Sir George Newnes. are for (March 1885. These 11. acted and Reynold's as 'a stern (Anne Politics. Reynold's an avuncular domestic Popular Literature The and Role of manager' Popular Humpherys. 1985]. Tit-Bits. 20. claimed 17. Fig. p. estates 7. But Newnes 430. 92-99. I. National and Kegan newspaper Paul. Bart. 10. York: 14. (often Oxbridge) Journal educated. Harold Perkin. J. p. and proprietors were and periodical editors one of the few professions like J. Investigating (New (March to 1882). London Jour nal. 5. 1. Geraldine Periodical and university (Perkins. Innovators and Preachers: the Editor in Victorian England 16. 15. 106-07. Miscellany. a rise in the average circulation over the year to only figures 1. Tit-Bits. 1963). cally 1. 1/80-1880 Routledge 6. 155. . Altick. 4. Wiener ed. (Spring of Newspaper 8. 18. 1911 ). and Lionel St. Friederichs. 3. as quoted 1. 12. 90). Garvin an office sworth. History. 1. M. a According knowledgeable "G. This is according to Richard Altick. Friederichs' [New York: Greenwood biography was partly Press. The English Common Reader. of passengers 500 million on 11 (Fall 1989). I7 of Newspapers.250 million don: Penguin.318 9. 2. in Joel H. (London: Hodder and Stoughton. "Sources the Study eds. based upon the autobiographical jotting made by Newnes before he died.1 (October the number around 1881). and from had reached 1." Victorian in Laurel Journalism Brake. 1969).429). 'Notices Correspondents' Column had been a very popular department in the family periodicals of the 1840s and 1850s such as Lloyd's. p. Jones. L. The Life of George Newnes. Martin's. in 1908 (E. and middle classes. or Alfred chairs." "Indexing 11 1986). In fact. carried 1878 by the to around increased dramati railways 1000 million in 1898. pp. Tit-Bits. p. Tit-Bits. The himself (Tit-Bits.181 (March 1885). pp.

313 15. a very 25. Press as an Agency of Social Control" in George Boyce. Tit-Bits. V. career ten years England after Tit-Bits. 1884). 9. youth. of What the Victorian begins as a Consciousness is transmuted into an analysis of periodical literature of the critique structure Mill that the 'opposition' section of British of argues power society. The paper popular man Press. Tit-Bits. Editorials by William Allen White (New York: Macmillan. Nunquam. Tit-Bits. in the paper.394 (May 1889). 13. 97. The 1967). apprentice his trade. ^7. My Curran. whereas in the fancy of Tit-Bits. and Rudyard Kipling. 24. Tit-Bits.342 notable was (May instances sparked 1888). 408. 49. Quaker a similar Oats reaction greeted public in a position prominent on Dover Corporation responded by promoting a local Act of Parliament to enable it to deal with such abuses.379 5. theNational Society for Controlling the Abuses of Pub licAdvertising was formed.234 (April 1886). 30. 413. 19. Journey in his a reputa however.115 (December 1883). "The James Curran. See also James Mill's essay on the periodical press (New in George York: Free Levine Press. Tit-Bits. Tit-Bits. Tit-Bits. 31. Tit-Bits. 1978). 40. Holman Hunt. 16. 20. 18. Helen Ogden Martin. 1887). Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day (London: Constable. Clarion p.P.381 (February 1888)). 1976]. in with years sign for illuminated later. Wiener. and was 26. In two 14. began goods a Liberal M. pp.117 (October (January (January italics. woo the popular 168. 237. It numbered amongst itsmembers Sydney Courthold.234 (April 1886).}9j (May in journalism the publication 1889). but was essentially an . had a good leading started socialism. i6. tion Newnes began his [London: was 1893. by the erection advertisers of highly within 1897. 29. 23. public outrage visible against signs the activities or hoardings of in the period. three members of the Fry family. ed.. and Pauline Wingate. Edinburgh. The Dover plans. 9. SeeWiener. 14. signs abandoned of public And four outcry. the erection of an advertisement cliffs. 269. was established (see Merrie Blatchford. career a theatre had writing for drunkenness. Emergence 174-91. A. 5. The Editor and His People. 17. The Bovril Company's to adorn the exterior was of a building because in Princes Street. In 1893. William Morris. Friederichs. and was repr. 1924). 28. the jurisdiction of urban authorities. 22. 70. involved for a racing advocate work as an with of in 1891. journalistic and was education. a greater the those desiring share of power-take the mid 'aristocracy' ruling to retain in dle ground life in order the support of the aristocracy and public masses. James p. 1889). 21. 61.KATE JACKSON 223 17. 203. 15. Walter Besant. Tit-Bits. Dicey.

of the promotion on the Relationship the social Between side of human and Public Law . the Carbolic Smoke Ball Co?. 120. recalls Carlyle's comment (Newton Abbot: David and Charles. for influenza of after taking the smoke she claimed binding the company. 27 settlement houses had launched been planted at about social in the poorer the same distance of people's entitlement time. 13. 32. a 100 contract 36. The Culture of Time and Space (Cambridge: Harvard UP.313 17. As the use in Britain [London: Heinemann. Dicey. V. movement middle-class of Victorian relationship of to decrease with replace paternalism common services. Tit-Bits. Friederichs. broad 56). Tit-Bits. This p. of could 133-37). Accord constituting brought to numerous in the Acts and nineteenth the centuries. Harold Perkin. the Victorian editor constituted the that Church of England. the con In of an enforcable contract result themuch-publicised instance. 38. 34. 1889). 33. 43. 1. 14. to all Iwould classes. and advertising The key question. 41. Polytechnics. The trader's stitute part regarding decision rival that a products. 1883). Tit-Bits. Advertising p. Such charity 'social a notion and citizenship' participation to common a shift was manifest in legislation to ensure equal access to educatiion and to provide a system of 'household suffrage'.224 Victorian upper-middle Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall out 1997 to its class movement. (Octoben88i). ing eighteenth passed for of any lottery was unlawful. 42. organising was whether in various schemes the distribution of prizes judges. By 1913. 1982]. Competitions dependent at in the courts. as a legally Mrs. 117). case of Carlill v. 1. receiving publicity of proportion support (see T. Friederichs. 37. promotional a was and thus constituted chance. Carlill. to the In response advertisement-guarantee 'reward'.1 90-1. (October (October 80-1. national welfare through Lectures See A. R. general was and offer the enforced protection in an advertisement (Nevett. (December 5. upon lottery. Nevett. featured Trade Marks circulations aimed newspaper boosting increased ber of Acts of 1875. Tit-Bits. pp. class would journalism to afford magazines the Tit-Bits 40. 1983). and The she was judge the advertisement interpreted the amount. 35. p. ball. contracted the plaintiff.418 pp. point 262.112 of a num the end of the century. towards competitions as cases were before the courts lotteries. 39. pp. awarded 1887). 1888 and 1905 restricted the kinds of claims that could be made. and areas also of London reflected the in a social a (Kern. 1883. particularly name. The Age of the Railway 1971). and in legislation designed to foster nature. Stephen Kern. of express Some of some reservations about the accessibility have been unable of the working variety.

6 (November 4. M.20 5.198 the 1930s.613 injured were passengers. A to limit continued the hours through and parliamentary public on and increase safety providing 1870s Returns evidence tematised overworking to a debate Select tion. 51. 113. Tit-Bits. 1871. Tit-Bits. 1884). 1881). Tit-Bits. Board ules in the House to Committee In 1893 War in 1887 and 1888) led (accumulated by Lord de la of Commons which the hours Act was resulted should passed. sparking railway accidents and and by consider campaign the railways of sys in Parliament worked the the press.958.P. 1881). and concern the number injured 3. ran a similar scheme in the 1890s and 1900s. Tit-Bits. (the 'suburban 1884). 14. detached 59. public working important matter of able debate The concern of period over from railway 1870 to 1900 was caused. was considerable. whether inquire the Railway to of Trade inquire Regulation into cases and of overwork. 8. Tit-Bits. The in term companies. for example. by considerable by for Derby raised the over and the an accidents In railway shareholder employees.191 8. Greek or estate status. Tit-Bits. Tit-Bits. 14. <)j. 333. offending to the Boarad's instructions such Age (see Perkin. 45. 49.85 1. By housing. 44. Public Opinion. 1881). Tit-Bits. levy fines on It provided for to have access duty companies for from to adhere 292-96). Of these. and Roman terms. 1884).130 (June 1883). 15. 52.117 . 179.190 8.KATE JACKSON 225 Opinion During 1905). 131. 14.136.4 (November 1. 50.192 theNineteenth Century in England (London: Macmillan. 108. semi-detached (January social symbolised to be to middle-class applied villa'). lead. 48. 143 persons killed and 1. 1885). 8. 1885). of the Railway. Railway. of people the number According on killed to a report the railways by the Board compiled in 1880 was 1. pp. 47. 1885).189 (May 1885). 58. Tit-Bits. railwaymen and 1880s. ancient seat. 241. 5. . It was a scheme thatwas copied in a fiercely competitive fashion by the daily newspapers 55. of 8. 57. (June (June (June 1885). 205. 53.125 6. 1. in and customer conditions the Midland in Parliament. 250. in the appointment be restricted by of a legisla the sched failure pp. originally grounds began house English on Deriving a country which from mansion. 221. Michael of characterised itwas Bass.194 (July 1885). Tit-Bits.a sizeable the nineteenth usually century. contended. Tit-Bits. 8. 281-300. (August 56.387 (March 1889). Tit-Bits. 'villa' itwas its own the term or is significant. 353. Such of Trade. Tit-Bits. 46. Tit-Bits. 147. (February (March (April Other publishers soon followed Newnes' 54.

Jonathon Rose. The when author's and as 'the present the world'. as as an attempt New the style regards to characterise as of his his journalism. 66 Friederichs. 120. Tit-Bits. 5. for instance. Strength 15. 62. This is a phrase used frequently in theWide World Magazine ish administrators in the Empire. might in terms popular be cited read earlier. Friederichs. (December Periodicals Review 30:3 Fall 1997 1883). p. to describe Brit 63. (Columbus: OSUPress.385 (March 1889). was published expenditure wars seem to be and rumours flying conclusion. to auxil population. 97. consensus all over of national inclusiveness. 1986).112 109. an article on 'The War army. journalistic those that His endeav character within Journalism against ised the ebbing political journalistic style. 65. a response about course and military crisis. The Edwardian Temperament pp. p. of Europe' navy.willing comments. that Britain war with Newnes' comments ours and self-levied soldiers' and could be proud of her army (Tit-Bits. of Gordon's statistics on death. 333.183 [March 1885].226 Victorian 60. 64. In 1885. the year in which ships. . 2-3). 163-69. was drawing upon the dis alone waged iary forces. 8. Such material rather gives the lie to 'free. standing were cited. 61. Tit-Bits.

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