1.1-2.miyoshi | Gaia Hypothesis | Globalization

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The Latin word for the university. But.. and the universe. centuries later. and in many serious ways they presumably are. Yet the way today’s scholars and writers of different “kinds” (in gender. discuss together.” which began circulating at a later date.The University. is an inspiring commonality on which writers. scholars. the Universe. the World. Unlike the nation-state. “universitas.E. The “universe” as we employ the term in our secular age had to await the arrival of humanism and enlightenment.D. and discipline) have ceased to talk together. in our time. environmental. with modern cos- 24 Vol 1:1 . the word “university” made its appearance around 1300—without a direct and explicit relationship to the idea of the “universe. and the early medieval university was often a semiformal community of students and teachers. or even disagree together is quite alarming—especially now that the environmental deterioration demands that the planet be understood and experienced as a commonality that belongs to every single being on earth. class. The humanities that has always been at least implicitly sustained by the idea of nation-state can now seize this demoralized moment and reorganize itself around the planet and the universe. ethnicity. the planet.” meant a community. and scientists can work together in a truly transdisciplinary endeavor. according to the O. The abandonment of the museum and the university may in itself be not a catastrophe. and “Globalization” Masao Miyoshi AbstrAct This essay centers on the post-WWII decline of the humanities and a proposal for a radically reshaped organization of cultural knowledge and a project for social. and mental reformulation in the integrated world capitalism. Where We Are The first two words in the title look connected. the ultimate totality as the central imaginary.

mology.” albeit at an unimaginably high price.S. and another more local but to us equally relevant event: One. an unprecedented gap between the rich and the poor. and environmental “globalization. Only the rich and trained benefited from the increase in production and circulation.2 As things have unfolded since. utopia. information technology. is that everything that happens anywhere is inescapably interconnected. three.” By now a thoroughly overused but still abused term.” another word associated with the universe. 1:1 25 . markets. academic and intellectual critics were wary and skeptical. In fact. Let me start out with “globalization. it was ruthlessly selective in expansion and outsourcing. Big corporations were in the forefront of the welcoming party. connected today as we think about them from the perspective of our current economic. as well as the world population. the Universe. a version of “free trade. as we have also come to understand.1 The relationship between the ideas of the university and of the universe (or even “universal”) has never been a stable one. The three developments are closely interconnected. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi Vol. globalization was a “new” development. Hopefully the consideration of such topics together offers suggestions for the future of the now defunct discipline of the humanities. Not just capital. The history of the university in the medieval Europe was significantly different from its modern version. it is clear that globalization. and this seemed to promise an unprecedented great catch. and the workers were placed under brutal working conditions. In this paper I’d like to examine in what way the university and the universe (and the universal) are. Labor suffered heavily as workers lost jobs—the “benefits” that at times reached low-wage regions were often temporary and miniscule. stranded geographically and economically. changes in the nature and function of higher education and culture. With the collapse of the Soviet economy and the triumph of neoliberalism. “exchange” in a wider sense—also increased at a phenomenal pace. At the same time. worldwide prosperity. with everything else and to every other the University. travel. globalization did not evolve globally at all. They would cast a wide net across national borders. Communication. The poor have been unable to move. the World. has led to two important developments. two. Unlike those directly involved in business and international relations. positively or negatively. social. but production. maximally exclusive and maximally profit-seeking.” is an intensified form of capitalism with brutal results for a large segment of the U. striking some as a hopeful consequence of the end of the Cold War. Globalization. even today’s university is organized and operated in such a way that the two ideas seem to be significantly remote. industrial and financial capital expanded enormously and circulated both widely and rapidly. an extraordinary environmental deterioration. and should be. Believers celebrated it as true cosmopolitanism. and consumption also grew immensely. The one lesson people have learned from “globalization. at least during the early 1990s. and tourism—that is.

and the internet that have spread everywhere even in the remotest regions. poverty. the gap between the rich and poor has dramatically widened both among and within nations. human rights violation. etc. Norway.416. or the U. political suppression.000).2 billion people around the world live on one dollar a day. To begin with. According to a recent report from the Pew Hispanic Center. or the ratio was at most less than two to one. and the black family one 14th (a little over $6. the poor are well aware of how the rich live. Within the United States.4 In 2003. Today. starvation. Since 1996 the white family grew richer by 17% and the Hispanic by 14%. whereas 11% of white families were in the same predicament. James K. is 90 to 100 to one. 1. consumption. Some might argue that the widening gap in wealth distribution is not solely a result of globalization.place in the world: Climate change.) of $88. the ratio was 4. films. through television. Switzerland. argues that rising inequality is a result of “bad economic policy” that is. 850. cash. During the nineteenth century the gap began to widen: by 1880 the per capita income of the first world was double that of the third.000 to 1 (Phillips 38). and these figures are becoming nearly meaningless year by year.000. fashion and fad. Comparing the assets of the richest compared to median families throughout history also yields interesting results: in 1790. Galbraith. a period preceding the Depression during which the inequality in wealth was the greatest in history.000).000 to 1. Black households remain poorer than Hispanic and white families. food production. and in 1999. while in the black family wealth fell by 16% (NY Times). automobile.S.1% of national assets. in 1890. the median white family in 2002 had assets (home.5 The ratio of 100 to 1 is as hard to understand fully for those who live in the first world as it is to imagine what it is like to live on a dollar or two a day. the gap at the end of the 1990s is about the same as during the Gilded Age. wealth. 370. academic freedom.000 to 1.000 to 1. 1. arts. the gap was only seven to one (Hobsbawm 15). by 1913 the ratio was three to one. the sub-Saharan countries. whereas its percent share of American income was 15. by the mid twentieth century it was five to one.8% in 1997.3 The gulf between the richest and the poorest nations and regions has also risen immensely. violence. or fundamentalism. or 26 Vol 1:1 The Global south . As late as 1970.. It is difficult to remember that around 1800—before the Industrial Revolution—today’s first world and the third were substantially the same in wealth. On the other hand. war. at the beginning of the twenty-first century. a mere thirty-five years ago. for one. epidemics. The top one percent currently owns 40. and nearly three billion people live on two dollars a day or less. ppp adjusted) to the poorest. One third of black families and 26% of Hispanic families had zero assets or were in debt. in 1940. the ratio of the per capita GDP of the richest countries (Luxembourg. caused by economic. for instance. if not in real life. whereas the Hispanic family had one 11th of that amount ($8.

corporate power has bought and absorbed not only small local business on the main streets. the chances of reversing the trend look less than dim throughout the world.7% of their GNPs every year. Even the bureaucracy in the executive branch is not responsible to the citizens but solely to the President. however. As of now. and citizens either vote against their own interest or stay home in abject apathy. Policy changes in the 1970s had serious consequences. Denmark. the judiciary is increasingly answerable to Presidential interests. richer countries must make contributions as well as offer debt relief. and he considers globalization a matter of “secondary” importance (Galbraith 8-9). Thus the domestic goals of George W. What is striking about the United States now is that despite the dynastic concentration of power and wealth among the very few. the lowest in ratio of all the OECD countries. many of the poorer economies pay more for debt service than for education and health in spite of the devastating spread of HIV/AIDS. the World. as if he were a monarch.15% of GNP at present. In fact. the President can push his agenda—including the unjustified and unpopular war in Iraq—with breezy insouciance. Norway. 2 million) of the entire voting-age population (well over 200 million). and to that end the rich nations agreed in 2002 to donate 0. Galbraith ignores a similar trend occurring in most other countries where the monetary policy of the United States is not applied. While the Bush “mandate” was very slight.” which in plain terms means a radical reduction or elimination of the safety net for everyone except the rich and the corporate. but also political power in every branch of government. and Luxembourg) have fulfilled the promise. only five nations (Sweden. and the reorganization of the republic into an “ownership society. In a democratic society. making the rich in the north even richer. elected officials are presumed to represent all citizens. For the foreseeable future. Besides. 147 heads of state gathered in 2000 to adopt the Millennium Development Goals that included cutting extreme poverty by half by 2015. as can be seen from Bush’s cabinet appointments. Government could mediate the domination of the economy by big corporations.more specifically “monetary” policy. Environmental regulations are unenforced and dismantled. It is self-evident that for the poor— nearly half the human population—to survive. and the actual vote cast for Bush in the 2004 election was far less than one third (59. Similarly. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi Vol. But the monetary policy of Paul Volcker or Alan Greenspan is also a response to general economic conditions in the world. Bush’s second term are privatization of the Social Security system. the Universe. further reduction of taxes for the rich.7% of GNP is the University. he is right. Yet in the United States now. The United States gives 0. The donation of 0. Obviously. the Netherlands. the majority of the people are not showing any sign of resentment or resistance. Internationally. Congress has no will of its own and is at the mercy of a White House closely allied with corporate interests. 1:1 27 .

violent and frequent hurricanes and tornados. Now the state is in the service of corporations. The students.8 Research is not the only aspect of corporatization. “Culture” is neither a critical activity nor a community practice or expression anymore. in turn. especially. soil.7 I will return to this topic later in connection with future possibilities. The state still funds much university research. we may have already waited too long. Corporations have also taken over the management of culture. treated just like any other commodity. with taxes paid by the citizens. the loss of ecodiversity. epidemiological crisis. deforestation and desertification. the original ideal was replaced by the idea of accountability and that. Thus the humanities are not exempt from corporate encroachment. both private and public. which I paired with the universe in my title. This is perhaps only a partial list. and range of the damage may be even wider. it may already be too late. but makes the products of such assistance available to corporations in the form of patents—with the researchers (now called “inventors”) and the universities sharing the profits. accumulation of industrial and biological waste. toxic contamination of the atmosphere. “Globalization” has changed much of the nation-state’s centrality. climate change and flooding. and they are eager to participate in the transaction. some are causes and effects of other developments. National 28 Vol 1:1 The Global south . ocean. Since the passage of the Bayh-Dole Patent Act of 1980 especially. More importantly. another product of higher education.such a trifle as to be meaningless in terms of even the barest possibility of creating a truly “global” economy. For a while after the 1960s. Depletion of natural resources. These developments affect each other: that is. and more limited.6 The second serious impact of the “globalized” economy is an alarming environmental deterioration resulting from a totally unprecedented growth of material production and consumption. research universities and corporations have increasingly merged their goals and activities. especially huge transnational corporations. Let me move on to the third. but a stimulant for a diffuse desire for consumption. development within the “global” economy. The curriculum is dominated by the idea of utility. I don’t need to go into detail here about the by now indubitable list of changes that have been taking place on the planet. This faith did not last long. which aims at generating and expanding markets. are increasingly trained in practical skills. as some environmentalists have pointed out. ozone-layer depletion. hunger and famine. and excessive urbanization and decline in the quality of life. the students and faculty believed that the university was traditionally an autonomous place where scholarship was freely and independently pursued. raising serious problems of conflict of interest and commitment. aquifers. Even if humans change their behavior now. As the tide of the neoliberal economy rose. the university. including fossil-based energy sources. and. was replaced by accounting.

but they are more often than not commercial activities. and three. however. Further. national literature. But even cultural studies are beginning to show signs of exhaustion. To briefly summarize my picture of “globalization” and its calamitous effects: one. Awareness of the crisis began in the early 60s with the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring. just might. a surprising number of environmentalists. but this hope born from hopelessness is far more convincing—at least to me—than the optimistic. and unachievable options thrown around by. Paradoxically. are rapidly being absorbed into decorative and ornamental design. offer humanity and the planet an unsuspected chance for confronting all these crises in an interconnected fashion. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi Vol. environmental crisis. disciplines in the nation-state-based humanities no longer energize or inspire students and scholars. but its operation is unapologetically dedicated to business interests. There were occasional attempts by various U. Of course we should regulate corporations. critics. administrations and other govthe University. the environmental catastrophe that is about to visit the planet or is already here. the transformation of the university as a learning place into a corporate system. wishful. the state as the administrator of the now weakened and blurred nation is as powerful as ever. Novels and poems are still being written. the ever widening gulf in the distribution of wealth and power.art.9 Literary studies are supplanted by a cultural studies that sprang up with “globalization”—and with the rise of theories of difference and identity politics. national music. much of what I argue here as the place of hope in relation to the worldwide economic inequity. Thus. Of course. and reviewers. I am aware of this. the World. hope born FroM no hope As I turn to the possibility of entertaining hope in the age of “globalization. and corporatized university is actually not much more than a repetition of what I have presented as the dark moments in history. paradoxically.” I must warn myself that my argument is built on the assumption that the utter hopelessness of this moment.11 Of course we should vote for politicians who are dedicated to the restoration of equality both nationally and internationally. and of learning into intellectual property and entertainment. the Universe.10 Fine arts. might allow us to begin to imagine some space of hope. two. 1:1 29 . national history: in short. Of course we must curb consumption and production and preserve natural resources. Of course we should restore the spirit of criticism and cultivation. too. for example. there are far fewer “serious” readers. as often reported in the media and elsewhere. Consumer culture triumphs in the name of popular culture. these three disasters might. of course. Ditto for creative arts. But how? And where do we begin? Let me first discuss the environmental problems.S.

Once people realize that there is no way avoiding the omnipresent crisis. even among industrial managers and financial leaders one can begin to see signs of unease and distrust about this administration’s policies. the whole structure of production and consumption. And this reorganization of studies and thoughts may well lead to a general shift in people’s attitude toward the earth’s health. those factors that have been consistently excluded from consideration in the manufacturing process such as environmental costs and “non-economic” factors are being brought into the purview of economics.13 And a changed structure will also have to consider the quality of life. Thus this logic of true globality seamlessly leads to the second critical aspect of the neoliberal economy. corporate managers are beginning to devise strategies on their own to cope with the imminent risks as well as with their clients’ fear. Bush and his Vice-President ignore the risks facing the entire world in favor of business profits.C. not just public relations. growth and stasis. however. or Dutch Shell Oil is not environmentally friendly. including the pricing and wage-setting system will have to be fundamentally altered. B. The global linkage of the environmental crisis is in fact the key to my hope. Yet the companies are beginning to recognize that serious efforts. What is a good life. The well to do will ignore the sufferings of the poor as long as they can keep distant from them. They all continue to explore and exploit on a huge scale for oil and natural gas. While the “global” economy is not global. As a New York Times headline puts it. The current Bush administration.” Royal Dutch Shell Oil is investing a large sum in alternative energy resources. Perhaps more importantly. However. economists are beginning to examine seriously how to internalize the “externalities.”12 Some. The oil industry and O. Of course.P. radically changed the environmental policy. help their business. There is little doubt that if economics is integrated with ecology. are of course unlikely to change their course. when the poor reach 30 Vol 1:1 The Global south . even the rich will be forced to face it. such as the halting of the depletion of the ozone layers in the last several years. but even in the oil industry the CEO of British Petroleum now insists the company’s name stands for “Beyond Petroleum. although not many.” That is. what do we really want—topics that have been forgotten and have not been raised often for generations.E. nor are the products of General Motors adjusted in mindfulness of their environmental effects. and as long as they can keep the poor under control. the environmental crisis is truly global. especially those of the energy industry. There were even a few success stories later. So how could this extremely hostile anti-environmental policy of the United States give any space to hope for the recovery of the earth and its inhabitants? My hope—a bizarre word in this context—my hope is that precisely because of Bush and Cheney’s incomprehensible irresponsibility and ignorance.ernments to face the problems. “Going for Broke Could Break Bush.P. what do we live for. the have/have-not division that now splits the world.

and many others). although it is immediately relevant to those who live and practice in the university in the industrialized countries. the Universe. mass murder of civilians was committed repeatedly during WWII. the World. Hamburg. and anywise). and centrality alongside the decline of nation-statism. especially as the old colonies began to gain independence. as long as they refuse to abandon the monopoly of wealth and indulgence and to share the earth’s plenitude with the rest of the world. however. It was replaced in a fairly brief period by the ideology of difference. that after WWI the idea of ‘total war’ prevailed. west Nile virus. joined soon by the University. Hunger and deprivation breed diseases and epidemics (such as HIV/AIDS.S. is finally emerging as the only viable imaginary for all of us. they will try to close this gap with rage and force. authority. The decline began with fundamental skepticism about the idea of totality. which will exhaust itself in time. The importance of culture and the humanities as tools for the nation-state projects lasted well into the mid twentieth century.S. and Tokyo. 1:1 31 . The third consequence of the global catastrophe is less significant. One does recall. The point then is the restoration of wealth equality in the entire world to the conditions that prevailed before the nineteenth century. Ebola. at present: terrorism. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi Vol. And the rich cannot quarantine all the poor and sick forever. Edward Said’s anti-Orientalism was one of the movements emanating from this challenge. anytime. and all citizens of an enemy country were presumed to be enemies. But perhaps the most precipitous form of the encounter is what preoccupies the leaders of the U. It is easy to dismiss terrorism as a criminal and self-destructive act of radical Islamist fanatics. policy of the “global war on terror” means a fundamental transformation of the economy and law into an undefined security system (anywhere. Nagasaki. the only conclusion is that such terrorist attacks will not be likely to cease until the halves are connected.a breaking point (that they are rapidly approaching). Terrorism is of course unacceptable.K. and U. The planet as a whole. its population in its entirety. But terrorism is perhaps better understood when placed in the context of the confrontation with the hegemonic economy by the desperate oppositions who have neither high-tech weaponry nor state support. There are too many planned and unplanned contacts between the disparate groups. crazed and contagious. If the view of terrorism as a confrontation of the disconnected halves is right. It seems inevitable that the rich will remain in fear of terrorist attacks on their comfort and security. Few people would intentionally spread epidemics. In Dresden. And it is more than likely to induce more terrorist assaults as well as endangerment of democracy in the United States itself. Nanjing. avian flu. innocent civilians should not be wantonly murdered. The current U. Marburg virus. Hiroshima. The bridge over this gulf will take various forms. And few have condemned these mass slaughters as war crimes or violations of human rights. but epidemics do occur even in developed regions.

despite their own powerful desire for integral transdisciplinarity. The category of literary studies has nearly vanished from many. discuss. One notes a marked lowering of the walls that surrounded academic humanities research throughout the twentieth century. psychological questions. and discipline) have ceased to talk. the erosion of departments. Socially. and also older. For evidence one need only glance at university press catalogues. What is still not widely acknowledged is that PhDs who finally convert their dissertations into books become so tired of their specialized subject matters. they try to flee from them. Intellectually and institutionally. or universal. or political economical investigations. or beyond the territory of arts into social and historical events. this fragmentation coincided with the neoliberal development. and inclusive. The neoliberal economy also converted the university and the museum into professions. Integrative and holistic learning that involves the totality of the complicated fabric of life and the world is increasingly more desired. for instance. and professions. Those in literature may well move on to film studies. that as soon as they have an opportunity. humanities teachers and scholars in higher education. History and geography cannot neglect paleontology and geophysics. equality. though again not openly acknowledged. it has encouraged and has been encouraged by the emphasis on specialization and professionalization. “transdisciplinarity” describes the actual aspiration and practice of an increasing number of young. they must discard narrow preoccupation with the brief development of 32 Vol 1:1 The Global south . Economics cannot externalize environmental factors: pricing needs to be fundamentally restructured. and popular-culture studies. Here globalization is a compelling actuality. disciplines. businesses. Brighter students especially crave fresh and comprehensive studies. Environmental deterioration also demands that the planet be understood and experienced as a commonality that belongs to every single being on earth.gender. is social and intellectual fragmentation. is no longer matter-of-factly accepted. The sale of the museum and the university may in itself not be a catastrophe. too. or fiction writing. ethnicity. And culture. ethnic. and writers of different “kinds” (in gender. though publicly denied and not openly admitted. Knowledge and understanding about it. is dispiriting as well as egregious. however. What has gradually emerged from this initially liberating movement. as its activities and products become absorbed into the commodity market or operate as residual hegemonic state symbols. and liberation. and corporations. or even disagree together.14 Yet the way today’s scholars. artists. Now totality is being avoided if not outright dismissed. too. class. What has taken place is. and careerism further isolated and atomized disciplines and scholars. by David Harvey in his New Imperialism and A Brief History of Neoliberalism. ought to be global. In other words. especially if they are literary. as has been discussed. which were advanced in the spirit of justice.

the ultimate cohesive totality as the central imaginary. and the universe. scholars. in other words. eventually the organism and the environmental change associated with it will become global in extent…. The humans in it are merely one species among others. and global systems evolve. and scientists can work together in a truly transdisciplinary endeavor. and the life of the earth extends far back into its beginning—long before the evolution of micro organisms. The humanities discipline that was once sustained by the idea of the nation-state can now seize this moment of despondency and reorganize itself around the planet and the universe. “Gaia. 1:1 . How do we live with Gaia? It is always from the action of individuals that powerful local. If we see the world as a superorganism of which we are a part—not the owner. the need for a radical social and class reformation is not just ethical or political.” which for him means selfimposed inquisition or surrender to authority. writers. nor the tenant. Also unlike the principle of difference or the outdated nation-statism. the planet. then its spread will be assisted. this commitment to totality is integrated with the recognition of individualities. Lovelock pursues his studies at home in a Devonshire farmhouse with no connection with a university or research institution. and the universe—as well as all the genes—form a stirring and inspiring commonality on which people. not even a passenger—we could have a long time ahead of us and our species might survive for its allotted span. or gentility. When the activity of an organism favors the environment as well as the organism itself. however averse they might be. unlike the fragmentary principle of difference and identity. not to say regions and nations. the planet. the World. plants. Far from being vulnerable to totalitarianism. and animals. Environmental sustenance cannot be considered without rethinking social totality. This environmental integrationism does not forget the world. artists. singularities. Lovelock’s goal is to be free to range over all the disciplines of science. The environmental totality consists of a multitude of differences. not to say humans. Environmental totality demands that knowledge and learning remain undivided and inclusive. the world. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi 33 Vol. regional. (Ages 239) the University. Transdisciplinarity is a precondition of his “geophysiology” that considers the planet a vast living organism. the totality of the evolving planet. which even the richest in the world cannot dismiss any longer. This time. the Universe.” Gaia. expertise. contains all the species and their environment in interaction with one another. but a biological and psychological necessity for everyone. Such a comprehensive perspective requires today’s environmentalism to be reconsidered. and their interconnectives. Here James Lovelock’s eccentric idea of “Gaia” might be instructive.human civilization. He says he needs to be alone so that he can avoid “peer review. First of all. History ought to think about the future as well as the long pre-human past.

the earth will have to be understood as inescapably interconnected. and are also distinct from the point of view of the practices that characterize them. the universe. and mentally. if it were reorganized around this idea of planetary commonality and totality. one should be cautious lest his antihumanism should lapse into political indifference and historical ignorance. the globe. Individuals must become both more united and increasingly different. destruction? Ecosophy is a fundamental reexamination and reorganization of social ecology. which he calls “ecosophy.” is concerned with a reformulation of totality that demands a clear understanding of what it is that we produce and consume socially. environmentally. etc. town councils. Guattari’s version of integral ecology. For living with the planet. a plan to maximize exploitation of the planet just short of its irrecoverable destruction.Lovelock’s rejection of anthropocentricity is both invigorating and liberating. Guattari calls it “ethico-political articulation between the three ecological registers (the environment. The university—and the world that contains it—could be a happier place. and human subjectivity)” (Guattari 28).” nor is it sustainable-environmentalism. Another approach to inclusive totality I am proposing here was articulated by Felix Guattari in one of his last books. processes of continuous resingularization. it will be a “multi-faceted movement” (68).15 Ecosophy must distance itself from the old political. in other words. Their different styles are produced by what I call heterogenesis. urban planning. And the world. of our consciousness itself. sharing—while being respectful of true singularization—is our only choice. and all living things must constitute the base of our studies and investigations. And yet his denial of the planet as an inorganic object and disapproval of scientific disciplines as autonomous and discrete are ideas we ought to take seriously in our attempts to rethink the future of the humanities. social relations. (69) To sum it up. and intellectual commitment. Of course. The Three Ecologies (1989). What do our products do for us in this post-industrial capitalism that he calls “Integrated World Capitalism”? Isn’t so-called production merely another name for consumption. Further. The same is true for the resingularization of schools. and mental ecology. He then goes on to conclude: [It] should be understood that the three ecologies originate from a common ethico-aesthetic discipline. environmental ecology. religious. in fact. Instead of being a discrete discipline. Of course. his argument that Gaia theory and the “human values of kindness and compassion are not inconsistent” (240) is not quite persuasive. His project is neither an escape plan of the rich to green “Nature. all this argument—whether by Lovelock or Guattari—is conducted at a highly abstract level. Some might dismiss it as impractical and 34 Vol 1:1 The Global south . and a project to reformulate intellectual and human orientation.

Toward the end of the book. 2. Jeffrey D. Of course. inequality Galbraith. But I can easily see that it suggests the possibility and practicality of such a reorganized curriculum.” & “Turn. See Miyoshi “Ivory. From a recent OECD announcement. and Sklair. the World. 10. and 3 of this history. the head of UNMP. As to international inequality.). see Landes xx and 194. Stiglitz.5% of GNP. See Eviatar. Even worse than those fantasies is their proposal of placing the governance of the U. 2005. but its teaching is completely centered on human ecology. I often depend on the so far published Volumes I. Among many such studies on the subject. For the history of the university in medieval Europe. one might remember that the Marshall Plan of 1949-52 gave 2. See for example Miyoshi “Sites. Sassen. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi Vol.aloof. the most helpful publication is H. Durning. Vol.S. Greider. they propose some recommendations.” “Globalization. I might submit that there is an actual institution called the College of the Atlantic in Maine. (Zezima ) Endnotes 1. I have written a good deal elsewhere on the corporatization of the university. which offers only one degree in “human ecology.S. prohibition of corporate contributions to political campaigns. etc. See Ridder. Among the many books on the decline of literary culture.” The college not only reuses and recycles nearly everything to make daily life as waste-free as possible. announced an ambitious and detailed plan to end extreme poverty and save millions of children within a decade in January. 4 (that treats 1945-the present) is yet to be published. Barnet. See Confessore. Sachs. 3. however modest its beginning might be now. the University. see for example Schiffrin and Zaid. Doubling aid means from 0. De Ridder-Symoens’s Universities in the Middle Ages.” “Ivory.25% to 0. see Pomeranz. the Universe. As a counter-argument. 7. See Economist. 12. For comparison. The United Nations Millennium Project is the most comprehensive and up-to-date source of information regarding the world poverty. They suggest. For slightly different figures. it gives us some comfort that the reorganization of knowledge and learning is not just a dream. but a workable plan. however. See also Pomeranz. 2.S. 8. 6. see for example on Intra-U.” 9. the success of the project entirely depends on the contributions by wealthy nations. Paul and Anne Ehrlich’s One wth Nineveh is a pessimistic description of the environmental crisis. See for example Featherstone. 1:1 35 . It may very well be still in the process of exploration and self-definition. 4.0% of GNP for the rebuilding of Europe (and the European market for the U. I confess that my knowledge of the institution is only through its catalogue on the internet. Kristof. new anti-trust laws.” 11. Daly Beyond & For. See for example World. “in the hands of carefully selected and monitored specialists” such as the Supreme Court and the Federal Reserve System! See Ehrlich 299ff. Throughout this paper. As the environmental danger intensifies every moment. political reforms including amendments of the Constitution. 5. for example.

Nicholas D. Works Cited Assocated Press. Evolution. 2000. 2005.” New York Times. Miyoshi.13. Numerous studies have addressed the place of the museum in contemporary culture. Richard J. “Sites of Resistance. Hal Foster. and Epistemology.” boundary 2 27. and John Cobb. For the Common Good. Washington DC: Island. Global Culture: Nationalism. Greider. 1994. How Much Is Enough? The Consumer Society and the Future of the Earth. Trans.4 (Fall 2001): 283-297. John Kenneth. Globalization. John Stuart. Gregory. 22 January 2005: 104. Masao. Norton. Robson. Ehrlich. Chicago: U of Chicago P. 2000. Diversity.” 15. March 30. 3 of Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. “Globalization. 1848. 1996. E. “Leere Museen: Endzeit? Die globale Kulturindustrie und die Chancen der Kunst. 2006.” New York Times Magazine. November 30. Galbraith. 2004: 42. Ian Pindar and Paul Sutton. Nicholas.” New York Times. Mike. London: Sage. “Turn to the Planet: Literature. The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth. Norton. Eviatar. W. Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series. New York: Simon & Schuster. October 18. New York: Pantheon.html?ex=1262667600&en=0fa703de0811eb32&ei =5090&partner=rssuserland. See Mill 706-756. http://www. Vol. 2005. Durham: Duke UP. ———. Ed. J. The Three Ecologies. Eds. 2004: 13A. W. Chicago: U Chicago P. J. The Economist. 2000. One with Nineveh: Politics. W. ———. Tony Bennett. 1875-1914. 247-270. Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the Bateson. 1995. and Totality. “Study Says White Families’ Wealth Advantage Has Grown. Daly. Culture.1 (Spring 1995): 61-84. Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi.” Lettre International 46 (December 1999): 84-88. ———. Hobsbawm. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor. London: The Athlone Press. “Land of Penny Pinchers. “Spend $150 Billion Per Year to Cure World Poverty. Herman E. Kristof. Confessore. ———. See also Bateson.” The Cultures of Globalization. 1998. and Modernity. and John Cavanagh. Herman E. “Going for Broke May Break Bush. Principles of Political Economy. 1965-91. 1998. November 7. David S. M. 1990.” boundary 2 22. Paul and Anne. 4 (The Nation): 1. T o name just a few random scholars. nytimes. William. Durning. Boston: Beacon. Special Arts Section. Sect. The. Mill. Consumption. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. New York: W. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology. 2005. 1992. Ready or Not: The Magic Logic of Global Capitalism. 36 Vol 1:1 The Global south . Few recall that John Stuart Mill thought about the “stationary state” economy in his 1848 book Principles of Political Economy. “Ivory Tower in Escrow.” Comparative Literature 53. 14. Boston: Beacon.” February 6. Felix. Barnet. Section G.1 (Spring 2000): 8-50. Daly.” New York Times. Created Unequal: The Crisis in American Pay. One World.com/2005/01/05/opinion/05kris. and Miwon Kwon have raised important issues. Guattari. Alan. Norton. Psychiatry. and the University. Daphne. 1997. and the Human Future. New York: W. Landes. Eric. New York: W. London: Oxford UP. Lovelock. The Age of Empire. “Museums. See also “Museums” and Miyoshi “Leere. January 5. 2005. 1987. ed. Featherstone.

Pomeranz. Globalization and Its Discontents. 1:1 37 . Zezima. Universities in the Middle Ages. 1998. Trans. Saskia. Except for the Graduates. the Universe. 1 of A History of the University in Europe. 2002. World Commission on Environment and Development. Natasha Wimmer. Stiglitz. Joseph E. Kevin. New York: Broadway Books. Oxford: Oxford UP. Sklair. Schiffrin. Sassen. Globalization and Its Discontents. The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read. and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Globalization: Capitalism and Its Alternatives. Ed. 1987. Walter Buegg. “All is Recycled. Our Common Future. New York: The New Press. 2002. 2000. H. Philadelphia: Paul Dry. Wealth and Democracy. Kenneth. Zaid. Vol.Phillips. Gabriel. Leslie. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. New York: Norton. Andre. the University. de. the World. Europe. 1992. and “Globalization”/Miyoshi Vol. ed. 4 June 2005. So Many Books. Princeton: Princeton UP. 2000. Ridder-Simoens. The Great Divergence: China. 3d Ed.. Katie.” NY Times. New York: Oxford UP. 2002. London: Verso. 2003.

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