MSC Mobile Switching Center Controls Mobile Calls. Is in charge of the radio part. In Release 4 of UMTS, this function is split between a Media Gateway (MGw), which handles the bearer (user) traffic (voice, video, etc.) and an MSC Server, which handles the call co ntrol. In GSM and earlier releases of UMTS, the base stations communicate with t he MSC, which handles both bearer traffic and call control. A Gateway MSC, or Gw MSC (or GMSC) connects to other networks, such as the PSTN or other mobile netw orks. TSC Transit Switching Center Transit Exchange for calls to be routed either between MSCs or towards other networks. Registers VLR Visitor Location Registry Keeps track of the users of the network both resident and in roaming HLR Home Location Registry se in ), ), he Keeps track of (a part of) the subscribers of the network and how they can u it. Each user is identified by the IMSI, a 12 digit number (ususally printed the SIM); the first three digits are the country identifier (eg. 222 is Italy the following two digits are the network (in Italy 01 is TIM, 02 is Vodaphone and the rest is the unique number of the SIM. The HLR contains such data as t current roaming, redirection, and special services settings.

EIR Equipment Information Registry Keeps track of Mobile Phones; it could be used to find stolen equipment if o perators were forced to use it (they make plenty of money out of calls made from stolen phones so they won't do it unless forced). AuC Authentication Centre Mantains information regarding the cryptographic keys that are in the SIM (S ubscriber Information Module). It authenticates the user in the network. FNR Flexible Number Registry Keeps a Database of Numbers owned and exported by the network (Number Portab ility). BHCA: The number of call attempts in the busy hour is called Busy Hour Call Atte mpts (BHCA), which is an important parameter in deciding the processing capacity of a common control or a stored program control system of an exchange. The CCR parameter is used in dimensioning the network capacity. Networks are usu ally designed to provide an overall CCR of over 0.70. A CCR value of 0.75 is con sidered excellent.

busy hour calling rate may be calculated as: Average busy hour calls = BHCA * CCR= 15000 * 0. Such a measure is called the traffic intensity which is defi ned as: Ao= period for which server is occupied/ total period of observation . The traffic on the network may be measured in terms of the occupancy of the serv ers in the network.1 The busy hour calling rate is useful in sizing the exchange to handle the peak t raffic. of subscribers = 10500/5000 = 2. Example: An exchange serves 5000 subscribers.70=10500 calls Busy hour calling rate = average busy hour calls/ total no. If the average BHCA is 15000 and t he CCR is 70%.Busy hour calling rate is defined as the average number of calls originated by a subscriber during the busy hour.