Anatomy / Pathology

The Endocrine- system

Definition: endokrines system for the transmission of information, which acts slowly and its effects but long (= nervous system quickly and targeted control d. body structures)

1. What are hormones, and how do they impact on the organism?
Are chemical messengers that many biological processes in the body are responsible for the communication between the cells and organs important Hormones influence:

• • •
• •

Reproduction water and electrolyte balance energy metabolism growth and development Emotional stress Hunger, thirst etc.

Effect of the hormones

• •

Endokrin = effect of the hormones is far away from the release Parakrin = effect in the immediate vicinity of the release point

Effects of Hormones:

• • •

hormones are on the blood way to the target cells brought the cells of the hormones in a cell nucleus located hormone receptor detected; hormone and hormone receptor as fit and lock together key (key / lock / Principle) hormone binds to receptor trigger various¬It follows Metabolic Metabolic transactions After hormones have fulfilled their task, they will be removed (eg liver)

The hierarchy of hormonal control

• •

Of the hormone glands are minimal amounts of hormones out concentration minor changes can have profound consequences precise control of hormonal secretion by control loops, and several control circuits simultaneously on a hormone influence.



2. They are counting on some hormone glands!
Depending on the place of education is between endocrine gland hormones and Tissue hormones = organs, the endocrines tissues respectively. Endocrine Glands (hormone) are:

• • •
• • •

hypothalamus pituitary thyroid parathyroid adrenal gland Epiphyse ovaries, testes

Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid (Gland) thyroidea)

Pineal (Epiphyse)

Parathyroid Glands

Adrenal (Glandulae suprarenalis)

Institutions which endocrines tissues are: For example, Pancreas; placenta in pregnancy in specialized cells are formed as hormones :¬ Kidney = (erythropoietin) Liver = (Angiotensinogen, Somatomedin) Gastrointestinal = (gastrin, Sekretin) The thymus is not Endocrine gland in the strict sense, because they produce different peptides, the local, hormone-mimicking the maturation of certain white blood cells.
Testicular (Testis) Ovaries (Ovarian) (Testis) Langerhans Islands in the Pancreas

3. Describe the position and function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the human body? What are hormones in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the area? The hypothalamus
Location: in the lower section of the Between Brain Task / function: chief regulator of hormone secretion / From Appeal Hierarchy / hormones: hypothalamus Location: - in the lower section of the Between Brain - Suspended like a thick drop of the hypothalamus is Tall peas - on a pituitary stalk, with hypothalamic pituitary gland in connection - on axons (nerve endings) to the pituitary hormones are

pituitary gland (pituitary)


1. He influences on releasing hormone (promoting / stimulating) or via Inhibiting Hormone (inhibiting) the hormone secretion 2. Hypotheses front lap Gland trope hormones◊ poured hormones, the hormone glands act 3. endocrine glands (thyroid) are in the hierarchy at the lowest point and work with their hormones directly to the assigned target cells Other hormones: • Adiuretin = regulated water budget • Oxytocin causes = Woe education, both hormones in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland formed saved◊milk flow • A hormone and O are formed and transported to the pituitary gland and then stored and retrieved on demand

transported - Consists of Muscle front - and behind lap Function: - is important Hormone druses of the human organism - controlled the entire system and hormonal influences d. hormone production of other endocrine glands Hormones: hormone prolactin for pregnancy◊ and lactation / Growth breast glands and ducts growth Somatotrophin hormone that regulates the growth and development in children and adolescents controls the thyroid activity Thyroidea- Stimulating Hormone TSH stimulates Glukokortikoid payout in Adrenokortikoides hormone ACTH adrenal gland promote the gonads activity, sex hormone production FSH, LH in men and women


Describe the situation and the development of thyroid!

Thyroid (gland thyreoidea) Location and design:  is like a shield in front of the larynx and trachea, and the two side lobes are on a strand tissue connected  is about 25g heavy, body  to the back are four small triangular parathyroid glands

5. Which hormones are produced by it, and what do these in the human body?
Thyroid hormones are: jodhaltige thyroxine (T4) = stimulation of protein production and◊thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) = responsible for energy sales of cells Calzitonin = lowers calcium levels in the blood by promoting the excretion in the kidneys Thyroid hormones stimulate the entire metabolism, and have effect on virtually all institutions: increase energy sales and Heat production ⇒ The body and increase the oxygen demand promote the breakdown of fat and ⇒ Glycogen (act Protein retrenching) cause an increase in activity of the nervous ⇒ System Protein retrenching Increase the contractility of the heart and increase


⇒ The excitability of education and the excitatory transmission speed of the heart ⇒ in children thyroid hormones are essential for normal body growth and⇒ physiological development of the brain Besides thyroid hormones are: = parathyroid¬ hormone regulates in conjunction with the vitamin D hormone (to be produced in the kidney) the calcium and phosphate metabolism in the body

6. Please describe the structure of the adrenal gland?
The adrenal gland (Glandulae suprarendales) Location and design:  are triangular, orange glands and as a hood at the other pole of the kidney storage  consist of adrenal cortex and adrenal (extended arm of the vegetative nervous system) medulla  are 3-eckig formed, about 7.5 cm long and 1.3 cm tall; 5g difficult

7. Which hormones in the adrenal gland formed, and what effect glucocorticoids in the body?
Hormone Education in the adrenal medulla (NNM) = adrenaline is nervous command to the rapid increase in blood sugar levels by Glycogenabbau isolated and stimulates the heart to beat noradrenaline =ensures contraction of the arteries The production of these hormones is in danger and stress situations directly through autonomic nervous impulses controlled Hormone Education in adrenal cortex (NNR) Histologically There are three layers, each of them different hormones produced (mainly): 1. Outer layer (Zona glometulosa) Mineralkortikoide example similar disturbances in the water and electrolyte balance of◊Aldosterone 2. Middle layer (zona fasciculata) as glucocorticoids Cortisone; cortisol levels decreased - will be strengthened in stressful situations (emotional strain, heat, cold) out - acts to inhibit inflammatory processes; use in the treatment of allergies 3. Interior zone (zona reticularis) are small amounts of sex hormones = mainly androgens (male sex hormone testosterone =) produced Women are also small amounts of testosterone produced

Mineralcorticoide Effects of glucocorticoids U.small amounts of sex hormones

Allen adrenal hormones are steroid hormones (descendants of cholesterol; are Fat soluble) and will be released from the ground up cholesterol drug

8. What is hormone in pregnancy evidence?
The yellow body hormone progesterone, the uterine mucosa on the nestle the fertilized ovum prepared.


  

the pregnancy hormone HCG = human Chosiongonadotropin holds in the first weeks of pregnancy, the function of the body upright yellow otherwise would endometrium and thus rejected the pregnancy is not possible proof of HCG in serum or urine investigated


Anatomy / Pathology

The Endocrine- system
1. Explain the concept of Endocrinology
Part of internal medicine, which deals with the structure and functions of the hormones, and the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system.

2. What causes eligible for acromegaly and gigantism in question?
Acromegaly = overproduction of growth hormones in adulthood Acromegaly is a disorder in which the pituitary gland (Hypophysenvorderlappen) large quantities of growth hormones and produces releases in adulthood but is a further length growth is no longer possible and therefore there are other changes such as Growth of the facial bones; thickening of the skin, fingers, hands, but also increasing the internal organs Gigantism = overproduction of growth hormones in childhood if it is in the pituitary gland through a tumorartige change in the Front lappens to increased result is an◊ secretion of growth hormones, but also with open epiphyses excessive growth which is already happening in childhood or adolescence, before bone growth is complete, there will be an extreme growth of the whole body For lack of growth hormones to speak of minors or young growth, but it will remain the body proportions.

3. The causes, symptoms and treatment of hyperthyroidism in? Hyperthyroidism = overproduction of thyroid hormones
Cause: autonomous (independent) = adenoma benign thyroid tumor Thyreoditis = inflammation of the thyroid gland Symptoms weight loss, increased body temperature, increase the heart rate increased by labor; insomnia; inner restlessness, trembling hands, diarrhea (possibly) Therapy: administration of drugs, which Thyroxinproduktion throttle duration of hormone stimulation and secretion Morbus Basedow = autoimmune is the thyroid gland enlarges and the eyes are one or both sides emerged = This is caused by increased fat storage behind the Augäpfeln; Exophthalumus Symptoms include tachycardia, and see hyperthyroidism

4. The causes, symptoms and treatment of hypothyroidism in? Hypothyroidism = lower this deficit can be congenital or acquired◊ production of thyroid hormones
Cause: Poor Thyreoglobulinsynthese Insufficient Jodaufnahme or storage Abnormal Jodidoxidation autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland by antibodies is attacked Symptoms fatigue, mental¬ sluggishness, dry, teigige skin, hair loss, brittle fingernails, increased cold sensitivity; constipation Therapy with synthetic thyroid hormones¬


5. What is meant by a Struma?
enlargement of the thyroid, goiter, or the medically correct "the Struma" - emerges as a rule due to a Jodmangels, rarely by other diseases of the thyroid gland through growth, the lack of thyroid hormone to block yet balanced with iodine metabolism situation offset with a frequency of approximately 30% in the population of the crop is the most common disease of the thyroid gland Jod Shortagesl strumen arise particularly in a period of hormonal change as puberty, pregnancy, lactation and climacteric

6. What life situations arise in insulin deficiency and / or profit?
Insulin deficiency of insulin hypoglycemia = = surplus hyperglycemia Act: fall d. blood sugar levels¬ below normal values Causes: in with insulin overproduction accompanying pancreatic disease d. disease in the liver (hepatitis) in diseases of the adrenal cortex with malnutrition, hunger during pregnancy and while breastfeeding period after administration of eg Morphine, va Insulin and oral antidiabetics, as well as Paracetamol Symptoms: mental Enthemmung to unconsciousness awareness of turbidity stroke Similar Images restlessness, tremors, palpitations, anxiety Act: Abnormal increase blood glucose levels D. Causes: with diabetes mellitus increased hormonal activity in the adrenal gland temporarily after taking greater carbohydrates pronounced for metabolic disorders iS Diabetes mellitus Symptoms: weight loss unconsciousness smell acetone in the breath increased water fatigue, slackness nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain If the blood glucose concentration, for example through excessive insulin effect at 0.35 g / l, it triggers the brain metabolic disturbances, which hypoglycaemic shock (coma).

7. What is a Cushing's syndrome?
physical changes due to a high Kortisolspiegel (Hyperkortisolismus) created also developed during¬ long-term use of glucocorticoids Exogenes Cushing's Syndrome: The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is the term therapeutic taking high doses of cortisone or similar substances (so-called exogenous Cushing's Syndrome). These drugs are used primarily for inflammation, such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and the suppression of the immune system in autoimmune diseases or organ transplants. After successful treatment, the funds will be gradually discontinued. This is also the Cushing's Syndrome. Endogenes Cushing's Syndrome: rare causes include hormonal About productions of the body. These include: • ACTH-produzierende tumors of the pituitary gland are the most common cause of endogenous Cushing syndrome (70 percent). Predominantly, women in middle age affected. • Some forms of cancer (for example, a certain form of lung cancer) can produce hormones. When ACTH produced, which leads to Cushing's Syndrome. • Strong growth in knotenartigen area of the adrenal cortex (adrenal nodular hyperplasia) • adrenal tumors - (adrenal neoplasia): gutartiges adenoma, malicious Carcinoma • Alcoholics can on the basis of an elevated Kortisolspiegels in the blood reach a state of Pseudo-Cushing called.


8. When a patient is treated with glucocorticoids?
Can because of its effect on the immune system for the treatment of allergies, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune-everywhere there also, where an inflammation and / or Immunsuppresion desired.

9. Why suffer a lot with Pat acromegaly including diabetes mellitus?
because the growth hormone◊ somatotrophin a blutzuckererhöhende effect. It is a secondary diabetes mellitus, as a result of acromegaly.

10. Is there a link between rickets and osteomalacia of the picture?
Please explain your decision! Osteomalacia (for adults) is a bone disorder in which the bone soften triggered¬ as it is With Vitamin D deficiency and other causes the result is a small installation of minerals in the bones. This soften and deform bones. Depending on the underlying disease must be for the therapy or calcium phosphate fed. Rickets (in children) (greek rhachis, spine) is a vitamin D deficiency and inadequate intake of calcium-induced osteomalacia, the persistent Knochenverkrümmung, especially to Rückgratverkrümmung leads the disease was in the 19th Also century as a so-called "English disease" and appeared in Europe after the World War due to malnutrition again. She is still in the poor countries of the World widespread. The two diseases is due to the lack of bone formation to bone stability and the necessary vitamin D.


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