# One-Way Analysis of Covariance One-Way ANCOVA "Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is a statistical technique that blends analysis

of variance and linear regression analysis. It is a more sophisticated method of testing the significance of differences among group means because it adjusts scores on the dependent variable to remove the effect of confounding variables. ANCOVA is based on inclusion of additional variables (known as covariates) into the model that may be influencing scores on the dependent variable. (Covariance simply means the degree to which two variables vary together – the dependent variable covaries with other variables.) This lets the researcher account for inter-group variation associated not with the "treatment" itself, but from extraneous factors on the dependent variable, the covariate(s). ANCOVA can control one or more covariates at the same time.

The purpose of ANCOVA, then, is the following: to increase the precision of comparison between groups by reducing within-group error variance; and, to “adjust” comparisons between groups for imbalances by eliminating confounding variables. In order to accurately identify possible covariates, one needs sufficient background knowledge of theory and research in the topic area. Ideally, there should only be a small number of covariates. Covariates need to be chosen carefully and should have the following qualities: Continuous (at interval or ratio level, such as anxiety scores) or dichotomous (such as male/ female); reliable measurement; correlate significantly with the dependent variable; linear relationship with dependent variable; not highly correlated with one another (should not overlap in influence); and relationship with dependent variable the same for each of the groups (homogeneity of regression slopes). Each covariate should contribute uniquely to the variance. The covariate must be measured before the intervention is performed. Correct analysis requires that the covariate not be influenced by the treatment – it therefore must be measured prior to treatment. The independent variable is a categorical (nominal-level) variable. ANCOVA tests whether certain factors have an effect on the outcome variable after removing the covariate effects. It is capable of removing the obscuring effects of pre-existing individual differences among subjects. It allows the researcher to compensate for systematic biases among the samples. The inclusion of covariates can also increase statistical power because it accounts for some of the variability. YouTube Video Assumptions: same as ANOVA (normal distribution, homogeneity of variance, random sampling); relationship of the dependent variable to the independent variable(s) must be linear;

When a researcher reports the results from analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).01 Medium .76. verification that covariates are not too strongly correlated with one another. p. linearity. Preliminary checks were conducted to ensure that there was no violation of the assumptions of normality. verification of linearity. Participants’ scores on the pre-intervention administration of the Fear of Statistics Test were used as the covariate in this analysis. 303) A one-way between-groups analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different interventions designed to reduce participants’ fear of statistics. F (1.39. and effect size (partial eta squared). he or she needs to include the following information: verification of parametric assumptions. verification of reliability of the covariate(s). normal distribution with means of zero.06 Large . An example is below: Presenting the results from one-way ANCOVA (Pallant. There was a strong relationship between the pre-intervention and post-intervention scores on the Fear of Statistics Test. regression lines must be parallel. The independent variable was the type of intervention (math skills.05) of differences among group means. verification that covariate(s) measured before treatment. homogeneity of regression slopes. statistical data: significance. With ANCOVA. homogenity of variances. p = . An example of ANCOVA is a pretest-posttest randomized experimental design. the F-ratio statistic is used to determine the statistical significance (p £ . there was no significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention scores on the Fear of Statistics Test . 2007. 27) = . Partial Eta Squared is used to determine effect size: Small . dependent variable scores. the dependent variable is the posttest scores. The model assumes that the data in the two groups are well described by straight lines that have the same slope. and the dependent variable consisted of scores on the Fear of Statistics Test administered after the intervention was completed.html . verification of homogeneity of regression slopes. the independent variable is the experimental/ comparison group status. In this case. confidence building). independent variable.com/nursing-articles/analysis-of-covariance-384736.03. probability. as indicated by a partial eta squared value of . means. and reliable measurement of the covariate. in which pretest scores are statistically controlled. After adjusting for pre-intervention scores. covariate(s). and homoscedasticity.138 There are both one-way and two-way analyses of covariance. and the covariate is the pretest scores. partial eta squared = . F-ratio scores. levels.75" Quoted from http://allnurses.dependent variables must be independent.