INTRODUCTION TO

THE

PROJECT:

This Software project is aimed at automation of a Bus Reservation Agency. Objective of the project is to develop customize software package for Bus Reservation. The system also provides a comprehensive mechanism of ticket booking for any place. It is designed to help wide range of buses to come together and provide service to the customer. Panang Agency’s comprehensive functionality helps it to expand its horizons in the field of providing service to the customers.

System: Local Booking: In this field of booking the agency provides the services available with its agency local to its area. Non local Booking: In this field the agency provides the services available with non-local agency. service to the customer it provided by non-local providers of the same agency. Shared Booking: In this field the agency can book the tickets for the customers with the services provided by other travel agencies. In this case customer handling is taken care by the other agency. System Work Behavior: All the customers register to a common service called webservice as a client after which they are liable to interact with the agency employees who provide services at different levels. A client has to provide the webservice with all the necessary information regarding his travel schedule. A webservice hold the latest information regarding all its clients such as the different destinations to which the bus travels, number of passengers, fares, ticket details, customer details, present status of the bus, etc. When a particular customer books a ticket for himself within his area or other the change should be reflected on to the webservice. So that others customers get the latest information regarding the service. The entire project is based on the E-commerce architecture where a transaction between the agencies has to be handled via the webservice. But

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Definition and reason for Condition Analysis
System analysis will be performed to determine if it is feasible to design an information based on policies and plans of the organization and on user requirements and to eliminate the weaknesses of the present system. General requirements are: 1. The new system should be cost effective. 2. To augment management, improve productivity and services. 3. To enhance User/System interface. 4. To improve information qualify and usability. 5. To upgrade system’s reliability, availability, flexibility and growth potential.

IDENTIFICATION OF NEED
The Panang Agency system is currently maintaining the Transport company’s process manually which is a very time consuming process. It deals with transport industry’s ticket booking and transport maintainance, so it becomes a very tedious job for the transporter to look after these particulars to complete the task at right time. It not only deals with booking the tickets but also deals with the routing of the buses. Further Drawbacks of the Existing System: The following are the drawbacks of the existing manual System. Time Delay: In the existing system, information related to all transactions is stored in different registers. Since all the transactions are stored in different registers it takes lot of time to prepare different reports. Redundancy: As the information passes through different registers, each register is consolidated and sent to next register. So the same information is being tabulated at each register, which involves lot of complication and duplication in work, thus it causes redundancy.

it can only be retrieved in the same format. FEASIBILITY STUDY . Also if the data is more. it is not possible. Enquiry: Enquiry for different level of information is much more difficult. data transaction being stored on too long registers it is very difficult to refer after some time. validations become difficult. They are not such Attractive and require more time. Storage Media: In the existing system. Information Retrieval: As the information is stored in the particular Format. the possibility of tabulating data wrongly increases. Reports: At the various reports are tabulated manually. On line enquiry of data is not possible. But if it is to be retrieve in different format. They do not provide adequate help in maintaining the accounts.Accuracy: Since the same data is compiled at different sections. This may result in loss of accuracy of data.

i) Understand the different technologies involved in the proposed system: Before commencing the project. making it difficult to access issues like performance. ii) Find out whether the organization currently possesses the required technologies: Is the required technology available with the organization? If so is the capacity sufficient? For instance – “Will the current printer be able to handle the new reports and forms required for the new system?” OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY: Proposed projects are beneficial only if they can be turned into information systems that will meet the organizations operating requirements. This is because. this test of feasibility asks if the system will work when it is developed and installed. A number of issues have to be considered while doing a technical analysis.TECHINICAL FEASIBILITY: Evaluating the technical feasibility is the trickiest part of a feasibility study. not too many detailed design of the system. we have to be very clear about what are the technologies that are to be required for the development of the new system. Simply stated. costs on (on account of the kind of technology to be deployed) etc. at this point in time. Are there major barriers to Implementation? Here are questions that will help test the operational feasibility of a project: • Is there sufficient support for the project from management from users? If .

improvement in product quality better decision making timeliness of information. This feasibility study gives the top management the economic justification for the new system. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY: Economic feasibility attempts 2 weigh the costs of developing and implementing a new system. Since the proposed system was to help reduce the hardships encountered In the existing manual system. better employee morale. this proves to be a useful point of reference to compare actual costs as the project progresses. • Are the current business methods acceptable to the user? If they are not. improved accuracy of operations. • Have the user been involved in the planning and development of the project? Early involvement reduces the chances of resistance to the system and in General and increases the likelihood of successful project. A simple economic analysis which gives the actual comparison of costs and benefits are much more meaningful in this case. better documentation and record keeping. In addition.the current system is well liked and used to the extent that persons will not be able to see reasons for change. the new system was considered to be operational feasible. There could be various types of intangible benefits on account of automation. . faster retrieval of information. there may be resistance. against the benefits that would accrue from having the new system in place. These could include increased customer satisfaction. expediting activities. Users may welcome a change that will bring about a more operational and useful systems.

Panang Agency. which is designed for administrating & automating ticket reservation activities that are carried out in an bus Agency to .SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION: The software.

as it is obvious. Reports. Tables are created dynamically to meet the requirements on demand. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process. INTRODUCTION Purpose: The main purpose for preparing this document is to give a general insight into the analysis and requirements of the existing system or situation and for determining the operating characteristics of the system. Basically all the information is managed by the software and in order to access the information one has to produce one's identity by entering the user-id and password. Developers Responsibilities Overview : The developer is responsible for: 1) Developing the system. Functional Requirements: Inputs: The major inputs for Panang Agency can be categorized module -wise. Scope: This Document plays a vital role in the development life cycle (SDLC) As it describes the complete requirement of the system. which meets the SRS and solving all the requirements of the system. 3) Submitting the required user manual describing the system interfaces to work on it and also the documents of the system. It is meant for use by the developers and will be the basic during testing phase. . 5) Maintaining the system for a period of one year after installation. 4) Conducting any user training that might be needed for using the system. 2) Demonstrating the system and installing the system at client's location after the acceptance testing is successful. carry the gist of the whole information that flows across the institution. Output: The major outputs of the system are tables and reports.increase the efficiency of the Agency in order to provide better service to the customer.

Performance Requirements: Performance is measured in terms of reports generated weekly and monthly. .This application must be able to produce output at different modules for different inputs.

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS Hardware: Processor Ram : : Intel Pentium or more 256 MB or more .

Software: : Operating system All editions: Windows NT 4.Cache Hard disk : : 512 KB 16 GB hard disk recommended for primary partion.0/ 2000 or later or windows Visual Basic.NET Oracle 8i Front End Software: BackEnd Software : .

PLATFORM/LANGUAGES USED .TOOLS.

The common language runtime is the foundation of the . but also supports the development of third-party runtime hosts. while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness. The . is a comprehensive. such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications. thereby creating a software environment that can exploit both managed and unmanaged features. the concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime.NET hosts the runtime to provide a scalable.SELECTED SOFTWARE ABOUT VB.NET Framework class library. thread management. ASP.NET Framework not only provides several runtime hosts. Code that targets the runtime is known as managed code.NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives: • To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object code is stored and executed locally. To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code.NET Framework. providing core services such as memory management. • • • • • The .Net Overview of the . both of which are discussed later in this topic.NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The . To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the . . server-side environment for managed code. the other main component of the .NET. To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications.NET Framework can be hosted by unmanaged components that load the common language runtime into their processes and initiate the execution of managed code. ASP. The . object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional commandline or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET Framework. In fact.NET Framework can integrate with any other code. For example. To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts. including code created by an unknown or semi-trusted third party. and remoting. while code that does not target the runtime is known as unmanaged code.NET Framework The . or executed remotely. The class library. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time.NET works directly with the runtime to enable Web Forms applications and XML Web services.NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and the . executed locally but Internet-distributed. such as Web Forms and XML Web services. To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.

such as semitrusted execution and secure isolated file storage. compilation. The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate Internet-deployed software to be exceptionally feature rich. or local computer). but cannot access their personal data. This automatic memory management resolves the two most common application errors. registry-access operations. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services. The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. In addition.NET Framework make the features of the . For example. With regards to security. For example. This means that managed code can consume other managed types and instances. greatly easing the migration process for existing applications. The runtime is designed to enhance performance. even if it is being used in the same active application. thread execution. or network. the runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to objects. The CTS ensures that all managed code is self-describing. The illustration also shows how managed code operates within a larger architecture. For example. Interoperability between managed and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary COM components and DLLs. managed code is never interpreted. while strictly enforcing type fidelity and type safety. but with significant improvements that only managed code can offer.NET Framework available to existing code written in that language. depending on a number of factors that include their origin (such as the Internet. The runtime enforces code access security. Language compilers that target the . managed components are awarded varying degrees of trust. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime. and components written in other languages by other developers. The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type. Features of the Common Language Runtime The common language runtime manages memory. The various Microsoft and third-party language compilers generate managed code that conforms to the CTS. code execution. code safety verification.and codeverification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS). A feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine . yet take full advantage of the runtime. Hosting the runtime in this way makes managed mobile code (similar to Microsoft® ActiveX® controls) possible. Using Internet Explorer to host the runtime enables you to embed managed components or Windows Forms controls in HTML documents. memory leaks and invalid memory references. While the runtime is designed for the software of the future. enterprise network. the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common software issues. users can trust that an executable embedded in a Web page can play an animation on screen or sing a song. The following illustration shows the relationship of the common language runtime and the class library to your applications and to the overall system.Internet Explorer is an example of an unmanaged application that hosts the runtime (in the form of a MIME type extension). This means that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file-access operations. or other sensitive functions. releasing them when they are no longer being used. the class library. Any compiler vendor who chooses to target the runtime can do so. it also supports software of today and yesterday. programmers can write applications in their development language of choice. file system. and other system services.

NET applications.NET Framework.NET Framework Class Library The .NET Web Form application. but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the . and other GUI elements. Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms). reporting tools.NET Framework types easy to use.NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services: • • • • • • Console applications. In addition to these common tasks. you can use the . as well as custom business applications such as dataentry tools. Meanwhile. The class library is object oriented. data collection. ASP. Finally. As you would expect from an object-oriented class library. the runtime can be hosted by high-performance. server-side applications.NET Framework. XML Web services.NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. In addition. third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the . Another kind of client application is the traditional ActiveX control (now replaced by the managed Windows Forms control) deployed over the Internet as a Web page. For example. If you write an ASP. including tasks such as string management. For example. while still enjoying the superior performance of the industry's best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting. you can use the Web Forms classes. . and file access. This . providing types from which your own managed code can derive functionality. such as Microsoft® SQL Server™ and Internet Information Services (IIS). Windows services. Client applications usually employ windows. This not only makes the . This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to write your business logic.NET Framework collection classes implement a set of interfaces that you can use to develop your own collection classes. the . the memory manager removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory locality-of-reference to further increase performance. the . Your collection classes will blend seamlessly with the classes in the . and they likely access local resources such as the file system and peripherals such as printers. Client Application Development Client applications are the closest to a traditional style of application in Windows-based programming. Scripted or hosted applications. enabling a user to perform a task.NET Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks. the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that vastly simplify Windows GUI development. database connectivity. For example.language of the system on which it is executing. the class library includes types that support a variety of specialized development scenarios. Client applications include applications such as word processors and spreadsheets. These are the types of applications that display windows or forms on the desktop.NET Framework. and so on. buttons. menus.

consistent development environment that drastically simplifies the development of client applications. which allows your custom managed code to control the behavior of the server. This means that binary or natively executing code can access some of the resources on the user's system (such as GUI elements and limited file access) without being able to access or compromise other resources. This model provides you with all the features of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance and scalability of the host server.NET Framework are designed to be used for GUI development. XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Instead.NET Framework incorporates aspects of these existing products into a single. However. buttons.NET as the publishing mechanism for applications. and includes graphical elements. many applications that once needed to be installed on a user's system can now be safely deployed through the Web. For example. Web-based applications. and other screen elements with the flexibility necessary to accommodate shifting business needs. This is one of many ways in which the . Unlike ActiveX controls. and in these cases the .NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the .NET Framework automatically recreates the forms. and both have a collection of supporting classes in the . As a . Server-side managed code ASP. an important evolution in Web-based technology. Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime. menus. In some cases the underlying operating system does not support changing these attributes directly. or even other XML Web services. You can easily create command windows. Both Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and ASP. The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in different server environments. Server Application Development Server-side applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts. XML Web services. unlike Web-based applications. toolbars. Your applications can implement the features of a local application while being deployed like a Web page.NET Framework provides simple properties to adjust visual attributes associated with forms. such as traditional client applications. XML Web services consist of reusable software components designed to be consumed by other applications.NET Framework. Because of code access security. Servers such as IIS and SQL Server can perform standard operations while your application logic executes through the managed code. has access to local resources. The . In the past. However.NET Framework integrates the developer interface. serverside application components similar to common Web sites.NET Framework to target Web-based applications.application is much like other client applications: it is executed natively.NET is more than just a runtime host. developers created such applications using C/C++ in conjunction with the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) or with a rapid application development (RAD) environment such as Microsoft® Visual Basic®. ASP. the . The Windows Forms classes contained in the . making coding simpler and more consistent. it is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internet-distributed objects using managed code. are distributed. Windows Forms controls have semi-trusted access to a user's computer.

Forms can be standard windows. By . WSDL. unmanaged ASP pages are always scripted and interpreted. dialog boxes. Although you can use the class library to consume XML Web services directly.NET Framework provides a set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards. In contrast. XML Web services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the Internet. Finally. What Is a Form? A form is a bit of screen real estate. they take full advantage of the runtime. you will immediately notice the improvements that ASP. In addition. that you can use to present information to the user and to accept input from the user. The easiest way to define the user interface for a form is to place controls on its surface. methods which define their behavior.NET Framework. or display surfaces for graphical routines. your code no longer needs to share the same file with your HTTP text (although it can continue to do so if you prefer).NET Framework. your XML Web service will run with the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of IIS. If you develop and publish your own XML Web service. Using those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service. such as SOAP.NET Framework. For example. and events which define their interaction with the user. like any other managed application. like Web Forms pages in the managed environment. XML (an extensible data format). The . you can develop Web Forms pages in any language that supports the . object-oriented. Forms are objects that expose properties which define their appearance. This framework provides a clear.NET and Web Forms offers. based on the . parse its WSDL description. XML Web services are built on standards such as SOAP (a remote procedure-call protocol). Introduction to Windows Forms (Visual Basic. multiple document interface (MDI) windows. the Web Services Description Language tool and the other tools contained in the SDK facilitate your development efforts with the .NET Framework SDK can query an XML Web service published on the Web. and produce C# or Visual Basic source code that your application can use to become a client of the XML Web service. the Web Services Description Language tool included with the . the .result. The source code can create classes derived from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using SOAP and XML parsing. without concerning yourself with the communications infrastructure required by distributed software development. and WSDL ( the Web Services Description Language).NET pages are faster. Windows Forms applications can be written in any language that the common language runtime supports. and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact with the runtime like any managed application. For example. Additionally. ASP.NET Framework is built on these standards to promote interoperability with non-Microsoft solutions. If you have used earlier versions of ASP technology. The . Windows Forms is a framework for building Windows client applications that utilize the common language runtime. more functional.NET) Windows Forms is the new platform for Microsoft Windows application development. Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because. usually rectangular.NET Framework also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in development and consumption of XML Web services applications. extensible set of classes that enable you to develop rich Windows applications. Windows Forms can act as the local user interface in a multi-tier distributed solution. and XML.

Within a Windows Forms project. this class is the template used to create the form. • Security: Windows Forms takes full advantage of the security features of the common language runtime. • XML Web services support: Windows Forms offers full support for quickly and easily connecting to XML Web services. As with all objects in the . The framework also allows you to inherit from existing forms to add functionality or modify existing behavior. Although the form can be created entirely in the Code Editor.NET Framework. • Architecture for controls: Windows Forms offers an architecture for controls and control containers that is based on concrete implementation of the control and container classes. This significantly lowers the maintenance costs (TCO) for applications written in Windows Forms. These controls also offer new features. radio buttons. you can elicit information from the user and respond to it. This significantly reduces control-container interoperability issues. • Rich graphics: Windows Forms is one of the first ship vehicles for GDI+. and check boxes. Some of the advantages of using Windows Forms include the following: • Simplicity and power: Windows Forms is a programming model for developing Windows applications that combines the simplicity of the Visual Basic 6. the form is the primary vehicle for user interaction. a new version of the Windows Graphical Device Interface (GDI) that supports alpha blending. and more. because they inherit from the Control class. By combining different sets of controls and writing code. work with existing stores of data. Additionally. advanced transforms. it is easier to use the Windows Forms Designer to create and modify forms. rich text support. such as "flat look" styles for buttons. • Lower total cost of ownership: Windows Forms takes advantage of the versioning and deployment features of the common language runtime to offer reduced deployment costs and higher application robustness over time. • Flexible controls: Windows Forms offers a rich set of controls that encompass all of the controls offered by Windows. • Data awareness: Windows Forms offers full support for the ADO data model. forms are controls. The form you create with the Windows Forms Designer is a class. When you add a form to your project.0 programming model with the power and flexibility of the common language runtime. forms are instances of classes. and query and write back to the file system and registry on the user's local computer. .setting the properties of the form and writing code to respond to its events. texture brushes. and when you display an instance of the form at run time. This means that Windows Forms can be used implement everything from an untrusted control running in the browser to a fully trusted application installed on a user's hard disk. you customize the object to meet the requirements of your application. or from a form you have previously created. you can choose whether it inherits from the Form class provided by the framework.

such as screen readers. • Printing: Windows Forms offers a printing applications to provide comprehensive reports. it brings the ability to create interactive.NET is the standard reporting tool for Visual Basic.NET.NET. Show TopN or BottomN results of data. which make it simple to build applications that support accessibility aids.NET. you can quickly create complex and professional-looking reports. you can host reports on Web and Windows platforms and publish Crystal reports as Report Web Services on a Web server. grouping. and charting criteria you specify. and percentages on grouped data. presentation-quality content — which has been the strength of Crystal Reports for years — to the . Crystal Reports Crystal Reports for Visual Basic . multiple level totals. you could write code to loop through recordsets and print them inside your Windows or Web application. any work beyond basic formatting can be complicated: consolidations. • Licensing: Windows Forms takes advantage of the common language runtime enhanced licensing model. With Crystal Reports for Visual Basic. framework that enables • Accessibility: Windows Forms controls implement the interfaces defined by Microsoft Active Accessibility (MSAA). The powerful Report Engine processes the formatting. Instead of coding. However. Calculate summaries.• ActiveX control support: Windows Forms offers full support for ActiveX controls. Display charts that users can drill down on to view detailed report data. and conditional formatting are difficult to program. . you can quickly create reports based on your development needs: • • • • • Choose from report layout options ranging from standard reports to form letters. You can also host a Windows Forms control as an ActiveX control. Conditionally format text and rotate text objects. charting. Report Experts Using the Crystal Report Experts. With Crystal Reports for Visual Studio . or build your own report from scratch. To present data to users. you use the Crystal Report Designer interface to create and format the report you need. • Design-time support: Windows Forms takes full advantage of the meta-data and component model features offered by the common language runtime to provide thorough design-time support for both control users and control implementers.NET platform. subtotals. You can easily host ActiveX controls in a Windows Forms application.

three data access interfaces are available: Active X Data Objects( ADO). they encounter the dilemma of either developing their own data-access paradigms or working with application program interfaces (APIs) that are incompatible in the new environments. However. tool. Why use ADO? Consistently accessing data within the enterprise is a challenge for today's business applications. ADO provides consistent. ODBC provides the first step toward overcoming this challenge by enabling applications to access relational databases.to n-tier client/server and Web-based. Remote Data Objects (RDO) and Data Access Objects (DAO).Net. These access interfaces are used to access the data from database. or even an Internet browser. data-driven solutions. whether you're creating a front-end database client or middle-tier business object using an application. as developers and system architects want to include nonrelational data sources and to work in environments such as the Internet. ADO is the single data interface you need for developing 1. Particular attention is given to taking advantage of SQL Server features with ADO.ACTIVE X DATA OBJECTS In Visual Basic . high-performance access to data. language. This paper introduces ADO and the ADO programming model for application developers who are targeting Microsoft SQL Server™. Microsoft® ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO) along with OLEDB solves this dilemma by providing a single model that works with all data sources in a variety of environments. such as stored procedures and .

Because of its popularity as an easy-to-use. Whereas ODBC was created to access relational databases. which expose data. These components are designed to integrate smoothly . which use data. and eventually replace. ADO makes it easy for developers to program. OLEDB is a core technology supporting universal data access. VBScript. Visual C++. data consumers. it uses similar language conventions.server cursors. it benefits from the rich universal data access infrastructure that OLEDB provides. available from just about any tool and language on the market today. text and graphical data for the Web. which makes it easy to learn for today's developers. which process and transport data (for example. OLEDB provides high-performance access to any data source. Because ADO is built on top of OLEDB. the data access interfaces in widest use today. Together ADO and OLEDB form the foundation of the Universal Data Access strategy. ADO Overview ADO was first introduced as the data access interface in Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). ADO is being enhanced to combine the best features of. and the growing need for an interface spanning many tools and languages. ADO is designed to be the application-level interface to OLEDB. OLEDB components consist of data providers. query processors and cursor engines). For example. OLEDB is designed for the relational and nonrelational information sources. ADO provides simpler semantics. such as mail stores. Microsoft's newest and most powerful data access paradigm. and Java" are applicable to all ADO programmers. directory services. OLEDB enables universal access to any data. lightweight interface to all kinds of data. OLEDB Overview OLEDB is an open specification designed to build on the success of ODBC by providing an open standard for accessing all kinds of data throughout the enterprise. The concepts presented in the sections titled "The ADO Object Model" and "Using ADO with Visual Basic. and IMS and VSAM data stored in the mainframe. and service components. ADO is in many ways similar to RDO and DAO. RDO and DAO. ADO is easy to use because it is called using a familiar metaphor: the Automation interface.

Furthermore. a Microsoft Visual C++® application that uses OLEDB interfaces to connect to a database server is an OLEDB consumer. an OLEDB provider allows consumers to access data in a uniform way through a known set of documented interfaces.to help OLEDB component vendors quickly bring high-quality OLEDB components to market. therefore.0. This provider enables consumers to use the existing ODBC drivers without having to implement new OLEDB providers to replace existing ODBC drivers. The ODBC Provider is an OLEDB provider for ODBC drivers. For example. In a sense. The ADO object model that uses OLEDB interfaces is an OLEDB consumer. OLEDB includes a bridge to ODBC to enable continued support for the broad range of ODBC relational database drivers available today. OLEDB providers not only provide a mechanism for relational data but also for nonrelational types of data. Microsoft OLEDB SDK version 1.1 shipped two OLEDB providers: the ODBC Provider and sample text provider. For more information about OLEDB and OLEDB providers. Any application that uses the ADO object model uses OLEDB interfaces indirectly through the ADO objects. With the ODBC Provider. With OLEDB version 2. A consumer can be any application that uses or consumes OLEDB interfaces. and Microsoft Jet databases were added to the SDK. an OLEDB provider is similar to an ODBC driver that provides a uniform mechanism for accessing relational data. OLEDB providers are built on top of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces that allow more flexibility. OLEDB consumers can connect to a database server through the existing . An OLEDB provider implements OLEDB interfaces. OLEDB Providers There are two types of OLEDB applications: consumers and providers. see the OLEDB section of the Microsoft Data Access The ODBC Provider The ODBC Provider maps OLEDB interfaces to ODBC APIs. The sample text provider is an example that demonstrates the implementation detail of an OLEDB provider. providers for SQL Server. Oracle data. whereas ODBC drivers build on top of a C API specification.

Scripting Edition. The ADO object model is designed to expose the most commonly used features of OLEDB. there may be some performance concern about the additional layer of the ODBC Provider on top of the existing ODBC driver manager. Microsoft Visual Basic. therefore. However. The ODBC Provider invokes corresponding ODBC APIs and sends the requests to an ODBC driver. the ODBC driver manager is not needed. The design goal of the ODBC Provider is to implement all the functionality of the ODBC driver manager. Because the ODBC Provider allows OLEDB consumers to use existing ODBC drivers. The Connection object provides a mechanism for initializing and establishing the connection. executing queries. MSDASQL (the ODBC provider) is the default provider used for the connection. and any platform that supports both COM and Automation. Java. If none is specified.ODBC drivers in the following process: A consumer calls an OLEDB interface on the ODBC Provider. you can also use other providers for connecting. and using transactions. the ODBC Provider still requires the ODBC Driver Manager to support connection pooling with ODBC applications. Specify a provider through the Provider property. The ADO object model contains their objects: • • • Connection Command Recordset The Connection Object The Connection object allows you to establish a communication link with a data source. . The ADO Object Model The ADO object model defines a collection of programmable objects that you can use in Visual Basic. Visual C++. The underlying OLEDB provider used for connecting is not limited to the ODBC Provider.

These commands can be. changes or deletions by other users will not be visible. it allows you to add. therefore Allows all types of movement through the Records. and allows all types of movement through the records that don’t rely on bookmarks. Additions. The Recordset Object The Recordset object provides methods for manipulating result sets. bookmarks if the provider supports them. You can make updates on the Recordset object in an immediate or batch mode. and scroll through records in the result set. and associated parameters with query strings. prepared query strings. changes and deletions by other users.The Command Object The Command object allows you to issue commands to the database. a cursor is automatically opened. delete. The information and examples contained here focus on the Microsoft ODBC Provider that supports a wide variety of relational databases. query strings. Data changes by other users will still be visible. Allows Key-set Cursor Behaves like a dynamic cursor. You can retrieve and update each record using the Fields collection and the Field objects. Dynamic Cursor Allows you to view additions. except that it prevents you from seeing records that other users ad. Always allows bookmarks and therefore allows all types of movement through the records. It always supports bookmarks and Static Cursor Provides a static copy of a set of records for you to use to find or generate reports. update. but are not limited to. and prevents access to records that other users delete. The actual command language and features supported are dependent on the underlying provider for the database. . When you create a Recordset object. This is the only type of cursor allowed when you open a client_side (ADO) records object.

Forward-only Cursor Behaves identically to a dynamic cursor except that it allows you to scroll only forward through records. This improves performance in situation where you need to make only a single pass through a record. Understanding the advantages of VISUAL BASIC ABOUT ORACLE DATABASE .

locate and refer to one particular record in the database. It allows the user and the database system to identify. During an Oracle Database design project. The primary key provides the means to distinguish one record from all other in a table. Oracle Tables Oracle stores records relating to each other in a table. In oracle. the analysis of your business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. Oracle stores each data item in its own fields. No two fields in a record can have the same field name. thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data. If your business needs change over time. These systems allow users to create. gives the user access to their data and helps them transform the data into information. Related tables are grouped together to . Each record is made up of a number of fields. and Oracle. or DBMS. paradox. IMS. Such database management systems include dBase. Matching an employee to the department in which they work is one example. called a record (it can also be referred to as raw or an occurrence). things and events. Primary Key Every table in oracle has a field or a combination of fields that uniquely identifies each record in the table. you define any additional fields or change the definition of existing fields. or RDBMS. update and extract information from their database. It stores data in two or Different tables are created for the various groups of information. form a database.A database management. Oracle makes it very easy to link the data in multiple tables. This is what makes oracle a relational database management system. Data refers to the characteristics of people. or simply the Key. A database is a structured collection of data. Relational Database Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation can be stored in one table. the fields relating to a particular person. The Unique identifier is called the Primary Key.

This system hides certain details of how the data is stored and maintained. Physical level: This is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describes how the data are actually stored. Data abstraction is divided into three levels. A foreign key is a field or a group of fields in one table whose values match those of the primary key of another table.more tables and enables you to define relationships between the table and enables you to define relationships between the tables. Data Abstraction A major prupose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. View level: This is the highest level of abstraction at which one describes only part of the database. Ensuring that the data among related tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity. Referential Integrity Not only does Oracle allow you to link multiple tables. Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all the attributed and what data are actually stored is described and entries and relationship among them. Advantages of RDBMS • • • Redundancy can be avoided Inconsistency can be eliminated Data can be Shared . it also maintains consistency between them. Foreign Key When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field is referred to as a foreign key.

ORACLE RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is specially designed for online transactions processing and for handling large database application. even application that require simultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data. While centralization reduces duplication. Disadvantages of DBMS A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is cost.• • • • • Standards can be enforced Security restrictions ca be applied Integrity can be maintained Conflicting requirements can be balanced Data independence can be achieved. In addition to the cost of purchasing of developing the software. and open DBMS that delivers unmatched performance. continuous operation and support for every database. which are . the hardware has to be upgraded to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for their execution and storage. FEATURES OF ORACLE (RDBMS) ORACLE is the leading database management system (DBMS) because it is the only Database that meets the uncompromising requirements of today’s most demanding information systems. From complex decision support systems (DSS) to the most rigorous online transaction processing (OLTP) application. the lack of duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so that in case of failure the data can be recovered. Oracle leads the industry in both performance and capability ORACLE is a truly portable. distributed. ORACLE with transactions processing option offers two features which contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput.

including UNIX. MSDOS. Portability ORACLE is fully portable to more than 80 distinct hardware and operating systems platforms. security or availability dictate. Oracle’s open architecture integrates ORACLE and non –ORACLE DBMS with industries most comprehensive collection of tools. Unmatched Performance The most advanced architecture in the industry allows the ORACLE DBMS to deliver unmatched performance. Macintosh and dozens of proprietary platforms. You can store data where system requirements such as performance. integrated computing resource. OS/2. A single SQL statement can access data at multiple sites. Open Systems ORACLE offers a leading implementation of industry –standard SQL. Sophisticated Concurrency Control . This portability gives complete freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the system requirements.• • The row level lock manager PL/SQL a procedural language extension to SQL Enterprise wide Data Sharing The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the ORACLE DBMS enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into a singular. Distributed Data Sharing Oracle’s networking and distributed database capabilities to access data stored on remote server with the same ease as if the information was stored on a single local computer. application. and third party software products Oracle’s Open architecture provides transparent access to data from other relational database and even non-relational database.

communication protocols and application to create a unified computing information resource. PL/SQL.Real World applications demand access to critical data. it also provides a rich set of extensions in . oracle commits transactions with at most sequential log file on disk at commit time. Oracle employs full. modified blocks are written back to the database independently of the transaction commit. when written from memory to disk. No I/O Bottlenecks Oracle’s fast commit groups commit and deferred write technologies dramatically reduce disk I/O bottlenecks. With most database Systems application becomes “contention bound” – which performance is limited not by the CPU power or by disk I/O. defining and controlling data. Application Development Tools SQL * Plus This is the primary interface to the ORACLE RDBMS. Since fast commits write all data necessary to the recovery to the log file. another data manipulation language SQL * MENU implementation of ANSI standard SQL. SQL * NET This is Oracle’s networking software. which interfaces between ORACLE and the OS networking protocol. database. While some database write whole data block to disk at commit time. Data read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that other transactions may access that data without reading it again from disk. On high throughput systems. unrestricted row-level locking and contention free queries to minimize and in many cases entirely eliminates contention wait times. OS. but user waiting on one another for data access . one sequential writes typically group commit multiple transactions. SQL * NET enables the integration of diverse. It provides a powerful Based on a full environment for querying.

which is a non-procedural application development tool. SQL * REPORTWRITER It is an advanced report generation tool. It’s powerful formatting capabilities and fill-in-the form interface allows the user to develop complex reports without resource to extensive programming . It can also tie together Oracle and non.– Oracle applications into a fully integrated environment.It is a development tool for creating menu-based applications.

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