?/r?

'7

U6
v^-U.
S.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN
B. T.

hf565

NO. 89

GALLOWAY, CMef of Bvreau.

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE
UNITED STATES.
BY

ALIO E H E N K E L

,

Assistant, Drug-Plant Investigations

Issued

January

16, 1906.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1906.

Mo. Bot.Garden 1908

\

Ill

KKAl OF

FLAM INDUSTRY
and Chief of Bureau.

B.T.GALLOWAY,
Pathologist

and

Physiologist,

VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL [NVESTIGATTONS.
Albert
F.

Woods,

Pathologist

and

Physiologist in Charge, Acting

CMeJof Bureau

in

Absence of Chief.

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
Frederick V. Coville,
Botanist in Charge.

FARM MANAGEMENT.
W.
J.

Spillman, Agriculturist

in

Charge.

POMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
G. B.

Brack ett,

Pomologisi in

<'fi<rr>i(

.

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION.
A. J. Pieters, Botanist in Char;/'

ARLINGTON EXPERIMENTAL FARM.
# L. C.

Oorbktt,

Horticulturist

'a*

Charge^

INVESTIGATIONS IN THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY OF TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL
PLANTS.
O. F. Cook. Bionomist in Charge.

DRUG AND POISONOUS PLANT INVESTIGATIONS, AND TEA CULTURE INVESTIGATIONS.
Roi'NKY H. True, Physiologist
in Charge.

DRY LAND AGRICULTURE AND WESTERN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.
Carl
8.

Scofiell, Agriculturist

in

Charge.

EXPERIMENTAL GARDENS AND GROUNDS.
E.

M. Byrn-

-.

Superintendent.

SEED LABORATORY.
Edgar Brown.
Botanist in Charge.

J. E.

Rockwell.
e.

Editor.

James

Jones, Chief Clerk

DRU<

PLANT INVESTIGATIONS.
\TIFrC STAFF.

Rodney H. Tkue,
W.
<

Physiolog
\Y.

in

Charge

>.

Rkhtmann, W.
G.

St

KRKRtrEK. Experts
Assistants

Alice Henkel,
2

Freo Klcoh,

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Depabtment of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Office of the Chief, Washington, D. C\, October 30\ 1906. have the honor to transmit herewith and to recommend for pubU.
S.

Sik: 1

No. 89 of the series of this Bureau the accompanying manuscript entitled "Wild Medicinal Plants of the United States/' paper was prepared by Miss Alice llenkel, Assistant in DrugThis Investigations, and has been submitted by the Physiologist in Plant
lication as Bulletin

Charge with

a view to its publication.

Respectfully,

B. T.

Galloway. if of

Hon. James Wilson,
if A/>
3

PREFACE.
In connection with the work of Drug-Plant Investigations many inquiries are received from various parts of the country asking for a list of the drug-producing plants of the regions concerned and for information as to the parts of the plants used in medicine, etc. It being impossible to comply with requests of this nature in any satisfactory way. Miss Henkel was asked to compile a list of the drug plants of this country, using as a basis the catalogues of dealers in crude drugs and the standard works on systematic botany. It has seemed from an inspection of these lists and of much current pharmaceutical literature that the recent changes in botanical nomenclature have succeeded one another too rapidly to permit the drug dealer and This has resulted in considerthe pharmacist to keep pace with them. able confusion in regard to botanical names, and in some oases in the matter of the common names of drug-producing plants. In such a list as that herewith presented the opportunity for helping to clear up The recent appearance this situation has seemed worth improving. of the new Pharmacopoeia, in which the botanical nomenclature ha^

been revised, has seemed to emphasize the desirability of making

thi^

attempt, since the names in the case of official plants will be fairly In the definitely fixed among pharmacists for the next ten years.

accompanying

list

the pharmacopceial

names are given and a revision
is

of the nomenclature of the unofficial drugs

also presented.

Mr.

Frederick V. Coville, Botanist, has kindly revised the botanical nameused in this publication. It is hoped that this compilation will tend to unify usage anion; those who have to do with crude drugs and drug plants.

Rodney H. True,
Physiologist in Chary*'

Office of Dure '-Plant Investigations,
Washington, D.
t\,

October

1%

1906.
5

.

te. P.

I.—187.

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED
STATES.
In the preparation of this bulletin only such wild medicinal plants as have a commercial value were considered; that is, such as were usually mentioned in the trade lists of drug dealers throughout the
country.
Plants that were 'found listed by only one or two firms

have been omitted. Both official and nonofficial drugs are included in this list. A number of drug plants that were official in the United States Pharmacopeia for 1890 have been dropped from the Eighth Decennial Revision (1900), which became official on September 1, 1905, and a few new ones have been added. In this bulletin the drugs that were official in the Pharmacopoeia for 1890 are so indicated, while those of the new edition are marked simply "official." In the following list the information on each species is given under the accepted botanical name. This name and that of the family to which the plant belongs occupy the first line of the description. Botanical synonyms, if any, are mentioned, and these are followed in the next line by the most common names. A few words of information indicating the most important feature^ of habit and stature, as well as the sort of situation in which found, together with the geographical This distribution in the United States, are then given in each case. information is too meager for the identification of the plants concerned

was impossible within the space limits of a publicaThe parts of the tion such as this to include more descriptive matter. plants used and the official status of the product close the description. Unless otherwise indicated, the products mentioned are used in the
in all cases,

but

it

dried state.

.

Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Balsam-fir; Canada balsam

Pine family Pinaeeae),
t

tree.

Slender, evergreen, native tree, 50 to 60 feet high, occurring in damp woods from Newfoundland to the high mountains of southwestern Virginia, west to Min-

and northward. -Balsam, Parts used,— Balsam, known
nesota,
fir (official);

as

Canada Canada turpentine, Canada balsam, or balsam
7

of

also bark (nonottidal)

1107:'— No, Sii— o<^=;>

/

..

8

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Same
as

A hies canadensis Michx.
Ibies

Tmga

canadensis.

nigra Desf.

Same

as Picea mariana.

Abscess-root.

See Polemonium reptans.

Absinth.

See Artemisia absinthium.

Absinthium.
Acacia, false.

See Artemisia absinthium. See Rohinia pseudacacia.

Acer rubrum L. Red maple; swamp-maple.

Maple family ( Aceraceae)
swamps and low grounds
T

Large, native tree, often 120 feet in height, growing in from Canada to Florida and Texas.

Part used.

—Bark (nonofficial.)
Aster family (Asteraceae).

Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow; milfoil; thousandleaf.

Perennial weed, 10 to 20 inches high, common in fields and waste places nearly throughout the United States, especially eastward; naturalized from Europe

and Asia.
Part Used.

—Herb
L.

(nonofficial).

Acorus calamus

Arum

family (Araceae).

Calamus; sweet-flag. Native, herbaceous perennial, about 2 feet high, found in wet and muddy places and along streams from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, southward to Florida and
Texas.
Part used.

—Vnpeeled, dried rhizome
i

(official).

Actaea alba

(L.

)

Mill.

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae).

White cohosh; white baneberry; necklace-weed; rattlesnake-berb. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet higb, found in rich woods from Nova Scotia to Georgia and Missouri, and northward; most common from Indiana and Kentucky to Pennsylvania and New York. Rhizome and rootlets (nonofficial). Parts used.

Aetata racemosa L.

Same

as Oimicifuga racemosa.

Actaea rubra

Synonym. Actaea *}>ivata var. rubra Ait. Red cohosh; red baue)>errv; rattlesnake-herb. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, found in woods from Nova Scotia to tbe Middle States, west to the Rocky Mountains; most abundant from New England to Ontario.
Parts nsed.
.

(Ait.) WilldL

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae).

— Rhizome and rootlets (nonofficial).
-Same as Actaea rubra.
spicatn,,).
>

ictaea spicata var. rubra Ait.

Adam-and-Eve.

See Aplectrum

Adder's-tongue, yellow.

See Erythroni

1

n

americanum.

Adiantum pedatum
Maidenhair-fern.

L.

Fern family Polypodiaceae
|

).

Native fern, 9 to 15 inches high, growing in rich moist and almost all parts of the United States. Part used. Herb (nonofficial).

soil in

woods

in

Canada

Aesculus glabra
Ohio buckeye;

Willd.
fetid

Buckeye family Aesculaceae
(

)

buckeye; smooth buckeye. Small, native tree, 20 to 40 feet in height, found in woods and on river banks from Pennsylvania south to Alabama, westward to Michigan and the Indian
Territory.

Parts used.

—Bark and

fruit (nonofficial).

AE8CUIiUS HIFPOCA6TANUM
Aesculus hippocastanum
L.

ALN1S RUGOSA.

9

Buckeye family (Aesculaceae).

Horse-chestnut. Large tree, 60 feet or more in height. Eacaped from cultivation, southeastern New York and New Jersey. Native of Asia. Part* used. Bark and fruit (nonofficial).

Afterbirth-weed.

See Stylomnthes

hi flora.

Agrinwnia eupatoria (of American authors, not

L.

).

Agrimonia hirsuta (Mnhl.) BicknelL

Synonym. Agrimonia eupatoria oi most American authors, not L." Agrimony; tall hairy agrimony. Perennial herb, 3 to 4 feet high, found in woods and thickets from New Brunswick to Minnesota and Nebraska, south to North Carolina; also in California.
Native.

Same as Agrimonia hirmda. Rose family (Rosaceae).

Part used.

— Herb

(nonofficial).

Agrimony.

See Agrimoma hirsuta.
tall hairy.

Agrimony,

See Agrimonia hirsuta.
(L.)

Agropyron repens
Synonym.

Beauv. Triticum re)>ens Beau v.

family

Triticum; couc harass; dog-grass; quack-grass. A troublesome grass in cultivated land from .Maine to Maryland, west to Minnesota and Missouri; sparingly distributed in the South. Introduced from Europe.
Pari used*
Ague-tree.

— Rhizome, gathered in spring
See Ilex
verticiUata.

(official).

See Sassafras variifolium.
See Eupctiorivm perforatum and Gcntiana guinguefolia.

Ague weed.
Alder, black.

Alder,

common.

See Alnus rugom.

Alder, red.

See Alnus rugom*
See Alnus rugasa.

Alder, smooth. Alder, tag-.

Sec A fit us rugosa.

Aletris farinosa L.
Star-grass; false (not true) unicorn-root; & colic-root.

Lily family (Liliaceae).
soil

Native, perennial herb, 2 to H feefc high; in dry, sandy sota, south to Florida and Tennessee.

from Maine to Minne-

Part used.

— Rhizome (nonofficial), gathered after the plant has flowered.
See Bntneria florida. See Butmeia florida.
See Benzoin benzoin.
(

Allspice, Carolina. Allspice, Florida.
Allspice, wild.

Alnus rugosa Do
Synonym.
Tag-alder;

— Alnus terrulata Willd.
common
alder; red alder;

Roi) K. Koch.

Birch family (Betulaceae).
smooth
alder.

Native shrub, or sometimes a small tree, occurring in swamps and marshv borders of streams from the New England States west to Minnesota and southward to Florida and Texas.
Pari used.

— Bark

nonofficial).

long used in local florae and text-books for the agrimony of the Eastern States, has been doing duty lor a group of related species, of which at least five are now elearly recognized. Furthermore. Doctor Britton (Bui. Torr. Bot. Club, 18 states that the true Agrimonia eupatoria is not known at 66, 1891 all as an American plant. The native plant to which the name Agrimonia eupak a lias been mos frequently applied by American authors is Atirim- la hirsuta Muhl. Bieknell. &The name '"true nnicorn-root " has long been applied to Atetris farinosa, but as " unicorn-root" was the common name tirst given to Chamaelirium liUeum {Helonias dioica), this should more properly be called the true unicorn-root and Aletris farinosa the false unicorn-root.
I

1

|

»

.

10
Muus

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS
srrrti/ata

(

>F

THE UNITED STATES
Pink family (Silenaceae).

Willd.

Same
media

as Alnus rugosa.

Alsine media L.

Synonym, — SteUaria
i

1

(

yr.

Com uon

chickweed. Small, annual herb, probably introduced from Europe, and fields and around dwellings throughout the United States.
Part
uxt'd.

now common

in

— Herb

(nonoflBcial).
officinalis.

Althaea.

See Althaea

Althaea

officinalis L.

Mallow family (Malvaceae).^

Althaea; rnarshmallow; sweat weed; mortification-root. Perennial herb, 2 to 4 feet high, naturalized from Europe; occurs in salt marshes, coast of Massachusetts and New York, and in Pennsylvania. Root from plants of seeond year's growth, deprived of the periderm Parts u d. (official leaves and flowers (nonomcial) are also used.


;

|

Alum-root.

See Geranium maculatum and Heuchera americana.
"

Ragweed family (Ambrosiaceae). Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L. Roman wormwood; ragweed; hogweed; stammerwort. Coarse, native weed, annual, to 3 feet high; in waste places, eastern United States, west to British Columbia and Mexico. Part used. Herb (nonomcial).
l

Ampdopsis quinquefolia Michz.
Amy-root.
See

Same

as Parthenocissus quinquefolia.

Apocynum cannalnmim.
L.

Anagallis arvensis

Primrose family (Primulaceae)

Red chickweed;

red pimpernel; scarlet pimpernel: shepherd' s-weatherglass.

Low, spreading, annual herb, naturalized from Europe, and growing along roadBides and in fields almost throughout the United States.
Part used.
*r

— Herb (nonomcial). — Gnaphalium margaritaceum L.
(

Anaphalis margaritacea
Synonyms.

L.) Benth.

& Hook.
;

Aster family (Asteraceae). Antennaria margaritacea Hook.
soil

Everlasting; pearly everlasting; large-flowered everlasting; cottonweed.

White-hairy or woolly perennial herb, native in dry Alaska, south to North Carolina and California. Leaves (nonoflBcial). Part used.

from Newfoundland

to

Andromeda arborea

L.

Same

as

Oxydendrum arboreum.

Anemone patens
Angelica,
-

var.

nuUaUiana A. Gray.

Same

as Pulsatilla

hirsuli&sima.

American.

Bee Angelica atropurpurea,
L.

Angelica atropurpurea

Synonym. Archangelica atropurpurea Iloffm. Pnrple-stemmed angelica; American angelica; masterwort.
Tall, stout, perennial herb, 4 to 6 feet high; native in from Labrador to Delaware and west to Minnesota.

Parsley family (Apiaceae

).

swamps and damp

place

Paris used.

— Root and seeds

(nonoflBcial).

Angelica, purple-stemmed.
Anise-root.

See Angelica atropurpurea.

See Washingtoma longistylis.

Antennaria margaritacea Hook.

Same

as Anaphalis margaritacea.

Anthemis cotula
Synonym.

— Morula cotuta DC.
fetid

L.

Aster family (Asteraceae ).

camomile (or chamomile). Strong-scented, annual herb, naturalized from Europe; occurs in dry soil, fields. waste places, and along roadsides almost throughout North America, with the exception of the extreme North.
Part used.

Mayweed; dog-fennel:

— Herb (nonofficial).

,

APLEOTRrTM HYEMALE
Aplectrum hyemale Nutt.

ARCHANGELICA ATRO PURPUREA.

11

Same

as Aplectrum spicatum.
S, P.

Aplectrum spicatum
Synonym.

— Aplectrum hyemale Nutt.
;

(Walt.) B.

Orchid family (Orchidaceae).

Adam-and-Eve

putiv-root.

Native herb, perennial, 1 to 2 feet high; in rich woods and swamps from Canada to Georgia and California. Part used. Root (nonofficial). Apocynum. See Apocynum ccmnabirmm.

Apocynum androsaemifolium
Perennial herb,
to Georgia and eastern States.
1

L.

Dog-bane family
honey bloom.

(A;

ocynace

Bitterroot; spreading dogbane;

to 4 feet high, native in fields and thickets from Canada south Arizona. The most common species in Canada and the North-

Part used.

— Root (nonofficial).
L.

Apocynum cannabinum

ocynaceae
fields

Apocynum; Canadian hemp; black Indian
Perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, native in moist ground and borders of throughout the United States.
Part used.

—Rhizome of

this or of closely allied species of
triloba.

Apocynum

(official).

Apple, custard-.
Apple, May-.

See Asimina

See Padopkyllum peltatwnk See Datura stramonium. See Datura stramonium. See under Aquikgia vulgaris.

Apple, thorn-.
Apple-of-Peru.

Aquilegia canadensis L.

^V

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae). Aquilegia vulgaris L. European columbine; garden-columbine. Perennial herb, with showy flowers. Naturalized from Europe, and well known in cultivation; escaped from gardens into woods and fields; frequent in the Eastern and Middle States. The wild columbine ( Aquilegia canadensis L.) occurring in rockv woods throughout Canada ami the eastern United States, is said to possess properties similar to those of the European columbine.
Part used.

— Herb

(nonofficial).

Aralia hispida Vent. Dwarf elder; wild

family
elder; bristly sarsaparilla.
1

to 3 feet high, native in sandy woods and fields from Erect, leafy perennial, Labrador south to North Carolina, west to Minnesota and Indiana.

Part used.

— Root

(nonofficial).

Aralia nudicaulis L. American sarsaparilla; wild
rilla;

Ginseng family (Araliaceae).
sarsaparilla; false sarsaparilla: Virginian sarsapa-

small spikenard.

*v

Herbaceous perennial, native, growing in moist woods from Newfoundland west to Manitoba ami south to North Carolina and Missouri. Boot (nonofficial). Pari used. Ginseng family (Araliaceae). Aralia racemosa L. Indian-root; spikenard; American spikenard; spignet Herbaceous perennial, native, 3 to 6 foot high, growing in rich woods and rocky places from Canada to Georgia, west to Minnesota and Missouri. Part used.— Root (nonofficial).

\rbor-vitae.

See Thuja occidentalism See Epigaea repens.

Arbutus,

trailing.

Archangelica atropurpurea Iloffm.

Same

as Angelica atropurpurea.

.

12
,jf

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

.

Arctium lappa

'

Synonym. Lappa major Gaertn. Lappa; burdock; cockle-button; beggars' -buttons; bardane. Coarse, biennial weed, 4 to 9 feet high, introduced from the Old World, and occurring along roadsides and in fields and waste places in the Eastern and
Central States.
,

L.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Root of this or of other species of Arctium collected from plants of Vwte used. The fresh leaves and the seeds are also used first year's growth (official). (nonofficial)*

Arctostaphylos glauca
Manzanita.

Lindl.

Heath family (Ericaceae).

A

shrub-like tree, 9 to 25 feet high, growing in California, in dry, rocky districts on the western slopes of the Sierras.

Pari used.

— Leaves

(

nonofficial
(L.
)

).

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Spreng.

Heath family (Ericaceae).

Tva-ursi; bearberry; upland-cranberry.

Low, evergreen perennial, with trailing stems, native in rocky or dry, sandy soils from the Middle Atlantic States north to Labrador, westward to California and Alaska.
Part used.

—Leaves

(official).

^y

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Torr. Synonym. — Arum triphyllum L.

Arum

family (Araceae).

Indian turnip; wild turnip; wake-robin; Jack-in-the-pulpit. Native, perennial herb, 10 inches to 3 feet high, found in moist woods from Canada to Florida, west to Kansas and Minnesota. Pari used. Partially dried corm (nonofficial).

,/

'

Aristolochia reticulata Nutt. Birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae). Serpentaria; Texas serpen taria; Texas snakeroot; Red River snakeroot. Perennial herb, about \\ feet in height, native in the Southwestern States, occurring on river banks from Arkansas to Louisiana. Rhizome and roots (official). Parts used.

Aristolochia serpentaria L.

Birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae).

Serpentaria; Virginia serpentaria; Virginia snakeroot. Native, perennial herb, 10 inches to :> feet high, found in rich necticut to Michigan and southward.
Parts used.

woods from Con-

— Rhizome and roots

(official).

Arrowwood.

See Viburnum dentatum.
See Euonymus atropurjnirens.

/

Arrowwood, Indian.

Artemisia abrotanum L.

Aster family (Asteraceae).
in

Southernwood. Shrubby, perennial herb, about 2 to 4 feet in height, occurring from Massachusetts to Nebraska. Adventive from Europe.
Part used.

waste places

— Herb

(nonofficial).

Artemisia absinthium L. Absinthium; wormwood; absinth.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Shrubby, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe, and occurring in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. Parts used. Leaves and tops (official in U. S. P. 1890).

Artemisia vulgaris

L.

Aster family Asteraceae
|

)

Common mug wort.
Perennial herb, 1 to 3i feet high, naturalized from Europe; found in waste places, Nova Scotia to the Middle States and westward to .Michigan. Part sed. Herb (nonofficial).

.

ARUM TRIPHYLLUM
Arum
triphyllum L.

ASTHMA-WEED, QUEENSLAND.
triphyUum.

13

Same
L.

as

Arisama

^

Asarum canadense

Birth wort family (Aristolochiaceae).
ginger.

Canada snakeroot; wild ginger; Indian

Perennial herb, about 1 foot in height, native in rich woods from Canada to North Carolina and Kansas.
Parts used.
Asclepias.

—Rhizome and rootlets (nonofficial).
v

See Asclepias tuberma,

Asclepias cornuti Dec.

Same

as Asclepias syriaea.

Asclepias incarnata L, Milkweed family (Asclepiadaceae). White Indian hemp; swamp-milkweed; swamp-milkweed; rose-colored silk weed. Perennial herb, 2 to 4 feet high, native in swamps from Canada to Tennessee and
Kansas. Part used.

— Root (nonofficial)
L.

Asclepias syriaca
Synonym.

—Asclepias cornuti Dec.
milkweed;
silk weed.

Milkweed family Asclepiadaceae).
|

Common

Perennial herb, 3 to 5 feet high, native in fields and waste places from Canada to North Carolina and Kansas. Part used. Root (nonofficial).

Asclepias tuberosa

L.

*

Milkweed family (Asclepiadaceae).
Canada
to

Asclepias; pleurisy-root; butterfly-weed; Canada-root; whiteroot. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, growing in dry fields from

Florida and Arizona; most abundant southward. Part used.— Root (official in U. S. P. 1890).

Ash, American mountain-. Ash, black. Ash, cane-.
Ash, hoop-.

See Xorbus americana.

See Fraxinus nigra.

See Fraxinus americaua. See Fraxinus nigra. See Fagara dam-herculis and Xantho.rylum americanum. See Ptelea
trifoliata.

Ash, prickly.

Ash, wafer-.
Ash, white.

See Fraxinus americanu.

Asimina

triloba (L.) Dunal.

Custard-apple family (Anonaceae).

North American pawpaw; custard-apple. Small, native tree, growing in rich soil along the banks <»f streams from New York to Michigan and southward. Most common in the Ohio Valley. Part used. Seed (nonofficial).

Aspen, American.
i

See Poptdus tremuioides.

Aspen, quaking.

See Populm tremuloides.

Aspidium.

See Dryopterisfilix-mas and D. marginalis.

Same as Dryopteris Jilix-uats. Aspidium marginal* Sw. Same as Dryopteris marginalis. Isplenium filix-foemina (L. Bernh. Same as Athyrium filix-foemina. Aster puniceus L. Aster family Asteraceae).
Aspidium
filix-mas

Sw.

)

{

Red-stalked aster; cocash; meadow-scabish. Perennial herb, with stout, reddish stem, 3 to 8 feet high, native; in swamps and on banks of streams, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to North Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan.
Part used.

— Root (nonofficial).
See Aster puniceus.

Aster, red-stalked.

Asthma-weed, Queensland.

See Euphorbia

pilulifera.

14

WILD MEDICINAL
(

PI, ANTS

OF THE UNITED STATES.

Athyrium

Fern family (Polypodiaceae>. fllix-foemina L. ) Roth. Synonym. Aspleuium JilLi-foemina (L. ) Bernh. Backache- brake; female-fern; lady-fern. Native fern, with leaves 1 to 3 feet long; in woods and thickets, Canada to

.

Alaska, southward to Florida and Arizona.

Part used.

— Rhizome (nonomcial).
See See

Vvens, purple.

Geum Geum

rivale.
rivale.

Avens, water-.
Backache-brake.
Backache-root.

See Athyrium filir-foemraa. See Lacinaria spicata.
officinalis.

Balm.

See Melissa
bee-.
field-.

Balm, Balm,

See Monarch didyma. See Glecoma hederacea.
See Melissa See
officinalis.

Balm, garden-. Balm, horse-.

t'ollinsonia canadensis.
officinalis.
>>
1 1

Balm, lemon-.

See Melissa
See

Balm, mountain-.

K riodictyon caih n
officinalis.

rum.

Balm,

scarlet.

See Monarda didyma.
See Melissa
.

Balm, sweet.
Balm-of-Gilead

See Papula* candicans.

Balmony.

See Chelone glabra.

Balsam, sweet.

See (Jnaphalium obtusifolium.
See Abies balsam eu.

Balsam

tree,

Canada.

Balsam, white.
Balsa in -fir.

See Gnaphalmm ohtusifolium.

See Abies balsamea.

Bamboo-brier.
Baneberrv, red.

See Smilcu pseudo-china.
See Actaea rubra. See Actaea
alba.

Baneberrv, white.

Baptisia tinctoria (L. ) R. Br. Wild indigo; yellow indigo; American

Pea family (Fabaceae).
indigo;

indigo-weed;

horsefly- weed.

Native, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, growing in dry, poor soil from to Minnesota, south to Florida and Louisiana.

Maine

Parts used.

—Root and leaves (nonomcial).
See Herberts aquifoUum.
Tilia americana.

Barberry, holly-leaved.

Bardane.

See Arctium lappa. See

Basswood.
Bay,
rose-.

See Rhododendron maximum. See Magnolia Virginia nu.

Bay, sweet. Bay, white.

See Magnolia virgimana.
See Myrica
cerifera.
trifoliata.

Bay berry.
Bean, bog-.

See Menyanthes

Bean, buck-.

See Menyanthes

trifoliata.

Bean, hog's-.
Bearberry.

See Ilyosryamus

niger.

See Arcto*tuphylos ura-urxi.

Bearberry-tree.

See Rhamnn* purskkma.
See Polymuia uvedaUu.

Bear's-foot, yellow.

BEARDS-WEED
Bear's-weed.

BITTERBLOOM.

15

See Eriodidyon

californicum.

Beaver-poison.
Beaverroot.
Beaver-tree.

See Cicaia macidata.

See Nymphaea advena. See Magnolia virginiana.

Bedstraw.

See Galium aparine.
See Monarda didyma.
See Fagus americanu,

Bee-balm.

Beech,. American.

Beechdrops.
Beechnut-tree.
Bee-plant.

See Leptamnium Virginia cm, n.
See Fagus americanu.

See Scroph a la-ria marilandica.
See Arctium lappa.

Beggars' -buttons.

Bell wort, perfoliate.

See Uvuiaria perfoliate.

Benjamin-bush.
Bennet.

See Benzoin benzoin.

See Pimpinella saxifraga.

Benzoin benzoin

Synonyms. Lauras benzoin L. Liudera benzoin Meissn. Benzoin odoriferum Heea. Spicebush; feverbush; Benjamin-bush; wild allspice; spicewood. Indigenous shrub, 5 to 12 feet high; in damp, shady woods, and along streams, Massachusetts to Michigan, south to North Carolina and Kansas.
;

(L.) Coulter.

Laurel family (!Lauraceae).
;

Parts used.

— Bark and berries (nonofficial).
Same

Benzoin odoriferum Nees.
Berberis.

as Benzoin benzoin.

See Berberis aguifoliurn.
.

Berberis aquifolium Pursh. Barberry family (Berberidaceae) Berberis; Oregon grape; holly-leaved barberry; Rocky Mountain grape. A shrub, native in woods from Colorado to the Pacific Ocean; especially abundant in Oregon and northern California. .Parts used. Rhizome and roots of this and of other species of Berberis (official).

Bergamot, wild.

See Monarda fistulosa.

Bethroot, ill-scented.

See Trillium trectwnu
officinalis.

Betony, Paul's-.

See Veronica

Betula lenta

L.

Birch family (Betulaceae).
to Ontario, south to Florida

Sweet birch; black birch; cherry birch. Large, indigenous forest tree; Newfoundland
Tennessee.

and
dis-

Part used.

— Bark (nonofficial).
from the bark,

Oil of betula, obtained

by maceration and

tillation

is official.

Bikukulla canadensis (Goldie)
Synonyms.

Millsp.

— Corydalis

3?°PPy family (Papaveraceae),
OorydaHs
canadensis

formosa

Pursh;

Goldie;

Dieentra

canadensis Walp.

Turkey-corn; squirrel-corn; turkey-pea; staggerweed. Native, perennial plant, 6 to 12 inches high; in rich woods from Nova Scotia south along the mountains to Kentucky, and westward to Missouri and Minnesota. Part used. Tubers (nonofficial).

Birch, black.

See Betula

lenta.
lenta.

Birch, cherry.
Birch, sweet.

See Bttnja

See Betula

lenta.

Bird's-foot violet.

See Yinla pedata.

Birthroot.

See Trillium erectum.

Bitterbloom.

See Sabbaiia angtUaris.
3

11072—No. 89—06

n

.

16

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES
See Tanacetum vulgare. See Apocynum a lulrosaemifolium. See Solarium dulcamara.
See CelaMrus scandens.

Bitter-buttons.
Bitterroot.

Bittersweet.

Bittersweet, false.

Bitterweed.

See Erigeron canadensis. See Rubus nigrobaccus. See Rubus cuneiforms.

Blackberry, high-bush.
Blackberry, knee-high.

Blackberry, low running. Blackberry, low-bush. Blackberry, sand-.

See Rubus proa tm bens*
trivialis.

See Rubus

See Rubus euneifolius.
occidentalis.

Blackcap.
Blackroot.

See Rubus

See Veronica

virginica.

Blackroot, Indian.

See Pterocaulon undulatum.
officinale.

Blaekwort.

See Symphytum
See Lobelia

Bladderpod.
Blazingstar.

inflate*

See Chnmaeliriuu, luteum.
See Laemaria scariosa, See Lacinaria squamosa.

Blazingstar, blue. Blazingstar, scaly.

Bloodroot.

See Sanguinaria canadensis. See Hieracium venosum.
See Hieracium venosum.
officinale.

Bloodwort.

Bloodwort, striped.
Blowball.
Blue-curls.

See Taraxacum

See PrwneUa vulgaris.

Bog-bean.
Bog-myrtle.
Boneset.

See Menyanthes See Myrica

trifoliata.

gale.

See Eapatorium perforatum.

Boneset, deerwort-.
Boneset, purple.
B<

See Bupatorium ageratoides.

See Eupatorium purpureum.
See Saponaria
officinalis.

>uneing-Bet.

Bowman's-root.

See Porteranfhus

tvifoliatus

and Veronica

virginica.

Boxwood.

See Cornus florida.
See Athyrium filix-foemina. See

Brake, backache-.
Brake, buckhorn-.

Ommmda

regalis.

Brake, rock-. See Polypodium vulgarc.

/

Sy o n y m
)i

.

— Sin a p

Mustard family (Brassicaceae).
is

nig

m

L.

Sinapis nigra; black mustard;

brown mustard;

red mustard.
in fields

Annual herb, introduced from Europe; found
throughout the United States. Part used.— Seed (official); the volatile
also official.
oil

and waste places almost
is

obtained from black mustard seed

Brauneria angrustifolia (DC.) Heller. Synony Echinacea angustifol v DC
i

Aster family (Asteraceae).

.

t

Echinacea; pale-purple coneflower; Sampson-root; niggerheud (in Kansas). Native, perennial, herbaceous plant, 2 to 3 feet high, occurring in rich prairie soil or sandy soil from Alabama to Texas and northwestward; most abundant in Kansas and Nebraska. Part used. Root (nonofficial).

(

BROOM
B room
.

CALICO-BUSH.

"17

See Cytisus scopa riu s.
See Cytisus scoparius. See Oytisus scoparius.
vulgaris.
officinale.
trifoliata.

Broom, green. Broom, Scotch.
Brownwort.
Bruisewort.

See Prunella

See Symphytum See Menyanthes

Buck-bean.
Buckeye,

fetid.

See Aesculus glabra. See Aesculus glabra.
See Aesculus glabra.
m

Buckeye, Ohio.

Buckeye, smooth.

Buckhorn-brake.
Buckthorn.
Bugle, sweet. Bugle, water-.

See Osmunda

regalis.

See Rhamnus

cathartica.

See Lycopus mrginicus. See Lycopus
virginicus.

Bugleweed.
Bullbrier.
Bull-nettle.

See Lycopus

virginicus.

See Smilar pseudo-china. See Solannm carolineme.
I at

Bulrush.

See Typha

{folia.

Burdock.

See Arctium lappa.
See Pimpinetta saxifraga.
i

BuriH't-Kixifrage.

Burningbush.

See Euonymus atrop irpurea.
(L.
)

y

Bursa bursa-pastoris
•Synonym,

— GapseUa bursa-pastoris Medic.

Britton.

Mustard family (Br assicaceae).

Shepherds-purse; cocowort; toywort. Annual plant, about 1 foot in height, found in distributed. Introduced from Europe.
Part used.

fields

and waste places; widely

— Herb
(L.)

(nonofficial).
>

Burseed, spiny.

See Xantkk

spinosum.

Burweed, thorny.

See Xanthium spinosum.

y Butneria florida

Synonym. 'alycanth u.sfloridus L. Hairy strawberry-shrub; sweet-scented shrub; Carolina
Native shrub, 4 to
Part used.
<S

Kearney.

Strawberry-shrub family (Calycanthaceae).
allspice;

Florida allspice.

feet high; in rich soil, Virginia to Mississippi.

—Bark (nonofficial).
See AscL
ias tuberoea.

Butterfly-weed.
Butternut.

See Juglans cinerea.

Buttonbush.

See Cephalanthus See

occidental's.

Button-snakeroot

Eryngmm

yuccifolium.
spicatu.

Button-snakeroot, dense.
Button-snakeroot, large.
Button-tree.

See Lacinaria

See Lacinaria scariosa.
Ottidentctlis.

See (\phalanthus

Button wood-shrub.
Cabbage, skunk-. Cabbage, swamp-. Calamus.
Calfkill.

See Gephakmthw occidentaUs.

See Spathyema foetida. See

wihyema foetida.

See Acarus calamus. See Kalmia august ifo/ia. See Kalmia
latifolia.

Calico-bush.
•s

/

.

18

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
L.

CeUycanthusflori?"

Same

as Butneria floridctn

Camomile,

fetid.

See Artihemis cotula.

Canada balsam
Canada-root.
Cancerroot.

tree.

See Abies balsamea.

See Aadepias tuberosa. See Lepktmnium virginianum.
See Myrica
cerifera.

Candleberry.
i

tne-aah.

See FnijiiwH americana.

Cankerroot.

See Ooptis

trifolia

and Limomum carolinianvm.

Canker-weed.

See Xat,ahts serperdarius. See Nabalus albus.
officinale.

Canker-weed, white.
Cankerwort.

See Taraxacum

Canoewood.

See IAriodendron
Medic.

tulipifera.

Capsella bursa-pastori

Same

as

Bursa harsa-pastoris.

Cardinal, red.
Cardinal-flower.

See Lobelia cardinal is.

See Lobelia

card'niali*. siphilitica.

Cardinal-flower, blue.

See Lobelia

J ^

Carduus arvensis
Stjnonj/m.

(L.) Robs.
arvense Scop.

Aster family (Asteraceae)

Cirsiiint

Canada

thistle;

creeping thistle; cursed thistle.
1

Perennial herb,
places from

to 3 feet high; growing in cultivated fields, pastures, and waste Newfoundland to Virginia, west to Minnesota and Nebraska.

A

bad weed, introduced from Europe. Part used. Root (nonofBcial).

Carduus benedictvs Auct.
Carpenter' s-sijiiare.
Carrion-flower.
Carrot, wild.

Same

as

Cmcus

benedictus.

See Scraphutaria marilandica.

See Smilax herbacea.

See Daucus caroto.

Carya

a/ ha

Xutt.

Same
8

as Jlicoria ovata.

/Cascara sagrada.
\

Rhamnus purshiana,

Cassia marilandica L. American senna; wild senna;
Native, perennial herb; in
to Louisiana

Senna family (Caesalpiniaceae).
1

oeust-plant.
soil.

swamps and wet

New England

to Florida,

west

and Nebraska. Part used. —Leaves (non< >fficial).
-

Castalia odorata (Dryand.)

Wood v. & Wood.
Water-lily family (Nymphaeaceae).

Synonym.

— Nymphaea odorata Dryand. —Rhizome (nonofficial).
Beech family (Fagaceae).
Michigan, south
Native.

White

pond-lily; water-lily; sweet-scented water-lily.

Indigenous, aquatic herb; perennial; in ponds, marshes, and sluggish streams, from Canada to Florida and Louisiana.
Part used.

Casta nea.

See Castanea dent at a.

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Castanea; chestnut; American chestnut.

A

large, spreading tree, occurring in rich woods from Maine to to Tennessee. Especially abundant in the Allegheny region.

Part used.

—Leaves

(official in

U.

S.

P. 1890).

Catehweed.
Catfoot.

See Galium aparine.

See Glecoma hederacea.

CATGUT
Catgut,

CHAMAKLIRIUM LUTKTM.

19

See Oracca virginiaim.
See Nepeta cataria.

Catmint.
Catnip.

See Nepeta cataria.

Cattail, broad-leaved.
Cattail-flag.

See Typka
latifolia.

/atifolia.

See Typha

Caulophyllum.

See Cautophyttum
(L.

thalictroides.
)

Caulophyllum thalictroides

Michx.

Barberry family Berber idaceae).
(

Caulophyllum; blue cohosh; squawroot; papooae-root Native, perennial herb, 1 to 3 feet high; found in rich, shady woods from New Brunswick to South Carolina, westward to Nebraska; abundant throughout the Allegheny Mountain region. Rhizome and roots (official in U. S. P. 1890). Parts used.

Ceanothus americanus

L.

Buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).

Jersey tea; New Jersey tea; redroot. native shrub, growing in dry, open woods from Canada to Florida and Texas. A
Parts

used.—Root, root-bark, and leaves
See Junipi ms Virginia
r.

(nonofficiai).

Cedar, red.

Cedar, shrubby red. Cedar, white. Cedar, yellow.

See Juniperus sabma.
obcidentalis. occidentalis.

See Thuja

See Thuja

Celandine.

See Chdidonium maju*.
Soe Chdidonium majus.

Celandine, garden-. Celandine, great. Celandine, wild.

See Chdidonium majm.
See Impatiem aurea.
L.

Celastrus scandens

Staff-tree family (Celastraceae).

False bittersweet; staff-tree; waxwork; fevertwig. twining, woody vine; in rich, damp soil, woods, and thickets, An indigenous, to Manitoba, south to North Carolina and New Mexico. Ontario part ,/,v,,/._Bark of plant and of root (nonofficiai ).

Cenlaurea benedicta L.

Same

as Cnicus benedidus.

Centaury, American.
Centaury, ground-.

See Sabbat in angtdaris.
See Polygala
L.
nvttallii.

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Madder family (Rubiaceae).

Hnttonbush; button-tree; buttonwood-shrnb; globeflower. Indigenous shrub, 6 to 12 feet high; in swamp- and damp place-. Canada to
Florida and California.

Pad used.— Bark

(nonofficiai).

Cercis canadensis L. Judas-tree; redbud. Small, native tree, growing in rich
Florida
Part

Senna family Caesalpiniaceae)
(

.

soil

from

New

Jersey to .Minnesota, south to

and Texas. used.—Bask of root (nonoffidaT).

i/ Chamaelirium luteum U)
(

V^/

Synonym. True (nol

—HdorAos dioica

A. (nay. Pursh.

Bunchflower family (Melanthiaceae).

unicorn-root;" bla/.ingstar; star wort; drooping starwort. false) perennial herb, about 2 feet high; native in moist meadows and thickets Slender, to Michigan, south to Florida and Arkansas. from Massachusetts

Part

//.sv/.—-Rhizome (nonofficiai).

u, iron,

K

aThei

m

»

would seem u lieorn-root was *iven
to

me -

••

miieorn-iwt " was

first applied to Ch belong more properly
I

i

tut

and the de
'

later,

and which may

iijto Ai * uine.-nifall thus be called

m

iation •• true ;,ta which
i.

...

20

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
(L.) Scop.
L.

Chamaenerion angustifolium
Synonym.

Evening-primrose family
(Onagraceae).

— Epilobium angustifolium

Great willow-herb; wickup.
Native, perennial herb, 2 to 8 feet high, found in dry soil from Canada to Alaska, south to North Carolina, Arizona, and California. Very common from Penn-

sylvania northward.
Paris used.

—Leaves and root (nonofficial).
See Anthemis
cotula.

Chamomile,

fetid.

Champion-oak.
Cheekerberry.
Cheeseflower.
Cheeses.

See Quercus rubba. See Gauttheria procumbens ami Miichdla repens. See Malva
sylvestris.

See

Mo Ira

rotundifolia.

Chelidonium.

See Chelidonium majus.
L.

Chelidonium majus

^Poppy family (Papaveraceae).

Chelidonium; celandine; garden-celandine; great celandine; tettei wort. Perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, growing along fences, roadsides, and in waste places; common in the East. Naturalized from Europe. Part used.— Entire plant (official in l\ S. P. 1880),

/

Chelone glabra L. Balmony; turtle-head;

Figwort family (Scrophulariaceae)
shell flower;

snakehead; salt-rheum weed.

Native, perennial, herbaceous plant, 2 to 3 feet high; in swamps streams, Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Florida and Kansas.

and along

Port used.

—Herb, and especially the leaves (nonofficial).
See Chenopodium ambrosioides and
L.
l

Chenopodium.

C.

anthelminticum.

Chenopodium ambrosioides

Goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae). Chenopodium; Mexican tea; American wormseed; Jerusalem tea; Spanish tea. Strong- scented herb, 2 to 3 feet high, annual; naturalized from tropical America, and occurring in waste places, meadows, and pastures from New England
to Florida, west to California.

^

\md.—Fruit (official in U. S. Chenopodium anthelminticum L.
Part

P. 1890).

Goosefoot family ( Chenopodiaceae )

Chenopodium; wormseed; Jerusalem oak.
Annual, sometimes perennial, herb, usually taller than C. ambrosioides, naturalized from Europe, and found in waste places from southern New York to Wisconsin, south to Florida and Mexico. Parts used Fruit [official in C. S. P. 1890). The oil of chenopodium, distilled from this plant, is official.

/'

Chenopodium botrys

L.

Goosefoot family Chenopodiaceae)
(

Jerusalem oak. Annual herb, about 2 feet high, introduced from Europe; found in wa-te places from Nova Scotia to New York and Kentucky, westward to Oregon.
Parts used.

— Herb and seeds
See Betulo
lento.

(nonofficial).

Cherry birch.
Cherrv. rum-. Cherry, wild.
Chervil, sweet.

See Primus serotina.

Se© Prunus

serotina.
lonyistylis.

See Wasliingtonia

Chestnut.

See Castanea dentota. See Castaneo dentata.

Chestnut, American.

Chestnut, horse-.

See Aesculus hippocastanum.

Chickentoe.

See Corollorhiza odontorluza. See Alsine media.

Chickweed, common.

.

CHICK WEED, RED
Chickweed,
Chicory.
red.

CLEMATIS.

21

See AnagaUis arvevms.
intybus.
#

See dchorium

Chimaphila.

See Chunaphila umbettata.
(L.
)

'

Chimaphila umbellata

Xutt.

Wintergreen family (Pyrolaceae).

Chimaphila; pipsissewa; princes-pine; bitter wintergreen; rheumatism-weed. Small, perennial herb, native in dry, shady woods, especially in pine forests, from Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to California. Part used. Leaves (official).

China-root, American. China-root,
'
s

See Smlta.r pseudo-china.

false.

See Smila.r pseudo-china.
L.

Chionanthus virginica

Olive family (Oleaceae).
moist thickets from Delaware to Florida and

Fringe-tree; old-man's-beard.

A

shrub or small

tree, native in

Texas. Fart used.

—Bark of root

(nonofficial)

Chittem-bark.

See Rhamnus purshiana.

Chrysanthemum
Synonym.

— Leucanthemum
1

leu cant he

mum L.
mdgare Lam.

Aster family Asteraceae).
(

Oxeye

daisy; white daisy.

Perennial herb,

to 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe; occurring in pastures, meadows, and waste places in nearly every section of the country, but less abundantly in the South and rarely in the West.

Part used.

— Herb

(nonofficial).

Chrysanthemum parthenium
Synonym.

—Pyrethrum partlienlum Smith.
feverfew; featherfew; febrifuge-plant.

(L.) Pers.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Common
Part axed.

Perennial herb, naturalized from Europe. Mostly escaped from cultivation; in waste places, New Brunswick to New Jersey, and locally in the interior.

—Herb (nonofficial).
L.

/

Cichorium intybus

Chicory family (Cichoriaceae).
fields,

Chicory; succory. Perennial herb, 1 to 3 feet high, growing in

waste places, and along roadAbundant eastsides from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, west to Nebraska. ward. Naturalized from Europe.

Part us<<l.— Root (nonofficial).

/

Parsley family Apiaceae). Cicuta maculata L. Water-hemlock; musquash-root; beaver-poison.
(

Native perennial, 3 to 6 feet high, stout, erect; poisonous. Found in low grounds from Canada south to Florida and New Mexico.

swamps and

Part used.
Cimicifuga.

— Leaves (nonofficial).
family

See Chmcifugu racemosa

\

Synonym.

—Aetata racemosa L.
— Rhizome and roots (official).
Same
as (<irduus arvensls.

Cimicifuga; black snakeroot; black cohosh; squawroot; rattle-root. Native, perennial herb, 3 to 8 feet high; in rich soil in shady woods, Maine to Georgia, west to Wisconsin and Missouri. Most abundant in the Ohio Valley.
Parts used.
Cinquefoil.

See Potentilla canadensis.

Cirsium ar reuse Scop.
Cleavers.

See Galium apariue. See Galium apariue.

Cleaverwort.
Clematis.

See Clematis nrgmtana

.

22

WILD
L.

UNITED STATES.
Crowfoot family (Kanunculaceae).

Clematis virginiana

Virgin' s-bower; clematis.

Shrubby, perennial vine; native; found along river banks in hedges and thickets from Canada to Georgia and Kansas. Parts used. Leaves and flowers (nonofficial).

Clotbur, spiny.

See XantJtium spinosum. See Xardhium spinosum.
i

Clot weed, thorny.

Clover, bitter.

See Sabbat a angularis. See Tr ifolinm pratense.

Clover, meadow-. Clover, purple. Clover, red.

See Trifolium pratense.

See Trifolium pratense. See Melilotus
officinalis.

Clover, yellow sweet.

Club-moss.

See Lycopodium clavatum.

Cnicus benedictus L.
Synonym*,

— Carduus benedictus Auct.

Aster family Asteraceae)
(
;

Centaurea benedicta L.
St.

Blessed thistle; holy thistle; bitter thistle; spotted thistle;

Benedict' s-thistle.

Annual plant, 1 to 2 feet high; in waste places, Southern nia and Utah; introduced from Europe.
Part used.
Cocash.

States,

and in

Califor-

— Herb (nonofficial).
See Senedo aureus.
See Arctium lappa.

See Aster pumceus.

Cocash-weed.
Cockle-button.

Cocowort.

See Bursa bursa-pastoris. See Cimicifuga racemosa.
thalictr aides.

Cohosh, black.

Cohosh, blue. See Cauloph yllum

Cohosh, red.

See Actaea rubra.
See Actaea alba.
rillosa,

Cohosh, white.
Colic-root.

SeeAletrisfarinosa, Dioscorea

Lacinaria spicata, and L. squarrosa.

Collinsonia canadensis L. Mint family (Menthaceae). Stoneroot; rich weed; knobroot; horse-balm. Native, perennial herb, about 2 feet high, occurring in rich, moist woods from Maine to Wisconsin, south to Florida and Kansas. Part* used. Root and leaves (nonofficial).

Colt—foot.
Colt's-tail.

See Tussilugo farfara.

See E< igeron canadensis.
See Aquilegia vulgaris.

Columbine, European.
Columbine, garden-. Columbine, wild.

See Aquilegia vulgaris.
vulgaris.
">

See under Aquilegia See FYasera carol
officinale.

Colu mbo, American.

uensis.

Comfrey.

See Symphytum

Compass-plant.

See Silphium laciniatum.
peregrina

('omptonia asplenifoHa Gaertn.

Comptonia peregrina
Sweet Sh

(L.) Coulter.

Bayberry family (Myricaceae).
asplemfoUa L.

Synonyms.— Comptonia

nsplenifolia Gaertn.; Ifyriea

meadow-fern. plant about 2 * feet hi " h native; in thin sandy or stouv woods and on uM^' Canada to North Carolina, hillsides, Indiana, and Michigan, Parts used. Lea
' *

fern; spleenwortbush;

Coneflower, pale-purple.

See Brawneria anpurti folia.

.

CONEFLOWER, TALL
Coneflower,
Congo-root,
tall.

CORNUS FLORIDA.

23

See Rudbeckia

laciniata.

See Psoralea pedunculata.

Conium.

See Contain maculatum.
L.

Conium maculatum

Parsley family (Apiaceae).

Conium; poison-hemlock; spotted parsley; spotted cowbane. Biennial herb, 2 to 6 feet high, naturalized from Europe; common in waste Poisonous. places, especially in the Eastern and Middle States. Full-grown, but unripe, fruit,' carefully dried and preserved (offiParis used.

cial); leaves (nonofficial).

Consumptive' s-weed.
Convallaria.

See Eriodictyon californiciim.

See Convallaria majalis.

Convallaria biflora Walt.

Same

as

Polygonatum bifhrum.
Lily-of-the-valley family (Convallariaceae).

Convallaria majalis L.
Convallaria; lily-of-the-valley.

A

low, perennial herb; indigenous; the Carolinas.

on the higher mountains from Virginia

to

Parts used.— Rhizome
Convallaria racemosa L.

and

roots (official);. herb

and flowers

(nonofficial),

Same as Vagnera rae* mosa. Convolvulus panduratus L. Same as Ipomoea pandurata.
See Tiarella cordifolia.
'

Coolwort.

Coptis trifolia (L.)

Salisb.

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae )

Goldthread; cankerroot; mouthroot; yellowroot. Low, native, perennial herb, growing in damp mossy woods and bogs from Canada and Alaska south to Maryland and Minnesota; most common in the NewEngland States, northern New York and Michigan, and in Canada.
Parts used.— Rhizome and rootlets (nonofficial).

Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt,

Orchid family (Orchidaceae).

Crawley-root; coralroot; dragon's-claw; chickentoe. Leafless plant, 6 to 15 inches high, found in rich woods from Maine to Florida, west to Michigan and Missouri. Native.

Part used.
Coralroot.

—Rhizome

(nonofficial).

See Corallorhiza odontorhiza.
See BikukuUa canadensis. See Bikuhdla canadensis. See Cornus amomvn).
See Eryngium yuocifo&ium and Lacinaria
sj)icata.

Corn, squirrel-.
Corn, turkey-.
Cornel, silky.

Corn-snakeroot.

Cornus

amomum Mill.
osier;

Dogwood family
L.

(Cornaceae).

Synonym.

— Cornus sericea

Red

swamp-dogwood;

silky cornel; rose-willow.

Native shrub, 3 to 10 feet high; in low woods and along streams, Canada to Florida, west to Texas and the Dakotas.
Pn-t used.— Bark (nonofficial).

Cornus circinata
Green
osier;

L'

Her.

Dogrwood family (Cornaceae).

round-leaved dogwood. Native shrub, 3 to 10 feet high; in shady places, Canada and the northeastern

United
J'<trt

States.

used.

— Bark (nonofficial).
L.

Cornus florida

Dog-wood family (Cornaceae).

Flowering dogwood; boxwood.
Small, native tree <>r large shrub, growing in woods from Canada to Florida, Texas and Missouri. Most abundant in the Middle States. Parts used. Bark of tree and of root, the latter preferred (nonofficial).

11072— No. $&~06

4

'

.

24
(

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Same
as Cornus

'ornus srrirea L.

amomum.
as

Corydalis canadensis Goldie.

Same
as

BikukuUa canadensis

Corydalis formosa Pursli.

Same

BikukuUa canadensis.

Cotton-gum.

See Nyssa

u<juatica.

Cottonweed.
Couch-grass.

See AnapJia/i* margaritacea.
See Agropyron repens.

Cough weed. Cough wort.
Cow-lily.

See Senecio aureus. See Tussdago farfara.
See Conium maculatwm*

Cowbane, spotted.

See Nymphaea advena.
See Heracleum lanatum.

Cow-parsnip.

Cracca virginiana
Synonym.

— Tephrosia virginiana Pers.

L.

Pea family (Fabaceae).

Devirs-shoestring; hoary pea; goat's-rue; catgut.

Hoary, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, native; occurring in dry, sandy from New England to Florida, west to Texas and Minnesota. Part used.— Root (nonofficial).
Cramp-bark.
See Viburnum opidus. See Viburnum opulus.

soil

Cranberry, high-bush.

Cranberry, upland-.
Crane's-bill, spotted.
Crane's-bill, wild.

See Arctostaphylos vm-ursi.
See Geranium maculatum.

See Geranium macidatum.

/

Crataegus oxyacantha L. Apple family (Malaceae) Hawthorn; hedgethorn; whitethorn; maythorn. Shrub or tree, introduced from Europe, and sparingly escaped from cultivation.
Part used.—Berries (nonofficial).
Crawley-root.
Crosswort.

See Corallorhiza odontorhiza.

See Eupatorium perfoliatum.
See Magnolia acuminata and M. See Gnaphalium uliginosum. See Gnaphalium uliginomm. See Veronica virginica.
tripetala.

Cucumber-tree.

Cudweed, low.

Cudweed, marsh-.
Culver' s-physic. Culver' s-root.

See Veronica virgimca.

Cnnila mariana L.

Same
(L.
)

as Qunila origanmdes*

Cunila origanoides

Britton. L.

Mint family (Menthaceae)

Synonym.— Cunila mariana

American dittany; stonemint.
Indigenous, perennial plant, found on drv hills and in drv woods from to Florida, west to Ohio. Part used.— Herb (nonofficial).
Cup-plant.

New York

See Silphium perfoliatum. See Asimina
officinale L.
triloba.

Custard-apple.

Cynoglossum

Borage family (Boraginaceae).

Hound' s-tongue; ^ypsy-flower.
Biennial herb, about 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe and occurring in waste places from Canada to North Carolina, west to Kansas and Minnesota. Parts med Leaves and root (nonofficial).

Ulii

See Cypripedium hirmtum and

C.

parmfiorum.

.

CYPKIPEDIUM HIRSUTUM
/

DELPHINIUM CONSOLIDA.

25

Cypripedium hirsutum

Synomjm. ( hjpripedium pubescent Willd. Cypripedium; large yellow ladies-slipper; yellow moccasin-flower; American
valerian.

Mill.

Orchid family (Orchidaceae).

Herb,

1 to 2 feet

Alabama and Parts used. Rhizome and

high, native in woods and thickets from west to Nebraska and Mi— ouri.
roots (official).

Nova

Scotia south to

Cypripedium parviflorum

Salisb.

Orchid family (Orchidaceae).
to

Cypripedium; small yellow ladies-slipper. Herb, 1 to 2 feet high; native in woods and thickets from British America Georgia, Missouri, and Oregon. Rhizome and roots (official). Parts used.

(

ypripedium pubescent Willd.
(L.) Link.

Same

as

(

hfpripedium hirsutum.

Cytisus scoparius
Synorn/m.

— Sarothamnus scoparius Wimm.

Pea family (Fabaceae).
N

Scoparius; broom; green broom; Scotch broom. Stiff, wiry plant, 3 to 5 feet high; naturalized from Europe; growing in dry, sandy soil from Massachusetts to Virginia and becoming common in many places in the northwestern United States.

Part used.
Daisy, oxeye.
Daisy, white.

—Tops

(official

).

See Chrysanthemum leucaznikemum,
*

See Chrysanthemum leucanthemum* See Erigeron
j>h lladelph icus.

Daisy-tleabane.

Damiana.
Dandelion.

See Tkirnera microphyUa.
See Taraxacum
L.
officinale.

Daphne mezereum
Synonym.

—Mezereum officinarum C. A. Mey.

Mezereon family (Daphnaceae).

Mezereum; mezereon; spurge-laurel; paradise-plant; spurge-olive. A very hardy shrub, introduced from Europe and escaped from cultivation Canada and New England. Part used. Bark of this and of other European species of Daphne (official).

in

f

Datura stramonium

L.

Potato family (Solanaceae).

Stramonium; jimson-weed; Jamestown- weed; thorn-apple; apple-of-Peru. Poisonous weed; annual, 2 to 5 feet high; introduced from the Tropics, and occurring in fields and waste places throughout the United States, with the exception of the North and West.
Paris used.

—Leaves
L.

(official); seeds (official in IT. S. P. 1890).
"

Daucus carota
Wild
carrot;

Parsley family Apiaceae).
(

Queen- Anne' s-laee.

Biennial

herb, 2 to 3 feet high; naturalized from Europe; common almost throughout the United Stat* 8, growing in old fields and along roadsides.

Parts used.— Root, fruit,

and leaves

(nonofficial).
repens.

Deerberry.
Deer-laurel.

See OauUheria procumbem and MitcheUa
See Rhododendron maximum.

Deer's-tongue.

See

Trilisa odoratissima.

Deerwood.

See Ostrya virgimdna.
Bee Bupatorium ageratoidt
L.
s.

Deerwort-boneset.

Delphinium consolida

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae)

Field-larkspur; knight' s-spur; lark-heel. An annual herb, about 2 feet high; naturalized from Europe, and found in waste places from southern New Jersey and Pennsylvania southward. The indig-

.

26

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

y Delphinium consolida
enous
tall

/

—Continued.

larkspur, Delphinium urceolatum Jacq, (D. exaUatum Ait.), is used This is found in woods from Pennsylvania to Minnesota, for similar purposes. south to Alabama and Nebraska.

Part* used.

—Herb and seeds (nonofiicial).
See under Delphinium consolida.

Delphinium

altnfiun Ait.

Ddphirnium urceolatum Jacq.
DeviPs-bit.

See under Delphinium consolida.

See Ladnaria

scariosa.

DeviPs-shoesfcring.

See Oracca virginiana.

Dewberry.

See Rubus procumbens.
See Rubus
vtflosus.

Dewberry, one-flowered.

Dewberry, southern.

See Rubus

trivialis.

Dicentra canadensis Walp.
Digitalis.

Same as Bikukulia

canadensis.

See Digitalis purpurea.

Digitalis purpurea L.

Fig-wort family (Scrophulariaceae).
feet high; introduced cultivation in parts of

Digitalis; foxglove; fairy-fingers; thimbles; lady's-glove.

Very handsome biennial plant, 3 to 4 garden plant, and now escaped from ton, and West Virginia.
Parts
i

from Europe as a Oregon, Washing-

(1.

—Leaves from plants of second year's growth, gathered at commenceYam family
(Dioscoreaceae).

ment of flowering (official) Dioscorea villosa L. Wild yam; colic-root; rheumatism-root.*

Slender, herbaceous, native vine, growing in moist thickets from Rhode Island to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas; more common in central and southern parts of the Tinted States.

Part used.

—Rhizome

(nonofhcial).

Diospyros virginiana
Persimmon.

L.

Ebony family (Diospyraceae).
fields

Indigenous tree, 15 to 50 feet in height; in Kansas, Florida, and Texas.
Parts used.

and woods, Rhode Island

to

— Bark and unripe fruit (nonofiicial),
L.

Dirca palustris

Mezereon family (Daphnaceae).

P

Leatherwood; mooeewood; American mezereon; wickopy; rope-bark. A native shrub, occurring in woods and thickets, New Brunswick to Florida, west to Missouri and Minnesota; most common in the Northern and Eastern
States.

Part umd.

— Bark
See

(nonofiicial).
sedtrides.

Ditch-stonecrop.

See Penthonnn

Dittany, American.

Bee Ctinila oriaanoides.

Dock,

bitter.

Rumex obtusifolius.
See

Dock, blunt-leaved. Dock, broad-leaved.
Dock, curled.
Dock, narrow.

Rumex

obtusifolius.
olius.

See Rumex o&im
ispus.

BeeRumex \
See Rum* See

rispus.

Dock, sour.

Rumex

crispus.

Dock, spatter-.
Dock, velvet.

See Nymphaea advena.
See Verbascum thapms. See

Dork, yellow.

Rum

crispus.

Dogbane, spreading.
Dogberry.

See Apocy*

m

mdrwaemifotium.

See Sorbus americana.

DOG-FENNEL
Dog-fennel.
Dog-grass.

EMETIC-ROOT.

27

Bee Anthem is

cotula.

See Agropyron repem.
See Brythronium americanum.

Dog's-tooth violet.

Dogwood, flowering.
Dogwood, swamp-.
Dooryard-plantain.

See Cornus jiorlda. See Oornus drdnata.

Dogwood, round-leaved.
Sec

Camus amomum.

See Plmdago major.

Draeoniium foetidum L.

Same

as Spaihyema foetida.

Dragon' 8- claw.

See Corallorhiza odontorhiza.
See J'orteranthus
L.
trifoliate*.

Dropwort, western.

Drosera rotundifolia

Sundew family Droseraceae).
(

Round-leaved sundew; youthwort. Low, perennial herb, growing in bogs
to Florida

find

muddy

shores of rivers from Canada

and

California.

Part used.

— Herb (nonofficial).
Schott.

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.)

Fern family (Polypodiaceae).
L.

Synonynis.—AepidiumJUix-wias Bw.; Polypodiwm fiHx-mas

Aspidium; male-fern. Fern, with leaves 1 to 8 feet long; in rocky woods from Canada Michigan, and in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona.
Part used.

to

northern

—Rhizome

(official).

Fern family (Polypodiaceae). Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray. Synonym*.—Aspidium marginaleSvi.] Polypodium marginaleh.
Aspidium; evergreen wood-fern; marginal-fruited shield -fern. with leaves 6 inches to 2.J feet long; in rocky woods from Canada south to Fern, Alabama and Arkansas. Pari used.— Rhizome (official).
Dulcamara.
See Solanum dulcamara.
See Qnaphatiwn uiiginomm.
officinalis.

Dysentery-weed.

Earth-smoke.
Echinacea.
Echinacea
Elder.

See Fumaria

See Brawieria angustifolui. DC.

angujttifolia

>ame

as Brcameria (mgustifoKa.

See Sambucus canadensis.

Elder, American.
Elder, dwarf.

See

Sambucm

canadensis.

See Aralia hispida.

Elder, sweet.
Elder, wild.

See

Sambumn

canadensis.

See Aralia hispida.
See Inula hslenium.

Elecampane.
Elk-tree.

See Oxydendrum arbor, am.
Bee Magnolia tripetala.

Elkwood.

Elliott' s-sabbatia.

Bee Sabbatia

elliottii.

Elm.
9

See

Hums faint.
See Ulmvsfulra.

Elm, Indian.

Elm, moose-.
Elm,
red.

See UlmusfuJra.

Bee Uluwsftdva. See Uhvus
fn/ra.

Elm, slippery.
Emetic-root.

See Euphorbia coroUata.

. .

28

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
L.

Epigaea repens
(J

Heath family

(Ericaceae).

ravel-plant; trailing arbutus; mayflower.

Small, shrubby, native plant, spreading on the ground in sandy soil, especially under evergreen trees, from Florida to .Michigan and northward.

Pari used.

— Leaves (nonofficial)'.
L.

EpUobium angustifolwm

Same

as Chamaenerion a ngusti folium.

Epilobium palustre

L.

Evening-primrose family Onagraceae).

Swamp

willow-herb; wickup. Slender, erect, native herb, 6 to 18 inches high, found in swamps and marshes from Canadaand the New England States west to Colorado and Washington.
Parts used.

— Leaves and
L.

root (nonofficial).

Epiphegus virginiana Bart.

Same

as

Leptamnium virginianum.

Equisetum hyemale

Horsetail family (Equisetaceae).

Common

scouring-rush; horsetail; shave-grass.

Rush-like perennial plant, growing in wet places along river banks and borders of woods throughout nearly the whole of North America. Pari used. Plant (nonofficial).

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Rat*. Fire weed; pile wort. Native, annual herb, 1 to 8 feet high, in woods, to Florida, Louisiana, and Nebraska.
Part used.

Aster family ( Aster aceae).
fields,

and waste

places,

Canada

— Herb (nonofficial).
( )

f

Erigeron canadensis L. Aster family Asteraceae Synonym.—Leptiion canademe (L.) Britton.« Canada fleabane; horseweed; colt's-tail; prideweed; bitterweed. Native, annual weed, 3 inches to 10 feet in height; in fields and meadows, along roadsides, and in waste places, almost throughout North America. Pari used.— Herb (nonofficial); the oil of erigeron, distilled from the fresh,
flowering herb,
is official.

Erigeron philadelphicus

L.

Aster family ( Asteraceae )

Philadelphia fleabane; sweet scabious; daisy-fleabane. Native, perennial herb, to 3 feet high, infields and woods throughout North America, except extreme North. Pari used. Herb (nonofficial).
1

Eriodictyon.

See Eriodictyon californicum.

Eriodictyon californicum (H.

&

A.) Greene.

Waterleaf family (Hydrophyllaceae).
;

Synonym. -—Eriodictyon glutinomm Benth. Eriodictyon; yerba santa; mountain-balm consumptive' s-weed; bear's-weed. Shrubby plant, 2 to 4 feet high, native; grows in clumps in dry situations and among rocks throughout California and northern Mexico. Part uaed.—Leaves (official).

/Eriodictyon glntmomm Benth.
Eryngi'im yuccaefoliv
i

Same

as

Eriodidym californicum.

Michx.

Sam.* as Eryngium yueci folium.

Eryngium yuccifolium Michx,
Syrumym.—Eryrigium yuceaefo&wm Michx.
Water-eryngo; button-snakeroot;
snakeroot.
Native, perennial herb,
1

Parsley family Apiaceae).
(

rattlesnake-weed;

rattlesnake-master;

corn-

to 5 feet high,

growing

in

from the pine barrens of New Jersey west and r lorida. Part used.— Rhizome (nonofficial).

swamps and low wet ground
and south
to

to Minnesota,

Texas

^.v™^^

t0

Phannacopoei

the « enua

**pMm Mia

that

its

name

should h

.

.

ERYNGO, WATER
Eryngo, water-.

EUPHORBIA NUTANS.

2

(

.>

See Eryngium yueeifolium.

Erytliroiiium americanum Ker. Yellow adder' s-tongue; dog's-tooth

violet;

Lily family (Liliaceae). yellow snowdrop; rattlesnake-violet;

yellow snakeleaf. Native, perennial herb, occurring in moist woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Arkansas and Florida. Leaves and root (nonofficial). Parts used.

Euonymus.

See Euonymus atropurpureus.
Jacq.

Euonymus atropurpureus

Staff-tree family (Celastraceae).
spindle-tree; Indian arrow wood.

Euonymus; wahoo; hurningbush;

Native shrub or small tree, growing in woods and thickets from Ontario and eastern United States west to Montana.
Part used.

—Bark of root

(official)

Eupatorium.
4

See Eupatorin m perfoUatinn
L.
f.

Eupatorium ageratoides

Aster family (Asteraceae).
Indian sanicle; deerwort-boneset
;

White snakeroot; white

sanicle;
T

poolwort;
to

poolroot; richweed; squaw -weed.
Erect, perennial herb, 1 to 4 feet high, native; in rich Georgia, wr est to Nebraska and Louisiana.

woods from Canada

Part used.

—Root (nonofficial).
L.

Eupatorium aromaticum

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Smaller white snakeroot; poolwort; poolroot; wild hoarhound. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high; in dry soil from Massachusetts to Florida, especially throughout the Middle States.
Part used.

—Root (nonofficial).
L.

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Eupatorium; boneset; thoroughwort; Indian sage; agueweed; crosswort. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 5 feet high; in low, wet places from Canada to Florida, west to Texas and Nebraska.
Paris used.—Leaves
s

and flowering tops
L.

(official).

Eupatorium purpureum

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Queen-of-the-meadow; gravelroot; Joe-Pye-weed; purple boneset; kidneyroot. Native, perennial herb, 3 to 10 feet high; in low grounds from Canada to Florida

and Texas.
j
Parts used.

— Root and herb (nonofficial).
Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).

Euphorbia

corollata L.

Flowering spurge; emetic-root; milk-ipecac; snakemilk; purging- root perennial herb, about 3 feet in height, growing in dry fields and woods Native, from Ontario to Florida and Minnesota to Texas. Root (nonofficial). Pari used. Euphorbia hyperitifolia A. Gray. Same as Euphorbia nutans.

Euphorbia ipecacuanhae

L.

Spurg-e family (Euphorbiaceae).

j?

Wild ipecac; ipecac-spurge; American ipecac; Carolina ipecac. Native, perennial herb, 4 to 10 inches high; in dry, sandy soil, mostly near the coast, from Connecticut to Florida. Part wed. Root (nonofficial). Spurg-e family Euphorbiaceae). nutans Lag. Euphorbia

(

Synonym. —Euphorbia

hypericifolki A.

Gray.

Large spotted spurge; black purslane; fluxweed; milk-purslane. annual plant, from 1 to 2 feet in height; in rich -oils, fields, and thickets Native, throughout eastern North America, except extreme north, and extending west to the Rocky Mountains. Part used.— Herb (nonofficial).

30

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
pilulifera L.

Euphorbia

Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).

Pill-bearing spurge; snakeweed; Queensland asthma-weed.

Herbaceous annual, 10 to 15 inches high, occurring from the Gulf States through Texas to New Mexico.
Part used.

—Herb (nonofficial).
See Oenothera
biennis.

Evening-primrose.
Everlasting.

See Anaphalis margaritacea.
i

Everlasting, large-flowered.

See Anaphalis margaritacea*

Everlasting, pearly.

See Anaphalis margaritacea.

Eve's-cup.

See Sarraceniaflura.

Fagara clava-herculis
Synonym.

—Xanthoxijbnn clara-herculis L.
ash;

(L.) Small.

Rue family
toothache-tree;

(Rutaceae),
yellow-

Xanthoxylum; southern prickly
wood; Hercules-club.

yellowthorn;

Small, indigenous, very prickly tree, sometimes 45 feet in height, occurring along streams from southern Virginia to Florida, west to Texas and Arkansa^
Parts used.
official).

— Bark
T

official

under the name " Xanthoxylum";

berries

(non-

Fagus americana Sw eet.
;

Beech family (Fagaceae).

Synonym .-*— Fagus ferruginea Ait. American beech beechnut-tree. Large, native forest tree, growing in rich soil from Nova Scotia to Wisconsin and Texas. Parts used. Bark and leaves (nonofficial).

to Florida, west

Fagus ferruginea.
Fairy -fingers.

Ait.

Same

as

Fagus americana.

See Digitalis purpurea.
See Chrysanthemum partheiuum.

Featherfew.

Febrifuge-plant.

See Chrysanthemum parihenium.

Female-fern.

See Athyrium filix-foemina and Polypodia m. ntlgare. See Ant hem is
cotula.

Fennel, dog-.

Fern, evergreen wood-.
Fern, female-.

See Dryopteris marginal is.

See Athyrium filix-foemina and Polypodium mlgare. See Athyrium filix-foeminn. See Adiantum pedutum.

Fern, lady-.

Fern, maidenhair-. Fern, male-.

See Dryopteris filix-mas.
See Dryopteris marginalis.

Fern, marginal-fruited shield-.
Fern, meadow-. Fern, parsley-. Fern, royal.
Fern, sweet.
Fernroot.

See Comptonia peregrina. See Tanacetum vulgar e.
regalis.

See Osmunda

See Comptonia peregrina.

See Polypodium mlgare.
See Benzoin benzoin and
Ilex rerticUlata.

Feverbush.
,

Feverfewr common.
Feverroot.

See Chrysanthemum parthenium.

See Triosteum perfoUatum. See Celastrus scan
as.

Fevertw ig.
r

Field-balm.

See Glecoma hederacea.
See Delphinium consolida.

Field-larkspur.
Field-sorrel.

See

Rnmex

acetosella.

.

FIGWORT, MARYLAND
Figwort, Maryland.
Fir,

FRAXINUS NIGRA.

31

See Scrophularia marilandica.

balsam-.

See Abies balsamea.
hi era a'folia.

Fire weed.
Fit-plant.

See Erechtites

See Monotrapa uniflora.
See Monotrapa unifiora.

Fitroot.

Fivefinger.
Flag, blue.

See Potent ilia canadensis.

See Ins rem color.
See Typha
latifolia.

Flag, cattail-.

Flag, sweet-.

See A corus calamus.

Flag, water-.
Flag-lily.

See

Ir%9 versicolor.

See

Iris versicolor.

Flannel-leaf.

See Verbaseitm thapsus.
See Erigeron canadensis. See Erigeron philadelphicus.

Fleabane, Canada.
Fleabane, daisy-.

Fleabane, Philadelphia.

See Erigeron philadelphicus,

Fluxweed.
Flytrap..

See Euphorbia nutans. See Sarracenia purpurea. See Tiarella
cordifolia.

Foamflower.
Foxglove.
f

See Digitalis purpurea.

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne.
Virginia strawberry; starlet strawberry. Native, perennial herb, occurring in dry Indian Territory and Minnesota.
soil

Rose family (Rosaceae).
from Canada
to Georgia, west to

Part used.

—Leaves (nonofficial).
Frankeniaceae

Frankenia grandifolia Cham. &Schlecht.
Yerba reuma.
Native, perennial herb, 8 to 13 inches high, localities near the coast in California.

common

in salt

marshes and sandy

Pari

user I.— Herb (nonofficial).

Gentian family (Gentianaceae). carolinensis Walt. Frasera Synonym, Frasera waUen Michx. eolumbo; Indian lettuce; meadowpride; pyramid-flower. American Smooth, perennial herb, 3 to 8 feet high, found in dry soil from New York to Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Kentucky.

Pari used.

— Root (nonofficial).

Same as Frasera caroHnensis. acuminata Lain. Same as Frnjinus americana. Fraxinus Fraxinus alba Marsh. Same as Fra.rinus americana.
Frasera walteri Michx.

Fraxinus americana L. Synonyms. Fraxmus White ash; cane-ash.

Olive familyalba Marsh; Fraxinus acuminata

l&m.

Large, native forest tree, in ric teeurs Florida and Texas.
<

i

Part used.

— Bark

(

nonofficial

)

Fraxinus

Olive family (Oleaceae).

Synonym, Fraxinus sambucifoiia Lam. Black ash; hoop-ash. 70 feet in height, occurring in swamps and wet woods from Native tree, 40 to Canada to Virginia and Arkansas.
Bart used.— Bark (nonofficial).

11072—No. 89—06

5

.

32

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Lam.

FraxintlS sambncifolia

Same

as Fraxinus nigra.

Fringe-tree. Fn>st-plant.
Frost weed.
Kr<»st
I

See Chionanthns virgimca.

Bee Heltanthemwn e&nadense.
See Ifeliantheinum canadense.

wort.

See HeUatdliemmn oamadense.
See Saponaria
officinalis.
*

Fuller' s-herb.

Fumaria
/

officinalis L.

Poppy family (Papaveraceae).

Fumitory; hedge-fumitory; earth-smoke* Annual plant, 10 to 15 inches high, adventive from Europe and found in waste places about dwellings, in cultivated land, and on ballast, Nova Scotia to the Gulf States.
Pari used.

— Herb (nonofficial).
officinalis. officinalis.

Fumitory.

See Fumaria

Fumitory, hedge-.
Gagroot.
(

See Fumaria
injlata.

See Lobelia

iale,

sweet.

See Myrica
L.

gale.

Galium aparine
Annual

Madder family Rubiaceae ).
I

Cleavers; goose-grass; cleaverwort; bedstraw; catch weed.

weak, procumbent stem, 2 to 6 feet long, growing in shady thickets and margins of woods, New Brunswick south to Florida and Tea Naturalized from Europe.
plant, with
-

Part used.

—Herb of this and of other species of Galium
See Melissa
officinalis.

(nonofficial).

Galiweed.

See Gentiana quinquefolia.

Garden-balm.

Ga rden-celandine.
Garden-columbine.
Garden-valerian.
Garget.

See Chelidonium majus. See AquHegia
See Valeriana
vulgaris.

officinalis.

See Phytolacca decandra.
L.

Gaultheria procumbens

Heath family

(Ericaceae).

Wintergreen; checkerberry; mountain-tea; teaberry; deerberry. Small, native perennial, with evergreen leaves, found in sandy soils in cool damp woods, especially under evergreen trees, in Canada and the northeastern United States. Fart us<d.—Leaves (nonofficial) the oil of gaultheria, distilled from the leaves.
;

is official.

Gay-feather.

See Lacinaria scariosa and See Gelsemium sempervirens.
(L.) Ait.
f.

/,.

spieata*

Gelsemium.

Gelsemium sempervirens

Logania family CLoganiaceae)

Gelsemium; yellow jasmine; Carolina jasmine; wild woodbine. Twining, shrubby perennial, native, growing on low ground in woods and thickets from eastern Virginia to Florida and Texas, mostly near tin* coast. Parts used. Rhizome and roots (official).

Gemfruit.

See Tiarella cord [folia.
See G>

Gentian, American. Gentian, blue.

Hana saponaria.

See Gentiana saponaria.

Gentian, five-flowered.
Gentian, horse-.
Gentian, marsh-.

See Gentiana

(jwinquefolia.

See Triosteum perfoliaturn. See Gentiana
viUosa.

Gentian, snake-.

See Xabalus serpentarius.

.

GENTIAN, SOAPWORT
Gentian, Boapwort-.

GINSENG.

38

See

(lenti ana

saponaria.

Gentian,

stiff.

See Gentiana quinquefolia.

Gentian, straw-colored.

See Gentiana

vitiosa.

Gentian, striped.
Gentian, white.

See Gentiana lillom.

See Triosteum perfoliatum.

/

Same as Gentiana saponaria. Gentiana ochroleuca Froel. Same as Gentiana villom, Gentiana quinqueflora Lam. Same as Gentiana quinquefolia. Gentian family (Gentianaceae). Gentiana quinquefolia L. Synonym. Gentiana quinquejiora Lam.
Gentiana catesbaei AValt.

Stiff

gentian; five-flowered gentian; agneweed; gallweed. Native, annual plant, 1 to 2 feet in height, growing in pastures and other open situations from Maine to Michigan, south to Florida and Missouri.

Parts used.

—Root and herb (nonofhcial).
L.

Gentiana saponaria
Synonym.

— Gent" inn catesbaei Walt.
1

Gentian family Gentianaceae
(

').

American gentian; blue gentian; soapwort-gentian
Native, perennial herb,

south to Louisiana and

to 2£ feet high; in Florida.

wet

soil,

Ontario to Minnesota,

jf

Part used.

— Root
L.

(nonofhcial).

Gentiana villosa
Synonym,

Gentian family (Gentianaceae).

— Gentiana ochroleuca Froel.

•Striped gentian; straw-colored gentian; marsh-gentian; Sampson's-snakeroot, Native', perennial herb, 6 t<> 18 inches high; in shaded places, Middle and

Southern States. Pari used,— Root (nonofhcial).
if

Geranium.

See Geranium maeulatum.
L.
;

Geranium maculatum

Geranium family Geraniaceae).
|

Geranium; wild crane's-bill nium; alum-root.
Native, perennial herb,
1

spotted crane's-bill; wild geranium; spotted gera-

from Canada
Part used.

to 1J fee* high; found in low grounds south to Georgia and Missouri.
(official).

and open woods

—Rhizome

Geranium, spotted.

See Geranium maculatum.

Geranium, wild.

See Geranium maculatum.

Geum

rivale L. Water-aveus; purple awns.
Native, perennial herb,
1

Rose family Rosaceae)
swamps and wet meadows

to 2 feet high, occurring in

from Canada to Pennsylvania and Colorado, especially in the Northern and

Middle
Ghostflower,
GiUenia

states.

Part* wed.

— Rhizome and rootlets
See Morwtropa imiflora.

(nonoffieial).

trifoliata

Moench.

Same

as Porteramihm trifoliatus.

Gill-over-tbe-ground.
(

Bee Glecoma hederaeea.

iinger, Indian.

See
Bee

Amrum

canademe.
u.

(ringer, wild.
<

Amrum

canad*

ringerroot.

Bee Tueetiag* farfara.

Ginseng.

See Panax quinquefolium.

34
-

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES. WILD
Synonym. Nepeta glechoma Benth. Ground-ivy; gill-over-thc-ground; catfoot; field-balm. Low, perennial herb, with creeping stem. Naturalized from Europe and found south 1 place**, woods, and thickets from Newfoundland to Minnesota, in waste to leorgia and Kansas.
<

1/
f

Glecoma hederacea

L.

Mint family (Menthaceae).

Part used.
Globerlower.

—-Herb

(nonofficial).

See Cephalanthus occideniaMs.
L. L.

Gnaphalium margaritaceum
g

Same

as Anaphalis margaritacea.

Gnaphalium obtusifolium

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Synonym. Gnaphalium polycephcdum Michx. Sweet balsam; life-everlasting; sweet life-everlasting; white balsam. Native, herbaceous annual, 1 to 2 feet high; in dry, open places and old from Nova Bcotia and Manitoba south to Florida and Texas.
Part used.

fields

—Herb (nonofficial).
Same
as

Onaphalium polycephakim Michx.

Gnaphalium

obtu^ifolium.

Gnaphalium uliginosum

L.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Mouse-ear; low cudweed; marsh-cudweed; wart wort; dysentery- weed. Annual herb, 2 to 8 inches high, occurring in damp soil from Newfoundland to Minnesota, south to Indiana and Virginia; apparently naturalized from Europe. Part nsed.-^ Herb (nonofficial).

Gnaphalium undulatum Walt.
Goat's-rue.

Same

as Pteroraulon undulatum.

See Omcea virgimana. See Solidago odora.

Goldenrod, anise-scented.

Goldenrod, fragrant-leaved. Goldenrod, sweet.
Goldenseal.

See Solidago odora.

See Solidago odora.

See Hydrastis canadensis.
See Coptic
fr [folia.

Goldthread.

Goodyera pubescent R. Br.

Goodyera repens R. Br.
Goose-grass.

Same as Peramium pubescens. Same as Peramium repens.

See Galium aparine. See Herberts aqu ij'ol in m. See Herberts a quifolium.

Grape, Oregon.

Grape, Rocky Mountain.
Gravel-plant.

See Epigaea repent.
See Euputorium purpareum.

Gravelroot.

Gravel-weed.

See Onosmodiumvirginmnum.
See Smilax pseudo-china.

Greenbrier, long-stalked.
Grindelia.

See Grinddia robusta and G. squarrosa.
-

Grindelia robusta Nutt.
Grindelia; gum-plant.

Aster family ( Asteraceae )•

Perennial herb, al>out IJ feet high, native in the States west of the Rocky Mountains.
Parts used.

— Leaves and flowering tops (official).
See Grindelia squarrosa.

Grindelia, scaly.

Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Grindelia; scaly grindelia; broad-leaved gum-plant. Perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, native; occurring on the plains and prairies from the Saskatchewan to Minnesota, Texas, and California. Parts used. Leaves and flowering tops (official).

GKOMWELL, VIRGINIA FALSE
Gromwell, Virginia
Ground-centaury.
Ground-ivy.
false.

HELENIUM AUTUMN ALE.
virgin ianum

85

See Onosmodmm
nnttallit.

See Pohjgalu

See Glecoma hederacea.
See Hydrastis canadensis.
See Jefferaonm diphylla.

Ground-raspberry.
Ground-squirrel pea.

Gum, Gum, Gum, Gum, Gum,

cotton-. red.

See Xyssa aauatica.
styracijlna.

See Liquidamb&r

star-leaved.

See Idquidambar siyradflua.
styraeiflua.
.

sweet-. tupelo.

See Liquidambar

See Xyssa aquatica. See Grindelia robvMa. See Griudefia squarrosa.
officinale.

Gum-plant,

Gum-plant, broad-leaved.
Gypsy-flower.

See Cynoglosmm

Gypsy-weed.

See Lycopus Virginia'*. See Larix laridna.
See Polytrichuru juniperinmn.

Hackmatack.
Haircap-moss.

Hamamelis.

See Hamamelis rirginiana.
L.

Hamamelis virginiana

Witch-hazel family (Hamamelidaceae).
to

Hamamelis; witch-hazel; winterbloom; snapping hazel. Indigenous shrub, found in low, damp woods from New Brunswick sota, south to Florida and Texas. Parts used.— Leaves (collected in autumn), bark, and twigs (official).

Minne-

Hard hack.

See Spiraea tomentosa. See Rhamnus catharticu.

Hart's-thorn.

Haw, black. Hawkweed,
Hawthorn.

See Viburnum prunifoUum.
early.

See Hieracinm venosum.

See

(

Yataegm ojcyaeantha.
See

Hazel, snapping.
Heal-all.

Hamamdu tirgvniana.
-

See Prunella vulgaris and
See Symphytum

rophukorim maarikmdica.

Healing-herb.
Heart-liverleaf.

officinale.

See Hepatica acuta.
tricolor.

Heartsease.

See Viola

Hedeoma.

See Hedeoma ptUegioides.
(

Hedeoma

Mint family Menthaceae). pulegioides (L. ) Pers. Hedeoma; American pennyroyal; tick weed; squawmint. native, annual plant, 6 to 12 inches high, growing in barren woods and dry Low, Scotia to Minnesota, south to Nebraska and Florida. fields, Nova Leave- and flowering tops, and the volatile oil distilled from these, Parts used.—
are
official.

Hedge-fmnitory.

See Fumaria

officinalis.

/Hedgethom.

See Crataegus o< yacantha.
L.

Helenium autumnale

Aster family Aster aceae).
(

Sneeze weed; sneeze wort; swamp-sunflower. perennial, 2 to 3 feet high, growing in swamps, wet Native

fields,

and meadows,

Canada

to Florida

and Arizona.

Part u$ed.— Herb (nonofficial).

.

.

.

36

WILD MKDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Rock-rose family (Cistaceae). Michx. Frost weed; frostwort; frost-plant; Canadian rock-rose. Native, perennial herb, about one foot in height; in dry, sandy soil, Maine to Wisconsin, south to North Carolina and Kentucky.
(L.)

/

Helianthemum canadense

Part used.

— Herb (nonofficial).
See Verairum
viride.

Hellebore, American.

Hellebore, green.
Hellebore, swamp-.

See Verairum wride. See Verairum
viride*

Helmetpod,

See

Jeji'<

mania diphylla,

Helonias dUrica Pursh.

Same

as Chamaelirium luteum.

Hemlock.

See Tsuga canadensis.

Hemlock, poison-. Hemlock, water-.
Hemlock-spruce.

See Con

i

am macukUum.

See Cicuta maculata. See Tsuga canadensis.

Hemp, black

Indian.

See Apocynum cannobinum.

Hemp, Canadian.
Henbane.

Bee Apocynum cannabinum.

Hem]), white Indian.

See AstiUpia*
niger,

in car

tta.

See Ifyoscyautu*

Hepatica acuta (Pursh)
Synonym.

— Hepatica acutdoba DC.

Britton.

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae).

Heart-] iverleaf; sharp-lobed liverleaf; liverwort.

Perennial herb, 4 to 9 inches high, found in woods from Quebec and mtario, south to Georgia (bot rare near the coast), west to Iowa and Minnesota. Pari used. Leaves (nonofficial).
<

Hepatica acutiloba DC.

Same
)

as Hepatica acuta.

Hepatica hepatica

Synon ym. Hepat a triloh C h ai x Round-iobed liverleaf; kidney-liverleaf; liverwort. Perennial herb, 4 to 6 inches high; in woods from Nova Scotia to northern Florida, west to Iowa and Missouri; less common than the heart-liverleaf. Part used. Leaves ( no n official).
it
t

(L.

Karst.

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae).

Hepatica triloba Chaix.
/

Same

as Hepatica hepatica.

^

Heracleum lanatum Michx.

Parsley family (Apiaceae).

Masterwort; cow-parsnip; youth wort-. Native, perennial herb, 3 to 5 feet high, growing in moist meadows and cultivated ground from Canada south to North Carolina, Utah, and California.
Parts used.

— Root, leaves, and seeds (nonofficial).
See Fagara clava-herad
L.
1

Hercules-club,

*

Heuchera americana

Saxifrage family

(

Saxifragaceae

|.

Alum-root; American sanicle.
Native, perennial herb, 2 to 4 feet in height; in shady, rocky woodlands from Connecticut to Minnesota, south to Alabama and Louisiana.

Part used.

—Root
(

(nonofficial).

Hickory, shell bark-.

See Hiroria orata.

Hicoria ovata Synonym.

(Mill.) Britton.
itrya alba Nutt.

Walnut family (Juglandaceae)

Shagbark, shellbark-hickory. Large, native tree, sometimes 120 feet in height; in rich soil from Quebec to southern Ontario and Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas.
Ports used.

— Bark and leaves (nonofficial).

.

HIERACIUM VKNOSUM
*

HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS.

37
|.

Hieracium venosum

L.

Chicory family (Cichoriaceae

Karly hawkweed; rattlesnake- weed; bloodwort; striped blood wort. JVrennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, native; occurring in dry woods and thickets from Maine to Georgia, west to Nebraska; more common in the northern and eastern United States.
Part* used.

— Leaves and root (nonofricial).
siphUitica.

Highbelia.
Hive-vine,

See Lobrlia

See Mitchella repens.

Iloarhomid.

See Marrubium vulgare.

*

Hoarhound, water-.
Hoarhound,
I

See Lycopm

virginicus.
*

wild.

See Eupatorium arwnaticiim.
*

log-potato.

See Tpdmoea pandurata.

HogVbean, See Hyoscyamus niger. Hog weed. See Ambrosia artemi&iaefolia.
Holly, American.
I

See

Hex opaca.

folly, white.

See Hex opaca. See Apocynum andromemifolium,
lateriflora.

Honeybloom,
Hoodwort.
Hoop-ash.

See Scutellaria

See Fraxinus nigra.
See
Osstrya virginiarui.

Hop-hornbeam.
Hop-tree.

See Pt elect trifolvUa.
bop-.

Hornbeam,
Horse-balm,

See (htrya virginiand.

See Collinsonia canadensis. See Aesculus hippocastanum*
See Baptisia
tinctoria.

Horse-chestnut.
Horsefly- weed.
Horsefoot.

See Tumtilago farfara.
See Triosteum perfotiatum.

Horse-gentian.

Horseheal.

Bee Inula hetenium
See Monarda flMulosa and M. punctata. See Solatium caroiineme.

Horsemint.
Horse-nettle.
Horsetail.

See Equisetum hyemede.
See Erigeron canadensis.
See Cynoglossum
officinale.

Horseweed.

Honnd's-tongne.

Hydrangea.

See Hydrangea arborescens.
L.

Hydrangea arborescens

Hydrangea family (Hydrangeaceae).

Hydrangea; wild hydrangea; seven-barks. Indigenous shrub, 5 or 6 feet in height; on rocky river banks from southern New York to Florida, west to Iowa and Missouri; very abundant in the valley of the Delaware.

Part used.—Root (nonorhYial).

,

Hydrangea, wild.
^Hydrastis.

See Hydrangea arborescens.

See Hydrastis canadeuxw.
L.
;

f

Hydrastis canadensis

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae^.
yellowroot;
1

Hydrastis; goldenseal poccoon. Perennial herb, about

ground-raspberry:

orangeroot;

yellow

foot in height, native in rich soil in shady woods, southern New York to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri, but principally in Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and West Virginia.
<

Parts

ust d.

—Rhizome ami

ro< >ts (official).

/

.

38

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Hyoscyamus
L.
niger.

Hyoscyamus.

Hyoscyamus niger

Potato family (Solanaceae)

Hyoscyamus; henbane; hog's-bean; insane-root.
Biennial herb, 6 inches to 2 feet high, sparingly naturalized from Europe, in waste places from Nova Scotia to Ontario, New York, and Michigan.
Parts used-

—Leaves

and flowering tops from plants
St.

of

second year's growth

(official);

seeds are also used (nonofficial).

Hypericum perforatum L. John's-wort; common St.

John's-wort family (Hypericaceae).

John's-wort.

Herbaceous perennial, 1 to 2 feet high, naturalized from Europe; common in fields and waste places throughout almost the entire United States, except the Southern States.
Pari used.

—Herb (nonofficial).
officinalis.

Hyssop.

See Hyssopus

Hyssop, wild.

See Verbena hastaia. See Scutellaria
integrifolia.

Hyssop-skullcap.

Hyssopus

officinalis L.

Mint family (Menthaceae).

Hyssop. Perennial herb, 1 to :i feet high, naturalized from Europe, and found along roadsides and in waste places from Ontario and Maine to North Carolina, and on the Pacific coast.
Part used.

— Herb

(nonofficial).

Ilex opaca Ait. American holly; white holly.
Native
tree, 20 to 40 feet in height,

Holly family (Aquifoliaceae).

with evergreen leaves; in moist woodlands. Maine to Florida, and west to Missouri and Texas; most abundant in the
Atlantic States.

Parts user/.— Leaves and bark (nonofficial).

Ilex verticillata (L. ) A. Gray. Holly family (Aquifoliaceae). Synonym, Prmos verticillata L. Black alder; feverbush; Virginia winterberrv. A native shrub, growing in moist woods and along banks of streams from Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Wisconsin and Missouri. Parti used, Bark and berries (nonofficial).

/

Impatiens aurea Muhl

Synonym. Impatiens pallida Nutt. Jewelweed; pale touch-me-not; snapweed; wild celandine. Native, annual plant, 2 to 4 feet high, found in rich soil in moist, shady placet from Quebec to Oregon, south to Georgia and Kansas.
Part used.

Jewelweed family (Impatientaceae).

— Herb (nonofficial).

Impatiens biflora Walt.

r

Synonym. Impatient futva Nutt Jewelweed; spotted touch-me-not; snapweed; silverleaf. Native, annual plant, 2 to 5 feet high, growing in rich soil in moist, shadv places from Canada to Alaska and Oregon, south to Florida and Missouri; more common than the pale touch-me-not.
Part used.

Jewelweed family (Impatientaceae).

—Herb (nonofficial).
Same
as Impatient biflora, as Impatiens aurea.

Impatiens fulva Nutt.
Impatiens pallida Nutt.

Same

Indian-cup.
Indian-paint.

See Sdphium perfoliatum.
See Sangninaria canadensis.
See Porterantku* trifoUatu».

Indian-physic.

INDIAN-PIPE
Indian-pipe.
*

JASMINE, YELLOW.

30

See Monotropa un [flora. See Aralia racemosa.
See Baptist a
tinrtoria.

Indian-root.

Indigo, American.

Indigo, wild. Indigo, yellow.

See Baptisia tinctona.
See Baptisia
tinctoria.

Indigo-weed.
Inkberry.
Inkroot.

See Baptism

tinctoria*

See Phytolacca decandra. See Limonium carol inianum.

Insane-root.
Inula.

See Hyoecyamm mger.

See Inula hdenium.
L.

Inula helenium

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Inula; elecampane; horeehfeal; scabwort. perennial herb, 3 to 6 feet high, naturalized from Europe, and found Rough, along roadsides and in fields and pastures from Nova Scotia to North Carolina,

westward to Missouri and Minnesota. Pari „,ed.—Root (official in U. S. P. 1890).
Ipecac, American.
Ipecac, Carolina. Ipecac, false.
Ipecac, milk-.

See Euphorbia ipecacuanhae. See Euphorbia ipecac a anhae.
trifoUatus.

See Porteranihus

See Euphorbia coroUata.

Ipecac, wild.

See Euphorbia ipecacuanhae and Triosteum perfoliatwn.
See Euphorbia ipecacuanhae.

/
/

Ipecac-spurge.

Morning-glory family (Convolvulaceae). Meyer. Ipomoea pandurata (L.) Synonym. Convohtdus pandurati's L. wild potato; hog-potato; wild jalap. Manroot; man-of-the-earth; trailing stems 2 to 12 feet long; in dry fields or on hills Native perennial, with to Michigan, south to Florida and Texas. from Connecticut

Part
Iris.

tised.

—Root (nonofficial).
Iris

See

Iris versicolor.

Iris versicolor L.
Iris;

family (Iridaceae).

blue flag; flag-lily; liver-lily; water-flag; snake-lily. plant, 2 to 3 feet high, found in wet, marshy localities from Native, perennial Manitoba, south to Florida and Arkansas. Newfoundland to
Parts used.

—Rhizome and roots
*

(official in

IT. S.

P. 1890).

Iron wood.

See Oxtrya rirginiana.
See P&rlhenocissu* quina>n>foHa.

Ivy, American.
Ivy, ground-.

See Glecomn hederacea.
See Rhus radicansand B. toxicodendron.
Bee

poison

Jack-in-the-pulpit.

Armuma

triphyUum.

Jacob's-ladder.

See Potemonium rrptans.
SeeSmila.r herbaria.

Jacob's-ladder, American.
Jalap, wild,
Set'

Ipomoea pandurata.
See Datura Mramoyuum.

James-tea.

See Ledum groenl«n<lic»m. See delsemi urn semper ri mix.
See

Jamestown- weed.
Jasmine, Carolina.
Jasmine, yellow.

Gebemkm

dempervirens.

.

40

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Barberry family (Berberidaceae). JefFersonia diphylla (L. ) Pers. Twinleaf; rheumatism-root helinetpod yellowroot; ground-squirrel pea. Native, perennial plant, 8 to 14 inches in height, growing in woods and near streams from New York to Virginia, westward to Wisconsin. Part used. Rhizome (non official).
;
;

Jew elweed.
Jimson-weed.

See Impatient aurea and

/.

klflora,

See Datura stramonium. See Onosmodium virginal num.
*

Job's-tears, wild.

Joe- Pye- weed.

See Eupatorium purpwreum. See Hypericum perforatum.

John's-wort.
Ju«las-tree.
.Juglans.

See Cerris canadensis,

See Juglans cinerea,
L.

Juglans cinerea

Walnut family Jugdandaceae
(

)

Juglans; butternut; white walnut.

Indigenous tree, 20 to 50 feet in height, common in rich woods from New Brunswick to North Dakota, south to Georgia, Mississippi, and Arkansas.
Part used,
Juniper.

— Bark of root,
L.

collected in

autumn

(official in

V.

S. P.

1890).

Bee Juniper as nua munis.

Juniperus communis
.Juniper.

Pine family (Pinaceae).
tree,

Evergreen shrub or low
to

common on

dry, sterile hills from

west to Nebraska, and in the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico. Part use d.— Fruit (nonofficial). The oil of juniper/ distilled from the fruit, is
official.

New Jersey,

Canada south

Juniperus sabina

L.

Pine family (Pinaceae).

Sabina; savin; shrubby red cedar. A shrub, usually procumbent, seldom more than 4 feet in height, occurring in rocky places in the northern United States. Part used.—Tops, and the oil of savin, distilled from the fresh tops, arc official.
*

Juniperus virginiana L. Red cedar; rod savin. A tree, sometimes 100 feet
and Arizona.
used.

Pine family (Pinaceae ).
in height,

common
'9

in

dry

soil

from Canada
/

to Florida

— Leaves and

' l

cedar apples-

(nonofficial).

Kalmi

i

ang-ustitolia L.
%

/

Heath family
soil

(Ericaceae).

Sheep-laurel; lambkill; calfkill; narrow-leaved laurel. Native, evergreen shrub, about 8 feet high, growing in moist

from Canada

south to
Part used.

<

xeorgia.

—Leaves (nonofficial).
Heath family (Ericaceae).

Kalmia

latifolia L.

Mountain-laurel; calico-bush; broad-leaved laurel; sheep-laurel. Native, evergreen shrub, 10 to 20 feet high, growing in sandy or rocky soil from New Brunswick to Ohio, Florida, and Louisiana. Part used. Leaves (nonofficial).

Kidney-liverleaf.

See Hepatica hepatica.

Kidneyroot.

See Eupatorium purpureum.

Knight* s-spur.

See Delphinium consolida.
Colli asonia canadensis.

Knob root. Knot weed,

See

biting.

See Polygonum hydropiper.

.

.. .

KOELLIA MONTANA

LARIX AMERICANA.
(

41
>

Mint family Menthaceae Koellia montana (Michx.) Kuntze. Synonym. Pycnanthemum montanum Michx. Thin-leaved mountain-mint. Native perennial, 2 to 3 feet high, found in woods from southern Virginia to (ieorgia and Alabama.

Part used.

—Herb (nonofficial)
*

Koellia pilosa (Xutt. ) Britton. Synonym. Pycnunthem um pUomm Nutt. Hairy mountain-mint.

Mint family Menthaceae
(

i

Native perennial,

Ohio
A~

to 2\ feet high, occurring in prairies to Georgia, west to Missouri and Arkansas.
1

and dry woods from

Pari used.

—Herb (nonofficial).
(

/
"

Lacinaria scariosa

Synonym. Liatris scariom Willd. Blue blazingstar; large button-snakeroot;
devil' s-bit.

L.

)

Hill.

Aster family (Asteraceae u
rattlesnake-master;
gay-feather;

perennial herb, 4 to 5 feet high, found in dry woods and sandy fields Native, from Maine to Florida, west to Texas and Nebraska.

Pari used.

— Root (nonofficial).
Aster family (Asteraceae).
prairie-pine;
.

Lacinaria spicata (L.) Kuntze. Synonym. Liatris spicata Willd. Dense button-snakeroot; colic-root;

gay-feather;

rattlesnake-

master; eorn-snakeroot; baekache-root. herb, 2 to 5 feet high, in moist places from Massachusetts to Native, perennial Florida, west to Wisconsin and Arkansas.
Part used.— Boot (nonofficial).

Lacinaria squarrosa

f

Synonym.

— Liatris Bqumrosa

(L.) Hill.

Aster family (Asteraceae).
Bontl

Willd.
soil,

— Root (nonofficial). Lactuca canadensis L. Synonym. — Lactuca e/ongata Muhl.
Part used.
<

Native, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, in dry Nebraska and Texas.
*

Ontario to Florida, west to

Chicory family

I

Cichoriaceae)

Wild lettuce; tall lettuce; wild opium; trumpet-milkweed. plant, 3 to 10 feet in height, native in moist, open Annual or biennial America south to ieorgia and Louisiana. British Herb (nonofficial). Pari ami.

places,

Lactuca dongaia Muhl.

Same

as Lactuca canadensis.

Ladies-slipper, large yellow.
Ladies-slipper, small yellow.

See Cyprij>edium kirsutnm. See Cypripedunn panitforum.

Lady-fern.

See Atliyriumjilij-foemina.
See Digitalis purpurea.
au>/m<tifolia.

Lady's-gl< >ve.

Lambkill.

Bee Kulmia

Lappa.

See Arctium lappa.
<

Lappa major

iaertn.

Same

as Arctium lappa.

Larch, American. Larch, black.

See Larir laricina.

See Larix lartema.

Larix amcricaaa Michx.

Same

as

Lurix laricina.

.

42

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Synonym, Larix americuna Michx. Tamarack; American larch; hackmatack; black

liarix laricina (Du Roi) Koch.

Pine family (Pinaceae).
larch.

A

slender tree, native in swampy woods and moist places from Canada south to New Jersey, Indiana, and Minnesota.
tall,

Part used,

— Bark

(nonofficial).

Lark-heel.

See Delphinium consolida.
field-.
tall.

Larkspur, Larkspur,

Bee Ddphirnum consolida.

See under Delphinium consolida.

Laurel, broad-leaved.

See Kalmia

latifolia.

Laurel, deer-.
Laurel, great.

See Rhododendron maximum.
See Rhododendron maximum. See Kalmia
latifolia.

Laurel, mountain-.

Laurel, narrow-leaved.

See Kalmia angustifoUa.

Laurel, rose-. Laurel, sheep-.

See Rhododendron maximum. See Kalmia angustifoUa and
See Daphne mezereum.
See Magnolia rirginiana.
A', latifolia.

Laurel, spurge-. Laurel, swamp-.

Lauras benzoin L.
Lavender,
sea-.

Same

as Benzoin benzoin.

See Limonium caroUnianum.

Leafcup, yellow.

See Polymnia uvedalia.
pulustris.

Leatherwood.

See Dirca

Ledum groenlandicum
Synonym.— Ledum

Oeder.
tea;

Heath family Ericaceae
(

)

latifotium Ait.

Labrador tea; continental Evergreen shrub, 1 to 4

James-tea. feet high, native in cold bogs and woods, northern part of the United States and in Canada.
lutifolinm Ait.

damp mountain

Part used.— Leaves (nonofficial).

Ledum
Lemon,

Same

as

Ledum groenlandicum.

wild.

Bee Podophyllum peltatum.

Lemon-balm.

See Melma
L.

officinalis.

Xeonurus cardiaca

Mint family (Menthaceae).

Motherwort; lions-tail; throwwort.
Perennial plant, 2 to 5 feet high, naturalized from Europe, and occurring i n fields and waste places from Nova Scotia 1 to North Carolina westward to

Nebraska.

Ptiri

used.— Herb (nonofficial)
(

Leptamnium virginianum
Beechdrops; cancerroot

L.

)

Rat.

Broomrape family Orobanchaceae).
(

Synonym*.— Epipheyus rirghdana

Bart.; Orobanche virginiana L.

Plant 6 Inches to 2 feet in height, parasitic upon the roots of beech trees from New Brunswick to Florida, west to Michigan and Louisiana. Part wed.— Whole plant (nonofficial).
I^eptandra.

See Veronica virginieu.

Leptandra

mykuea
(

(L.) Nutt.
L.
)

Leptilon ranadense

Britton.

Same as Veronica mrgimca. Same avS Erigeron canadensis.

Lettuce, Indian.
Lettuce,
tall.

See Frasera carolinensit.

Bee Lactuca canadensis.
See Xabalus athm and N. serpentariu*.

Lettuce, white.

LETTUCE, WILD
Lettuce, wild.

LIRIODENDRdST TTLIPIFKRA.

43

See Lactuca canadensis.

Leucanthemurn vulgare Lain.

Same Same

as Chrysanthemum leucanthemurn.

Leverwood.

See Ostrya virginiana.

Liatris odoratissima

Michx.

as Trilisa odoratissima.

Liatrls scariosa Willd.
Liatris spicata Willd.

Same as Lacinaria scariosa. Same as Lacinaria spioa&a.

Liatris

squamosa Willd.

Same

as Lacinaria squarrosa.

Life-everlasting.

See Anaphalis margaritacea and Onaphalium obtusifoUum.
See Gnapha/ium obtusifoUum.

Life-everlasting, sweet.

Liferoot.

See Senecio aureus.
L.

Ligustrum vulgare
Privet;

Olive family (Oleaceae).

prim wort; prim.

A

shrub, 5 or 6 feet high, introduced from Europe; escaped from cultivation and grows wild in woods and along roadsides from Ontario to Pennsylvania and

North
Lily, cow-. Lily, flag-.

I

arolina.

Part used.

— Leaves

(nonofficial),

See Nymphaea advena.
See
Iris versicolor.

Lily, large yellow pond-.
Lily, liver-.
Lily, snake-.

Sec Nymphaea adrena.

See

Iris versicolor.
Iris versicolor.

See

Lily, sweet-scented water-.
Lily, water-.
Lily,

See Castalia odorata.

See Castalia odorata. See Castalia odorata.
See Convallaria majalis.
See Xyssa ogeche.
(Walt.) Britton.

white pond-.

Lily-of-the-valley.

Lime, Ogeechee.

Iamonium carolinianum

Synonym. Statice caroUniana Walt. Marsh-rosemary; inkroot; sea-lavender; cankerroot.
Native, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, in salt

Plumbago family Plumbaginaceae),
|

meadows on the

Atlantic

and

Gulf coasts. Part used. Root (nonofficial).

Linden, American.

See Tllia americana.

Lindera benzoin Meissn.
Lion's-foot.

Same

as Benzoin benzoin.

See Nabahis alba* and X. serpentari»s. See Lemurus cardiaea.
L.

Lion's- tail.

Witch-hazel family (Hamamelidaceae). Sweet-gum; star-leaved gum; red gum. Large, native tree, 80 to 140 feet high, in moist woods from Connecticut to Most common near the coast in the Middle Florida, Illinois, and Missouri. and Southern States. Bark and resin (nonofficial). Parts used. Magnolia family (Magnoliaceae). Iariodendron tulipifera L.

Iaquidambar styraeiflua

Tulip-tree; yellow poplar; whitewood; tulip-poplar; canoewood. An indigenous tree, 60 to 190 feet in height, growing in rich woods from New England to Florida, west to Michigan and Arkansas; reaches greatest size in

the Mid* lie and Southern States. Part used. Bark of trunk and of root (nonofficial).

.

44

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Same
as Onosrnodium virginianum.

lAthospermum virginianurn L.
Liverleaf, heart-. Liverleaf, kidney-.

See Hepatica acuta.
See Hepatica hepatica.

Liverleaf, roand-lobed.
Liverleaf, sharp- lol>ed.
Liver-lily.

See Hepatica hepatica. See Hepatica acuta.

See

Iris versicolor.
Ff.

liverwort.
Lobelia.

See Hepatica acuta and
*L<>helia in f lata.

hepatica.

See

Lobelia, blue.

See Lobelia BiphiUtica,
L.

Lobelia cardinalis

Bellflower family (Campanulaceae).

Cardinal-flower; red cardinal; red lobelia.
Native, perennial herb, 2 to 4 feet high, with showy scarlet flowers; in moist soil from British America south to Florida and Texas.

Part used.

— Herb
L.

(nonofficial).
.syphilitica.

Lobelia, great.

See Lobelia

Lobelia inflata

Bellflower family (Campanulaceae). Lobelia; Indian tobacco; gagroot; vomitwort; bladderpod. Native, annual, herbaceous plant, 1 to 3 feet high, poisonous; in dry soil, fields, old pastures, and along roadsides from Canada to Georgia, Nebraska, and Arkansas. Parts used. Leaves and tops, collected after a portion of the capsules have become inflated (official). The seeds are also used (nonofficial).

/

Lobelia, red.

See Lobelia cardinalis.
L.

Lobelia siphilitica

Bellflower family (Campanulaceae).
soil

Blue cardinal-flower; great lobelia; blue lobelia; highbelia. Native, perennial herb, about 1 to 3 feet high, growing in moist to Georgia, west to Louisiana and the Dakotas.

from hitario
<

IJart

used.

— Herb

(nonofficial).

Locust, black.
Locust, yellow.

See Robinia peeudacacia.

See Robinia p$eudacacia.

Locust-plant.
Locust-tree.

See Cassia marUandica, See Robinia peeudacacia* See hycopodium davatum.
L.

Lycopodium.

Lycopodium clavatum

Club-moss family (Lycopodiaceae).
stag

Lycopodium; club-moss;

-horn.

Native perennial, with trailing stem, growing in drv situations in woods from Canada to North Carolina, Michigan, and Washington. Part wed.—Spores of this or of other species of Lycopodium (official).

Lycopus virginieus

L.

.

Mint family (Menthaceae).
;

Bugleweed; sweet bugle; water-bugle; gypsy- weed; water-hoarhound.
Indigenous, perennial herb, 10 to 20 inches in height Canada to Florida, Missouri, and Nebraska. part used, Herb (nonoffieial).
in wet,

shady places fron

i

Mad weed.

See Scutellaria
L.

lateriflora.

Magnolia acuminata

Magnolia family Magnoliaceae
(

|

Cucumber-tree; mountain-magnolia; blue magnolia. Native tree, 60 to 80 feet in height, occurring in the mountainous regions from New York to Georgia. More abundant in the >outhern States.

I art

y

used.

— Bark (nonofficial).

Magnolia, blue.

See Magnolia acuminata.

.

MAGNOLIA GLAUCA
Magnolia glaum
L.

MARSH-CUDWKKD.

45

Same

as Magnolia rirginiana.

Magnolia, mountain-.

See Magnolia acuminata.

Magnolia, sweet.

See Magnolia virginiana.
L.

Magnolia tripetala

Magnolia family (Magnoliaceae).

Synonym. Magnolia umbrella Lam. Cucumber-tree; umbrella-tree; elk wood. A small native tree, not more than 40 feet high, growing in rather moist, rich soil; widely distributed in the Appalachian Mountain region, but nowhere
very common.
Part used.

— Bark

(nonofficial).

Magnolia umbrella Lam.

Same
L.

as Magnolia tripetala.

Magnolia virginiana
Synonym.
laurel.

Magnolia family (Magnoliaceae).
l>eaver-tree; swamp-sassafras;

— Magnolia glauca L.
swamp25 feet
in

White bay; sweet bay; sweet magnolia;

A

nativ ive tree, averaging about asses, Massachusetts to the mora

height, growing in

swamps and

Gulf of Mexico.

Pari used.

—Bark

(nonofficial).

Maidenhair-fern.
Male-fern.

See Adiantum pedatum.

See Dryopteris filix-mas. Bee Malva syhestris.

Mallow, common.
Mallow, dwarf.

See Malra rotundifolia. See See

Mallow, high.
Mallow, low.
f

Malm sylvestm. Ma Int rotundifolia.
See Malva rotundifolia.

Mallow, running.

Malva rotundifolia L. Low mallow; running

Mallow family (Malvaceae).
dis-

mallow; cheeses; dwarf mallow. Annual or biennial procumbent plant, naturalized from Europe, and widely tributed an a weed in waste places.
Parts used.— Leaves

and flowers

(nonofficial).

+

Malva

sylvestris L. High mallow; common mallow; cheeseflower. adventive from Europe; sparingly distributed in the United Biennial herb, States and Canada, growing in waste places ami along roadsides. Part used.— Flowers (nonofficial).
See Podophyllum peltatum.

Mallow family (Malvaceae).

Mandrake, American.
Mandrake, wild.
Man-of-the-earth.

See Podophyllum pettatem.
See Ipomoea pandurata.

Manroot.
Manzanita.

See fpomoea pandurata.
See Arctostapkylos glaum.

Maple, red.

See Acer rubrum.
See

Maple, swamp-.

Am rubrum.
L.

Maple, vine-.

See Menispermum canadenee.
See Marrubium vulgare.

Mamihium.

Marrubium

vulg-are

Mint family Menthaceae)
(
1

Marrubium; hoarhound.
to 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe, and growing Bushy, perennial herb, in dry, sandy soil, in fields and wa^te places, from Maine southward to Texa and westward to California and Oregon.

Parts used.— Leaves and flowering tope

(official).

Marsh -cud weed.

See Gnaphalium uHginomm.

} ..

46

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Gentiana villom. See Althaea
officinalis.

Marsh-gentian.

Marshmallow.

Marsh-rosemary.

See Limofnum carolinianum.
trifoliata.

Marsh -trefoil.
M'iruta cotula

See Menyanihes

DC.

Same
p

as Anthernis co tula.

Masterwort.

See Angelica atropurpurea and Herademn lanatum.
See
I <>do}>h>/llu,n

May-apple.

peltutum.

May flower.
May-pops.

See Epigaea repens.

See Pa**i flora incarnata.
See Crataegus oxyacantha.

Maythorn.
Mayweed.

See Anthernis

cotula.

Meadow-clover.

See Trifolium proteose.

Meadow-fern.

See Comptonia peregrina. See Frasera carol inensis.
See
.

Meadowpride.

Meadow-scabish.

later

pwnieeu*.

Meadowsweet, pink.
Mealy-tree.

See Spiraea tomentom.

See Viburnum dentatum.

Melilot, yellow.

See Mdilotus
(

officinalis.

Melilotus officinalis L. ) Lam. Pea family ( Fabaceae ) Yellow melilot; yellow sweet clover. Annual or biennial herb 1 to 3 feet high, introduced from Europe, and occurring in WBSbq places throughout the eastern United States. Parts used. Leaves and flowering tops (nonofficial).

Melissa.

See Melissa

officinalis.

Melissa

officinalis L.

Mint family Menthaceae
(

.

Mehssa; balm; lemon-balm; garden-balm; sweet balm. Perennial herb 10 to 20 inches high, naturalized from Europe and growing in waste places, fields, and woods trom Maine to Georgia. J'nrts used.—Leux^ and tops (official in U. S. P. 1890).

Menispermum.

See Menispermum
L.

carta dense.

Menispermum canadense
Menispermum; yellow

Moonseed family (Menispermaceae).
Canada moonseed; Texas
sarsaparilla; vine-maple.

parilla;

Parts used.— Rhizome and roots (official in U.

S. P.

1890).

Mentha

piperita.

See Mentha piperita L.
L.

Mentha

piperita

Mentha

Mint family Menthaceae)

.

piperita; peppermint.

Aromatic perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, naturalized from Kurot»e and occurring in damp places from Nova S,otia to Minnesota, south to ffiiil Ten nessee. Cultivated principally in Michigan and New York Pa an 1 the oil ° f *** distilled from t^TarToZial.
'

^^
L.
fl

.

^

»«««•
f

Mentha

spicata I Synonym. Mentha wridis

Mint

MenthftCeae

,

spearmint. Aromatic, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, naturalized from Eurooe and ingin moist fields am waste places from Nova Scotia I't auutu w ; lon,1 a i/ 1 and Kansas. Also cultivated.

Mentha

viridis;

£

mm

I

'

l

<

^'^ t7oS. ^

° Wering t0pS and the
'

oil of

"P*™***

dUrtffled

from

.

.

MENTHA
Mentha
Mentha
)f

VIRTDIS
gpicata.

MONARDA

FI8TULOSA.

47

viridis.
viridis

See Mentha

L

Same

as Mentha spkata.

Menyanthes

trifoliata L.

Buck-bean family (Menyanthaceae)

Buck-bean; bog-bean; marsh-trefoil; water-shamrock. Indigenous, perennial plant, about 1 foot in height, found in spongy, boggy soils and swamps from Canada and Alaska south to Pennsylvania, Minnesota,

and
Mezereon.

California.

Parts used,

—Rhizome and

leaves (nonofficial).

See Daphne mezereum. See Dirca
palustris.

Mezereon, American.

Mezereum.
Mezereum

See Daphne mezereum.
A. Mey.

ojjfteinarum C.

Same

as

Daphne mezereum.

Micromeria chamissonis (Benth.) Greene.
Synonym.

— Micromeria douglasii Benth
— Plant (nonofficial).
Same

Mint family (Menthaceae).

Yerba buena.
m

A

trailing, perennial herb, States.

common in woods

along the Pacilic coast of the United

Pqrt used.

Micromeria douglasii Bentli.
Milfoil.

as Micromeria chamissonis.

See Achillea millefolium.

Milk-ipecac.

See Euphorbia coroUata.
See Euphorbia nutans.
See Asclepias syriaca.
See Asclepias mcarnaia.

Milk-purslane.

Milkweed, common.
Milkweed, swamp-. Milkweed, trumpet-.
Milkwort, Nuttall's-.

See Lactuca canadensis.

See Polygala See Koellia

nuttallii.

Mint, hairy mountain-. Mint, mountain-.

pilosa.

See Monarda didyma.
See Koellia montana.
flavescens.

Mint, thin-leaved mountain-.
Mistletoe.

See Phoradendron

Mistletoe, American.

See Phoradendron farescens.

Mitchella repens

L.
;

Madder family (Rubiaceae).
r

Squaw-vine; cheekerberrv; partridgeberr y deerberry; hive-vine; squawberry. Small, creeping, evergreen herb, common in moist w oods from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Arkansas. Part used. Plant (nonofficial),

Miterwort,

false.

See Tiarella

cordifolia.

Moccasin-flower, yellow.

See Cypripedium hirmtum.

Mohawk-weed.

See
L.

/

alaria perfoliata.

Monarda didyma

Mint family (Menthaceae

l

Bee-balm; Oswego tea; mountain-mint; scarlet balm. Native perennial, 2 to 3 feet high, growing in moist soil, especially along streams, from New Brunswick to Michigan and south to Georgia.
Part used.

— Herb

(

nonofficial).

Monarda

flstulosa L. Wild bergamot; horsemint.

family
hills

Native perennial, 2 to 3 feet high, found an dry Ontario south t<> Florida and Louisiana.
Part used.

and

in thickets

from

— Herb (nonofficial).

.

.

. . .

48
/

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE TNTTED STATES.
1 ,.

Monarda punctata
Horsemint.

Mint family Menthaceae
(

)

Native, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, found in dry, Bandy fields from York to Florida, west to Wisconsin and Texas.

New

Part

"

/.—Herb

(nonofrieial).

Monotropa uniflora
\

L.

Indian-pipe family (Monotropaceae).
all its parts,

[ndian-pipe; fit-plant; fitroot; ghostflower; pipe-plant.
curious plant, white in
to Florida, to

Pari used.

westward to Root (nonofrieial).

growing in rich, moist woods from Canada Washington and California.

Moonseed, Canada.
Moose-elm.

See tfertispermum canadense.

See Uhnusfulva.

Moosewood.
Moss, club-.
i

See Dirca

palustris.
officinalis.

Mortification-root
S«-e

See Althaea

Liiewpodium davaium.

Moss, haireap-.

See Polytrichum juniperinurn.
See Leamxrus cardiaca.

Motherwort.

Mountain-ash, American.
.Mountain -balm.
Mountain-laurel.

See Sorbus arnericana.
i

See Eriodictyon californicum.

See Kalmia

/at i folia.

Mountain-magnolia.
Mountain-mint.

See Magnolia unnninata.

See Monarda didyma.
See KoeUia pilosa

Mountain-mint, hairy.

Mountain-mint, thin-leaved.

See Kodlxa mantana.

Mountain-sumac.
Mountain-tea.
Mouse-ear.

See Sorbus americana.

See Gauttheria procumbens.

See Onaphalium uliginosum.

Mouthroot.
Milkwort,
Mullein.

See Goptis

trifolia

common,

^ee Artemisia vulgaris*

See Verbascum tkapxnx.

Musquash-root.
Mustard, black.

See Oicuki maeulaia.

See Brajssica nigra. See Brassica nigra.

,

Mustard, bnnvn.

Mustard, red.

See Brassica nigra.

Mustard, white.
Mustard, yellow.
Myrica axplenifolia

See Sinapis

alba.

See Sinapis alba,
L.

Sana' as Comptonia peregrin**.

Myrica cerifera

L.

Bayberry family (Myricaceae

)

Bayberry; wax-myrtle; candleberry; waxberry. Grows in sandy swamps or wet woods from Florida and Texas northward to Maryland. In the South it is a small evergreen tree, becoming in its northward range a tall, semi-deciduous shrub, or a dwarfed and deciduous shrub. Parts used.—Bark of root, leaves, and berries (nonofficial).

Myrica gale
Sweet

L.

Bayberry family Myricaceae
(

)

Dutch myrtle; bog-myrtle; golden osier. Indigenous shrub, growing in swamps and along streams from Canada and Alaska to V lrgmia and Washington. Parts used.— Leaves and buds (nonofficial).
gale;

..

MYRTLE. BOG
Myrtle, bog-.
Myrtle, Dutch,

NYSSA CAPTTATA.

49

See Myrica

gale.

See Myrica
See Myrica
(L.)

gale.

Myrtle, wax-.

cerifera.

/

Nabalus albus
Synonym.

— Prenanthes alba L.
woods from
to

Hook.

Chicory family (Cichoriaceae).

Lion's-foot; rattlesnake-root; white lettuce; white canker- weed. herb, 2 ;o 4 feet high, common in rich, moist Native, perennial

Canada
Part used.

Georgia and Kentucky. Plant (nonomcial).

Nabalus serpentarius (Parsh) Hook. Synonym. Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh.

Chicory family (Cichoriaceae).

Lion's-foot; canker-weed; white lettuce; rattlesnake-root; snake-gentian. about 2 feet high, growing in dry, sandy soil in fields Native, perennial herb, and thickets from Ontario to Florida and Alabama.

Part used.

— Plant (nonomcial).
See Viburnum
lentago.

Nanny bush.
.

Necklace-weed.

See Actaea alba and Onosmodium rirgmiwmm.
L.

Nepeta cataria

Mint family (Menthaceae)

Catnip; catmint. 2 to 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe; found in Common, perennial weed, land from Canada to Minnesota, south to \ irginia waste places and cultivated and Arkansas. Pari used. Herb (nonomcial).

Nepeta glechoma Benth.
Netlcaf-plantain.

Same

as Gleeoma hedtracea.

.

See Peramium pubescem.

Xetleaf-plantain, smaller.
Nettle, bull-.

See Peramium repem,

See Solanum

cam

nense

Nettle, great. Nettle, horse-.

See Urt'wa dioica.

See Solanum caroUneme.
See Urtica dioica.

Nettle, stinging.

Niggerhead.

See Branmerw angustifoKa.

Nightshade, woody.
Nttphar

See Solanurn dulcamara.

advma R.

Br.

Same

as

Xympkaea advena.
nuttallii.

Nuttall's-milkwort.

See Polygeda

Nymphaea advena Soland. %nm^m.—Nuphar advena

Water
R. Br.

cow-lily; spatter-dock; beaverroot Large yellow pond-lily; and slow breams from Canada to Florida, An aquatic plant, found in ponds

and

westward to the Rocky Mountains.
Pari used.

—Rhizome (nonomcial).
Same
as Castalia odorala.

Nymphaea

odorata Dryand.

Nyssa aquatica l/ Synonym.— Xy*m unijlora Wang.
Large tupelo; cotton-gum; tupelo gum.

Dogwood family Cornaceae
(

)

A

large, native tree, occurring in west to Texas and Missouri.

swamps from southern

Virginia to

Honda,

Part axed.— Root

wood (nonomcial).

Nyssa apitata Walt.

Same

as Xyssa ogeche.

.

50

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Synonym. Xijnsa capitate Walt. Sour tupelo; Ogeechee lime. A small tree, growing in swamps near the seacoast from southern South Carolina to Florida.

Nyssa ogeche

Marsh.

Dogwood family

(Cornaceae).

Part used.

— Root

wood

(nonofficial).

Nysrn uniflora Wang.

Samoa- Nyssa aquatica.
rt*6ra.

Oak, champion-. Oak, .Jerusalem.
Oak, poison-. Oak, red.

See Quercus

See Chenopodium anthelmirUicum and

C. botrys*

See Rhus radicans And R. toxicodendron.
riila-a.

See Quercus

Oak, Spanish. Oak, stone-. Oak, white.

See Querents rubra.

See Quemts alba.

See Quercus
L.

alba.

Oenothera biennis
Synonym.

— Onagra biennis (L.) —

Evening-primrose family (Onagraceae).
Scop.

Evening-primrose; tree-primrose; night willow-herb. Annual or biennial plant, 2 to 5 feet high, common in fields and waste places from Labrador to Florida, west to the Rocky Mountains. Native. Part used. Plant (nonofficial).
Old-man's-beard.
Olive, spurge-.

See CMonanthus

virginica.

See Daphne mezereum.
)

Same as Oenothera Onosmodium virginianum (L. ) DC.
Scop.

Onagra biennis (L.

biennis.

Synonym.
tears.

—Lithospermum vvrginianwm

Borage family (Boraginaceae).

L.

Virginia false gromwell; gravel-weed; necklace- weed ; pearl-plant; wild Job's-

Rough-hairy, native, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high; in dry, hilly grounds from the New England States to Florida, Kansas, and Texas.
Paris used.

—Root and seeds
L.

(nonofficial).

Opium,

wild.

See lactuca canadensis. See Hydrastis canadensis.

Orangeroot
Orobanche

mrgmhna
See

Same

as Leptcsmnium virginianum.

Osier, golden. Osier, green.
(

See Myrica
(

gale.

bmus drdnata.
>ame
as

>sier,

red.

See Cor mis amomum.

orrh

Washington^

Umgisiylis.
(

Osmunda
A
tall,

regalis

L.

Royal fern family Osmundaceae)
swamps and marshes

Royal fern; buck horn-brake.
native fern, with fronds 3 to 4 feet high, occurring in from Canada to Florida and Mississippi. part used. Rhizome (nonofficial).

Ostrya virginiana ( Mill. ) Willd. Birch family (Betulaceae). Hop-hornbeam; ironwood; deerwood; leverwood. Native tree, 25 to 30 feet in height, growing in rich woods, Canada and eastern
United
Part used.
States.

—Bark (nonofficial).

.

/

OXALIS ACJBTOSELLA
acetosella L.

PENNYROYAL, AMERICAN.

51

Oxalis White wood-sorrel; snamrock; soar trefoil. perennial herb, found in cold, damp woods, Canada south Small, native, Michigan and North Carolina.
Part mecL

Wood-sorrel family (Oxalidaceae).
to

—Herb (nonofficial).
See Ckrymnthemum leucaotJtemum.

Oxeye

daisy.

Oxydendrum arbor eum

Synonym. Andromeda arborea L. Sourwood; sorrel-tree; elk-tree. 40 to 50 feet in height, growing in rich woods from Ohio Native tree, sometimes Maryland, south to Alabama and Florida, to Paris used.— Leaves and bark (nonofficial)
Palmetto, saw-.

(L.

)

DC.

Heath family (Ericaceae).

See Serenoa

serrulate.

Panax quin que folium L.
Ginseng.
Native,

Ginseng family Araliaceae
(

)

perennial herb, about

1

from the Middle and Northern pari used. Root (nonofficial).

in height, found in rich, shady States south to Alabama and Georgia, foot

woods

Pansy.

See Viola

tricolor.
(

Papoose-root.
Paradise-plant,
Parilla, yellow.

See

kmhpkffUmn

thalirtmides.

See Daphne mezermm.

See Menispermwm camadense.
See

Parsley, spotted.
Parsley-fern.

Comum

maculatum.

See Tanacehm vtdgare.

Parsnip, cow-.

See Herademn lanatum.
(

Parthenocissus quinquefolia >/)».— A mpelopsis quinquefolia Miehx. Synon
1,
)

Planch.

Grape family Vitaceae).
(

A meriean ivy; Virginia creeper. woody vine, native in woods and A common,
and Texas. Parts used.—Bark and young twigs
Partridgeberry.

thickets from

Canada

to Florida

(nonofficial).

See MticfoeUa repens.
See Pulsatilla hirsutissima.

Pasqueflower, American.

Passiflora incarnata L.

Passion-flower family (Passifloraceae).

Passion-flower; passion-vine; may-pops. in dry soil from Virginia to Florida, westward Climbing, perennial plant, native to Missouri and Arkansas. Root and stem base (nonofficial). Parte used.—
Passion-flower.

See Pamiflora

inca

ita.

Passion-vine.

See Passiflora incarnata.
See Veronica
officinalis

Paul's-oetony.

Pawpaw, North American.
Pea, -round-squirrel.

See

Asimma

triloba.

Bee J&erm

Eadq&fcyBo-

Pea, hoary.

See Cracca nrginia»<(. See Biknkidla Gonad See
ms.

Pea, turkey-.
Pearl-plant.
Pencil-flower.

Onosmodmm mrgk mum.
bifiora*

See Stylosanthes
3ee

Pennyroyal, American.

Hed

ma

puleoioides.

.

52

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
L.

V

Penthorum sedoides

Virginia stonecrop family (Penthoraceae).
foot in height, growing in ditches to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas.
1

Virginia stonecrop; ditch-stonecrop.
Native, perennial herb, about

from New Brunswick Part wed. Herb (nonofficial.)

and swamps

Pepper, water-.

See Polygonum hydropiper.
piperita.

Peppermint.
Pepper-plant.

See Mentha

Sec Polygonum hydropiper.

Peramium pubescens
Synonym.

— Ooodyera pubescens R. Br.

(

Willd.)

MacM.

Orchid family (Orchidaceae).

Downy

rattlesnake-plantain; rattlesnake-weed; netleaf-plantain; scrofula-weed. Native, perennial herb, 8 to 12 inches in height, occurring in rich woods from Newfoundland to Minnesota, south to Florida and Tennessee. Most common

southward.

—Plant Peramium repens (L.) Synonym. — (roodyera repens R. Br.
Pari used.
(nonofficial).
Salisb.

Orchid family (Orchidaceae).

White plantain;
ear.

lesser rattlesnake-plantain; smaller netleaf-plantain; squirrel-

A

smaller plant than P. pubescens, but very similar to

it

and more common

northward. Pari wed* Plant (nonofficial).

Persimmon.
Synonym.

See Dhspyros virginiana.

Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh)

— Viscum

Nutt.

Mistletoe family (Loranthaceae).

flavescens Pursh.

Mistletoe;

American

mistletoe.

Parasitic shrub, found on deciduous-leave. 1 trees from south to Florida and Texas.
Parts

New

Jersey to Missouri,

used.—Leave! and branches (nom
See Phytolacca decandra.

ifficial).

Phytolacca.

j

Phytolacca americana L.

Same

as Phytolacca decandra.

Phytolacca decandra L.« Synonym. —Phytolacca amencana L.«

Pokeweed family (Phytolaccaceae).

Phytolacca; poke; pokeweed; garget; scoke; inkberry. Native, perennial herb, with large and branching stem, 6 to 10 feet high; in rich, moist soil, Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas.
Parts used— Root collected in leaves ( nonoffi cial )
:

autumn

(official); fruit (official

in U. S. P. 1890);

Picea

manana

(Mill.) B. 8. P.
s

pine

family (Pinaceae).

Synonym.— At

nigra Desf.

Black spruce; spruce-gam tree. Indigenous evergreen tree, 40 to 80 feet in height, glowing on elevated situations and cold bogs from Canada south along the mountains !arto North olina, and to Minnesota. Parts used.— Branches, and the essence obtained from the same (nonofficial).

m

(

See Erechtites hieracifo/ia and Serophularia marilandwa. Pilot weed. See Silphium laciniaium.
Pilewort.

Pimpernel.

See Pimpinella saxifraga.
See Anagallh arn-rms
See Anagattis arm,*;
h%Qi
Pri ° rity

Pimpernel, red.
Pimpernel,

scarlet.

^^muS^^^

***** b* »•*•«.

«

P.

^anara L.

is a

d In con-

PIMPINELLA SAXIFKAGA
Pimpinella saxifraga
L.
-

POKE.

53
).

Parsley family (Apiaceae

BnmetHsaxifrage; bennet; pimpernel. Erect, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, adventive from Europe, and found in waste places in eastern Pennsylvania, at several localities in the vallev of the Delaware, and in Ohio. Part used. Root (nonofficial).

Pine, northern.

See Pinus

strobus. spicata.

Pine, prairie-.

See Lacinaria

Pine, prince's-.
Pine,

See Chimaphila umbeUata
See Pinus strobus.
strobus.
,

Weymouth.
rose-.

Pine, white.

See Pinus

Pink.

SeeSahbatia angularis.

Pinkroot,

See Spigelia marilandica,
See Spigelia mar Hand tea.

Pinkroot, Indian.

Pinkroot, Maryland.

See Spigelia marihmdica.

Pinus strobus L. White pine; northern

Pine family (Pinaceae).
pine;

Weymouth

pine.

.

Large, indigenous forest tree, sometimes 175 feet in height, growing in from Canada south to Georgia and Iowa.

woods

Part n*ed.
Pipe-plant.

—-Bark

(nonofficial).
tmiflora.

See Monotropa

Pipsissewa.

See Chimaphila umbeUata.

Pitcher-plant.

^wSarracmia.
L.

purjnfrea.

y^

Plantago major

Plantain family Plantaginaceae).
i

Common

plantain; dooryard-plantain; greater plantain.

Perennial herb, 1 to3 feet high, naturalized from Europe; common in Melds and waste places and along roadsides nearly throughout North America.
Parti used.

—Root and leaves (nonofficial).
See Plantago major. See Plantago major.
See Peramium pubescent.
rattlesnake-.

Plantain,

common.

Plantain, dooryard-.

Plantain,

downy

Plantain, greater.

See Plantago major.

Plantain, lesser rattlesnake-. Plantain, netleaf-.

See

Peramwm

repens.

See Peramium pubescent. See Peramium repent.

Plantain, smaller netleaf-. Plantain, white.
Pleurisy-root.

See Peram'mm repent.

See Asclepiaa tuberom. See Podophyllum pe&otum.
L.

Podophyllum.

S

Podophyllum peltatum

family Podophyllum; May-apple; wild mandrake; American mandrake; wild lemon. to \\ feet high, found in low, rich woods from Canada Native, perennial herb, to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. Pari used. Rhizome (official).
1

Poison-hemlock.
Poison-ivy.

See Con'nnn maculatnm.

See Rhus radicans and R. toxicodendron.

Poison-oak.
Poison-vine.

See Rhus radicans and R. toxicodendron.
See Rhus radicans.

Poke.

See Phytolacca decandra.

.

54

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Phytolacca decandra.
See Silphium laciniatum.
See Spathyema foetida.
L.

Pokeweed.
Polar-plant.

Polecat-weed.

Polemonium reptans
American Greek

Phlox family (Poiemoniaceae).

valerian; abscess-root; sweetroot; Jacobs-ladder.

Native, perennial herb, 12 to 20 inches high, growing in woods and from New York to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Missouri.

damp ground

Part used.

—Root (nonofficial).
T.

Poly gala nuttallii

&

(1.

Milkwort family (Polygalaceae).

Nuttall's-milkwort; ground-centaury.
Slender, erect, annual herb, 6 to 12 inches high, native in dry, sandy soil from Massachusetts to North Carolina, west to Alabama and Missouri.
/'art used.

—Herb (nonofficial).
L.

Poly gala senega

Milkwort family (Polygalaceae).

Senega; Seneca snakeroot. Native, perennial herb, 8 to 12 inches high, found in rocky woods and on hillsides from New Brunswick and western New England to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Missouri.
Part used.

— Root

(official).

Polygonatum biflorum

(Walt.) Ell.

Lily-of-the-valley family
(

Synonyms. ConraUaria biflora Walt.; Salomonia biflora (Walt.) Britton. Hairy Solomon' s-seal; smaller Solomon Vseal. Native, perennial herb, 8 inches to 3 feet high, found in woods and thickets from Canada south to Florida and Michigan.
Part used.

Convallariaceae )

—Rhizome (nonofficial).
(

Polygonatum commutatum Roem. & Schult. ) Dietr. Lily-of-the-valley family
Synonyms.
'

— Poh/gonatum

giganteitm

Dietr.;

Salomonia

(Convallariaceae). commvtata (Roem. &

Schult.) Britton.

Giant Solomon' s-seal; great Solomon's-seal; smooth Solomon' s-seal. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 8 feet high, occurring in moist woods and along streams from Canada to Georgia, west to Louisiana and Utah.
Part used.

—Rhizome (nonofficial).
Same
as Polygonatum

PolygcmatumgigarUeum Dietr.

commutatum.
*

Polygonum hydropiper

L.

Buckwheat family (Polygonaceae).

Smart weed; water-pepper; biting knot weed; pepper-plant. Smooth, annual plant, 8 inches to 2 feet high, naturalized from Europe; in moist waste places almost throughout North America.
Part used.

common

— Herb (nonofficial).
Ell.

.

Polygonum punctatum

Buckwheat family Polygonaceae ).
(

Dotted smart weed; water-smart weed. Native, annual or perennial herb, found in swamps and other wet places throughout most of North America.
Part used.

— Herb (nonofficial).
L.

Polymnia uvedalia

y

Aster family Asteraceae
(

)

Yellow

bear's-foot; yellow leafcup; uvedalia.

Large, native, perennial plant, 3 to 6 feet high; in ravines and eden* of from New York to Michigan, south to Florida and Tex Part used. Root (nonofficial).

woods

Polypod

'ens

Dryopt

POLYPODIUM VOLGAKE
Polypodium vulgare
L.

POTENTILLA CANADENSIS.

55

Fern family (Polypodiaeeae).

polypody; fernroot; rock-brake; female-fern. Native fern, 3 to 10 inches in height, with a perennial, creeping rhizome; on shady, rocky banks, in woods and mountains almost throughout North America. Parts used.— Rhizome and tops (nonofficial).

Common

Polypody, common.

See Polypodium vulgare.

Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw.

Haircap-moss family (Polytrichaceae).

Haircap-moss; robin's-rye. Native moss, 4 to 7 inches in height, growing along margins of dry woody and exposed places, mostly on poor, sandy soil. Part used. Whole plant (nonofficial).

Pond-lily, large yellow. Pond-lily, white.

See Nympkaea advena.
<

See

'astalia

odorata.

Poolroot.

See Eupatorium ageratoides, E. aromaticum, and Scaiicufa marilandica.

Poolwort.

See Eupatorium ageratoides and E. aromaticum.

Poplar, silver.

See Populus

alba.
alba.

Poplar, silverleaf-.
Poplar, trembling. Poplar, tulip-. Poplar, white.

See Populus

See Populus tremuloides.
'

See Iiriodendron

tuiipifera.

See Populus alba and P. tremuloides. See Lbrbtfendron
L.
tulipifera.

Poplar, yellow.

Populus alba

Willow family

(Salicaceae).
States;

White poplar; silverleaf-poplar; silver poplar; white-bark. A large tree, sometimes 120 feet in height, naturalized in the United occurs along roadsides from New Brunswick to Virginia.
Part used.

— Bark, collected in spring (nonofficial).
Same
as Populus candicans.
Ait.

Populus balsamifera candicans A. Gray.

Populus candicans
Synonym.
Balm-of-Gilead.

— Populus balsarnifera candicans A.

Willow family
Gray.

(Salicaceae).

A

large tree, about 80 feet in height, mostly escaped from Brunswick to New Jersey, west to Minnesota.

cultivation, New-

Parts used.

— Leafbuds and bark (nonofficial).
Willow family
(Salicaceae).
quiverleaf.

Populus tremuloides Michx. A

Quaking aspen; American aspen; white poplar; trembling poplar;
slender, indigenous tv^e, growing in dry or moist soil from lower to Kentucky and in the Rocky Mountains to Lower California.

Canada south

/'art used.

—Bark, collected in spring (nonofficial).
(L.) Britton.

Porteranthus trifoliatus
Synonym.
I

Rose family (Rosaceae).

— CKtten

ia trifoliate

Moench.
false ipecac;

western drop wort. Native, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, found in moist, shady places in rich woods from New York to Michigan, south to Georgia and Missouri; more common in the Atlantic States than in the Western States.
n<

Han-physic;

Bowman' s-root;

Part used.
Potato, hog-.
Potato,

— Root

(nonofficial).

See rpomoea pandurata.

wild

See Ipomoea pandurata.

Potentilla canadensis L.

Bose family Rosaceae).
|

y

Fivetinger; cinq uefoil.

A

small, annual or biennial plant, with creeping stem-, l' rowing in dry soil Quebec to Georgia, west to Minm >ta and the Indian Territory.

from

Part used.

— Plant

(nonofficial).

. .

56

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Ladnaria spicata.

Prairie-pine.

Prenanthes alba L.
Prenanthi
8

Same

as Xahalus albus.

serpentaria Pursh.

Same

as

Nabalm
i

serpentarius.

Prickly ash, northern.
Prickly ash, southern.

See Xanthoxylum

mericuuum

See Fagara dava-herculw.

Prideweed.
Prim.

See Erigeron canadensis.

See Ligusirurn vulgare.
See Oenothera biennis.
biennis.

Primrose, evening-. Primrose,
tree-.

See Oenothera

Primwort.

See Ligustrum vulgare.
See ChimaphUa umbeUata.

Prince's-pine.

Prinm
Privet.

verticUlatu* L.

Same
L.

as

Hex

vertirillata.

See

lAgu&nm

vulgare.

Prunella vulgaris

Mint family Menthaceae )
(

Self-heal; heal-all;

brownwort; sicklewort; blue-curls.

Perennial plant, 2 inches to 2 feet high, naturalized from Europe, and found fields, woods, and waste places throughout nearly the whole of North America.

m

—Herb (non Primus serotina Ehrh. Synonym. —Pnmus rirginiana
pari used.

official).

Pl um family Amygdalaceae
(

)

not of Linnaeus. Primus virginiana; wild cherry; rum-cherry. A large, indigenous tree, 50 to 80 feet high, growing in woods or open places from Ontario to Florida, west to Texas and Dakota. Most abundant in the Southwestern States.
Mill.,

Part used.—Bark, which should be collected in autumn and carefully dried and preserved (official).

Primus virginiana.
Prunus rirginiana
Psoralea.

See Primus not L.

serotina.

Mill.,

Same

as Prun><* serotina.

See Psoralea pedunculata.

Psoralea rndilotoides Michx.

Same
)

as Psoralea pedunculata.

Psoralea pedunculata
Sf/uo,
///.

— Psoralea

(Mill.

Vail.

Pea family (Fabaceae).

meKhkndes Michx.
soil in

Psoralea; Samson's-snakcroot; Congo-root. Slender, herbaceous perennial, 1 to 2\ feet high, native in drv

from Ohio and Kentucky southward. Farts used.— Root and leaves (nonofiicial

open woods

).

Ptelea trifoliata L.

Rue family

(Rutaceae).

Wafer-ash; wingseed; hop-tree; shrubby trefoil. Native shrub, 6 to 8 feet high; in shady woods from New York to Florida, west to Minnesota and Texas; grows more abundantly west of the Alleghenies. Porto usi '/.—Bark of root, fruit, and leaves (nonofficial).

Pterocaulon undulatum (Walt.) Mohr. Synonym.— Gnaphaliuvi undulatum Walt
Indian blackroot. Native perennial herb, growing t londa and Mississippi. Part used.—-Root (nonofficial).
Puccoon, red.
in

Aster family (Asteraceae).

sandy pine lands from North Carolina to

See Sanguinaria canadensis. See Hydrastis canadensis. See
Pulsatilla

Puccoon, yellow.
Pulsatilla,

American.

MratUimnia.

/

PULSATILLA HIRSUTISSIMA

BATTLE8NAKE-HEBB.
(

57

Pulsatilla hirsutissima (Pursh BrittolL Crowfoot family Ranunculaceae ). Synonym. Anemone patens var. nuttaUmna A. Gray.

)

American pasqueflower; American

Pulsatilla.
Illi-

Native, perennial herb, 6 to 16 inches high, found in the prairie regions of nois, west to the Rocky Mountains and the Northwest.

Pari used,
Purging-root.

—Flowering herb (nonofficial).
See Euphorbia tordUata,
See Euphorbia nutans.
See Euphorbia nutans.

Purslane, black.

Purslane, milk-.

Pussy-willow.
Putty-root.

See Salix nigra.

See Aplectrum spicatum.

Pycnanthemum montamoa Michx. Same as KoeUia monkma. Pycnanth&num pilosum Nutt. Same as KoeUia pilom.
Pyramid-flower.

See Frasera caroKnensis.

Pyrethrum parthenium Smith.

Same

as

Chrysanthemum parthenium.

Pyrm

americana DC.

Same

as Sorbus americana.

Quack-grass.

See Agropyron repens.

Queen- Ann e's-lace.

See Daucus

carota.

Qneen-of-the-meadow.
I

See Eupatorium purpureum.
Stillingia sylvatica.

^ueen's-delight.

See

Queensland asthma-weed.
Queen's-root.

See Euphorbia pUulifera.

See

StiMingia, sylvatica.

Quercus.

See (jaercus alba.
L.

Quercus alba

Beech, family

|

Fagaceae).

Quercus; white oak; stone-oak. Large, indigenous forest tree, 50 to 100 feet in height, in woods from Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. More abundant in the Middle States u collected from trunks or branches 10 to 25 years of age, and Pari used. Bark, deprived of the periderm" (official).

Quercus rubra L. Red oak; champion-oak; Spanish

Beech family
oak.

Large, wide-spreading, indigenous forest tree, about 70 feet in height, from Nova .More common in the Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. Northern States and in Canada.

Part used.

— Bark (nonofficial).
See Sahbatia
See Sabbatia
eUioltii.
ellioUii. elliottii
.

Quinine-flower.

Quinine-herb.
Quinine-plant.
Quivcrleaf.

See Sabbatia

See Populw tremuloid

Bagged-cup.

See Silpkium perfoliaium.
ctrternisiaefoHa.

Ragweed.

See A?nbrosia

Ragwort, golden.
Raspberry, black.

See

&nedo

aureus.

See Rubus ocddeniaUs.

Raspberry, ground-.

See Hydrastis canadensis.
S>

Raspberry, wild red.
Rattle-root.

Rubus

strig

us.

See CmAcifuga racemosa.
See Actaea alba and A. rubra.

Rattlesnake-herb.

.

58

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Bee Eryngium yuccifoliumj Lacinaria scariosa, L. spicata, and

Rattlesnake-master. L. squamosa*

Rattlesnake-plantain, downy.

See Peramium pubescens. See Peramium repens.

Rattlesnake-plantain, lesser.
Rattlesnake-root.
Rattlesnake-violet.

See Nabalus aUrus and N. serpentarius.

See Erythronium americanuin.
See Eryngium

Rattlesnake-weed.
jtlll'i

yucdfoliwm

)

Hieracium

venmum, and Per&ptium

smfs.

Redbud.
Uedroot.

See Cere!* canadensis.
See Ceanothut americanus.

Ehamnus

cathartica L. Buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). Buckthorn; hart' s-t horn; waythoni. A shrnb 6 to 15 feet high, introduced from Europe; escaped from hedges and growing in dry soil in the New England and Middle States.
Part used,

— Berries (nonofficial).
See

Rhamnus

purshiana.

Rhamnm

purshiana DO.
*

Rhamnus purshiana
Rhanmus

IK'.

.

Buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).
;

purshiana; cascara sagrada; chittem-bark sacred-bark; bearberry-tree. Small, indigenous tree, 15 to 20 feet in height, found on the sides and bottoms of canyons, Rocky Mountains west to tin- Pacific Ocean, and extending north
into British America.

Pari wed.

— Bark, collected at least one year before being used
See Dioecorea viMosa and Jeffersonia diphylla. See Chimaphila wmbeUata.
L.

(official).

Rheumatism-root.

Rheumatism-weed.

Rhododendron maximum

Heath family (Ericaceae),

(heat laurel; rose-bay; deer-laurel; rose-laurel. Tall, native, evergreen shrub or small tree, found in low woods and along streams from Canada to Georgia. Leaves (nonofficial}. Pari m d.

Rhus aromatica

Ait.

Sumac family (Anacardiaceae).

Fragrant sumac; sweet-scented sumac. Indigenous shrub, 2 to 6 feet high, growing in woods and rocky situations Canada to Florida, especially along the mountains, west to Minnesota and Arkansas.
Part used.

— Bark of root
L.

(nonofficial).

Rhus

glabra.

See Rhus glabra L.

Rhus glabra
Rhus

Sumac family (Anacardiaceae).
smooth sumac;
scarlet

glabra;

sumac.

Indigenous, branching *hrub, from 4 to 12 feet high; in dry soil, thickets, and waste grounds nearly throughout the United States and Canada.

Park

"W.— Fruit
L. a

(official!

;

bark and leaves

<

nonofficial).

Rhus radicans

Sumac family (Anacardiaceae)
]

Rhus toxicodendron (pharmacopoeia] name,
poison-vine.

>0);

poison-ivv;

poison-oak;

Native,
to

woody

vine, clinging to trees

and fence rows; Canada

to Florida, west

Nebraska and Arkansas. Very poisonous to the touch. Part used.—Freeh leaves (official in U. S. P. 1890),

Rhus toxicodendron.
'i

See Rhus radicans.
t<>
i

Rhus rod
i

now regarded as name (V. s. P.

he a varied Ek\ taricodt ndt L but the two are lisiinet species, and the Leaves from both have been used under the pharmacoixeia] >) Rhus toxicodendron.

h.

was formerly believed

.

.

. .

KHUS TOXICODENDRON
Rhus toxicodendron
Low,
L.

RUlil's

OCCIDKNTAL1S,
(

5*,)

Sumac family Anacardiaceae)

Poison-ivy; poison-oak.
erect, and finely pubescent plant, more shrubby than Rhus radicam, and found in dry soil in more southern localities from Virginia to Georgia. Very poisonous to the touch.

Pari used.— Fresh leaves, collected with those of Rhus radicam.

Richweed.

See CoUinsonm canadensis and Eupatorium agerat&ides.
L.
-

Robinia pseudacacia

Pea family (Fabaceae)

Locust-tree; black locust; yellow locust; false acacia.

A large,

indigenous tree, sometimes 80 feel in height, growing in woods from Pennsylvania south along the western slope of the Allegheny Mountains to Georgia, west to the Indian Territory. Most abundant in the Middle and Eastern States.

Part used.
Robin's-rye,

—Bark of root (nonofficial).
See Pobjtrivlmm juniperinurn.

Rock-brake.

See

Pdypodhm
palutfn

vulgare.

Rock-rose, Canadian,

See Helkmthemum canademe.
.

Rope-bark.

See Dirca

Rose, Canadian rock-.

See HeHcmthemum canademe*

Rose-bay.

See Rhododendron

maximum

Rose-iaureL

See Rhododendron maximum.
See Idm&nium carolinianum*

Rosemary, marsh-.
Rose-pink.
Rose-willow.

See Sabbatia angtUaris.
See Cornus

amomum.
»

Rosinweed.

See Silphium laciniatum.
See Sorbus americana.
JR.

Roundwood.
Rubus.
\nllosus.

See Rubus cuneifolms, R. nigrobaceus,

procumbens, R.

trurialis,

and R.

Rubus canadensis T.

&

G., not L.

Same

as Rubus procumbens.

Rubus

cuneifolius Purs h. Rose family (Rosaceae). Rubus; sand-blackberry; knee-high blackberry. Shrubby plant, 1 to 3 feet high; in sandy soil from Connecticut to Florida, west to Missouri and Louisiana. Pari used. Bark of rhizome (official).

Rubus idaeus

var.

Qmerieanw Torr.
Bailey.

Same

as

Rubus

oacidentalis.

Rubus nigrobaccus

Synonym. Ruin* viUosus A. Gray, not Ait. Rubus; high-bush blackberry. Slender shrub, 3 to 7 feet high, growing in dry fields and along roadsides, Now England States to Florida, and west to Arkansas. Pari used, Bark of rhizome (official).

(R

Rubus occidentals
Syt

ym. Rubus idaeus var. americanus Torr. Black raspberry; thimbleberry; blackcap. L straggling shrub, growing along the borders of woods and from Canada south to Gi rgia and Missouri.
i

L.

family

Parts

d.

—Fruit and leaves (nonofficial)

.. .

<>()

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Synonym. Rubus canadensis T. t^c i., not L. Rubus; low running blackberry; dewberry. shrubby, trailing plant, found in dry soil from Newfoundland to Lake Superior, south to Virginia and the Indian territory. Pari tuecL—Bark of root (official in U. S. I.\ ltfi)0).
<

Rubus procumbens

Muhl.

Rose family (Rosaceae).

Rubus

strigosus Michx.
in

Rose family (Rosaceae).
dry or rocky situations from Canada to North Carolina

Wild red raspberry. Shrubby plant, found and New Mexico. Emit and Parts used.

leaves (nonofficial).

Rubus

trivialis Michx.

Rose family (Rosaceae).
to Florida,

Rubus; southern dewberry; low-bush blackberry. Shrubby, procumbent plant, found in sandy soils, Virginia Missouri and Texas. Pari used.— Rark of root (official in U. 8. P. 1890).
Rubus
rillosus

west to

A. Gray, not Ait.

Same

as

Rubus

nig

toaocus.

Rubus

villosus Ait.

Rose family (Rosaceae).
in

/Part

Rubus; one-flowered dewberry. Trailing plant, with slender branches, growing coast from Maine to South Carolina. Bark of rhizome (official) used.

sandy or dry

soil

near the

Rudbeckia laciniata

L.

Aster family Asteraceae)
(

Thimbleweed; tall coneflower. Much-branched, native perennial. 3 to 12 feet high; and Montana, south to Florida and New Mexico.
Part used.

in moist thickets,

Canada

— Herb (nonofficial).
See Primus
serolina.

Rum-cherry.

Rumex.

See Rumex crispus.

Rumex

acetosella L.

Sheep-sorrel; field-sorrel; sour-grass;

Buckwheat family (Polygonaceae) common sorrel.
in dry fields, pastures,

Annual or perennial herb, abundant
throughout the United states. Pari used. heaves (nonofficial).

and waste ground

**

Rumex

crispus

L.

Buckwheat family (Polygonaceae).

curled dock; narrow dock; sour dock. A weed introduced from Europe, and common in cultivated and waste ground throughout the United States. Perennial plant, 2 to 4 feet high. part used.—Root of this and some other species of Rumex (official in U. P
S.

Rumex: yellow dock:

1890).

Rumex

obtusifolius L. Buckwheat family (Polygonaceae). Hitter dock; blunt-leaved dock; broad-leaved dock. A perennial weed. 2 to 4 feet high, naturalized from Europe, and found in waste places from New England to Florida, wert to Texas and Oregon. Pari wed.—Root, collected with that of Rumex crispus.
See Se
<>o<i g<

Sabal.

*ulata.

/

Sabbatia ang^ilaris (L.) Pursh. American centaury; rose-pink;
Native, biennial plant,
1

Gentian family Gentianaceae
(

)

bitterbloom; bitter clover.

and among
Pari used.

the Indian Territory.

to 2 feet high, growing in damp, rich Boil, in meadows high grass, from York to Michigan, south to Florida and

New

— Herb (nonofficial).

.

8ABBATIA ELLIOTTII
Sabbatia
elliottii Steud.

— SANICLE,

WHITE.
(

61

Synonym.

—Sabbatic paniculata

Gentian family Gentianaceae).
Ell.

Quinine-flower; quinine-plant; quinine-herb; Elliott' s-sabbatia. An erect, native herb, about one foot in height, growing in pine barrens from North Carolina to Florida.

Part used.

—Herb (nonofficial).
See Sabbatia
eUiottiL

Sabbatia, Elliott's-.

Sabbatia paniculata Ell.
Sabina.

Same

as Sabbatia r/HoltH.

See Juniperus sabina.

Sacred-bark.
Sage, Indian.

See Rhamnus purshiana.
See Eupatorium perfoliatum.

Saint-Benedict' s thistle.

See Omcus benedictus.
See Hypericum perforatum.

Saint-John's wort,

common.

Salix alba L.

Willow

White willow; European willow. A large tree, sometimes 90 feet in height, introduce.! from Europe; occurs in moist soil along streams from Pennsylvania northward to New Brunswick and Ontario, sparingly escaped from cultivation. Part used. Bark (nonoflicial). Willow family (Salicaceae). Salix nigra Marsh.

Black willow; pussy-willow; swamp-willow. Tall, indigenous tree, growing on banks of rivers from Canada
California.

to

Florida and

Parts

u*ed—Bark, and

fresh

amenta gathered early
as

in

May

(nonofficial).

Sdbmonia biflwa (Walt.) Britton. Same Salomonia commutata (Koem. A Schult.)
Salt-rheum weed.
See Chelone glabra.

Potygonatum bifiorum.

Dietr.

Same

as

Pdygomakm

mmOatum.

Sambucus.

See Sambucus canadensis.
L.

Sambucus canadensis

Honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae
(

)

Sambucus; elder; American

elder; sweet elder.

Indigenous shrub, 6 to 10 feet high, growing in low, to Florida and Arizona.

damp ground from Canada
and
berries (nonofficial).

partB

„&&.—FiowetS
See I>run

(official in

U.

S. P.

1890); bark

Sampson-root.

via angustifolia.
villosa.

Sampson' s-snakoroot.
Samson' s-snakeroot.
Sand-blackberry.
Sandbrier.

See Gh ntiana

Bee Psoralea pedmculata.

See Rubus cuneifoHus.

See Solanum carolinense.

y

Sanguinaria.

See Suiguinaria canadensis.
L.

Sanguinaria canadensis

Poppy family Papaveraceae
(

.

redpuccoon; Indian-paint; tetterwort Sanguinaria; bloodroot; 6 inches high, found in rich, open woods from Native, perennial herb, about south to Florida and Arkansas. Nova Scotia to Nebraska, u collected after the death of the foliage" (official). Pari „w.— Rhizome, Heuchera americma and Samcuta marihmdica. Sanicle, American. See
Sanicle, black.
Sanicle, Indian.
Sanicle, white.

See Sanicuta marilandim.
See Eupatorium ageratoides.

See Eupatorim

tyeratoides.

.

62
"

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Sanicula marilandica

L.

Parsley family (Apiaceae).

Black sanicle; black snakeroot; American Banicle; poolroot. Native, perennial herb, 1 to 3 feet high; in rich woods, Canada to Georgia. Part used. Root (nonofficial).

Saponaria

officinalis L.
fuller' s-herb.

Pink family (Silenaceae).
and found along

Soap wort; soaproot; bouncing-Bet;

Stout, perennial herb, 1 to 2 feet high, naturalized from Europe roadsides and waste places; common almost everywhere.

Parts used.

—Root and herb (nonofficial).
Wimm.
Same
L.

Sarolhamnus scoparius

as Oytisus scoparius.

Sarracenia flava

Pitcher-plant family

(

Sarraceniaceae).

Trumpetleaf; trumpets; Eve's-cup; watercup; yellow-flowered watercup. Curious, indigenous perennial, about 1 to 3 feet high, found in low, wet pine barrens in the southeastern United States. Paris used. Root and sometimes the leaves (nonofficial).

Sarracenia purpurea L.

Pitcher-plant family (Sarraceniaceae).

Pitcher-plant; flytrap; sidesaddle-flower; watercup; smallpox-plant. Indigenous perennial, 1 to 2 feet high, growing in wet, boggy places and marshes, from Canada to Minnesota and Florida.

parts used.
Barsaparilla,

—Root and sometimes the leaves
See Aral hi nudicaulis. See Aral la kispida.
See Am/ia nudicaulis.

(nonofficial).

American.

Barsaparilla, bristly.
Barsaparilla, false. Barsaparilla, Texas.

See

Memspermum
See Aral
i

ctmadense.

Barsaparilla, Virginian.
Barsaparilla, wild.
Sassafras.

a nudicauUs.

See Araiia nudicauUs.

See Sassafras variifolium.

{Sassafras officinale

Nees

& Eberm.

Sassafras sassafras (L.) Karat*
Sassafras,

Same as Sassafras varnfolium. Same as Sassafras variifolium.

swamp-.

See Magnolia vxrginiana.
(Salisb.) 0. Kunt/e. "
officinal <

Sassafras variifolium
Sassafras; ague-tree.

Laurel family (Lauraceae).

Synonym*.—Sassafras
Native
tree,

Xees

&

Eberm.; Sassafras sassafras ( L. ) Karst. a

sometimes reaching a height of 125 feet; in rich woods, Massachusetts to Ontario and Michigan, south to Florida and Texas. Parts used. Bark of root, collected in early spring or autumn and deprived of the periderm (official); pith (official); and the oil of sassafras distilled from the root, especially the root bark (official).

Satureia hortensis Summer-savory.
<

L.

Mint family Menthaceae)
(

Hairy, aromatic, annual herb, adventive from Europe and occurring in waste pla a from Canada to Pennsylvania and Nevada. Part used. Herb (nonofficial).

Savin.

See Juniperus sabina.

Savin, red.

See Jmdperus lirgmiana.

Savory, summer-.

See Satureia

hortensis.

Saw-palmetto.

See Serenoa semdata. See Pimpinella saxifraga.

Saxifrage, burnet-.

pSS^Sli:rSS

Ke^'

KilKt

^UM

be aceepted by swet right of

.

SCABIOUS,
Scabious, sweet.
,

SWEET

SKKMCE-TKEE, AMERICAS.

63

See Erigeron phUddelphicus.
Bee Aster puniceus.

Scabish, meadow-.

Scabwort.

See Inula helenium.

Scarletberry.

See Solatium dulcamara*

Scoke.

See Phytolacca dccandra.
See Cytisus scoparms.

Scoparius.

Scouring-rush,
Scrofula-plant.

common.

See JJquisetum hyemate*

See Scrophularia mariiandica.

Scrofula-weed.

See Peramium pubescens.

Fig-wort family (Scrophulariaceae). Scrophularia mariiandica L. Synonym. Scrophularia nodosa var. mariiandica A. (fray. Maryland figwort; scrofula-plant; carpenter s-square; heal-all; bee-plant; pile-

7

wort,

Smooth, native perennial, 3 to 6 feet high; moist, shady ground in woods and thickets, New York to North Carolina and Kansas. Parts used. Herb and root (nonoftieial).

Scrophularia nodosa var. mariiandica A. Gray.
Scutellaria.

Same

as Scrapladaria mariiandica.

Sec Scutellaria

lateriflora.

Scutellaria hyssopifoHa L.

Same

as Scutellaria integrifolia.

y

Scutellaria integrifolia L. Synonym. Scutellaria hyssopifolia L. Larger skullcap; hyssop-skullcap.

Mint family Menthaceae)
(

Native, perennial herb,

inches to 2 feet high, found in fields and woods from Connecticut south to Florida and Texas.
<>

Part used.
i

— Herb (nonofficial).
L.

Scutellaria lateriflora

Mint family (Menthaceae).

Scutellaria; skullcap;

madweed; hoodwort.

Smooth, branching perennial, 1 to 2 feet high, native in damp places along banks of streams from Canada south to Florida, New Mexico, and Washington.
J 'a rt

used.

— Plant (official).
See Ll/nonium carolinianain.

Sea-lavender.
Self-heal*

See Prunella vulgaris.

Senecio aureus L.
Liferoot;

Aster family ( Aster aceae).

golden ragwort; cocash-weed; coughweed. Indigenous, perennial herb, 1 to 2\ feet high, growing in swamps and wet meadows, Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Florida, Missouri, and Texas.

swamp squaw-weed;

Parts

used—Root and herb
See Polygala senega.

(nonofficial).

Senega.

Senna, American.
Senna, wild.

See Cassia mariiandica.
i/Htrilaudica.
)

See Cassia
I

Serenoa serrulata

Roem. & Schult.
feet in

Hook.

f.

.

Palm family (Phoenicaceae).
and

Sabal; saw-palmetto.

A

palm, 3 to

7

height, found in sandy soil from North Carolina

Arkansas
Part used.

to

Honda and

Texas.
fruit (official).

—Partially dried ripe
^.

Serpentina.

See AristotocMa reticulata and A.
See Arwtotochia reticuiata.

rpentaria

Serpentaria, Tex

Serpentaria, Virginia.
Service-tree, American.

See AruftdocUa serpentaria.
See
5

vrbus americatna.

64

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Hydrangea arborescens.

Seven-barks.

Shagbark.

See Hicoria ovata.

Shamrock.

See Oralis

acetosella.
trifaliata.

Shamrock, water-.
Shave-grafis,

See Menyantkes

See Equisetum hyemale*
Set*

Sheepberry.
Sheep-laurel.
Sheep-sorrel.

Viburnum

lentago.
A", latifolia.

See Kalinin angustifolia ami

See

Rumex

acetosella.

Shell bark-hickorv.

See Hicoria bvata.

Shellflower,

See Chefone glabra.

Shepherd' s-purse.

See Bursa bursorpastoris.
See Anagcdlis arvenms.

Shepherd* a-weatherglass.

Shield-fern, marginal -fruited.

See Dryopieris marginalis.

Shrub, sweet-scented.

See Butneria florida.
apiifolia.

Shrub yellowroot.
Sieklewort.
Sidesaddle-flower.
Silk weed.

See Xanthorrhiza
vulgaris.

See Prunella

See Sarraeenia purpurea.
st/riaea.

See Asclepias

Silk weed, rose-col ore< I.

See Asrlepias incarnata.

Silk weed,

swamp-.

See Asclepias incarnata.
L.

Silphium laciniatum

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Rosin weed; compass-plant; pilotweed; poiar-plant. Coarse, native perennial, 3 to 12 feet high, growing on prairies from Ohio to Alabama, west to Texas and South Dakota.
Part used.

— Herb (nonofficial).
L.

Silphium perfoliatum

Aster family (Asteraceae).

/

Cup-plant] Indian-cup; ragged-cup. Stout, perennial herb, 4 to 8 feet high, native in moist soil and low ground from Ontario and the eastern United States west to Louisiana and Nebraska. Root (nonoffieial). Part used.

Silverleaf.

See ImpaHens

hijlora.

Spiraea tomentosa^ and SMlingta sylvaiica.

Silverleaf-poplar.

See I'apulus alba.

Simpler

7

s-joy.

See Verbena hastata.

/

Sinapis alba.

See Sinapis
L.

aj}>a

L.

Sinapis alba

Mustard family Brassicaceae).
|

Sinapis alba; white mustard; yellow mustard.

Annual herb, about 2 feet in height, naturalized from Europe, and found fields and waste places, but not BO widely distributed as the black mustard.
Part uxed.—&'^d (official).
Sinapis nigra.
Sinapis nigr<t L.

in

See Brassica nigra.

Same

as Brassica nigra.
lateriflora.

Skullcap.

See Scutellaria

Skullcap, hyssop-.

See Scutellaria

iutegrifolia.

Skullcap, larger.

See Scutellaria

integrifolia.

Skunk-cabbage.

See Spathyema foetida.
foetida.

Skunkweed.
Sloe.

See SpatJujema

See Viburnum prnnifolium.

Smallpox-plant.

See Sarracenia purpurea.

SMART WEE I)
Smartweed.

SOLANUM CAROLINENSE.

65

See Polygonum hydropiper.
Bee Polygonum pundaium.

Smartweed, dotted. Smartweed, water-.

See Polygonum pundatum.

Smiktcina racemosa Desf.

Same

as Vagnera racemosa

Smilax herbacea

L.

Smilax

Carrion-flower; American Jacobs-ladder. Native, herbaceous perennial, occurring in woods and thickets in Canada and the eastern United States.

Pari used.

— Herb (n unofficial).
L.

Smilax pseudo-china
bull brier.

Smilax family (Smilacaceae).
false

Bamboo-brier; long-stalked green brier; American China-root;

China-root;

Perennial vine, native, growing in dry or sandy thickets, Maryland to Florida, west to Texas and Nebraska. Pari used, Rhizome (nonofficial).

Snake-gentian.

See Nabahu serpent

<

mm.

Snakehead.

See Chelone glabra,

Snakeleaf, yellow.
Snake-lily.

See Erythronium americanum.

See

Iris versicolor,

Snakemilk,

See Kuphorbia coroUata.

Snakeroot, black. Snakeroot, button-.
Snakeroot, Canada.
Snakeroot, corn-.

See Cimicifuga

(t<ri/ios<i

See Eryngium yuccifolium.

t

See Asarum canadimse.
See Eryngium yuccifolium and Laeinaria spirata See Laeinaria spieata*
Set*

Snakeroot, dense button-.

Snakeroot, large button-.

I/icnmria seariasa.
reticulata.

Snakeroot, Red River.
Snakeroot, Sampson'sSnakeroot, Samson's-. Snakeroot, Seneca.

See Aristohckia

See Gentiana vUlom. See Psorale/f pedurmdata.

See Polygala senega.

Snakeroot, smaller white.

See Eupatorhun aromaticum.
reticulata.

Snakeroot, Texas. Snakeroot, Virginia. Snakeroot, white.
ake-violet.

See Arutolochia

See Aristoloehia aerpentaria.

See Etipatorium ageratoides*

See Viola pedata.

Snakeweed.
Snapweed.
Sneeze weed.
Sneezewort.

See Euphorbia pUulifera.
See Impatient aurea and
/.

biflora.

See Helenium autumnaU.

See Helenium autumnale.
See Eryihronituh imericanum.
officinalis,
i

Snowdrop, vellow.
Soaproot.

See Saponaria

Soapwort.

See Saponin

officinalis*

Soapwort-gentian.

Set 1 Gentiana saponaria,

Solanum carolinense

L.

Potato family Solanaceae ).
(

Horse-nettle; bull-nettle; sand brier. Bough-hairy, native, perennial herb, common in dry fields and on sandy 01 gravelly banks from the eastern United States west to Texas and Nebraska.
Parts

used.—Root, leaves, and berries (nonofficial).

66

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
L.

Solanum dulcamara

Potato family (Solanaceae).

Dulcamara; bittersweet; woody nightshade; violet-bloom; scarletberry. Climbing, shrubby perennial, naturalized from Europe; found in low, damp grounds and moist banks, New Brunswick to Minnesota, south to New Jersey

and Kansas.
Part used.

— Young branches

(official in

U.

S. P. 1S90).

Solidago odora Ait. Aster family (Asteraceae). Sweet goldenrod; fragrant-leaved goldenrod; anise-scented goldenrod. Slender, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, native; in dry soil from Maine to Texas. Leaves and tops (nonofficial). Parts used.
Solomon' s-seal,
false.

See Vagnera racemosa.

Solomon' s-seal, giant.
Solomon' s-seal, great.

See Polygonatum commntatum. See Polygonatum cornntuiutum.
See Polygonatum biflarum. See Vagnera racemosa. See Polygonatum biflorum, See Polygonatum commntatum.

Solomon' s-seal, hairy. Solomon' s-seal, small.
Solomon's-seal, smaller.

Solomon's-seal, smooth.

Sorbus americana Marsh.

/

Synonym.

—Pyrus americana DC.

Apple family (Malaceae).

American mountain-ash; roundwood; dogberry; mountain-sumac; American
service-tree.

Indigenous tree or tall shrub, growing in low woods or moist ground from Newfoundland south along the mountains to North Carolina, and to Michigan. Parts u$ed. Bark and berries (nonofficial).
.

Sorrel,

common.

Sorrel, field-.

Sorrel, sheep-.
Sorrel,

Rumex acetosella. See Rumex acetosella. See Rumex acetosella.
See See Oxalis
acetosella.
,

white wood-.

Sorrel-tree.

See Oxydendrum arborevm. See Rumex See
<

Sour-grass.

acetosella.

Sourwood.

Kvydendrurn arboreum.

Southernwood.

See Artemisia abrotan am.
(

Spathyema

foetida ( L. ) Raf. Arum family Araceae). Synonyms. Draconi in m foetid" m L. Symplomrjnis foetid us Xutt. Skunk-cabbage; skunkweed; polecat- weed; swamp-cabbage. indigenous, perennial herb, about 1 to 2 feet high, found in swamps and wet eod from Canada south to Florida, Iowa, and Minnesota. Appears very earlv

;

in spring.

Paris used.

— Rhizome and roots (nonotlieial).
See Nympliaea advena. See Veronica
officinalis.

Spatter-dock.

Spearmint.
Speedwell,

See Mentha spicata.

common.
tall.

Speedwell,
Spicebuah.

See Veronica

rirginica.

See Benzoin benzoin.
See Benzoin benzoin.

Spicewood.
Spigeiia.

See Spigelia marilandica.

.

V

SPIGELIA MARILANDICA
Spigelia marilandica L.
Spigelia; pinkroot;

STARWORT.

67

Logania family (Loganiaceae).

Maryland pinkroot; Indian pinkroot; worm-grass.
'

Erect, native, perennial herb, 6 inches to 1} feet high, found in rich woods. New .tewey to Florida, west ro Texas and Wisconsin. Occurs principally in the d

Southern

States.

Parts used.
Spignet.

— Rhizome and roots

(official).

See Art/Ha racemosa.

Spikenard.

See Aralia racemom. See Aralia racemom.

Spikenard, American. Spikenard,
false.

See Vagnera racemom. See Aralia nudicauHs.
See Vagnera racemoecu

Spikenard, small.
Spikenard, wild.
Spindle-tree.
Spiraea.

See Euonymus atropurpurem.

See Spiraea iomentosa.
(
)

Spiraea tomentosa L. Rose family Rosaceae Spiraea; hardhack; steeplebush; pink meadowsweet; silverleaf. Native shrub, occurring in low grounds and moist meadows from Nova Scotia south to Georgia, west to Kansas and Manitoba. Parts used,—Leaves and root (nonoffidal).
Spleen wortlmsh.
Spruce, black.

See Comptonia peregrina.
See Firm mariana.

Spruce, hemlock-. Spruce, weeping.

See Tsuga canadensis. See Tsuga canadensis. See Pirea mariana. See Euphorbia
corollata.

Spruce-gum

tree.

Spurge, flowering.

Spurge, ipecac-.

See Euphorbia ipecacuanhae.
See Euphorbia nvtans.
See Euphorbia pilulifera.

Spurge, large spotted. Spurge, pill-bearing.
Spurge-laurel. >purge-olive.

See Daphne mezerenw.

See Daphne mezereum.
-

Sqnawbeny.
Squawbush.

See MitcheUa repens. See Viburnum opulus.
See Trillium erectum. See Hedeoma pulegimdes. See CaulopkyUurn thaHctroides mid Cimicifuga racemom. See MitcheUa repem. See Eupatorium ageratoides. See Senecio aureus.

Squaw

flower.

Squavvmint.

Sqnawroot.
S(

maw- vine.

Squaw-weed.

Squaw-weed, swamp.
Squirrel-corn.
Squirrel-ear,
Staff-tree,

See Bikuhutta canadensis.

8ee Perttmkm

rept
<$.

•.

gee Celastrus team

Stagbush.

See Viburnum prnnifoH am.
See Bikuhulla canadensis.
See Lijeopoclinm claratum.

Staggerweed.
stag's-horn.

stammerwort.
Star-grass.

See Ambrosia

artemisiaefolui.

See Aletris farinosa. See Chamaelirium luleum.

Starwort.

.

.

68

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Chamaelirium
hi ten m.

Starwort, drooping.
Stat ice

caroHmana Walt.
media Cyr.
See

Same

as

Lbnonium

carol inianum.

Steeplebush.
Stellaria

See Spiraea tomentosa.

Same

as Alsine media.
I

Stillingia.

Stillingia sylvatica.

Stillingia sylvatica L.

Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
soil,

Stillingia; queen's-root; queen's-delight; silverleaf.

Native, herbaceous perennial, 1 to 3 feet in height, occurring in dry, sandy and pine barrens from Maryland to Florida, west to Kansas and Texas.

Part used.

— Root

(official).

Stonecrop, ditch-.

See Pentho rum sedoides.
v

Stonecrop, Virginia.

See Pentharum

sedoides,

Stonemint.
Stone-oak.
Stoneroot.

See Cunila origauoides. See Qaercus alba.
See CoWusonia canadensis. See Datura stramonium. See Fragaria virginiana. See Fragaria
virginiana*.
tiorida.

Stramonium.

Strawberry, scarlet. Strawberry, Virginia.

Strawberry-shrub, hairy.
f

See Butneria

/

Stylosanth.es biflora (L.) B. S. P. Pea family (Fabaceae). Synonym. StyloaanthesdatiorSw. Pencil-flower; afterbirth- weed. Wiry, perennial herb, 6 inches to 2 feet in height, native; occurring in dry soil from New York to Florida, west to the Indian Territory.

Part used.

— Herb
Sw.

(nonofhcial).

Stylosanthes e/atior

Same

as Stylcmanthes biflora.

Succory.

See

dchormm

intybus.

Sumac, fragrant. Sumac, mountain-.
Sumac,
scarlet.

See Rhus aromatica.

See Sorbus americana.

See Rhus glabra.
See Rhus glabra.

Sumac, smooth.
Summer-savory.

Sumac, sweet-scented.

See Rims aromatica*
hortensis.

See Satureia

Sundew, round-leaved. See Drosera rotundifolia, Sunflower, swamp-. See Ildenium atdumnak.

Swamp Swamp

squaw- weed.
willow-herb.

See Senecio aureus.

See Epilobium pahutre.

Swamp-cabbage.

Bee Spatkyerna foetida.

Swamp-dogwood.
Swamp-hellebore.
Swamp-laurel.

See Cornus

amomum
viride.

See Veratrum

See Magnolia

rirr/iniana.

Swamp-maple.

See Acer rubrum. See AscUpias incamata. See Magnolia nrginiana.
See Asclepias incamata.
Bee Helenium autumnal
Salijc nigra.

Swamp-milkweed.
Swamp-sassafras.

Swamp-silkweed.
Swamp-sunflower.

Swamp-willow.

See

SWEATWEED
Sweatweed.
Sweet-cicely.
Sweet-flag.

THIMBLEBERRY.

69

See Althaea

officinalis.

See Washingionia See Acorus calamus. See Liquidambar

longistylis.

Sweet-gum.
Sweetroot.

stgraciflua.

See Polemonium repkms.
officinale L.

Symphytum

Borage family (Boraginaceae).
l)ruisewort.

Comfrey; healing-herb; black wort;

Erect, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe; found in waste places, Newfoundland to Minnesota, south to Maryland.

Part used.

— Root (nonofficial).
Same

Symplocarpux foetidus Xutt.
Tag-alder.

as

Spathyema foetida.

See Alnus rugosa. See Larix
laricina.

Tamarack.
Tanacetum.

See Tanacetum vulgare.
L.

Tanacetum vulgare

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Tanacetum; tansy; double tansy; bitter-buttons; parsley-fern.
Strong-scented, perennial herb, to 3 feet high, introduced from Europe; escaped from cultivation and found along roadsides from Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Missouri.
Parts used.

H

— Leaves and flowering tops
See Tsuya canadensis. See Tanacetum vulgare.
officinale.

(official in

U.

S. P.

1890).

Tanbark-tree.

Tansy.

See Tanacetum vulgare.

Tansy, double.

Taraxacum.

See Taraxacum

Taraxacum

officinale Weber, a

Chicory family (Cichoriaceae).

Synonym. Taraxacum taraxacum (L. ) Karst." Taraxacum; dandelion; blowball; cankerwort. Low, perc erennial weed, 5 to 10 inches high, naturalized from Europe; very abuudant in lawns, meadows, and waste places throughout the United States, with the exception of the South.
Pari used.

— Root, collected in autumn
(L.
)

(official).

Taraxacum taraxacum
Tea, continental.
Tea, James-.

Karst.

Same

as

Taraxacum

officinale*

See Ledum grwnlandicum*

See Ledum groenlandicum.
See
(

Tea, Jersey.

eanothns americanits.

Tea, Jerusalem. Tea, Labrador. Tea, Mexican.

See Chenopodiwn ambnmoides.

See Ledum groenlandicum. See Chenopodium ambrosioides. See Gaultheria procumbens.
See Ceanoihus americanus.

Tea, mountain-.
Tea,

New

Jersey.

Tea, Oswego.
Tea, Spanish.

See Monarda didyma.

See Chenopodium ambroskrides.

Teahorry.

See Gaultheria procumbent.

Tephroeia virginiana JVrs.

Tetterwort.

Same as Cracra rmjimana. See Chelidonium majus and Sangumaria canadensis.
See Rubus
occidentalis.
(L.)

Th imbleberry.
priority, the

"Although the combination Taraxacum taraxoctm
usage of the Pharmacopceia
is

Karst. should be accepted

by right

<

followed.

70

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES. WILD
See Digitalis purpurea. See Rudbeckia laciniaia. See Crticus benedictns.
See Gnicm benedictns.

Thimbles.

Thimbleweed.
Thistle, bitter.

Thistle, blessed. Thistle, Canada.
*

See Carduus

arvensis.

Thistle, creeping.

See Oarduvs arvensis.

Thistle, cursed.

See Carduus arvenm.

Thistle, holy.

See Cnicus bened'utus.

Thistle, St. Benedict's-.

See Omcus benedirtus.

Thistle, spotted.

See Onims bmedictus.

Thorn-apple.

See Datura stramonium.
See Eupatorium
}><

Thoroughwort,
Thousandleaf.

rfoliatum.

See Achillea millefolium.

Throw wort. See Leonurm canHaca. Thuja occidentalis L.

#

Pine family (Pinaceae).

Arbor-vitae; white cedar; yellow cedar. Indigenous, evergreen tree, 20 to 50 feet in height; in wet soil and along banks Especially of streams, Canada to North Carolina, Illinois, and Minnesota. abundant in Canada and the Northern States.
Parts used.

—Branchlets and leaves (nonofficial).

Saxifrage family (Saxifragaceae). Tiarella cordifolia L. Coolwort; false miterwort; foamflower; gemfruit. Slender, indigenous perennial, 6 to 12 inches high, found in rich, moist woods. Nova Scotia to ^Minnesota, south, especially along the mountains, to Georgia

and Indiana.
Part used.

— Herb (nonomcial).
L.

Tick weed.
Tilia

See Hedeoma pulegioides.

americana

Synonym. Tilia glabra Vent. Basswood; American linden; white wood.
Large, indigenous forest tree, 60 to 125 feet in height; in rich woods, especially along the niountains, from Canada to reorgia, west to Texas and Nebraska.
(

Linden family

(Tiliaceae).

Pari used.
Tilia glabra

— Inflorescence of this and of other species of Tilia (nonofficial).
Same
as Tilia ameruxma.

Vent.

Tinker's-weed.

See Triodeum perfoliafum.

Tobacco, Indian.

See Lobelia injkxku
See Fagara clavaJierculis and Xanthoxylurn americanum*

Toot hache- tree.

Touch-me-not, pale.

See Impatiens aurea.
See Impatiens
biftora.

Touch-me-not, spotted.

Toy wort.

See Bursa bursa-padoris.
See Oenothera
biennis.
hifnliafa.

Tree-primrose.
Trefoil, marsh-. Trefoil,

See Menyanlhes

shrubby.

See Ptelea trifoHata.
acetosella.
(

Trefoil, sour.

See Oxalis
L.
T

Trifolium pratense

Fabaceae)

Red

clover;

meadow -clover; purple

clover.

Perennial herb, 6 inches to 2 feet high; common in fields and meadows throughout the eastern United States; naturalized from Europe, and widely cultivated.

Part

u>< d,

—Blossom

.

TRILISA ODORATISSIMA
Trilisa odoratissima

TWIN-LEAF.

71

Synonym,

— Liatris odoratissima

(

Walt.) Cass.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

Miehx.
in

Vanilla-plant; deer's-tongue; vanilla-leaf; Carolina vanilla.

Rather stout, native, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, with fragrant leaves; pine barrens from Virginia south to Florida and Louisiana. Leaves (nonoffieial). Partused.

/

Lily-of-the-valley family (Convallariaceae). Trillium erectum L. Wake-robin; ill-seented bethroot; birthroot; aquawfiower. Stout, native perennial, 8 to 16 inches high, growing in rich soil in damp, shady woods from Canada south to Tennessee and Missouri. Pari used. Rhizome of this and of several other species of Trillium nonoffieial).

<

Triosteum perfoliatum

L.

Honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae).
(

Feverroot; horse-gentian; tinker's-weed; white gentian; wild ipecac Indigenous, perennial herb, 2 to 4 feet high; in rich soil in shady locations, Quebec to Minnesota, south to Alabama and Kansas.
J 'art used.

— Root

(nonoffieial).

Tritieum.

See Agropyron repens.

TriHcum repens Beauv.
Trumpetleaf.

Same

as Agropyron repens.

See Sarraeenia flava.
See Lac&uea canadensis.

Trumpet-milkweed.
Trumpets.

See Sarraeenia flava.

Pine family (Pinaceae). Tsug-a canadensis ( L. ) Carr. Synonym. Abies canadi rm& Miehx. Hemlock; hemlock-spruce; weeping spruce; tanbark-tree. Indigenous tree, about 75 feet in height, in forests from Canada south to Alabama

and Wisconsin, Park used.—Bark and prepared resinous exudate
Tulip-poplar.
Tulip-tree.

(nonoffieial).

See Liriodendron Udipifera.
faUipifera.

See Liriodendron

Tupelo gum.
Tupelo, large.
Tupelo, sour.

See Nyssa

aquaJtica.

See Nyssa aquatica.

See Nyssa ogeche. See Bikukidla canadensis.
See Bikukulla canadensis.

Turkey-corn,

Turkey-pea.

Turm, -a aphrodisiaca Ward.

Same

as Turnera

mwrophyUa.

Turnera microphylla

Synonym. Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward. Damiana. Mexico, plant, native of Lower California, Texas, and northern A small, shrubby growing in dry soil. Part used. Leaves (nonoffieial)

Desv.

Turnera family (Turneraceae).

Turnip, Indian.

See Arisaema triphyttum.
Bee Arisaema triphyUum.

Turnip, wild.
Turtle-head.

See

(

'ketone glabra.

Tussilago farfara L. Colt's-foot; cough wort; horsefoot; gingerroot.

Aster family (Asteraceae).

high, naturalized from Europe; in moist places Perennial herb, 3 to 18 inches northeastern United States and Minnesota to along roadsides and brooks,

Canada.
Parts used.

—Leaves and root (nonoffieial).

Twinleaf.

See Jefers&nia diphy&a.

.

.

72

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
latifolia L.

Typha

Cattail family (Typhaceae).

Broad-leaved cattail; cattail-flag; bulrush. Native marsh plant, perennial, 4 to 8 feet high; found in marshes, ditches, muddy pools, and other wet places throughout North America, except extreme northern part.
Part used.

— Root —

(

nonoffi cial )

Ulmus.

See limits

f}tb'ri.

Elm family (Ulmaceae). TJlmus fulva Michx. Ulm us jmbescens Walt. Synonym. Ulmus; elm; slippery elm; red elm; moose-elm; Indian elm. Indigenous tree. 50 to til) feet high, growing on hills, along streams and in woods from Quebec to North Dakota, south to Elorida and Texas. More common in
'

the western part of
Pari used.

its

range.
its

— Bark deprived of periderm Same as 11 mux fulva. Ulmus pubeseens W
tit.

(official).

Umbrella-tree.
Unicorn-root,

See Magnolia

tripetaia.

false.

See Alctris farinosa.
See Ckamaelirium luteum.

Unicorn-root, true.

Upland -cranberry.
/

See Arctosta phyla* ara~ursi.

s/

Urtica dioica

L.

Nettle family (TJrticaceae).

Stinging nettle; great nettle.

Herbaceous, perennial plant, 2 to 4 leet high, with stinging hairs; naturalized from Kurope and found in waste places from Canada and. Minnesota south to South Carolina and Missouri. Flowers, leaves, and root (nonofficial). Parts used.

Uva-ursi.

See Arctostaphylos uva-urri.

Uvedalia.

See Polymma uvedaiia.
L.

TJvularia perfoliata

Bunchflower family Melanthiaceae)
(

Perfoliate bell wort;

Mohawk-weed.

Native, perennial herb, o to 20 inches high; in moist woods and thickets, Quebec to Florida and Mississippi.

Part used.

— Root

(nonofficial).

Vagnera racemosa

(L.j

Morong.
;

Lily-of-the-valley family
(

Synonyms. Connt!laii<i racemosa L. Smilacina racemosa Desf. False Solomon' s-seal; small Solomon's-seal; wild spikenard; false spikenard. Indigenous, perennial herb, 1 to 3 feet high, found in moist woods and thickets from Canada south to Georgia and Arizona.
Part used.
Valerian.

Convallariaceae )

— Hoot (nonofficial).
officinalis.

See Valeriana

Valerian, American.

See Cypripedium hirsutum.
See Pelemomum rtjAans.
officinalis.

Valerian, American Greek.
Valerian, garden-.

See Valeriana

Valeriana.

See Valeriana
officinalis L.

officinalis.

Valeriana

Valerian family (Valerianaceae).

Valeriana; valerian; garden- valerian; vandal-root.

Perennial herb, 2 to 5 feet high, native of Europe; escaped from gardens to roadsides in New York and New Jersey.
Parts used.

— Rhizome and roots
See Valeriana

(official).

Vandal-root.

officinalis*

,

.

.. .

VANILLA, CAROLINA
Vanilla, Carolina.
Vanilla-leaf.

VIBURNUM LENT AGO.

73

See Trilisa odoratmima.
Trilisa

Sec

odwratimma.

Vanilla-plant.

See

Trilisa odoratissinia.

Velvet-plant.

See Verba&eum tkapsus.

Veratrara.

See Verahrum rirUh
(

Veratrum

Bunch.fl.ower family Melanthiaceae'i. viride Ait. Veratrmn; American hellebore; swamp-hellebore; green hellebore. perennial herb, 2 to 7 feet high, growing in swamps, wet woods, and Native, meadows, Canada and Alaska, Minnesota south to Georgia. Rhizome and roots of this or V. album ( official ). Parts used.

Verbascum thapsus

L.

Figwort family Scrophulariaceae ).
(

Mullein; velvet dock; velvet-plant; flannel-leaf. biennial weed, sometimes 7 feet in height; naturalized from Kurope Tall, erect, fields, pastures, and waste places. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, and growing in

southward to Florida. Leaves and flowers Parts used.

(nonofficial).

,

Verbena hastata

L.
7

Vervain family Ver benaceae
(

)

Vervain; simpler s-jov; wild hyssop. perennial, 3 to 4 feet high, found in fields, meadows, and Erect, indigenous * Mexico, and Florida, waste places, Canada to Nebraska, New Parts used. Root and herb nonomcial).

(

Veronica

officinalis L.

Figwort family Scrophulariaceae
(

»

Common

speedwell; PauPs-betony. inches high; in dry fields and woods, Nova Scotia to Perennial herb, :\ to 10 Michigan, south to North Carolina and Tennessee. Herb (nonolhcial). Pari used.

Veronica,

tall.

See Veronica drginica.
L. «
)

Veronica vir ginica

Figrwort family
Nutt."

(

Scrophulariaceae )

Synoiuf/n.—Leptandra virginim (L.

Culver's-physic; blackroot; Bowman's-root; tall speedLeptandra; Culver's-root; well; tall veronica. pant, 2 to 5 feet high, in moist rub ground in woods, Indigenous, perennial thickets from Canada to Alabama and Nebraska. meadows, and
Porte axed.— Rhizome

and

roots (official).

Vervain.

See Verbena hastata.
L.

Viburnum dentatum
/
.

Honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae
(

)

Arrow wood; mealv-tree.

15 feet in height, growing. >n low ground andim Smooth, indigenous shrab, about New Brunswick and Ontario south along the damp woods and thickets from mountains to ieorgia, and westward to Minnesota.
(

Part used.

—Bark
1

(nonofficial).

Viburnum lentago
>

Honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae
(

)

Nannybush; sheepbrrry; sweet viburnum.

small tree; in rich soil from Canada to Georgia An indigenous shrub, sometimes a and Missouri. under the V. prunifohum official Pmi „,,,/.-Bark of the root of this speciesorof name 'Viburnum prunifolium."
« Some authors hold that this plant belong to .the genus The Pbarmacopceia is here follow ed. UpUmdra virginim L. Nutt.
I

)

M

and that

its

nam, should be

.

. ..

74

PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES. WILD MEDICINAL
opulus.

Viburnum

See
L.

Vibwmm oputm

L.

Viburnum opulus

Honeysuckle family

cramp-bark; high-bush cranberry; squawhush. Viburnum opulus; height, found in low, rich woods and borders Indigenous shrub, 4 to 10 feet in from New Jersey, Michigan, and Oregon, northward. of fields
Part used.

—Bark

(official).

Viburnum

prunifolium.

See Viburnum lentago and
I

V.

prmifolium L.
( )

Viburnum prunifolium

,.

Honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae

Black haw; sloe; stagbush. growing in dry woods and thickets and on rocky Indigenous shrub or small tree, Most abunFlorida, west to Michigan and Texas. hillsides, Connecticut to dant in the South. this species or of V. lentago official under the I>art uaedL—Biurk of the root of name " Viburnum prunifolium."

Viburnum, sweet.
Vine-maple.

See Viburnum lentago.

See ifemspermum cana dense.
L.

Viola odorata

Violet family (Violaceae).

9

English violet; sweet violet; March violet. native of Europe; escaped from gardens. Nova Scotia to Low herb, and New Jersey, and on the Pacific coast.
Part used.—Flowers (nonofficial).

New York

Viola pedata L.

Violet family

(

Violaceae
and on

)

Bird's-foot violet; wood-violet; snake- violet. Native plant, perennial, 3 to 10 inches high, occurring in dry fields from Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida anil Missouri. sides

hill-

Parts used.— 1 1 erb and root

(

nonofficial )

Viola tricolor

L.

Violet family (Violaceae )
places,

Pansv; heartsease. high, introduced from Europe; found in waste Small herb, 4 to 12 inches sparingly escaped from gardens. Part used— Flowering herb (nonofficial).
Violet, bird's-foot.
Violet, dog's-tooth. Violet, English.

See Viola pedata.

See Enjthronium anierieanmn.

See Viola odorata. See Viola odorata.

Violet,

March.

Violet, rattlesnake-. Violet, snake-.

Bee Brjfikrmtom

awmawim,

m

See Viola pedata.
See Viola odorata*

Violet, sweet.
Violet, wood-.

See Viola pedata.
See Solanum dulcamara. See Parthenocissus quinquefolia.

Violet-bloom.

Virginia creeper.
Virgin' s-bower.

See Clematis virginiana.

Viscum flavescens Pursh.

Same

as Phoradendron flavescens.

Vomitwort.
Wafer-ash.

See Lobelia

intiata.

See Ptelea

trifoliata.

Wahoo.

See

Bwmgwus

atropurpureus.

Wake-robin.

See Arisaema triphyllum and Trillium erectum. See Jttglans cinerea.

Walnut, white.
Wartwort.

See Qnaphalium uligm&wm*

.

WASHINGTONIA LONGISTYLI8
Washingt
Synonym.

WOOD-FKRN, KVEBGREEN.

75

Parsley family (Apiaceae).

— Osmorrhiza

longistylis

DC.

Sweet-cicely; anise-root; sweet chervil. Erect, rather .stout, perennial herb, 2 to 3 feet high, native: in rich, moist woods and banks of streams from Canada to Alabama and Texas.
Patrt used.

— Root (nonofricial).
(kam mole. Bee Lgvopm Virginia's.
See
8.

Water-avens.
Water-bugle.

Watercup.

See Sarra^enia flava and

purpurea.

Watercup, yellow-flowered.
Water-eryngo.
Water-flag.

See Sarracema flam.

See Eryngium yuecifolium.
Iris versicolor*

See

Water-hemlock.

See Okuta maculata. See Lycopus wrginicus.
*

Water-hoarhound.
Water-lilv.

See Cadaiia odorata.

Water-lily, sweet-scented.

See Castalia odorata.

Water-pepper.

See Polygonum hijdropiper.
See Menyanthes
trifoliate.

Water-shamrock.
Water-smart weed.

See Polygonum punctatum.
cerifera.

Waxberry.

See'Mgrica
e.

Wa x

-

m y rt

1

See Myrica

cerifera

Waxwork.
Waythorn.
White-bark.
Whiteroot.

See Cela&rus scanden*.
See Rhammti cathartica.

See Populna alba.
See Asclepias tuberosa.

Whitethorn.

See Crataegus ori/acaniha.
See Liriodendron
tulipifera

Whitewood.
Wickopy. Wickup.

and

Tilia

amerimna.

Sec Dirca pa/nstris.

See Chamaener ion angustifolium and Epilobium

palastre

Willow, black.

See Salh- nigra. See So lis
alba.

Willow, European.
Willow, pussy-.

See Salh' nigra.

Willow,

rose-.

See Comas umomum.
See Si fir nigra.

Willow, swamp-.
Willow, white.

Sec Salh;

alba.

Willow-herb, great. Willow-herb, night. Willow-herb, swamp.

See Cfamaenerum angustifolium.
Sec Oenothera biennis.

See Epilobium palustre.

Wingeeed.

See PU

a trifoliate,*

Winterberry, Virginia.

See IUx

nrticillata.

Winterbloom.
Wintergrvcn. Wintergreen,
Witch-hazel.

See Hcmanidi* rinjinktna.

Sec GauMheria proewnbtns.
bitter.

See Chimaphila umbeOata.

Sec

Hamamdis rirpiniana.
Sec

Woodbine, wild.

Gelsemmm

sempervireni.

Wood-fern, evergreen.

See Drgopteri* marginalis.

76

WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
See Qxalia
acetopelia.

Wood-sorrel, white.

Wood-violet.

See Viola pedata.

Worm-grans.

See Spigelia marilandica,
See Chenopodium anthchninticani.

Wormseed.

Wormseed, American.

See Chenopodium omhrosioides.

Wormwood. See Artemisia absinthium. Wormwood, Roman. See Ambrosia artemisiaefolia.

Xanthium spinosum

L.

Ragweed family (Ambrosiaceae).
in

/
/

Spiny clotbur; spiny burseed; thorny clotweed; thorny burweed. An annual weed, 1 to 3 feet high, naturalized from Europe or Asia; ground, Ontario to Florida, westward to Missouri and Texas. Part wed. Leaves (nonofficial).

waste

Xanthorrhiza

apiifolia L'Her.

Crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae).

Shrub yellowroot; southern yellowroot. Low, shrubby, indigenous perennial, 1
tains.
J'urts used.

to 2 feet high, growing in woods and along river banks, southwestern New York to Florida, chiefly in the moun-

— Rhizome and

roots (nonofficial).

Xanthoxylum.
Synonym*

See Fagara dava-herculi& and Xantho
Mill.

than americamtm.

Xanthoxylum americanum

— Xanthoxylum frax'nieum
tree,

Rue family
Willd.

(Rutaceae).

Xanthoxylum; northern prickly
Indigenous shrub or small

ash; toothache-tree.

maximum

height about 25

feet;

common

in

woods and thickets and along river banks from Nebraska northward to Canada. Parts\used. — Bark of this or of Fagara clara-herm/i*

Virginia,
official

Missouri,

and

under the name

"Xanthoxylum."
Xanthoxylum

Berries (nonofficial).

ctova-hercnlis L.

Xanthoxylum fraxineum Willd.

Same as Fagara c/ara-herculis. Same as Xanthoxylum americanum.

Yam,

wild.

See Diotcorea

villosa.

Yarrow.

See Achillea millefolium.
See CopHs
frifo/io,

Yellowroot.

Hydrastis canadensis, and Jeffersonia diphylla.
apiifolia.
apiifolia.

Yellowroot, shrub.

See Xanthorrhiza

Yellowroot, southern.

See Xanthorrhiza

Yellowthorn.

See Fagara ckwa-herculis.
See Fagara clava-hercuRs. See Micromeria chaiaissonis.

Yellow wood.

Yerba buena. Yerba reuma.
Yerba
santa.

See Frankruia grandifolia.
See Eriodictyon ot/ifornicum.

Youthwort.

See Drosera rotundifolia and HeraHeum lanatum.

o

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