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Optical techniques have been employed to study heat and mass transfer in fluids. These techniques can be broadly divided into three main classes. The first deals with the usage of dyes and bubbles to directly visualize the motion of the fluid while the second deals with analyzing the frequency of radiation which undergo changes, such as the Doppler shift, after getting scattered from particles. The third class includes techniques that work with a monochromatic coherent light source such as a laser, and rely on the changes in refractive index of the medium caused by changes in concentration, temperature or density variation. Examples of these techniques are interferometry, shadowgraph and schlieren . Here, change in refractive index with the material density is made use of. Interferometry is appropriate when the change in refractive index is very small while schlieren and shadowgraph allow large changes in refractive index. In conventional interferometry the light beam from a laser is divided into two parts with the help of a beam splitter. The first, known as the object beam, travels through the test section while, the other, known as the reference beam travels through the compensation chamber. Interference between the reference and the object beams takes place and interference fringes are formed. The interference pattern is recorded with the help of a camera. One can extract information related to phase difference from the images. The analysis of conventional interferograms can be tedious. It involves detection of coordinates of fringe centers and the data is analyzed from this point onwards. The determination of the location of fringe centers is simpler when the fringes are widely spaced but the number of data points is then, quite small. The number of data points can be increased using wedge fringes wherein, a fixed number of fringes are created by tilting the optical elements of the interferometer. This approach is useful when boundary temperatures are clearly specified. The data analysis algorithm for post-processing requires phase/refractive index information to be available on a rectangular grid. The fringe data has to be subsequently interpolated to obtain the nodal values [2, 3]. Interpolation of data introduces additional errors in image analysis. Phase shifting interferometry (PSI) overcomes many of the shortcomings of conventional interferometry. In PSI, interferograms are recorded by continuously changing the phase of the reference wavefront with respect to the object wavefront. The wavefront is encoded as the variation of intensity patterns. Analysis of PSI images is much simpler and does not require location of fringe centers. With PSI, the sensitivity of measurement is greatly increased and small changes in concentration, temperature, and density can be readily determined. 1|P a ge
and Moore et al. Crate 1969) while early applications were reported by Bruning et al. The above equation shows that intensity at each point varies with introduced in the reference beam. (1973). In phase shifting interferometry. (t) is the relative phase shift introduced in the o is reference wave with respect to the object wave. The above equation can time according to the time varying phase be written as Here. the relative phase of the reference beam is varied in a continuous manner compared to the phase of the object beam. Wyant (1975). Ar and Ao are amplitudes of reference and object wavefronts. The interferograms are recorded with help of a CCD camera connected to computer. By measuring the intensity variation for various phase shifts we can determine the phase of the object wavefront relative to that of reference wavefront at the selected point. r is the phase of reference wave. 2|P a ge . I1 is the average intensity and I2 is the intensity modulation. The phase-shifted interferogram recorded at the camera/detector is formed by the interference of these two wavefronts. beam which we now denote as is the phase difference between the object beam and the reference . The intensity at the detector can be represented as In equation (4). Hardy et al. (1974).1 Background The initial development of phase shifting interferometry started in the 1960s (Carré 1966. the phase encountered by the object wave. Its application in applications related to fluid mechanics and heat transfer is of recent origin. Let the reference (r) and object (o) wavefronts be represented by and In equations (1) & (2). (1977).1.
Such transducers work on the principle of the piezoelectric effect. When an electric field is applied across the material. its molecules align in the direction of the electric field and cause a change in dimension of the crystal. In the Mach-Zehnder configuration. Method 1: Piezoelectric transducers Piezoelectric transducer (PZT) converts electrical pulses into mechanical motion while the reversed conversion is also possible. the PZT is installed on the reference mirror as shown in Figure 1. Reference beam PZT He-Ne Laser BS1 Compensating section Mirror1 Camera Object beam Test section Mirror2 BS2 Data analysis Figure 1: Phase shifting interferometry implemented within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer 3|P a ge . The active element is a piezoelectric crystal (or a polar material) with electrodes attached to its ends. By discretely varying the voltage applied on the PZT the phase of the reference beam can be changed. In the modification of the M-Z interferometer being discussed. the angle of incidence of the light beam on the reference mirror is not normal and the phase varies according to the cosine of the angle of incidence. A displacement x of the mirror leads to a change in path length equal to . Figure 2. Phase shifting interferometry implemented on a Mach-Zehnder configuration Phase shifting interferometry can be implemented within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in two ways: by the use of a piezoelectric transducer or with the help of polarizers.2.
these errors can be minimized by using multi-step algorithms. therefore. The laser beam. This method was used by Onuma et al. It involves the use of polarizers and CCD cameras as shown in Figure 3. Duan et al. These authors employed beam splitters and polarizers and three or four CCD cameras.  used this technique to study mass transfer and growth rate of protein crystals. The two beams are then orthogonally polarized. PSI needs at least three interferograms for fringe analysis. This method was originally proposed by Symthe and Moore . is divided into reference and object beams with the help of a beam splitter. When a piezoelectric transducer is used. not useful in cases where the process being studied involves rapid transients.Path difference =2xcos x Figure 2: Path difference created by the displacement of mirror 2 This technique has been employed by Duan and Shu  to study fluid convection during crystal growth. PSI is affected by rapid and imprecise movement of the piezoelectric transducer.  to study concentration fields during a crystal growth process. Since fringe formation results from path differences of the order of the wavelength of light. The object beam passes through the test cell and combines with the reference beam at the second beam splitter. up to 20 step algorithms have been developed in the literature . It requires much less time compared to temporal phase shifting and captures all the interferograms at practically the same instant. Within limits. yielding an exposure time of 30ms. the phase-shifted interferograms are recorded sequentially using a single camera. Koliopolous  used as many cameras as the number of interferograms. Method 2: Simultaneous phase shifting interferometry To overcome the deficiency of time elapsed for each measurement. It is also known as the spatial phase shifting technique and is an application of the real time phase shifting interferometer. the method of simultaneous phase shift measurement has been proposed. Even a small amount of backlash and hysteresis can cause nonlinear phase shift and errors related to calibration. Most commercial cameras run at video rates and record 30 frames per second. This time interval can be unacceptably long for measurements using PSI. The beams do not interfere initially being 4|P a ge . This approach is. linearly polarized.
orthogonally polarized. and are the reference and object beams respectively. Subsequently. BS1 He-Ne Laser Polarizer1 Polarizer2 Compensation cell Mirror 1 cameras Polarizers Test section Mirror 2 BS2 Beam splitters Quarterwave plate Figure 3: Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer involving the use of polarizers and a quarter-wave plate Fringe formation in the simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer can be better understood in the following manner . The angle is the phase difference between the object beam and the reference. The use of many cameras makes the system complex and the alignment of optics difficult as the cameras have to be aligned pixel by pixel to get the best results. The left and right circularly polarized light after the quarter-wave plate can be represented as In equations (6) & (7). 5|P a ge . In . the authors used 3 CCD cameras to record 3 phase-shifted interferograms. A polarizer each is placed in the path of the two beams. Let Hence be the unit vector of the polarizer and let it be at an angle of with respect to . the light beams pass through a quarter-wave plate so that they are circularly polarized and interfere to give an interference pattern.
which were analyzed with the help of the 4-bucket algorithm . a collection of phase shifted interferograms can be obtained. Maruyama et al.Equation (9) simplifies to The interferograms are formed due to an intensity variation given as Equation (11) is similar to that obtained with a piezoelectric transducer. this method uses polarization of the test and the reference beams and needs a complex optical arrangement and synchronization of the cameras. Overall. Figure 4. The micropolarizer array was installed just ahead of the detector. It could be directly used for circularly polarized light but for linearly polarized light. The pixels with a given transfer function were combined into a single interferogram to generate a continuous phase map.  replaced the three different cameras and beam splitters by a 3CCD sensor (color) camera. a quarter-wave plate was used in combination with the phase mask.  and Guo et al. Each pixel has unique phase shift and distinct transfer function. On varying the angle between the polarizer and the vector . The data thus obtained was four phase shifted interferograms. This camera was able to record three interferograms jointly at the same instant of time. Miller  constructed a pixelated phase mask dynamic interferometer and described a procedure by which one camera at a time was used to record four phase-shifted interferograms. Each 2×2 polarizer matrix is shown in the figure and is known as a ‘super pixel’. 0 180 90 270 Phase mask Quarter-wave plate Detector Figure 4: A super pixel of a microplarizer array Figure 5: Optical layout for linearly polarized light 6|P a ge . The phase mask used had alternate out-of-phase signals along the column. A pixelated phase mask was a micro-polarizer wire array for imaging polarimetry and is described by Nordien .
The two interferograms thus obtained are processed by two-step phase shifting algorithm. This technique can also be applied on a Mach-Zehnder configuration . The two beams pass through an array of two polarizers with their axis inclined at an angle of π/4 (radians). The reflected rays are circularly polarized by means of a quarter-wave plate. Then two π/2 phase shifted interferograms are recorded by means of a single camera.Aperture Phase mask Polarizing interferometer Collimating lens Detector Figure 6: Pixelated phase mask dynamic interferometer. These two beams are reflected by mirrors M1 and M2 aligned at distinct angles with the optic axis. It has an advantage over other grating techniques in the sense that the distance between the interferometric fringes is adjustable. + Quarter-wave plate α M2 Detector β Collimating Polarizer lens array M1 Figure 7: Parallel two step phase shifting interferometry  7|P a ge . It makes use of non-polarizing beam splitter which splits the beam into two.  Min  employed Michelson-like architecture and polarization unit that generates two interferograms with phase shifts at a single camera unit.
The corresponding equations for these phase shifts can be written as 8|P a ge . also known as the integrating bucket technique was developed by Wyant (1975). If we take Δ as the integration period. The phase can be varied in a continuous as well as discrete manner. The integration period is the frame time of the detector or the time required to collect the data. the ways in which data is collected depends on the optical elements used after the second beam splitter. whichever is less . I2. The continuous phase shifting method. Let the three phase shifts be –α.1 Three-step algorithm The intensity equation has three unknowns (I1.3. α. Integrating bucket technique In the phase shifting methods discussed above. the above equation shows that the contrast of the signal decreases as a sinc function but this effect is negligible in most of the algorithms used. It is preferable to vary phase in a continuous fashion because discrete steps may introduce vibrations in the detector. the intensity of the signal is given as On integration Equation (13) simplifies to Owing to continuously varying phase. 0. and θ) and so at least three phase equations are needed to get the phase map . A few of them are described below. 4. 4. It allows the phase to vary linearly with time. Data analysis algorithms Quite a few data analysis algorithms have been developed to calculate the phase map from interferograms.
π.2 Four-step algorithm In this algorithm four phase steps are given as input and four interferograms are recorded . We take phase shift α as 0. equations (23) to (26) simplify to 9|P a ge . π/2.We can rewrite equations (15) to (17) using trigonometric identities as (20) The value of can be obtained from equations (18) to (20) as When = 90º we get 4. The corresponding intensity equations for these phase shifts can be written as Using trigonometric identities. and 3π/2.
-α.These equations can be solved for phase at every point on the interferogram. Although only three interferograms are needed for the calculation. we get Dividing equation (31) by (32) Equation (33) can be rearranged to yield This is used to calculate phase at every point. On solving equations (27) to (30). The optical path difference at every point can be obtained from the relation 4. α and 3α are introduced. the fourth one is included for computational ease.3 Carré’s algorithm In this algorithm the phase shift is considered to be an unknown. The phase difference between two successive phase shifts is considered to be 2α and so the phase steps of -3α. The intensity equations for the interferograms are given by 10 | P a g e .
4 Hariharan’s algorithm Hariharan recorded five interferograms to determine the phase map . -α. the intensity equation of the interferograms can be written as: 11 | P a g e . This algorithm requires that the phase difference between successive phase shifts remains constant. This is because the reference phase is also an unknown quantity. we have four unknowns and four equations. Using these phase shifts. Phase unwrapping cannot be directly applied here as the numerator and denominator contain the square root term while in other algorithms there is no such term involved. the object phase can be calculated as The phase calculated above depends on the point intensities.In this approach. as compared to three unknowns in the previous formulations. 2α. Equations (36) to (39) can be expanded using trigonometric identities as follows: For calculating the reference and object phases we determine From equations (44) & (45) we get The phase difference in successive phase shifts is assumed to be 2α. α. The phase shifts were equal to 2α. Using the equations given above. 4. 0.
Digitization is carried out within the camera using 8 bits (256 levels) or 12 bits (4096 levels) to quantize the output. Errors in PSI 5. Carré’s algorithm stated earlier calculates phase shift at each step and hence is insensitive to such kind of errors. It has been shown that the standard deviation (σN) due to q quantization levels in an N-step algorithm is given by 12 | P a g e .1 Phase shift errors arise due to nonlinear movement of the PZT or vibrations. 5. In PSI. The intensity recorded by the detector is a sinusoidal function of the phase shift introduced in the reference arm of the detector. In order to minimize this error a number of algorithms have been developed. If there is a small error in the reference phase. Vibration isolation mount and vibration damping are quite essential in this context. all measurements depend on known phase shifts.Using trigonometric identities these equations can be solved to yield The above equation can be solved for a known value of α to get the phase map. The algorithms by Schwider  and Hariharan  are also insensitive to this error.3 Quantization error comes into picture due to digitization of the output from the detector. there is a corresponding error in the measured phase . Precautions must be taken in this respect. 5. Brophy has derived the quantization errors for most of the algorithms reported above . 5. The data points then do not accurately represent the phase map.2 Vibration is a major source of error in phase shifting interferometry. At times. there can be increments or decrements in the phase shift and the resultant phase does not remain a subdivision of 2π.
Phase unwrapping The phase data available from the interferograms has 2π discontinuity. This process is repeated for all the data points on the phase map . Unwrapped phase is calculated by adding or subtracting 2π to the obtained phase. The best way to reduce such reflections is to use a laser whose coherence length is not very large.5. extra fringes are formed at the detector due to stray reflections. It is considered that the phase difference between the adjacent pixels should be less than π and if the phase difference is greater than π then 2π is added or subtracted to the phase of one of the pixel. Phase unwrapping is carried out in one as well as two dimensions. Phase unwrapping is carried on the data points to remove this 2π discontinuity and the phase thus available is a continuous representation. One dimensional phase unwrapping is relatively easier to implement compared to the two dimensional. 6. 13 | P a g e .4 Stray reflections also cause errors in the phase map. The light so reflected adds into the object beam in amplitude and phase giving rise to errors in phase. When using lasers as a light source.
7. Some Experimental Images Figure 8: An example of observations by the phase shift interferometer.  14 | P a g e . (c) 8π phase connection (d) and three-dimensional concentration profile are shown. (b) two-dimensional phase distribution picture with 4π phase connection. (a) Original interferogram.
Figure 9: The interferograms of four steps phase shift (a) to (d). the distribution of refractive index gradient (g) and the contour map (h). 15 | P a g e . phase unwrapping (f). phase calculation (e).
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