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DesignprovisionsofBS5950part1

Prepared:Ismael .S Lead:Tridibesh Indu Project:SOGTMalaysia SAMSUNGENGINEERINGINDIA

Contents
Introduction General Limitstatedesign Scope,References&Definitions Generalprinciplesanddesignmethods Ultimatelimitstates Serviceabilitylimitstates Structuralsteel Boltsandwelds Tensionmembers Compressionmembers Memberssubjectedtobending Combinedmomentandaxialforce

Propertiesofmaterials &SectionProperties Designofstructural members

Continuousstructures Connections LoadingTests

Introduction

Objective: TostudyandpresenttheprovisionsofBS5950part1relatedtothedesignoftension members,compressionmembersandflexuralmembers

Scope: TheBS 5950 Part1 givesrecommendationsforthedesignofstructuralsteelworkusing Hotrolledsteelsections,Flats,Plates,Hotfinishedstructuralhollowsections,Coldformed structuralhollowsectionsinbuildingsandalliedstructures.

Limitstatedesign
Generalprinciple: Theaimofstructuraldesignshouldbetoprovide,astructurecapablefulfillingitsintended functionandsustainingthespecifiedloadsforitsintendedlifewithdueregardto economy. Appropriatepartialfactorsshouldbeappliedtoprovideadequatedegreesofreliabilityfor ultimatelimitstatesandserviceabilitylimitstates. 1.Ultimatelimitstates concerningthesafetyofthewholeorpartofthestructure.

Incheckingthestrengthofastructure,orofanypartofit,thefactoredloadsshouldbe appliedinthemostunfavorablerealisticcombinationforthepartoreffectunder consideration Theloadcarryingcapacityofeachmemberandconnection,should besuchthatthefactored loadswouldnotcausefailure.

Limitstatedesign
Loadcombinations(ULS): Loadcombinations 1 2 Dead&Imposed loads(gravityloads) Deadload&Wind (WL)orEarthquake load(EL) Deadload,Imposed load&WLorEL 1.4 DL 1.4 DL+1.6 LL 1.0 DL+1.4 WL 1.4 DL+1.4 WL 1.4 DL+1.4 EL 1.2 DL+1.2 LL+1.2 WL 1.2 DL+1.2 LL+1.2 EL Incomb1,theNotionalhorizontalforce shouldbeapplied,takenasaminof0.5%of thefactoredverticaldeadandimposedloads Incomb2&3,thehorizontalcomponent ofthefactoredwindloadshouldnotbe takenaslessthan1.0%ofthefactored deadloadappliedhorizontally

Asthespecifiedloadsfromoverheadtravellingcranesalreadyincludesignificanthorizontalloads, itisnotnecessarytoincludeverticalcraneloadswhencalculatingtheminimumwindload/ notionalhorizontalforces.

Limitstatedesign
2.Serviceabilitylimitstates Deflection VibrationandOscillation Durability Loadcombinations 1 2 Dead&Imposed loads(gravityloads) Deadload&Wind (WL)orEarthquake load(EL) Deadload,Imposed load&WLorEL 1.0 DL 1.0 DL+1.0 LL 1.0 DL+1.0 WL 1.0 DL+1.0 EL 1.0 DL+1.0 LL+0.8 WL 1.0 DL+1.0 LL+0.8 EL Exceptionalsnowloads shouldnotbe includedintheimposedloadwhen checkingserviceability. IncaseofcombinedLL&WL,only80% ofthefullspecifiedvalueneedbe consideredwhencheckingserviceability correspondtolimitsbeyondwhichspecifiedservice criteriaarenolongermet.

Limitstatedesign
StabilityLimitState Staticequilibrium ResistancetoHorizontalForce Notionalhorizontalforce Toallowfortheeffectsofpracticalimperfectionssuchaslack ofverticality,allstructuresshould becapableofresistingnotionalhorizontalforces,takenasaminimumof0.5 %ofthefactored verticaldeadandimposedloadsappliedatthesamelevel. Thenotionalhorizontalforcesshouldbeassumedtoactinanyonedirectionatatimeand shouldbeappliedateachroofandfloorlevelortheirequivalent.Theyshouldbetakenasacting simultaneouslywiththefactoredverticaldeadandimposedloads (loadcombination1). Thenotionalhorizontalforcesshouldnotbeapplied whenconsideringoverturning&patternloads withhorizontalloads&temperatureeffects Thenotionalhorizontalforcesshouldnotbetakentocontribute tothenetreactionsatthe foundations. Sliding,OverturningorLiftoffitsseating. NotionalHorizontalforce&WLetc.

Limitstatedesign
Swaystiffness Allstructuresshouldhavesufficientswaystiffness,sothattheverticalloadsactingwiththelateral displacementsofthestructuredonotinduceexcessivesecondary forcesormomentsinthe membersorconnections. Nonsway: Iftheswaymodeelasticcriticalloadfactorunderverticalload Where, cr > 10

cr =h/200 h isstoreyheight isdeflectionoftopofstoreyrelativetobottomofstoreydue tonotional horizontalforce

Swaysensitive:Secondaryforcesandmomentsshouldbeallowedbymultiplyingthesway effectsbythe amplificationfactorkamp. Where, kamp =cr/(1.15cr1.5) butkamp > 1.0

PropertiesofMaterial
StructuralSteel Thedesignstrengthpy forcommonlyusedgradesandthicknessesofsteelisspecifiedinBS59502, AlternativelyfromTable9ofBS59501. Thedesignstrengthpy shouldbetakenas 1.0Ys butnotgreaterthanUs /1.2 Ys theminimumyieldstrength Us theminimumtensilestrength

PropertiesofMaterial
StructuralBolts Strengthofbolts(MPa) Boltgrade 4.6 8.8 10.9 GeneralgradeHSFG toBS4395 < M24 > M27 Shearps 160 375 400 400 350 0.4Ub Bearingpbb 460 1000 1300 1000 900 1300 0.7(Ub+Yb) Tensionpt 240 560 700 590 515 700 0.7Ub but<Yb

HighergradeHSFGtoBS43952 400 Othergrades(Ub<1000MPa)

Ub isthespecifiedminimumtensilestrengthofthebolt. Yb isthespecifiedminimumyieldstrengthofthebolt.

Sectionproperties
Netarea : an =ag Deductionforboltholes an =ag n(Dt)

Case1.Boltholesnotstaggered

Case2.Staggeredboltholes,thenetareaisthesmaller of HolesStaggeredC HolesinlineA an =ag n(Dt)+(n1)(s2/4g) an=ag n(Dt) Numberofstaggers Where,ag grossarea n numberofholes D diaofhole t thicknessofholedmaterial Effectivenetarea : ae <ag ae < 1.2an

ae =Kean

EffectivenetareacoefficientforSteelgrade S275:Ke=1.2 Us mintensilestrength S355:Ke=1.1 S460:Ke=1.0 other:Ke=(Us/1.2)py

DesignofTensionmembers
Simplifiedmethod Exactmethod Cl.4.8.2.2 Cl.4.8.2.3

Tension Capacity
Mrx &Mry arereducedplastic momentcapacities(Ref.cl.I2)

Ifplasticorcompactsection Mx< Mrx& My< Mry

Ifdoublysymmetricc/s

M Mx + x 1 M M rx rx

z1

z2

Pt=py Ae

Reducedtension Tensionmembers capacitymethod withmoments Cl.4.6.3 Cl.4.8.2

Ft M x + + 1 Pt M cx M cy

My

Pt =pyAetensioncapacity withoutconsideringeccentricity Mcx &Mcy aremomentcapacities (Ref.cl.4.2.5)

Pt =pyae

No

Eccentric Connected?

Yes

Cl.4.6.3.1

welded bolted a2 =Ag a1 a1 =Grossareaof connectedleg bolted welded

Pt =py (Ae0.5a2)

Pt =py (Ag0.3a2)

Cl.4.6.3.2

ae= Sumofeffectivenetareas ofallelementsofthecrosssection

Pt =py (Ae0.25a2)

Connectedtobothsidesofgusset &componentsareinterconnected withintheirlength.

Pt =py (Ag0.15a2)

Classificationofcrosssection
Classificationofcrosssections helpstodeterminewhetherlocalbuckling influencescapacity,without calculatinglocalbucklingresistance. Supportededge Localbuckling :bucklingoftheindividualcrosssectionalelements x (webs,flanges,anglelegs,etc.). b a Stabilityoftheseelementscanbeanalyzedin thecontextofthinplatetheory. Foralongrectangularthinplate subjectedtoedgecompressiveloading
2

Nx
2

Freeedge

Criticalbucklingload

2 2 m 2 a n N cr = D + n a b

Criticalbucklingstress pcr = N cr = 2D k t bt (takem=1&divideby 2 platethicknesst) k 2 E t


2

Heren andm representthe numberofbucklingwavesin thex andydirections.

pcr =

12 1 2 b

Plateslenderness
pcr

k 2 E b = 12 1 2 pcr t

Platerigidity D =

Et 3 12 1 2

K Bucklingcoefficient

py

(b/t)lim

b/t

Classificationofcrosssection
Flangeoutstandelement Atpy =275MPa Flangeinternalelement Atpy =275MPa Webelement Atdesignstrength py =275MPa k=0.425 (b/t)=16.9 k=4 (b/t)=51.9 k=23.9 (b/t)=126.9 (b/t)=120 Fromtable11 Bucklingcoefficientk For compressionandbending (Case E) (b/t)=15 Fromtable11 (Case C) (b/t)=40 Fromtable11

Slender (S):Crosssectionswhichbucklebeforethestressattheextreme compressionfibrereachdesignstrength Semicompact(SC):Crosssectionsinwhichthestressatthe extremecompressionfibrecanreachthedesignstrength. Compact(C):Crosssectionswithplasticmomentcapacity. Plastic (P):Crosssectionswithplastichingerotationcapacity.

P Mp C My SC S M=py Z M=py Zeff py Z<M< py S M=py S

Classificationofcrosssection

Memberssubjecttobending
StructuralmemberssubjectedtoFlexure,eitherfaildueto Yielding thecrosssectionreachesfullsectioncapacity Fulllateralrestraintprovided Fulllateralrestraintmaybeassumedtoexistifthefrictional orpositiveconnectiontothecompressionflange ofthememberiscapableofresistingalateralforce> 2.5%ofthemaximumforceinit. Toavoidirreversibledeformationunderserviceabilityloads, Mc < 1.5pyZgenerally < 1.2pyZinthecaseofasimplysupportedbeamoracantilever LateralTorsionalBuckling Thecompressionflangeofbeamactslikeastrut,beingfreetomovein sideways itbuckledraggingthereluctanttensionflangebehind,this resultsthetwistofcrosssection. DistortedshapeofonehalfofSSbeam Webshearbuckling Iftheratiod/t exceeds70 forarolledsection,or62 forawelded section,thewebshouldbecheckedforshearbuckling.

Memberssubjecttobending
MomentcapacityMc Plastic&compact :Mc =py S Semicompact Slender :Mc =py Z :Mc =py Zeff Highshear Lowshear Mc =py (S Sv) :Plastic&compact Sv istheplastic modulusofthe shearareaAv =[2(Fv/Pv) 1]2 Shearcapacity Pv =0.6pyAv =kL/r v=1/[1+0.05(/x)2]0.25 x =D/T u=0.9forrolledI,HorC =1.0forweldedgirder =1.0forplastic&compact =Zx/Sx forsemicompact =Zxeff/Sx forslender LT =7RobertsonConstant

Yes

Fv <60%(Pv)

No

Mc =py (Z Sv/1.5) :Semi compact Mc =py (Zeff Sv/1.5) :Slender

Equivalentslenderness Limitingslenderness

LT =uv ()0.5 L0 =0.4(2E/py)0.5 LT < L0 Yes Mb =Mc

Perryfactor Beamswithoutfull lateralrestraint Rolled sections Welded sections

No :LT =0 :LT=2LT(LTL0)/1000

IfLT <L0 IfL0 <LT<2L0

If2L0 <LT<3L0 :LT=2LT(L0)/1000 IfLT>3L0 :LT=LT(LT L0)/1000 pE=2E/LT2

Elasticcriticalstress

Lateral torsional LT =[py+(LT +1)pE]/2 bucklingfactor

Bendingstrength

pb =[(pE* py)/LT+(LT2pE* py)0.5] Mb =pbS :Plastic&compact Mb =pbZ :Semi compact M< Mb/mLT M< Mc M:Factoredmoments mLT: Equivalentuniformmomentfactor=1

LTBResistance moment(Mb)

CompressionMembers
Structuralmemberssubjectedtocompressiveloads,eitherfaildueto Yielding Compressivestressexceedingtheyieldstrength Buckling Lateraldeflection Inrealcolumns,alwayssomeinitialimperfectionsexistpriortoloading. TheformulaforcompressivestrengthintheBSstandard pc =[(pE* py)/+(2pE* py)0.5] isbasedonthePerryRobertsonformula derivedfromtheexpressionforthemaximumstressinanaxiallyloadedinitiallycurvedcolumn Compressivestrengthfactor ThePerryfactor(Forflexural bucklingunderaxialforce) =[py+( +1)pE]/2 =a( 0)/1000 Robertsonperformedmanytestson strutstoarriveatasuitablevaluefor theinitialimperfections BasedonthisBS5950providesfourvalues ofa thatmaybeusedindesign a=2.0 strutcurve(a) a=3.5 strutcurve(b) a=5.5 strutcurve(c) a=8.0 strutcurve(d) Dependingontypesofsteelsection&axis aboutwhichbucklingmayoccur. Ascanbeseen,thehigherthevalueofa,moreinitialimperfectionisaccountedfor andthecompressivestrengthreducesasaresult. P yo y P
Initialimperfections approximatedwithasinecurve.

CompressionMembers
CompressionresistancePc

Plastic&compact Semicompact

Pc =pc Ag

No Ifsectionis Yes Slender?

Pc =pcs Aeff

Slender

Equivalentslenderness

=kL/r

eff =(Aeff/Ag)0.5

Reducedslendernessratio

Limitingslenderness

0 =0.2(2E/py)0.5 a=2.0 strutcurve(a) a=3.5 strutcurve(b) a=5.5 strutcurve(c) a=8.0 strutcurve(d)

Robertsonconstant

Perryfactor =a(o)/1000

Elasticcriticalstress

pE=2E/2

=[py+( +1)pE]/2

Lateral torsional bucklingfactor

Compressivestrength

pc =[(pE* py)/+(2pE* py)0.5]

CombinedAxialforceandMoment
Forcrosssectioncapacity Ref.Cl.4.8.3.2
M Fc M + x + y 1 Ag p y M cx M cy

FormemberBucklingResistance
Fc m x M x m y M y + + 1 Simplifiedmethod p y Z x Pc pyZ y

Ref.Cl.4.8.3.3.1

Fc m LT M LT m y M y + + 1 Pcy Mb pyZ y

Exactmethod Ref.Cl.4.8.3.3.2

Fc m x M x + Pcx M cx

F 1 + 0 .5 c Pcx

m M + 0.5 yx y 1 M cy
1 + F c 1 Pcy

Formajoraxisbuckling Forlateral torsionalbuckling Forinteractivebuckling

Fc m LT M LT m y M y + + Pcy Mb M cy

m x M x (1 + 0.5(Fc / Pcx )) m y M y (1 + Fc Pcy ) + 1 M cx (1 Fc Pcx ) M cy (1 Fc Pcy )

References
1. SteelDesigners manual,5thEditionbyOwensG.WandKnowlesP.TheSteelConstruction Institute, BlackwellScientificPublishers. TimoshenkoS.P.andGere J.M.,TheoryofElasticStability,2nd EditionMcGrawHillBookCompany. Bulson,P.S.TheStabilityofFlatPlates,Elsevier,NewYork,1969. GuidetoStabilityDesignCriteriaforMetalStructures TheStructuralStabilityResearchCouncil.Theodore V.Galambos. GaylordE.H.etal,DesignofSteelStructures,McGrawHill.

2. 3. 4.

5.