This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

TIRUNELVELI

DEPARTMENT OF EEE

**EE 25 CIRCUIT THEORY
**

II SEM EEE

Prepared By, SHIBU J.V.BRIGHT, LECTURER/EEE

EE25

CIRCUIT THEORY

3 1 0 100

(Common to EEE, EIE and ICE Branches) UNIT I BASIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS 12

Ohm’s Law – Kirchoffs laws – DC and AC Circuits – Resistors in series and parallel circuits – Mesh current and node voltage method of analysis for D.C and A.C. circuits. UNIT II NETWORK REDUCTION AND NETWORK THEOREMS FOR DC AND AC CIRCUITS: 12 Network reduction: voltage and current division, source transformation – star delta conversion. Thevenins and Novton & Theorem – Superposition Theorem – Maximum power transfer theorem – Reciprocity Theorem. UNIT III RESONANCE AND COUPLED CIRCUITS 12

Series and paralled resonance – their frequency response – Quality factor and Bandwidth - Self and mutual inductance – Coefficient of coupling – Tuned circuits – Single tuned circuits. UNIT IV TRANSIENT RESPONSE FOR DC CIRCUITS 12

Transient response of RL, RC and RLC Circuits using Laplace transform for DC input and A.C. with sinusoidal input. UNIT V ANALYSING THREE PHASE CIRCUITS 12

Three phase balanced / unbalanced voltage sources – analysis of three phase 3-wire and 4-wire circuits with star and delta connected loads, balanced & un balanced – phasor diagram of voltages and currents – power and power factor measurements in three phase circuits. TOTAL :60 PERIODS TEXT BOOKS: 1. William H. Hayt Jr, Jack E. Kemmerly and Steven M. Durbin, “Engineering Circuits Analysis”,Tata McGraw Hill publishers, 6 edition, New Delhi, (2002). 2. Sudhakar A and Shyam Mohan SP, “Circuits and Network Analysis and Synthesis”,Tata McGraw Hill, (2007). REFERENCES: 1. Paranjothi SR, “Electric Circuits Analysis,” New Age International Ltd., New Delhi, (1996). 2. Joseph A. Edminister, Mahmood Nahri, “Electric circuits”, Schaum’s series, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi (2001). 3. Chakrabati A, “Circuits Theory (Analysis and synthesis), Dhanpath Rai & Sons, New Delhi, (1999). 4. Charles K. Alexander, Mathew N.O. Sadik, “Fundamentals of Electric Circuits”, Second Edition, McGraw Hill, (2003).

th

UNIT I BASIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION The interconnection of various electric elements in a prescribed manner comprises as an electric circuit in order to perform a desired function. The electric elements include controlled and uncontrolled source of energy, resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc. Analysis of electric circuits refers to computations required to determine the unknown quantities such as voltage, current and power associated with one or more elements in the circuit. To contribute to the solution of engineering problems one must acquire the basic knowledge of electric circuit analysis and laws. Many other systems, like mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, magnetic and power system are easy to analyze and model by a circuit. To learn how to analyze the models of these systems, first one needs to learn the techniques of circuit analysis. We shall discuss briefly some of the basic circuit elements and the laws that will help us to develop the background of subject. BASIC ELEMENTS & INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS Electrical Network: A combination of various electric elements (Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor, Voltage source, Current source) connected in any manner what so ever is called an electrical network. We may classify circuit elements in two categories, passive and active elements. Passive Element: The element which receives energy (or absorbs energy) and then either converts it into heat (R) or stored it in an electric (C) or magnetic (L ) field is called passive element. Active Element: The elements that supply energy to the circuit is called active element. Examples of active elements include voltage and current sources, generators, and electronic devices that require power supplies. A transistor is an active circuit element, meaning that it can amplify power of a signal. On the other hand, transformer is not an active element because it does not amplify the power level and power remains same both in primary and secondary sides. Transformer is an example of passive element.

Bilateral Element: Conduction of current in both directions in an element (example: Resistance; Inductance; Capacitance) with same magnitude is termed as bilateral element.

Unilateral Element: Conduction of current in one direction is termed as unilateral (example: Diode, Transistor) element.

Meaning of Response: An application of input signal to the system will produce an output signal, the behavior of output signal with time is known as the response of the system

Linear and Nonlinear Circuits

Non-Linear Circuit: Roughly speaking, a non-linear system is that whose parameters change with voltage or current. More specifically, non-linear circuit

a circuit is linear if and only if its input and output can be related by a straight line passing through the origin as shown in fig. In fact.2. Before discussing the basic analytical tools that determine the currents and voltages at different parts of the circuit.does not obey the homogeneity and additive properties. Elements that generally encounter in an electric circuit can be interconnected in various possible ways.3. it is a nonlinear system. KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS Kirchhoff’s laws are basic analytical tools in order to obtain the solutions of currents and voltages for any electric circuit. whether it is supplied from a direct-current system or an alternating current system. But with complex circuits the equations connecting the currents and voltages may become so numerous that much tedious algebraic work is involve in their solutions.3. Potential Energy Difference: The voltage or potential energy difference between two points in an electric circuit is the amount of energy required to move a unit charge between the two points. Otherwise. 3.2 . Volt-ampere characteristics of linear and non-linear elements are shown in figs. .3. some basic definition of the following terms are considered.

.

.

.

Meaning of Circuit Ground and the Voltages referenced to Ground .

Voltage Divider . the chassis is shorted to the earth itself for safety reasons. such as in electronic circuits.In many cases.

Current divider .

.

Potentiometer and its function .

Ideal and Practical Voltage Sources .

Ideal and Practical Current Sources

Another two-terminal element of common use in circuit modeling is current source` as depicted in fig.3.17. An ideal current source, which is represented by a model in fig. 3.17(a), is a device that delivers a constant current to any load resistance connected across it, no matter what the terminal voltage is developed across the load (i.e., independent of the voltage across its terminals across the terminals).

.

Conversion of a Practical Voltage Source to a Practical Current source and viseversa .

Current source to Voltage Source .

.

.1 to find the currents through different branches using Mesh (Loop) current method.Solution of Electric Circuit Based on Mesh (Loop) Current Method Let us consider a simple dc network as shown in Figure 4.

.

.

.

.

Solution of Electric Circuit Based on Node Voltage Method .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

UNIT II NETWORK REDUCTION AND NETWORK THEOREMS FOR DC AND AC CIRCUITS .

Delta – Star conversion .

Conversion from Delta to Star .

Conversion from Star to Delta .

.

SOLUTION: .

.

.

.

.

1 and it has two independent practical voltage sources and one practical current source. the resultant current / voltage in any branch is the algebraic sum of currents / voltages caused by each independent sources acting along.7. with all other independent sources being replaced meanwhile by their respective internal resistances. Superposition theorem can be explained through a simple resistive network as shown in fig.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM INTRODUCTION Statement of superposition theorem In any linear bilateral network containing two or more independent sources (voltage or current sources or combination of voltage and current sources). .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

they are not linear operations. the square of current or the square of the voltage. This statement can be explained with a simple example as given below.Limitations of superposition Theorem • Superposition theorem doesn’t work for power calculation. Because power calculations involve either the product of voltage and current. .

Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems .

.

.

The procedure for applying Thevenin’s theorem .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem .

.

.

.Remarks: The Thevenin equivalent circuit is useful in finding the maximum power that a linear circuit can deliver to a load.

.

.

.

L.8(a). . Let us consider a linear system in fig.Proof of Thevenin Theorem The basic concept of this theorem and its proof are based on the principle of superposition theorem.8.

.

.

Just as with Thevenin's Theorem.Norton's Theorem Norton's Theorem states that it is possible to simplify any linear circuit. after Norton conversion . . outputting as much or as little voltage necessary to maintain that constant current. Remember that a current source is a component whose job is to provide a constant amount of current. Contrasting our original example circuit against the Norton equivalent: it looks something like this: . . . . no matter how complex. to an equivalent circuit with just a single current source and parallel resistance connected to a load. the qualification of “linear” is identical to that found in the Superposition Theorem: all underlying equations must be linear (no exponents or roots). .

The total current through the short between the load connection points is the sum of these two currents: 7 amps + 7 amps = 14 amps. Note that this step is exactly opposite the respective step in Thevenin's Theorem. where we replaced the load resistor with a break (open circuit): With zero voltage dropped between the load resistor connection points. the current through R3 is now strictly a function of B2's voltage and R3's resistance: 7 amps (I=E/R). Likewise. to find the Norton current (for the current source in the Norton equivalent circuit). the current through R 1 is strictly a function of B1's voltage and R1's resistance: 7 amps (I=E/R). place a direct wire (short) connection between the load points and determine the resultant current. Also similar to Thevenin's Theorem are the steps used in Norton's Theorem to calculate the Norton source current (INorton) and Norton resistance (RNorton). the first step is to identify the load resistance and remove it from the original circuit: Then. everything in the original circuit except the load resistance has been reduced to an equivalent circuit that is simpler to analyze.As with Thevenin's Theorem. As before. This figure of 14 amps becomes the Norton source current (INorton) in our equivalent circuit: .

apologies for the confusion. we do the exact same thing as we did for calculating Thevenin resistance (RThevenin): take the original circuit (with the load resistor still removed). remove the power sources (in the same style as we did with the Superposition Theorem: voltage sources replaced with wires and current sources replaced with breaks).Remember. Blame Mr. this is standard electronic symbol notation. Again. Franklin again! To calculate the Norton resistance (RNorton). and figure total resistance from one load connection point to the other: Now our Norton equivalent circuit looks like this: . the arrow notation for a current source points in the direction opposite that of electron flow. For better or for worse.

the only useful information from this analysis is the voltage and current values for R2. the same advantages seen with Thevenin's Theorem apply to Norton's as well: if we wish to analyze load resistor voltage and current over several different values of load resistance. The load resistor re-attaches between the two open points of the equivalent circuit. with the Norton current source in parallel with the Norton resistance. (2) Find the Norton resistance by removing all power sources in the original circuit (voltage sources shorted and current sources open) and calculating total resistance between the open connection points. and parallel load. we can use the Norton equivalent circuit again and again. applying nothing more complex than simple parallel circuit analysis to determine what's happening with each trial load. the rest of the information is irrelevant to the original circuit. Steps to follow for Norton's Theorem: (1) Find the Norton source current by removing the load resistor from the original circuit and calculating current through a short (wire) jumping across the open connection points where the load resistor used to be. REVIEW: Norton's Theorem is a way to reduce a network to an equivalent circuit composed of a single current source. (4) Analyze voltage and current for the load resistor following the rules for parallel circuits . we can analyze the Norton circuit as a simple parallel arrangement: As with the Thevenin equivalent circuit. However. (3) Draw the Norton equivalent circuit.If we re-connect our original load resistance of 2 Ω. parallel resistance.

Norton on the other hand reduces his circuit down to a single resistance in parallel with a constant current source. To find the Nortons equivalent of the above circuit we firstly have to remove the centre 40Ω load resistor and short out the terminals A and B to give us the following circuit. For example. in that Thevenin reduces his circuit down to a single resistance in series with a single voltage. Nortons equivalent circuit. (the same as Thevenin). As far as the load resistance. consider our now familiar circuit from the previous section. Nortons Theorem states that "Any linear circuit containing several energy sources and resistances can be replaced by a single Constant Current generator in parallel with a Single Resistor".Nortons Theorem In some ways Norton's Theorem can be thought of as the opposite to "Thevenins Theorem". The value of this "constant current" is one which would flow if the two output terminals where shorted together while the source resistance would be measured looking back into the terminals. RL is concerned this single resistance. RS is the value of the resistance looking back into the network with all the current sources open circuited and IS is the short circuit current at the output terminals as shown below. .

When the terminals A and B are shorted together the two resistors are connected in parallel across their two respective voltage sources and the currents flowing through each resistor as well as the total short circuit current can now be calculated as: with A-B Shorted Out If we short-out the two voltage sources and open circuit terminals A and B. the two resistors are now effectively connected together in parallel. The value of the internal resistor Rs is found by calculating the total resistance at the terminals A and B giving us the following circuit. .

the two resistors are connected in parallel across the terminals A and B which gives us a total resistance of: . but we now have to solve with the original 40Ω load resistor connected across terminals A and B as shown below. Is and equivalent internal resistance. Rs this then gives us the following Nortons equivalent circuit. Again. Nortons equivalent circuit. so far so good.Find the Equivalent Resistance (Rs) Having found both the short circuit current. Ok.

Find RS by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current sources. Find IS by placing a shorting link on the output terminals A and B. 21LRR==ΩabI−cgV Solution: Step-1: Remove the resistor through which the current is to be found and short the terminals ‘a’ and ‘b’ (see fig. . 3.10(a). In a circuit. Nortons Theorem Summary The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Nortons Theorem is as follows: 1.8.5 For the circuit shown in fig.10(b)). we found using Kirchoff´s circuit law in the previous tutorials. Example-L. 2. The application of the maximum power transfer theorem can be applied to either simple and complicated linear circuits having a variable load and is used to find the load resistance that leads to transfer of maximum power to the load. In the next tutorial we will look at Maximum Power Transfer.8.286 amps. is the same value of 0. 4. Remove the load resistor RL or component concerned.The voltage across the terminals A and B with the load resistor connected is given as: Then the current flowing in the 40Ω load resistor can be found as: which again. power supplied to the load is at its maximum when the load resistance is equal to the source resistance. Find the current flowing through the load resistor RL.8. find the current through resistor ( branch) using Norton’s theorem & hence calculate the voltage across the current source ().

RI-R(I-I)=0. Loop-1 3 – R (I – I ) = 0.3(d). we apply ‘mesh – current’ method.2A 4 1 2 2 R I = 3 + R I = 3 – 2 × 2 = . where I = .1 ∴ I = . Here.8.3I-4(I+2)=0.7I-8=08 I=-=7 N138-7+1I=(I-I)=-0.Step-2: Any method can be adopted to compute the current flowing through the a-b branch. The equivalent N resistance between ‘a’ and ‘b’ terminals is same as the value of Thevenin’s resistance of the circuit shown in fig.0.5A 4 1 4 2 1 Loop-3 133323333.5+=714⎛⎞∴⎜⎟⎝⎠ 9A14=(current is flowing from ‘a’ to ‘b’) Step-3: To compute R . . all sources are replaced with their internal resistances.

61 I==1.305-0.305+4×.39=2..26volt ('c' is higher potential than 'g')∴ bgbgcbcg L.Step-4: Replace the original circuit with an equivalent Norton’s circuit as shown in fig.555+1 In order to calculate the voltage across the current source the following procedures are adopted.8. R1.305A2 I=1.1 When a complicated dc circuit is replaced by a Thevenin equivalent circuit. [2] .8 Test Your Understanding [Marks: 60] T.39=0.8.61volt2.in series with one --------. it consists of one -----.39A (a to b)R+R1.915=6.555I=×I=×0.10(d). NLNNL V=3-1×0. Redraw the original circuit indicating the current direction in the load.915A ('c' to 'b') V=2×1.643=0.

the efficiency of the system is only --------.voltage and ----------.of circuit at the output terminals. [1] T. but the Norton resistance is found with the output terminals ---------. the Thevenin resistance is found by the ratio of -------. [1] T.it.2 When a complicated dc circuit is replaced by a Norton equivalent circuit.is equal to the -------. [2] T. [2] T.%.with one -------.8 The maximum power transfer condition is meaningful in -----------.in ---. [1] .6 For a complicated circuit.and subsequently all the independent sources are replaced -----------.3 The dual of a voltage source is a -----------.7 A network delivers maximum power to the load when its -------.and --------. [2] T. the current source is eliminated by --------. the Norton current is determined with the output terminals -------------.systems. it consists of -----. [2] T.5 When applying Norton’s theorem.T.4 When a Thevenin theorem is applied to a network containing a current source. [3] T.current.9 Under maximum power transfer conditions.

UNIT III RESONANCE AND COUPLED CIRCUITS .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2 Introduction Transformers are one of the most important components of any power system. HV & LV windings. several objective type and numerical problems have been given for solving. reflected current. clearly identifying the factors on which they depend upon. Key Words: Magnetising current. At the end. It basically changes the level of voltages from one value to the other at constant frequency. Generator is a rotating machines and the level of voltage at which it generates power is limited to several kilo volts only – . how to draw phasor diagram under no load and load conditions.Ideal Transformer In this lesson. The ratio between the primary and secondary voltages are shown to depend on ratio of turns of the two windings. Importance of studying such a transformer will be highlighted. no load phasor diagram. Big generating stations are located at hundreds or more km away from the load center (where the power will be actually consumed). Long transmission lines carry the power to the load centre from the generating stations. Being a static machine the efficiency of a transformer could be as high as 99%. we shall study two winding ideal transformer. its properties and working principle under no load condition as well as under load condition. At the end. equivalent circuit 23. are explained. Induced voltages in primary and secondary are obtained.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

UNIT IV TRANSIENT RESPONSE FOR DC CIRCUITS .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

UNIT V ANALYSING THREE PHASE CIRCUITS .

.

.

.

Example .

.

.

.

Solution of Current in AC Parallel and Series-parallel Circuits .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Generation of Sinusoidal Voltage Waveform (AC) and Some Fundamental Concepts .

.

.

.

.

.

is the sinusoidal waveform with a frequency of 50 Hz in . normally the voltage generated. which is also transmitted and then distributed to the consumer.As shown earlier.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Three-phase Balanced Supply .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Three-phase Delta-Connected Balanced Load .

- Coolidge Tube
- AI
- An_online_laser_caliper_measurement_for.pdf
- Gas Analyser.pdf
- 19H_A Study.pdf
- Black Liquor Recovery
- Basis Weight Measurement
- TE
- EI _te
- EI 2252 June 2012.pdf
- Transducer Engineering
- Instrumentation notes
- QP
- Notes for ii
- Physics June 2013
- Soap and detergent.pdf
- pm0034_03.pdf
- Guidelines Scholarships
- cost-of-living.pdf
- Virtual Instrumentation
- Petro QP
- Website Chapter 3
- i2ml-chap8-v1-1
- Lung Tumor Detection
- Fluid Dynamics - Applications

- 63463752-Circuit-Theory-Analysis-Lecture-Notes-All-Unit.pdf
- handout3
- Basic Electrical Lesson 5
- BCA2
- Circuits Lab Marionvc
- Electrical Presentation
- Fy Theorems
- Thevenin's Theorem (1)
- L-03(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)
- 959
- Naveen PDF Et Lab
- Lectnotes6 Thevenin
- g
- EE6201-Circuit-Theory-Regulation-2013-Lecture-Notes (1).pdf
- Thevenin's Theorem_ Network Theorems
- thevenin theoram
- ECE Problems
- DC network theorem
- Unit-3
- A. Penin auth. Analysis of Electrical Circuits with Variable Load Regime Parameters Projective Geometry Method.pdf
- lmescience2sem
- Lesson 10 Thevenin and Norton
- Thevenin's
- Thevenin
- CB Lab Manual Cicrcuit Laws
- Thevenin's Theorem Report
- Chapter 2 (1)
- New Basic Electrical Lab Manual
- Electrical Circuit Theory
- Network Theorem-By Mallek AbdeRRAHMANE
- EE 25 Circuit Theory NOL

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd