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After a long era of struggles of our national hero’s QUAID -E- AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH, LIAQUAT ALI KHAN, and ALLAMA IQBAL they finally succeeded to got a separate homeland for MUSLIMS. Where they can live according to the Islamic laws they cannot follow while living with Hindus in subcontinent. After along struggles and bloodshed on 14 AUGUST 1947 PAKISTAN came into existence. Efficient politics play a vital role in the progress of a country. Different parties came into existence that have their own vision and manifesto which they are representing and they make strategies how we will handle the internal and external affairs of the country. If the parties are taking such steps which are harmful for the country or if they for see that parties are running the country affairs efficiently then MILTRY take over the government and start handling the affairs of the country. Basically there are five main pillars in PAKISTAN politics. Military Democrats Industrial/ merchandise Political elite Religious elite
They all play a vital role in the affairs of the PAKISTAN politics. If anyone is not working efficiently than others joint together and take charge of the government. But unluckily from the day one in PAKISTAN’S politics everyone is using others for his own interest. If we talk all the eras of every political/ religious party who were the part in the PAKSITAN’S political history words will end but the politics which different parties play in PAKISTAN’S political history did not end. In every era dirty war is being played by our different partners and different political parties either they are religious parties or political parties. . Just because of short of time we are just discussing the political background from lat 1980’s onward.
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Political History of PAKISTAN from late 1980’s and onwards
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (August 12, 1924–August 17, 1988) ruled Pakistan from 1977 to 1988. His rule over the country, which lasted eleven years, is the longest to date in the history of Pakistan. Appointed Chief of Army Staff in 1976, General Zia-ul-Haq came to power after he overthrew ruling Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after widespread civil disorder, in a bloodless military coup d'état on July 5, 1977 and imposed Martial Law. He assumed the post of President of Pakistan in 1978 which he held till his death on August 17, 1988. His reign witnessed the enforcement of strict Islamic law within the country, the political stabilization of secession-threatening Balochistan following his setting-up of a separate military regime within the province, the passing of the controversial 8th Amendment into constitutional law, as well as the gradual privatization and subsequent rejuvenation of a previously declining economy. On April 4, 1979, the former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was hanged, after the Supreme Court upheld the death sentence as passed by the Lahore High Court. The High Court had given him the death sentence on charges of the murder of the father of Ahmed Raza Kasuri, a dissident PPP politician. Despite many clemency appeals from foreign leaders requesting Zia to commute Bhutto's death sentence, Zia dismissed the appeals as "trade union activity" and upheld the death sentence. Having become President in 1978, he secured his position as head of state through a referendum in 1984 which successfully ensured his rule as President for another five years. He lifted Martial Law and held party less elections in 1985, and handpicked Muhammad Khan Junejo to be the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He dismissed Junejo's government in May 1988 on several charges. He was assassinated in a planned aircraft crash on August 17, 1988 under mysterious circumstances, and the perpetrators of the highly sophisticated air sabotage have not been proven. His death ended his unprecedentedly long eleven-year military dictatorship over Pakistan. He also fought a war by proxy in Afghanistan, aiding the Mujahidin against the superpower Soviet Union, in the Soviet-Afghan War. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the end of Détente, he was instrumental in providing United Statesbacked military aid to the Afghan resistance against Soviet occupation and then later diverting them to the Kashmir cause in the late 1980s. His major contributions to the Mujahedeen greatly aided them in inducing a complete Soviet withdrawal by 1988. Between 1979 and 1990, the sectarian and jihadi parties grew in number. The Afghan war in 1980 played an important role in the growth of religious parties. Several new parties were formed, and several existing one split into factions. Religious seminaries contributed to the proliferation, with seminary administrations building their own parties. Today, the heads of 215 parties have their own seminaries. Westernized culture forced to change to Eastern culture. In 1983 Gen. and President Zia announces that he will lift the martial law but military will retain the key role in future governments. As with most any kind of political behavior, there are
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conflicting findings about the influence of each of these variables in different contexts. In his era there was complete opposite change of social climate in the country. Moreover the constitution and laws were amended as per the rules and teachings of Islam. In 1985 imposed Martial law and forced ban on political parties was lifted. General elections held under military rule. Again socio-political Controversial eighth Amendment was passed. Military Chief Zia-ul Haq resigned from Prime Minister Post and Mohammad Khan Junejo of Muslim League became twelfth prime minister of Pakistan. His reign also witnessed the rise to prominence of several conservative politicians who would later rule the country, including Nawaz Sharif, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, and Zafarullah Khan Jamali (all of whom would later hold the post of Prime Minister of Pakistan). General Zia also revived and endorsed Pakistan's current ruling political party, Pakistan Muslim League. By 2002, the party broke into several splinter factions, the majority of which became structurally united again in 2003 under Pakistan Muslim League (Q), including Pakistan Muslim League (Z), which was named after Zia. Five variables stand out in this scenario and related policy discussions are (1) Religiosity: Religious people expected to be less supportive of destructive political attitudes in general but more supportive of groups using religious justifications for violence. Education: More educated individuals hypothesized to be more tolerant and therefore less supportive of groups employing violent tactics. Income: Poorer people expected to be more supportive of violent politics or more likely to participate in violent groups. Moreover poverty predicts support for violent political organizations is widespread in the policy literature. Democratic values: Valuing democracy expected to be less supportive of militant groups. Anti-Americanism: People holding negative views of the United States hypothesized to be more supportive of certain forms of violence.
Given the manifest importance of the political violence and lack of clarity in the political history the scenario is still vague. In 1999 Gen. and President Musharaf imposed
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Martial Law. Social roots of militancy suffered a lot in the dictatorship era of General Musharaf due to a lot of factors. In the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001, many intellectuals have argued that Muslim extremists like (UBL) Osama bin Laden despise the United States primarily because of its foreign policy. Conversely, US President George Bush's administration and its supporters have insisted that extremists loathe the United States simply because they are religious fanatics who "hate our freedoms." These conflicting views of the roots of militant Islamic hostility toward the United States lead to very different policy prescriptions. If US policies have caused much of this hostility, it would make sense to change those policies, if possible, to dilute the rage that fuels Islamic militancy. If, on the other hand, the hostility is the result of religious fanaticism, then the use of brute force to suppress fanaticism would appear to be a sensible course of action. Social conditions are currently depressingly allied with support for media against violent political organizations.
Till 1979, there were only 30 religious parties in Pakistan, of which 7 were Deobandi, 5 Barelvi and 3 Shia. The Jamaat-e-Islami was considered a non-sectarian organization.
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The era of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq is considered as a golden era in the history of PAKISTAN. First time in the history of PAKISTAN the economy of PAKISTAN grows very fast. This was the era of industrial revolution, economics revolution. GDP of PAKISTAN was increased. Living standards of the citizens got increased. But all these developments were short terms. As he was a dictator. Everyone uses others just to fulfill their needs. After fulfilling their thirst they stopped sporting them which results in the destruction. Every Era had some good and bad aspects same as it is there were some positive steps which the official govt. of that time took. Which are listed below Reign as Chief Martial Law Administrator The Doctrine of Necessity Assumption of the Post of President of Pakistan The Hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Use of power Dismissal of the Junejo Government and Call for Fresh Elections The August 17th Air-Crash .Controversial Reasons Behind the Crash. In the end we would like to conclude that Dictator ship has proven to be more harm full for PAKISTAN. If we take average of Pakistan’s Political history we will see that every 6 – 8 years military take over the government and then military time up different parties take over this process is going on and on. It is not the duty of military to run the country their duty is to secure the borders. The main dilemma which Pakistan is still facing from the day one is that every department or every head of the state is interfering in others affairs instead of going for his own job. There are many gaps in the system of Pakistan. There is no proper accountability system that’s why everyone who is in power always misuses their power to fill up their bank accounts and takes his investment out from Pakistan. We have to work on the lop holes in our system. We need to do hiring’s on the basis of merit not on the basis of references. We have to hope for the best because don’t lose hope is the moral of the story. INSHALLAH we will see that PAKISTAN will progress by leaps and bounds in few years.
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