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Fall 2010

MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Mining Engineering Mine Ventilation Laboratory / Laboratory Work No: 1


OBJECT OF EXPERIMENT: 1. To ascertain the relation between true velocity measured by a standard anemometer calibrated by NPL and indication of different anemometer. 2. To draw a calibration chart for the anemometer this can be used in the future work with a better accuracy.

APPARATUS USED: The following items are utilized in the experiment. 1. An open jet wind tunnel 2. Two anemometers; a. Master anemometer calibrated by NPL b. Anemometer to be calibrated 3. Calibration curves for standard anemometer 4. Stop watch

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: The wind tunnel operated first. By using the calibrated anemometer the air velocity is measured three times. Same measurements are made for the one that will be calibrated. Then the air velocity level is increased by reosta. Same procedure is repeated for both anemometers at different velocity levels. Almost ten different measurement sets are made by increasing the velocity level of wind tunnel. By using the calibration chart of the standard anemometer the true air velocity can be found. And then, a calibration chart for the uncalibrated one is prepared. 1

Fall 2010

RESULTS: Results should be presented in the form of two graphs: - True air velocity against the air velocity indicated by other anemometer, - Velocity corrections in m/min to be added or subtracted from the anemometer readings against the uncorrected anemometer readings.

DISCUSSION: Discuss the importance and significance of calibration of anemometers periodically. VELOCITY CORRECTION OF THE STANDART ANEMOMETER No L.2267

Instrument Readings(m/min) 975 800 625 470 360 280 210 150 100 60 30 18

Correction to be Added to Instrument Reading 25 23 21 19 17 15 12 9 9 11 14 16

True Air Velocity (m/min) 1000 823 646 489 377 295 222 159 109 71 44 34

Fall 2010

VANE ANEMOMETER The vane anemometer is simply a wind mill consisting of eight flat, light vanes mounted on radial arms attached to a common spindle which rotates in bearings. Vanes are inclined at an angle to the axis of the spindle and the air forces acting on the vanes cause to spindle to rotate. This motion is transmitted to a pointer by means of suitable gearing. Generally, the dials are marked with scale of meters indicating the distance travelled by the air. This indicated air speed "true air speed" is obtained by the aid of the calibration curve for the particular anemometer in use. Anemometers are usually used to measure air speed in large ducts, roadways or shafts. The diameter of the anemometer must be quite small compared to the distance of the gallery or duct in which measurements are taken. Depending on the magnitude of air speed, the vane anemometer can be categorized in three classes; - low speed type (12-100 m/min), - medium speed type (100-1000 m/min), - high speed type (1000-2700m/min). In mine ventilation, the second type of anemometers are mostly used. The general principals that should be considered when anemometers are being used to obtain correct and precise measurement are given below;

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

They should be used only for speeds which causes the vanes to rotate easily and continuously. The diameter of the duct in which measurement is taken should be at least six times bigger to diameter of the anemometer. The vane circle should be always normal to the direction of the air stream. All readings should be corrected (calibrated) before use. At least three independent readings should be taken at measuring point. The vanes of the instrument should never be touched. Sudden changes in air speed should be avoided. The instrument should be calibrated periodically. During measurements, the observer should be with 1.0-1.3 meters of the instrument and always downstream.

Fall 2010

Using the Vane Anemometer To find the mean velocity in a wind tunnels, it is a common practice to divide the cross section into a number of square and take measurements at each section. Then find the mean air velocity from the measurements taken from sub-sections. The actual gallery anemometer is usually traversed uniformly over the section to obtain mean velocity.