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Basic Networking
Define Computer Networking Networking is the sharing of information and services. Computer networking provides the communication tools to allow computers to share information and abilities.

Different types of Network topology

1) BUS : Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.

KRISTECH Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology

Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.

Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology

Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.

Terminator - Its function is to absorb signals on the line, thereby keeping them from bouncing back and being received again by the network Each T-connector is connected to the next with a coaxial cable. After all of the devices are connected, the ends of the cable must then be terminated with a 50W terminator. As shown in Figure

KRISTECH 2) Star: Many businesses and home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be an actual hub or a switch. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet cables also known as RJ45 cables. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN.

KRISTECH Advantages of a Star Topology

Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Disadvantages of a Star Topology

Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.


is typically the least expensive, least intelligent, and least complicated of the three. Its job is very simple: anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others. That's it. Every computer connected to the hub "sees" everything that every other computer on the hub sees.


does essentially what a hub does but more efficiently. By paying attention to the traffic that comes across it, it can "learn" where particular addresses are. For example, if it sees traffic from machine A coming in on port 2, it now knows that machine A is connected to that port and that traffic to machine A needs to only be sent to that port and not any of the others. The net result of using a switch over a hub is that most of the network traffic only goes where it needs to rather than to every port. On busy networks this can make the network significantly faster.

3) Ring: In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same 4

KRISTECH direction. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. The Token Ring protocol requires a star-wired ring using twisted pair or fiber optic cable. It can operate at transmission speeds of 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.

Advantages of a Ring Topology Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load Disadvantages of a Ring Topology Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network Network adapter cards are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and Hubs.

Mesh Topology 5


A mesh topology network offers superior redundancy and reliability. In a mesh topology, each computer is connected to every other computer by separate cabling. This configuration provides redundant paths throughout the network so that if one cable fails, another will take over the traffic. These networks are expensive to install because they use a lot of cabling. Often, a mesh topology will be used in conjunction with other topologies to form a hybrid topology.

Considerations When Choosing a Topology:

Money. A linear bus network may be the least expensive way to install a network; you do not have to purchase concentrators. Length of cable needed. The linear bus network uses shorter lengths of cable. Future growth. With a star topology, expanding a network is easily done by adding another concentrator. Cable type. The most common cable in schools is unshielded twisted pair, which is most often used with star topologies.

Types of Network
LAN (Local Are Network) - the computers are on the same site and linked by cables. WAN (Wide Area Network) - the computers are on different sites and are linked by telephone links. A computer may need to use a modem to link to the telephone system.

KRISTECH Some LANs now use wireless links. A WAN can cover a whole country (or even the world!).

Peer-to-peer networks All computers are of equal importance. Software and data are stored on each computer. Client/Server network Software and data are held on a file server and may be used by other computers on the network. Security is controlled centrally.

Cable Media
The following examples are covered in this section: Twisted pair cable

Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses

Fiber optic cable



Network Hardware

Fast Ethernet cards (like the popular 3COM 3C905series) can operate at 10 Mhz or at 100 Mhz, depending on the type of hub used for the connection. Some hubs also offer the possibility to connect to 10 MHz or 100 MHz network cards: Dual-Speed Hubs



Hubs receive transmissions from connected devices and transmit the signals to the other connected devices. The hub organizes the cables and transmits incoming signals to the other media segments.


HUB Router: - Routers connect two

or more logically separate networks. Each networks identified by its network address, a logical name assigned to it. Each network in an internet work must be assigned a unique network address
To connect a router and multiple computers to the Internet