# CHAPTER 1

TRANSMISSION LINE

1.1

INTRODUCTION

A transmission line is a structure used to guide the flow of electromagnetic energy from one point to another point. This line may be of any physical structure; that is, it may be made of two parallel wires or two parallel plates or coaxial conductors, or it may be of hollow conductor variety (waveguides). The general characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in these lines are the same. The preference depends only on the frequency of wave propagation and the use to which these lines are put.

1.2

BASIC TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

In general, if we examine a transmission line, we will find four parameters, i.e., series resistance (R), series inductance (L), shunt capacitance (C) and shunt conductance (G), distributed along the whole length of the line. If R, L, C and G be these primary constants per unit length of the line, then the unit length of the line may be represented by an equivalent circuit of the type shown in Fig. 1.1. Naturally, a relatively long piece of line would contain several such identical sections as shown in Fig. 1.2.
R/2 L/2 L/2 R/2

G

C

Fig. 1.1 Equivalent circuit of a unit length of transmission line

1

called the attenuation constant. we have. respectively.7) is called the propagation constant which is in general a complex quantity and so may be difined as γ = α + jβ γ = α2 + β2 (1.6) and γ = ZY = ( R + jωL ) ( G + jωC ) (1. at receiving end. propagation constant γ is a measure of the phase shift and attenuation per unit length along the line. is the real part of Eq. and L (R + ω α=M MN L (R + ω β=M MN 2 2 2 L2 )(G 2 + ω 2 C 2 ) + ( RG − ω 2 LC ) 2 2 L2 )(G 2 + ω 2 C 2 ) − ( RG − ω 2 2 OP PQ LC ) O PP Q 1/ 2 (1.7).5) (1.2 BASIC MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES AND LABORATORY MANUAL First section Second section Third section Fig.3) dz dI = – (G + jωC)V (1.4) dz where negative sign indicates decrease in voltage and current as z increases. Separating γ into real and imaginary parts. and β. The current and voltage are measured from the receiving end.8) α.10) Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1.9) 1/ 2 (1. where (1.PM5 2 .1) (1.4) and combining them. Thus.3) and (1. z = 0 and line extends in negative z-direction. d 2V = γ2 V dz 2 d2I = γ2 I dz 2 These are wave equations of voltage and current respectively propagating on the line. (1. (1. the phase constant is the imaginary part.2 A long piece of line as a multi T-section line The series impedance and shunt admittance per unit length of the line are given by: Z = R + jωL Y = G + jωC.e. (1. The expressions for voltage and current per unit length are. i. 1. dV = – (R + jωL)I (1.2) Differentiating Eqs..

13) These solutions are shown as the sum of two waves.14) I = I1e–γz – I2eγz (Phase reversed due to reflection).15) Where R0 and X0 are the real and imaginary parts of Z0. reflected wave.686 decibels).3 CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE A voltage (rf) applied across the conductors of an infinite line causes a current I to flow.11) β = 2π/λl or λl = 2π/β where λl is the distance along the line corresponding to a phase change of 2π radians. β is the phase shift per unit length of transmission line and is measured in radians per unit length of this line. →+z –z← (1.. (1. So we have I1e–γz = or V1 = I1 γV1e − γz ( R + jωL) R + jω L ( R + jωL)(G + jωC ) R + jωL = R0 + jX0 G + jωC or Z0 = (1.6) may be written as V = V1e–γz + V2e+γz →+z –z← I = I1e–γz + I2e+γz.4). i. V2 and I2 are zero.e.16) Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1. the first term indicates the wave travelling in positive z-direction.. R0 is in ohms. R0 should not be mistaken for R while R is in ohms per metre.3) and (1. I1 1 ∂V −1 . By this observation.5) and (1. i. 1. The phase velocity Vp = fλl. incident wave. Z0 = V1 .TRANSMISSION LINE 3 α is measured in decibels or nepers per unit length of the transmission line (1 neper = 8. The solutions of voltage and current wave Eqs.PM5 3 . and the second term indicates the wave travelling in the negative z-direction. (1.e.12) (1. Now (1. is given by I= (1. the line looks like an impedance which is denoted by Z0 and is known as characteristic impedance Z0. For loss-less line (R and G being zero) Z0 = L /C and β = ω LC (1. that is . For infinite line there are no reflections. where f is the signal frequency. using Eqs. = (– γ) (V1 e–γz – V2e+γz) ( R + jωL ) ∂z ( R + jωL ) The expression for current I.

19) The product of Eqs. that is. Zsc.3 (a) Finite transmission line terminated by its Z0 Fig.4 LUMPED CONSTANT DELAY LINE In laboratory we can study the general characteristics of a transmission line of given primary constants using a number of lumped T-sections as shown in Fig.17). 1. we have short-circuited input impedance. 1.3(b)] located at z = 0 as Zin = Vs VR cosh γz + Z0 I R sinh γz = V Is I R cosh γz + R sinh γz Z0 (1.18) The open-circuited input impedance (ZL = ∞).2. Zsc = Z0 tanh γz (1. A line terminated in its characteristic impedance will absorb all the power and there will be no reflection and hence it behaves as an infinite line.4 BASIC MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES AND LABORATORY MANUAL We can see that the finite transmission line terminated by its Z0 [Fig. the finite line of characteristic impedance Z0 has an input impedance Z0 when it is terminated in Z0. Zoc = Z0 coth γz (1. Z0c. 1.18) and (1. V W (1. can be found by putting zL = ∞ and IR = 0 in Eq. (1. Z in = Z 0 Z0 VS VR ZL IR (a) (b) Fig. 1.20) 1.3(a)] has input impedance also equal to Z0.PM5 4 . (1. Such an artificial line is known as lumped Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1.19) gives Z0 = zoc + Z sc U at z = 0.17) Zin = Z0 where Vs = Voltage at the sending end Is = Current at the sending end z = Length of the line Z0 = Characteristic impedance VR = Voltage at the receiving end IR = Current at the receiving end LM Z NZ L 0 + Z0 tanh γz + Z L tanh γz OP Q If the line is short-circuited (ZL = 0). 1. given by (VR = 0).3 (b) Finite transmission line terminated in an impedance Z L One can obtain the expression for input impedance of line when it is terminated in an impedance ZL [Fig.

1 To determine the characteristic impedance of lumped constant delay line. Set audio frequency (af) oscillator at 1. 3. 1.20) it is clear that the determination of Z0 reduces to the determination of Zsc and Zoc.21) (b) Load-end Open-circuited (ZL = ∞) Similarly. (1.TRANSMISSION LINE 5 constant delay line. R then Zsc = and Isc = Zsc = Vsc I sc VRsc R Vsc R. (a) Load-end Short-circuited (ZL= 0) Let Vsc be the input voltage (can be measured) to the line and VRsc be the voltage across the series resistance.15). (1. hence one can determine Z0 and can compare it with the calculated value obtained using Eq. 2. 20 to 25 such Tsections are used.22). if Voc be the input voltage and VRoc be the voltage across the series resistance R in the case when line is open-circuited. Such lines are made to simulate the actual transmission line and when operated in the audio-frequency range. Z0 = R Voc × Vsc VRoc × VRsc Voc R VRoc (1.23) All the quantities in Eq. Measure the voltage across resistance box (RB) and at the input of lumped delay line as shown in Fig.4 when the load-end is (i) open-circuited and (ii) short-circuited. they can be made very compact.4(a).21) and (1. From Eq. VRsc (1. (1.5 kHz and its output voltage at a suitable level. (1. Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1.PM5 5 . PROCEDURE 1.22) (1.23) can be determined experimentally. we have Zoc = From Eqs. Make the connections as shown in Fig. In actual experiment. 1. EXPERIMENT 1. EQUIPMENT A lumped constant delay line board having 20 to 25 T-sections Audio-oscillator Resistance box. say 2 V.

No. 2.T. Resistance from RB R 1. 4. Resistance box Single generator Transmission line To load end (a) VR R VC C V ZC ZC VZ Output end Transmission line (b) VR R p/2 VC VZ V ZC p/2 (R ¢ ) Resistive (j w L ¢ ) Reactive (Inductive in present case) Z SC (or Z OC ) = (R ¢ + j w L ¢ ) V R /R (c) Fig.4 (a) Circuit arrangement for measuring input impedance. 4.V. (c) Vector plot of measured voltages for measuring complex input impedance. Record observation in Table 1.1. V.6 BASIC MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES AND LABORATORY MANUAL V. (b) Circuit arrangement for measuring input impedance when complex. 3. TABLE 1. Load-end OPEN-CIRCUIT Voltage across RB (VRoc) Voltage at input of delay line (Voc) Load-end SHORT-CIRCUIT Voltage across RB (VRsc) Voltage at input delay line (Vsc) Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1.V. Vary the resistance R and repeat step 3. 5. 5.M.T.M.1 S.PM5 6 . 1.

1. Note: If af or rf milliammeter is available. Find out Zo using Eq.PM5 7 . The voltage at nth section. The procedure shall be as follows: 1. 1. Measure voltages Vc . EQUIPMENT A lumped constant delay line having 20 to 25 sections Audio-frequency oscillator VTVM. Vc and line voltage Vz follow the vector plot shown in Fig. 1. Any voltage wave travelling down the line is continuously attenuated if the line is terminated in Z0. complex algebra has to be used. Assuming no reflections.20). 1.4(c) and measure resistive and reactive components of voltage Vz. (1. Hence they allow the determination of reactive and resistive components of Zoc.2 Z0 = Voc . the characteristic impedance of the line. 6.5 kHz and suitable voltage level. (ii) short-circuited and (iii) terminated in Z0 and hence determine α. VR . 4. (See eqn.4(b). Vn. In calculations. 2. of course. Then resistance box is not necessary. 5. is given by Vn = Vse–γn where Vs is the voltage at the sending end Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1. VR. I oc Zsc = Vsc I sc Z oc × Z sc To study voltage distribution along a lumped constant delay line in the cases when it is (i) opencircuited. it can be in series arm.TRANSMISSION LINE 7 CALCULATIONS Z0 = R Voc × Vsc VRoc × VRsc ohms (Ω). when line is open-circuited. for various values of R and C. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for short-circuited line to get Zsc. Divide Vz with the current (VR/R) to get Zoc. One can get directly Zoc = and EXPERIMENT 1. Z0 is in general complex and can be measured using a circuit of Fig.4 (b) with line open-circuited.4(c). Repeat observations. Make the connections as shown in Fig.23) However. β. 3. Vzc and Vz with audio-oscillator set for 1. 1. or of Zsc when short-circuited. say 2V. γ and λl. Voltages across condenser (Vc) and resister (VR) are π/2 out of phase. Draw a vector plot shown in Fig.

8 BASIC MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES AND LABORATORY MANUAL − αn − jβn . 1. Vn = Vs e e or Voltages.3026 log10 Vs Vn (1.5 kHz and its output at a suitable level. second and fourth minima. one has to plot (Fig. To determine β. (1. Set of oscillator at 1. 2.8)..6) voltage at each section of the line in the cases when the line is open-circuited. short-circuited and terminated with Z0.5 Measurement of parameters on a transmission line terminated in various loads 3. Measure voltage across each section of the line by connecting VTVM when (a) line terminated in Z0 (b) load-end is open-circuited (ZL = ∞) (c) load-end is short-circuited (ZL = 0). (b) and (c) on the same graph.PM5 8 . say 2V. then β may be computed using Eq. 5. Record observations in Table 1.2. or giving us Vn = Vse–αn α = 2. in the preceding equation are the amplitudes or peak values of sinusoidally varying functions. gives λ1 in each case. third and fifth minima. Make connections as shown in Fig..11) and γ from Eq. Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1. Z0 V T V M V T V M Open circuited end ZL = ¥ Short circuited end ZL = 0 Fig. Plot voltages versus number of T-sections for the cases: (a). 1. we can determine α. Vn and n. PROCEDURE 1.24) Measuring Vs. 4. the attenuation per section. of sections) between first and third minima. The distance (No. (1.6. 1.5. 1. Typical graphs are shown in Fig.

For a given line. Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1. 1. λl α 2 + β 2 (no units).0 0. sections may be converted into equivalent length. (ii) λ1 = Distance (No. of sections on the line) between alternate minima. open-circuited case and terminated in characteristic impedance (calculated value) CALCULATIONS (i) α = = 1 2.3026 (log10 Vs – log10 Vn) nepers/section n 2.2 1.8 Voltage in volts Load end short circuited 0.6 0. (iii) β = (iv) γ = 2π radians per section.3026 (log n 10 Vs – log10 Vn) × 8.4 Terminated in Z 0 0.PM5 9 .6 Voltage distribution on a line when short-circuited.2 Load end open circuited 0 4 8 12 16 20 No. of sections of lumped constant delay line Fig.686 decibels/section.TRANSMISSION LINE 9 1.

4..10 BASIC MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES AND LABORATORY MANUAL TABLE 1.. 6... 3. .. . 2...PM5 10 . 1. Comment on design considerations of a lumped delay line. . 3. CRITICISM 1. 4. 9.. Quantity α β γ λl Experimental value . No. 5. Why loops are not symmetric? Why experimentally observed value of Z0 does not agree with the calculated value? Comment on ‘loss-lessness’ of a practical line. 2.. . . 2.. ... . L.. 7..2 S. ... 8. Open-circuited 1 1. 4.. G and C. 3. *These quantities are to be calculated from the various equations defining the respective quantities in terms of primary constants R.. 20. 5... 2 3 Voltage across sections of lumped delay line in volts when load-end is Short-circuited 4 Terminated with Z0 (calculated value) 5 RESULTS S.. percent error ... . ... .. 10.. . Section No. Theoretical value* ... 6. What should be the shape of a UHF line? and why? Why minima of voltage along the sections of the line are preferred to the maxima in the calculation of secondary constants? Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1.. No.

WHEELER. Artech House Inc. Dharm N-BASIC\BA1-1. G... 610 Washington Street.6 was obtained in our laboratory by designing an artificial constant delay line having primary constants as: L = 4mH R = 10 ohms at frequency 1....5 kHz.. Introduction to Microwaves. C = 0.C. G. Massachusetts (1976). Dedham. M. Wiley Eastern Limited. Microwave Transmission. R. Microwave Transmission Circuit. New Delhi (1987).47 µF G = 10–4 mhos REFERENCES JORDEN. W. Prentice-Hall of India (1976). Microwave Measurement and Techniques. SLATER. NJE (1979). Microwave Circuits and Passive Device. RAGAN. Prentice-Hall of India (1978). 1. Prentice-Hall Inc.S.C.. Electronic Transmission Technology in Waves and Antennas. SISODIA. AND RAGHUVANSI.PM5 11 . SINNEMA. G.L. McGraw-Hill Book Company (1948). LAGERELAETTA. McGraw-Hill Book Company (1942).TRANSMISSION LINE 11 Note: The typical graph shown in Fig. J..J. Englewood Cliffs.L. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems.