(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No.

4, April 2012

IPv6 Multicast in VANET
Prof. Uma Nagaraj
Department of Computer Engineering M.A.E Alandi (D) Pune India umanagaraj67@gmail.com Abstract-- VANET is the Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide
communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. IPv6 support is needed in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) with geographical routing. Basic IPv6 protocols such as address auto-configuration assume multicast capable link. In this we take the geographical information of each car which is in defined Geographical area through the GPS system, and also capturing the graph of all the car in the network through Google Mapit is presented in the paper, which aims at combining IPv6 networking and C2CNet.. . Keywords— VANET, IPv6, Multicasing, Geonetworking. Multicasting V2V, C2C,

Ms. Deesha G. Deotale
Department of Computer Engineering M.A.E Alandi (D) Pune, India disha.deotale21@gmail.com side units (RSU) are installed around the road. IEEE802.11 is used to connect between OBUs, and between OBU and RSU. Application Unit (AU) is a portable or built-in device connected temporarily or permanently to the vehicle’s OBU. OBU also can be connected to the Internet with cellular networks, WiMAX, etc. These terminologies are proposed in Car2Car communication consortium (C2C-CC [13]). For the VANET networks now a day’s support of IPv6 is needed with the geographical routing. The present IPv6 protocols (like auto configuration) assuming that they having multicast capable link. But, for VANET, the definition of link becomes ambiguous and it is difficult to support link-scope multicast. Artificial emulation of multicast capable link like Ethernet is possible but may cause low efficiency and high cost. Hence the new way to efficiently run IPv6 over VANET is needed with minimal cost. we are presenting the new approach for running the IPv6 in VANET for efficiency as well as lower cost. Instead of emulation, we rely on geonetworking specific features for IPv6 operation. Our solution exploits inherent location management’s functions to efficiently perform fundamental IPv6 protocols, i.e. Neighbor Discovery and Stateless Address Auto configuration. This new proposed approach is implemented with C2C communication consortium as reference system and exploits its inherent functions in order to perform the IPv6 multicast operations with link scope multicast. we have to first design C2C architecture with IPv6. The main objective is to combining IPv6 networking and Carto-Car Communication Consortium’s (C2C-CC) GeoNetworking capabilities into a single protocol stack for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). We see in the architecture what is IPv6 GeoNetworking: what functions are to be provided, under which conditions it shall operate (e.g. communication scenarios, communication environment with or without infrastructure support) and how it shall perform (e.g. scale to a large number of vehicles). The organization of this paper as follows: Section II explains Design Goal. Section III presents the short overview of Methodology of communication between vehicles. Section IV describes the Communication using IPv6 in C2C Architechture. Section V explain IPv6 Multicast overview and in Section VI explain communication flow example . Section VII conclusion of the paper.

I.

INTRODUCTION

By now the rapid growth of the Internet and the impending shortage of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses have been well documented. Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation protocol developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to replace the current addressing scheme, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). Vehicles are expected to exchange information beyond their immediate surroundings, with other vehicles and the road infrastructure. Nowadays, communications become essential in the society. Everyone can get information anywhere, even in mobility conditions. The vehicle is another place where users stay for long periods. These day Most of the time human spend in the vehicle. ITS are going to be more and more important technologies in our life, that enhance safety, driving efficiency and amusing by allowing various service such as fleet management, navigation, billing multimedia application and game. IPv6 is considered as the most appropriate technologies to support communication in ITS thanks to its extended address space, embedded security, enhanced mobility support and ease of configuration. Future vehicles will embed a number of sensors and other devices that could be IPv6 enabled[12] . In vehicular networks, vehicles equip with on board units (OBU) to enable the communication with other vehicles. Vehicle-to-vehicle ad hoc networks are multihop communication using geographic position, which has been investigated on GeoNet Project [6]. On the other hand, road-

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II.

DESIGN GOALS

The design goals which have led to the architecture the motivations behind IPv6 geonetworking, The type of applications to be supported i.e. safety, traffic efficiency and infotainment, and deployment considerations i.e.in-vehicle networks, backward compatibility, security, scalability, performance, etc. The first design goal of the architecture is IPv6 support in the architecture shall combine the geonetworking with IPv6 networking. This combination referred as IPv6 Geonetworking The second goal is communication end point in this the architecture support communication between two end points 1) Vehical to Vehical(V2V), 2) road side end points i.e vehical to infrastructure (V2I) and infrastructure to Vehical (I2V) or 3) internet end points. Third goal of the architecture is Geographic data transmission shall support data transmission from a vehicle node or an infrastructure node to i) another vehicle or infrastructure node in a certain geographic position, ii) a set of vehicles or infrastructure nodes in a certain geographic zone or iii) an arbitrary vehicle or infrastructure node in a certain geographic zone. The fourth goal is communication mode vehicle shall able to form self organized ad-hoc communication network without infrastructure coordination or the network may or may not be connected to the infrastructure The fifth goal is destination set routing function efficiently support point-to- point ,point-to-multipoint communication In vehicle embedded IP nodes shall be accessible from the internet and be able to communicate with any peer nodes attached to the internet.
Figure 1 IPv6 over C2C Network

Once the C2CNet ID of OBU2 is obtained, C2CNet generates a new GeoUnicast packet and sends it to OBU2 with the IPv6 packet attached as payload. The packet is transmitted to the nearest OBU to OBU2, i.e. OBU1 and there from retransmitted up to OBU2. Once at OBU2, the GeoUnicast packet is decoded and its payload (IPv6 packet) is delivered to AU2 through tun0. Overall process of IPv6 over C2CNet is illustrated in Figure 1. AU1 sends IPv6 packets to OBU1 that is the default router of in-vehicle network. OBU1 receives the packets on the ingress interface (eth0 in Figure 2) and removes MAC header of the packets. Then IP header and payload part are transmitted into the tun0 virtual interface by the preconfigured rules of IP Filter 1. The C2CNet module reads the data from tun0 and parses the information of the IP header. The destination IPv6 address is used to distinguish communication type whether unicast or multicast by the first 8 bits which are correspondent to GeoUnicast and GeoBroadcast, respectively. In unicast case, the next hop IPv6 address is resolved from the routing table via netlink library by the destination IPv6 address. The last 64-bits of the next hop IPv6 address is correspondent to the destination C2CNet. ID. In multicast case, destination C2CNet information are preconfigured depending on the destination IPv6 address (i.e. if the destination address is link-local all node multicast address (ff02::1), the latitude and longitude are as well as those of OBU1 and the radius is 500 meter). The data with C2CNet header, IPv6 header and payload are sent to LowerLayer module via local UDP socket. LowerLayer module adds MAC eader over C2CNet header and transmits the frame into the air.The intermediate node (OBU3) receives the frame and retransmits the frame when C2CNet modules find that the frame should be retransmitted to reach the destination with multihop manner. Finally, OBU2 receives the frame and on the egress interface. Then Lowerlayer module removes the MAC header.And C2CNet module finds that the destination of the C2CNet packet is OBU2. The IPv6 header and payload are sent to the tun0 virtual interface. The packet is routed to egress interface (eth0). And AU2 receives the IPv6 packet that sent from AU1. IV. C2C-CC ARCHITECTURE MODEL

III. METHODOLOGY The implementation of IPv6 geonetworking. On RSU, the C2CNet layer gets IPv6 unicast packets from AU1 through tun0. By checking the IPv6 packet destination address, it looks up the routing table via Routing Netlink to obtain the IP next hop. From the IP Next Hop, C2CNet gets the C2CNet ID of OBU2, which corresponds to the last 64bits in the IP Next Hop address.

We consider the Car-to-Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC) architecture as the reference of our work. The main objective of C2C-CC is to ensure car-to-car and multihop communication for both safety and non-safety applications taking into consideration both the availability and nonavailability of the roadside infrastructure.

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C2C-CC is designing an original network protocol (C2C) tailored for vehicular environments and relying on position based routing. This protocol defines a separate the C2C header with a separate C2C identifier, tentatively 64-bit length, identifying C2C nodes. The C2C header is planned to carry the source C2C identifier, the destination C2C identifier, the source geographic location and the destination geographic location. Some applications are directly running over the C2C layer and some are indirectly over IPv6. We focus on the second case. C2C-CC also requires IPv6 support for its system to run such applications as infotainment. This demands results in including an IPv6 stack in the main protocol architecture .

nodes hosting other networking functions (e.g. DNS) and other third parties. The architecture supports safety, non safety and infotainment types of applications and considers communications involving nodes located in the vehicle sub-system. • Infrastructure-less communications: between vehicles alone without infrastructure support; • Infrastructure-based communications: between vehicles and roadside peers or Internet peers. The mode of communication could be either point-to-point (uncast or any cast), or point-to multipoint (multicast). For both modes, introduces a geographic range of communication (respectively GeoUnicast, GeoAnycast and GeoBroadcast). The geonetworking features are only implemented into the mobile routers and access routers which are respectively referred to as OBUs and RSUs. All of these system components are independent IPv6 networks linked over the Internet. OBUs and RSUs form a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) cloud. Routing is performed using geonetworking addressing and routing. Among several options, it was concluded that IPv6's multicast capabilities would best fit the objective of combining IPv6 and geonetworking into a single communication architecture. IP multicast is used to efficiently propagate data packets to a set of recipients .The principle of IP multicast is that only one copy of a given packet is transmitted on any given link, and only to the condition that there is are known destinations reachable through this link. V. IPV6 MULTICAST

Figure 2 C2C-CC Architechture

The communication system components include the vehicle sub-system, the roadside sub-system, the central sub-system i.e in charge of providing application and network services and other functions to vehicles and the roadside and the personal subsystem i.e third parties located in the Internet communicating with ITS-dedicated components and typically belonging to the users, possibly portable and themselves brought into vehicles. IPv6 nodes located in any of these sub-systems or anywhere in the Internet and communicating end-to-end using on one hand IPv6 and on the other hand GeoNetworking capabilities. The IPv6 entities involved in GeoNet communications are: 1. IPv6 nodes located in the vehicle sub-system: the IPv6 Mobile Router (MR) and its attached IPv6 nodes (respectively, the On-Board Unit (OBU) and Application Units (AUs)); 2. IPv6 nodes located in the roadside sub-system: the IPv6 Access Router (AR) and its attached IPv6 nodes (respectively the Roadside Unit (RSU) and AUs); 3.IPv6 nodes located in the Internet: IPv6 nodes located in the central or personal sub-systems or anywhere in the Internet and corresponding with vehicles and the roadside. These typically include ITS-dedicated servers, the Home Agent,

Multicast mechanism is communication is one packet send to s set of receiver vehicle node in selected area. Source address is send to the multicast receiver known as listener .The source needed the multicast destination address so that it can send to all the receiver at a time in selected area of the source location. So multicast listener protocol Discovery protocol(MLD) used to manage the group membership on link . it provide separate behavior for multicast address i.e. host or router to multicast packet. Here we used the MLDv2 protocol ,it include the source filtering mechanism which enable router or hosts. For the geographical IPv6 multicast addressing in VANET. To analyzing the first the probability to adapt IPv4 multicast address with the target area. The lower layer manage the geographical area such as geo broadcast. The communication is done one node to all nodes in the destination area is called Geo-broadcast . The structure of the IPv6 Geo-broadcast . address in C2C network have total 128 bit long divided in to six parts

Figure 3 structure of IPv6 multicast address using C2C Geo-broadcast

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Figure 4. IPv6 multicast address for square destination In C2C NET layer, C2C NET ID represents also a location information maintained in a specific location table. For example, we can consider the following cases: • In around Geo-broadcast approach, the packet is delivered to a circular area around the source. When Radius is 1500 (0x5dc), GroupID is 1. The IPv6 multicast address could be considered as: ff00:0000:0000:0000:0000:05dc:0001 • In Area Geo-broadcast approach, the packet is delivered to the specific geographic circular area. When Radius is 1500 (0x5dc), GroupID is 1, C2C NET ID is AAAABBBBCCCCDDDD. The IPv6 multicast address of this area could be considered as: ff0e:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD:05dc:0001. Geograpical IP multicast is one of the great challenge. Multicast group is closely depend on the geographical area. Size of location is depend on the application it may be circular or square are consider.

Figure 6. IP multicast in vehicular network

Figure 5 . IPv6 multicast address for circular destination area

At the same time, car A sends the same warning message to a traffic hazard control centre. The message is forwarded by RSU1 and reaches the control center through the Internet. The control centre periodically dispatches the warning to RSUs serving the target geographic area (here only RSU2). RSU2 transmits the warning to all the cars located in the target geographic area (cars D, E, F). The road traffic hazard information (black ice) is transmitted to all the vehicles located in a target geographic area (GeoDestination). Transmission is performed immediately to the set of nearby vehicles and repetitively to all the vehicles VII. CONCLUSIUON AND FUTURE WORK

all vehicles are equipped with powerful digital maps. The information provided by the latter could be used in order to define the target area. Several works exploit this information for data forwarding and dissemination geographic area or there is no vehicle able to forward it further VI. EXAMPLE

Vehicles are expected to be able to exchange information with other vehicles as well as with the road infrastructure and Internet peers. The exchange of information with vehicles in a particular geographic area - potentially far away from the information source - requires reliable and scalable communication capabilities. To refer these capabilities as IPv6 geonetworking allows for both IPv6 and non-IPv6 communications, opening the door for new applications that require data to be transmitted to explicit geographical areas, either for infotainment or safety. In the fig:6 is simple example of the different communication mode and the destination range . Car A detects a Black Ice area ahead. It sends the warning message to all vehicles in a specified surrounding target geographic area. The message is received by car B. Car B forwards in turn the warning to car C, and so on, until the message reaches the boundary of the specified target

to analyze the possibility to perform IPv6 multicast for VANET by considering the availability of geographical information and digital maps. One of the main contributions of this paper is the definition of new address format in order to encode geographical and analysis the possibility to integrate the digital maps information into IPv6 address. In addition to IPv6 multicast addressing format, two operational multicast solutions, which could be adapted to VANET are presente forwarding proxy and static multicast routing. To shows that
how to enable IPv6 networking over C2CNet which is specified in Car2Car Communication Consortium as a geographic routing protocol. Then the system is divided into three functionalities and implemented as three modules in Java. In future Dynamically

locate necessary services. REFERENCES

[1] Manabu Tsukada, Ines Ben Jemaa, neddon, “Experimental valuation for IPv6 over VANET Geographic routing,” WCMC ’10, June 28 - July 2, 2010, Caen, France [2] Prof. Uma Nagaraj,Ms. Deesha Deotale “study of Communication using IPv6 inVANET” International journal IJCSCN vol1(3).

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[3] Yacine Khaled, Ines Ben Jemaa, Manabu Tsukada and Thierry Ernst “Application of IPv6 multicast to VANET” 2009 IEEE [4] JinHyeock Choi, Yacine Khaled, Manabu Tsukada and Thierry Ernst ”IPv6 support for VANET with geographical routing” 2008 IEEE [5] B. Haberman and D. Thaler. Unicast-prefix-based ipv6 multicast addresses. Rfc, IETF, 2002. [6] Geonet project: http://www.geonet-project.eu. [7] T. Hain. An ipv6 geographic global unicast address format. Internet-draft, IETF, 2008. [8] Manabu Tsukada, Ines Ben Jemaa”experimental evaluation for IPv6 over VANET Geographic routing [9] Satoru Noguchi, Manabu Tsukada”Real-vehical integration of driver support application with IPv6 GeoNetworking [10] Easy cast du multi hub: ttp://unfix.org/projects/ecmh/. [11] Mcfirst: www.venaas.no/multicast/ssmping/. [12] T. Ernst. The Information Technology Era of the Vehicular Industry. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (CCR), Volume 36(Issue 2),April 2006. [13] Car-to-car communication consortium: http://www.car-to-car.org.

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