About C-MOLD Releases

The C-MOLD 98.7 general release, first shipped to customers in May 1998.

C-MOLD Incremental Release Notes:
• • • • • • • • •

C-MOLD 98.12 C-MOLD 98.11 C-MOLD 98.10 C-MOLD 98.9 C-MOLD 98.6 C-MOLD 98.5 C-MOLD 98.4 C-MOLD 98.3 C-MOLD 98.2

The C-MOLD 98.1 general release, first shipped to customers in November 1997.

The previous general release, C-MOLD 97.7, shipped to customers in May 1997.

C-MOLD 98.7 Release Notes
The 98.7 release of C-MOLD is a general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements. These notes describe what is new since the 98.1 general release in November 1997.

Contents
  Introduction Running C-MOLD  Keyfiles  Supported platforms  Installation procedure  For UNIX machine  For Windows NT 4.0 and 95 machines  Enhancements  Support for Exceed 6 added  X11 R6 run-time environment software required  Problems fixed  C-MOLD License Manager can be installed as a service C-MOLD Filling & Post-Filling  Enhancements  Negative coefficient of thermal expansion for fiber-filled materials allowed  Clamp-force calculation modified in cases where incompressible material model is specified  Problems fixed  Improved handling of cases where the input melt temperature is less than the transition temperature C-MOLD Filling/EZ  Enhancements  11 recommended ram-speed profile settings output C-MOLD Gas-Assisted Injection Molding  Enhancements  Improved handling of cases when the pre-set post-filling time is exceeded C-MOLD Cooling  Enhancements  No more overlapping cooling-channel elements  Reduced CPU time required C-MOLD Coolant Flow  Enhancements  Improved output format of the pressure drop in a cooling manifold  Problems fixed  Incorrect display of coolant flow rate when a pressure drop is specified for a cooling manifold C-MOLD Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage  Enhancements  Layer-based Residual Stress coupled with Fiber Orientation calculation

 Fiber-orientation effect display available Material database changes  Resin database  Mold material database Known problems in this release  Windows stacking out of order

Introduction
In addition to twice-yearly general releases, our monthly incremental releases provide for timely problem corrections and the implementation of new features. When applicable, the incremental release version of a fix or enhancement is noted in the monthly summaries. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release, contact your local CMOLD office. The C-MOLD Web site is also a good place to look for the latest information about our products. Most of the improvements in C-MOLD 98.7 relate to Shrinkage & Warpage simulation. The incremental enhancements introduced over the past two years are part of a long-term vision that is now coming to fruition with the release of C-MOLD 98.7. Major developments in C-MOLD 98.7 include the ability to incorporate "fast-cooling" pvT properties for semi-crystalline materials and the ability to couple layer-based residual stress with orientation-induced thermo-mechanical properties for fiber-filled materials. Table 1 lists the enhancements to and problems fixed in this latest general release of CMOLD, and gives the incremental version of the software in which the change was introduced. TABLE 1. Summary of changes to C-MOLD products in release 98.7. C-MOLD product C-MOLD on Windows NT and Windows 95 computers C-MOLD interactive modules on HP computers C-MOLD License Manager on Windows NT computers C-MOLD Filling & PostFilling Enhancement/problem fixed Support for Exceed 6 added X11 R6 run-time environment software required C-MOLD License Manager can be installed as a service Negative coefficient of thermal expansion for fiber-filled materials allowed Clamp-force calculation modified in cases where incompressible material model is specified Improved handling of cases where the input Introduced in release 98.2 98.5 98.7 98.3 98.4

98.4

If using your existing keyfile with the 98.6 98. please call your local C-MOLD office.7 or higher version.7 Running C-MOLD Keyfiles As long as your Support & Update agreement is current and you are updating from a 96.5 98. To run version 98.C-MOLD Filling/EZ C-MOLD Gas-Assisted Injection Molding C-MOLD Cooling C-MOLD Coolant Flow C-MOLD Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage melt temperature is less than the transition temperature 11 recommended ram-speed profile settings output Improved handling of cases when the preset post-filling time is exceeded No more overlapping cooling-channel elements Reduced CPU time required Improved output format of the pressure drop in a cooling manifold Incorrect display of coolant flow rate when a pressure drop is specified for a cooling manifold is fixed Layer-based Residual Stress coupled with Fiber Orientation calculation Fiber orientation effect display available 98. If you are updating directly to the 98. You can check your C-MOLD license key for the recorded Support & Update expiration date.7.4 98.7 release from a version of C-MOLD earlier than 96.5 98. contact your local C-MOLD office to obtain your new keyfile. . your existing keyfile will enable this release. If you have a question about your Support & Update agreement.7 98.7 release results in an Inconsistent encryption code error.5 98. this date must be after 03/31/98.3 98. you will need a new keyfile.7. Find the line with the key for C-MOLD that looks like this: 2eac 4f4a 8ah6 8d74 23d6 28gf d373 6k93 cmold NO EXPIRY 12/01/96 15users The date in mm/dd/yy format is your Support & Update expiration date.

7.0 HP-UX 10.0 . below.7 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens. Hardware platform and operating system configurations supported by CMOLD 98. Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems.0 IRIX 5.20 AIX 4. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory.0 Windows NT 4. Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4.3 IRIX 6. TABLE 2. If you run into problems installing the new release.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4.5 (SunOS 5.2 Solaris 2. Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set. Digital UNIX v4. It is distributed in hard copy form with this CMOLD 98. For UNIX machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • DEC Alpha AXP.5) Installation procedure This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms. consult your system administrator.Supported platforms The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in Table 2.

AIX 4. Solaris 2. 2 For all but SGI computers.2 Sun SPARC.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD./INSTALL. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration.• • • • • HP 9000. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. or Pentium Pro. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir. and follow the on-screen instructions.0 DEC Alpha AXP NT.5 (SunOS 5. type mkdir cdrom_dir.3 SGI (MIPS IV). Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • • • PC 486.\. HP: type . Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir 5 For all but HP computers. (where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) . where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. IRIX 6.20 IBM./install. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro. HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir.5) SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode.2 SGI (MIPS I). Pentium. type . Windows NT 4. Windows NT 4. IRIX 5. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. HP-UX 10.1 For Windows NT 4. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom.

C-MOLD supports Exceed 6. Contact your local C-MOLD office for information about obtaining the patch if you are running an earlier version of C-MOLD and Exceed 6.2. Before you can install the C-MOLD License Manager as a service.5 required R4 or R5. 2. in a DOS window. is the actual license manager. cmoldlmd. You can also run cmoldlmd in the foreground. 4. the C-MOLD License Manager can now be installed as a service. cmlmdsrv.) .2 Run setup. 3. you must obtain and install your keyfile. The second. It is much easier to resolve any key or license manager problems this way. Problems fixed C-MOLD License Manager can be installed as a service On Windows NT computers. Install the keyfile Make sure cmoldlmd works in a DOS window Install the service Start the service The C-MOLD License Manager service consists of two parts.exe. 5. Installing the C-MOLD License Manager as a Windows NT service Summary: 1. (Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for details about how to do this. X11 R6 run-time environment software required On HP computers. allowing it to run in the background. Enhancements Support for Exceed 6 added On Windows NT and Windows 95 computers. Changes in the location of locale information between Exceed 5 and 6 require a patch for versions of C-MOLD earlier than 98.exe. The first. interacts with Windows NT to run cmoldlmd in the background. Versions earlier than C-MOLD 98. C-MOLD interactive modules now require X11 R6 run-time environment software.exe.

Run bin\cmoldlmd -cmold If the license manager starts correctly. Remember that it is much easier to troubleshoot in a DOS window. When cmoldlmd runs as a service. Change (cd) to the directory where C-MOLD is installed c. refer to the PC troubleshooting guide in Appendix C of the System Administrator Guide. Run cmlmdsrv -install 8. Open a DOS window b. C-MOLD Filling & Post-Filling . Once cmoldlmd runs successfully in a DOS window. start cmoldlmd in a DOS window to make sure that it can run correctly and there are no problems with the keyfile: a. all output is directed to a log file. Once you have installed your keyfile.log. 7. If not.6. you are ready to install it as a service: a. proceed to the next step. or you can start it manually now: a. Open the Windows Control Panel b. Select the C-MOLD License Manager from the list of services d. It will start automaticaly the next time the the system is rebooted. The C-MOLD License Manager is now installed as a service. Change (cd) to the directory where C-MOLD is installed c. Open the Services icon c. it means that cmoldlmd did not start correctly. Change (cd) to the directory where C-MOLD is installed 11. refer to the PC troubleshooting guide in Appendix C of the System Administrator Guide. Run bin\cmlmdsrv -remove Troubleshooting o Service Specific Error 0 IfService Specific Error 0 occurs while starting the service. Open a DOS window 10. located in the C-MOLD\bin directory. If cmoldlmd does not start. Open a DOS window b. Removing the service You must remove the service before you can successfully uninstall C-MOLD: 9. cmlmdsrv. This file can be checked for an indication of what the problem is. Click the START button.

the incompressible material assumption would cause the entrance pressure to be propagated throughout the cavity. resulting in a molded part with fewer molded-in stresses. if you had specified two settings in the process . If the input melt temperature is less than b5 of the pvT model. Using the recommended ram-speed profile will keep melt-front speeds more uniform. allowance for negative values of coefficient of thermal expansion for fiber-filled materials has been added. a warning message is issued. Clamp-force calculation modified in cases where incompressible material model is specified If an incompressible material model is specified. and execution stops. Previously. and the program continues to calculate. or the processing conditions. Note that normally. Problems fixed Improved handling of cases where the input melt temperature is less than the transition temperature If the input melt temperature is less than the material's transition temperature. the clamp-force prediction at the end of filling has been modified to calculate using the final pressure distribution at the instant before complete fill. pvT data is used. otherwise. C-MOLD Filling/EZ Enhancements 11 recommended ram-speed profile settings output A recommended ram-speed profile is one of the outputs from C-MOLD Filling/EZ.Enhancements Negative coefficient of thermal expansion for fiber-filled materials allowed In response to a user request. and polymer compressibility is accounted for in the material model. Ram-speed profile settings are output for the number of settings specified in the process conditions file. using a melt temperature near the transition temperature or b5 does not match the physical processing conditions and indicates either a problem in the material selection or data. Note that normally. You can force the program to use an incompressible material model by manually adjusting the material input file. This reduces the predicted clamp force to a reasonable value. error message 99621 is displayed.

5 and later releases). In the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling (98. . the program has been changed to output 11 settings. only two suggested settings would be output. because the temperature and heat flux calculations could not vary continuously along the disconnected channel elements. This provides melt-front advancement information for review up to the time the short shot occurs. as shown in Figure 1. the channel elements were treated as disconnected.conditions file. C-MOLD Cooling Enhancements No more overlapping cooling channel elements. and the accuracy of simulation is improved. for example at 0% of stroke and 100% of stroke. it is possible for the channel elements to overlap in the model of the cooling system. however. This treatment. Thus all physical parameters can vary continuously along the cooling channels (see Figure 2). and related elements were shortened or ignored to minimize the effect of the overlap. even if only two settings are specified in the process conditions file. This overlap may cause problems in the numerical simulation. In response to a user request. in previous versions of CMOLD Cooling. also introduced some error in the solution. To overcome such problems. C-MOLD Gas Assisted Injection Molding Enhancements Improved handling of cases when the pre-set post-filling time is exceeded When the pre-set post-filling time is exceeded. When a bend occurs in a cooling channel. output follows the normal short-shot procedure instead of stopping immediately. a new model is used to deal with cooling channel elements. and it is no longer necessary to disconnect the channel elements to avoid overlap.

Improved cooling channel efficiency results from the enhanced CMOLD Cooling (version 98. The disconnected elements and the discontinuous results at the bends in the channel are easily seen. Reduced CPU time required.Figure 1. the Gauss-Seidel solver. it is very time-consuming to solve this system of equations directly. which is used as the starting point for the iterations. which is the accuracy of the solution. This indirect method checked the change in the solution value from one iteration to the next.5 and later). A new initial solution and a new solver are employed. the solution was assumed to be converged. for example. and if the change was less than the convergence criterion. In the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling. instead. In the . Cooling channel efficiency results from the old C-MOLD Cooling. A solution is considered to be converged when the residual is small enough. and so on. The boundary element method (BEM) is used in mold-cooling simulation. In older versions of C-MOLD Cooling. which relies on a system of equations. was used as the convergence parameter. Solver: this refers to the specific iterative technique that is used. an iterative solution method is used. The results are continuous along the entire length of the channel. Convergence criterion: this specifies the acceptable level of approximation allowed between iterations in solving the system of equations. In an iterative method. CG solver. which make the enhanced CMOLD Cooling run much faster than older versions. In a matrix equation [A][x]=[b]. Since the related matrix is full and very large. Sometimes this indirect method failed to reflect the real convergence approximation. a new convergence criterion is used. The solver determines the convergence rate of the solution. the residual is defined as [R]=[A][x]-[b]. other than the residual. How good the assumption is (how close the assumed value is to the real value) directly affects the running time required to complete the simulation. In addition. an indirect method. • Figure 2. there are three key factors: o o o Initial solution: this is an assumption of the value of the real solution. all of these key factors have been changed.

C-MOLD Coolant Flow .enhanced C-MOLD Cooling.49. While the old C-MOLD Cooling also gives the residual. compare the residuals.14 .35 8. and in addition. above) Old C-MOLD Cooling (98.4129E+00 % 9. it is possible that the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling (version 98. The result with the smallest residual value is the more accurate solution.8376E-05 27. It can also be seen that in the old C-MOLD Cooling. compare these results of the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling and the older version when the simulation is run on a simple rectangular plate with the convergence criterion specified as 0.21.75 8. these values are the same.49 29.04 . so the convergence parameter becomes a true measure of the solution accuracy. The enhanced C-MOLD Cooling uses the residual as the convergence parameter. it is not used as the convergence parameter.5 and later) first iteration convergence parameter last iteration convergence parameter number of iterations residual after last iteration mold wall temperature range temperature difference range 1.51. For example. the residual after the last iteration is much larger than the convergence parameter in the last iteration.5 and later) and older versions would result in different solutions.4 and earlier) 3.0136E-04 % 6 7. since the storage of BEM elements has been improved.9572E-04 % 35 2. Impact on solution accuracy In some cases. in the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling.001: Enhanced C-MOLD Cooling (98. it has become possible to use the residual directly as the convergence parameter.22.05 . However. the results of the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling are often more accurate as well.25 .0136E-06 (same as last iteration convergence parameter. To determine which is the more accurate solution. Using the enhanced CMOLD Cooling will always require fewer iterations to reach the solution than were required with the old version.1618E-01 % 7. which eliminates a source of error that occurred in the older version.93 This example clearly shows us why the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling runs faster.

an abrupt change of pressure at the entrance node should be seen in the graphical display. In other words. after the code change. Therefore. however. the pressure drop of entering flow and returning flow is still displayed on the element(s) from the entrance node to the free-end node. Model representation of baffle or bubbler. . In modeling. Figure 3. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the displays of coolant pressure before and after the code change. the pressure is discontinuous at the two sides of the baffle plate or bubbler plate. In the baffle or bubbler. and the other for the free end where the coolant changes direction (see Figure 3-29 and Figure 3-30 in the C-MOLD Modeler & Visualizer User's Guide for additional details). respectively. This change has no effects on results of C-MOLD Cooling simulation. the coolant pressure at the free-end node should be the same as the coolant pressure at the entrance node from the exit side of the baffle or bubbler. The change will affect the display of coolant pressure drop only at junctions of regular cooling channels with baffles or bubblers. a baffle or bubbler is defined by at least two nodes: one for the coolant entrance. It is obvious that at the entrance node.Enhancements Improved output format of the pressure drop in a cooling manifold The output format of pressure drop in cooling manifold has been changed.

Figure 4. (Click to zoom in.) Coolant Figure 5. (Click to zoom in.) Improved pressure display before the code change. coolant pressure display after the code change.

Problems fixed

Incorrect display of coolant flow rate when a pressure drop is specified for a cooling manifold
If a pressure drop was specified for a cooling manifold, the coolant flow rate given in the text report would be zero. The calculations in the Coolant Flow and subsequent Cooling simulations were still correct, except the values were incorrectly reported. This problem has been fixed.

C-MOLD Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage
Enhancements

Layer-based Residual Stress coupled with Fiber Orientation calculation What is new
o

o

o o o

The Fiber Orientation option for Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage simulation gives improved deformation results compared to previous versions, because the residual-stress and thermo-mechanical properties calculations have been coupled with the fiber-orientation calculation. The interface between C-MOLD Residual Stress and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage is now layer-based, which is different from the equivalent loadings used by previous versions. The number of layers used for the Residual Stress calculation is the same as the number of layers specified for Filling & Post-Filling simulation. The molded-in residual stress after part ejection is now an optional output as requested by users, instead of in-cavity residual stress. C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory now provides fast-cooling pvT testing for semi-crystalline materials. Shrinkage & Warpage predictions can be improved to within 10% accuracy by using the fast-cooling pvT data.

Terminology
What is in-cavity residual stress? The in-cavity residual stress refers to the internal stress accumulated during the solidification of the part inside the cavity until the temperature and pressure within the cavity drop to ambient conditions. This in-cavity residual stress is the driving force of part shrinkage and warpage after ejection. It is calculated by C-MOLD Residual Stress and stored in the interface file to C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage (filename.ppt). In-cavity residual stress cannot be measured on a molded part because of the stress relaxation that occurs after ejection. What is molded-in residual stress? After part ejection, the constraints from the mold cavity are released, and the part is free to shrink and deform. After it settles to an equilibrium shape, the remaining stress inside the part is called molded-in residual stress, or simply, residual stress. The difference between in-cavity residual stress and molded-in residual stress is whether or not the constraints imposed by the cavity on the part have been released. Molded-in residual stress can be measured on a molded part. This release of CMOLD includes the option to output the molded-in residual stress. Why Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage? The predicted final deformation of a part after ejection is what a user expects a simulation to produce. The intermediate, in-cavity residual stress has no practical application for users, and therefore, it is no longer included in the C-MOLD output file. C-MOLD Residual Stress and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage are now tightly integrated with layer-based residual stress and mechanical properties calculations; this feature is not provided with interfaces to other, general-purpose structural analysis programs. Why fast-cooling pvT data? The physical properties of semi-crystalline materials (such as PET, PBT, Nylon, etc.) depend on the degree of crystallinity. During the injection molding process, the material's crystallinity depends on several processing parameters, especially on the cooling rate. Conventional pvT testing is based on measurements at equilibrium or at a very slow cooling rate. The pvT behavior of semi-crystalline materials can be quite different under a fast cooling rate, therefore resulting in different amounts of shrinkage. C-MOLD recently developed a technique to measure and predict pvT under the fast-cooling conditions similar to an injection molding process. It has been verified by the Polymers Department of the GM Research and Development Center (under the NIST-sponsored TED venture) that using fast-cooling pvT data in the simulation can improve the shrinkage prediction to within 10% of measured values for semi-crystalline materials. C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory offers the fast-

cooling pvT material testing service. Check with your resin suppliers or C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory for details.

Residual Stress and thermo-mechanical properties calculations coupled with Fiber Orientation calculation
Previous versions of C-MOLD used the thermo-mechanical properties in the flow and transverse directions for the Shrinkage & Warpage calculations. In cases where the material is fiber-reinforced, the local thermo-mechanical properties would depend on the fiber orientation. This new version of C-MOLD calculates the local thermo-mechanical properties based on predicted fiber orientation, and the local residual stress corresponds to the local thermo-mechanical properties. For fiber-reinforced materials, the Shrinkage & Warpage predictions are now based on the residual stress and thermo-mechanical properties coupled with the predicted fiber orientation. Users can add a service-loading simulation after the residual-stress calculation in order to predict part performance under service. The influence of fiber orientation and molded-in residual stress can be considered in the structural design of plastic parts.

Layer-Based Information vs. Equivalent Loadings
In previous versions of C-MOLD Residual Stress, equivalent loadings were output to the interface file and used for Shrinkage & Warpage calculation. Equivalent loadings were calculated for each node and element based on the in-cavity residual stress that was distributed through the thickness. Such equivalent loadings are self-balanced before part deformation, but can become unbalanced after large deformation, resulting in a rigid-body motion to the Shrinkage & Warpage prediction. After introducing the geometric non-linear analysis in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage, it became possible to calculate large deformations. When this happens, the originally balanced equivalent loadings may become unbalanced. It is not possible to perform a geometric non-linear Shrinkage & Warpage simulation with equivalent loadings based on in-cavity residual stress. The in-cavity residual stress should be used directly, because it is always self-balanced, no matter how the part is deformed. In-cavity residual stress now is used directly for Shrinkage & Warpage prediction. In-cavity residual stress is predicted for each layer of each element.

o T-CODE 00614 and T-CODE 00615 have been added to the parameter file (filename. there is almost no change in how to prepare for and launch the Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage simulation. now. The layer-based information is stored in filename. This assumption is no longer valid for fiber-filled composites. From the user's point of view. layer-based thermo-mechanical properties are calculated for each layer of each element and used for Shrinkage & Warpage calculation. How to Use the New Features All of these improvements were internal to the C-MOLD modules. 00614 NONE NONE 0-4 0 no molded-in stress output 1 for Principal Residual Stress (Molded-in) 2 3 4 for option 1 plus Max Shear Stress for option 1 plus Mises-Hencky Stress for all the stress outputs T-CODE# Equation: Units: Range: Default Value: Option output Option Option Option T-CODE# Equation: Units: 00615 NONE NONE Range: 0-4 Default Value: 0 no stress output for service loading and combined with service loading Option 1 for Principal Residual Stress (service) and (molded-in + service) output Option 2 for option 1 plus Max Shear Stress . a part was assumed homogeneous. These TCODEs are used by C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage module only.ppt and used as input to the final Shrinkage & Warpage simulation.par) to control the various layer-based stress outputs. TCODE 00615 is used only when service loadings are defined. Most of these stresses are useful only to analysts. The amount of data can be large because stress data is stored for each layer of each element. which means that thermo-mechanical properties (isotropic or transversely isotropic) were assumed to be uniformly distributed.In previous versions of C-MOLD Residual Stress.

Data has been generated for only a few resins so far. In the output file. one more set of displacement data is produced for visualization. The fiber-orientation effect is defined as the difference between the following two displacement solutions: o o Final displacement solution due to all causes. randomly distributed fibers would be the total displacement.ppt.ow3. Contact your resin suppliers or C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory for information about acquiring this data and requesting testing services. Users do not need to change any inputs to invoke the calculation of fiberorientation effect.ppt. filename.Option Option 3 4 for option 1 plus Mises-Hencky Stress for all the stress outputs o o o The layer-based. However. Due to the limited number of resins tested. because they are mutually dependent. This functionality is available automatically when a fiber-filled composite material is chosen and CMOLD Fiber Orientation is run as part of the Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage simulation. from the definition of the dataset. the fiber-orientation effect is automatically calculated. which is in CMOLD output file format. When Fiber Orientation is chosen for the Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage simulation. Fiber-orientation effect display available Fiber-orientation effect now is produced as a reference to help users identify how much fiber orientation will influence the final part deformation. in-cavity residual stresses and/or thermo-mechanical properties are stored in an ASCII interface file. All the T-CODE's used for geometric non-linear calculations in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage are still effective. the fast cooling pvT data is not included in the C-MOLD Resin Database. at this time. filename. In the interface file. a scalar set of two- . and Displacement solution due to assuming randomly distributed fibers in the planar directions and uniformly distributed fibers through the thickness Unlike the previously available non-uniform shrinkage and unbalanced cooling causes of displacement. filename. To get fast-cooling pvT data requires additional material testing and data reduction. the displacement due to the fiber-orientation effect cannot be added into the total displacement with the other two. it can readily be seen that the sum of the displacement due to the fiber-orientation effect and the displacement due to assuming two-dimensional. Translation from this file to an equivalent input file to any other structural analysis package capable of doing layer-based shell analysis is possible by anyone who knows both file formats.

724 resins with viscosity data sufficient for C-MOLD Filling simulation. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog.7 Resin Database has grown to a total of 4.1 general release are detailed in the appendix. Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available. Mold material database The thermal conductivity value for Aluminum has been corrected. Changes to the C-MOLD Resin Database since the 98. However. 371 include juncture-loss data. The new value given is 220 W/m°K. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. randomly distributed fiber-filled composite properties is produced in the beginning. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. Of these 957 resins include pvT data. and one more in-cavity residual stress value is produced for each layer of each element. Material database changes Resin database The C-MOLD 98.1. the displacement due to the fiber-orientation effect is of the same order of magnitude as that of the displacement due to non-uniform shrinkage. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog.dimensional. Known problems in this release Windows stacking out of order On Windows and using Exceed 5. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. . and 206 include mechanical properties data. 426 new resins have been added to the database.1. your selection. Run as Batch. Since the previous general release. Normally. In order to save the design. or Cancel will be processed. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. Users then can select Displacement (randomly oriented fibers) or X(Y. The fiber-orientation effect can be viewed by using C-MOLD Visualizer after Shrinkage & Warpage results have been loaded selected. either Run Now. Z)-displacement (randomly oriented fibers) from the list of available datasets to display the result.

You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory.3 IRIX 6. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.12 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. Supported platforms. These notes describe what is new in this release.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4. .5 (SunOS 5. If you run into problems installing the new release. The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below. contact your local C-MOLD office.12 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release.5) Installation procedure.20 AIX 4. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in May 1998.12 incremental release.0 Windows NT 4.C-MOLD 98. consult your system administrator.0 IRIX 5.0 HP-UX 10. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486. Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4. The 98.2 Solaris 2. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process.

HP-UX 10. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. 2 For all but SGI computers.20 IBM. AIX 4. IRIX 5.5 (SunOS 5. It was distributed in hard copy form with the CMOLD 98. type mkdir cdrom_dir. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive.2 SGI (MIPS I). IRIX 6.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: .2 Sun SPARC.3 SGI (MIPS IV). Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir 5 For all but HP computers./install. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions. HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. Solaris 2. type . HP: type .\. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. For UNIX machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • • • • • • DEC Alpha AXP. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir.1 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens./INSTALL. and follow the on-screen instructions. Digital UNIX v4. Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set.5) SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode.0 HP 9000.1 For Windows NT 4.Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems.

The heat load from the Filling & Post-Filling simulation is used as a boundary condition for the Cooling simulation. mold materials. Pentium. For the thermoplastic injection molding process. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro.• • • PC 486.exe. . and this output was interfaced to the Cooling simulation. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. the effect of the heat load on the mold is greater under the new configuration. or Pentium Pro. Enhancements introduced in this release. C-MOLD Control Panel For the regular thermoplastic injection molding and gas-assisted injection molding processes. the Productivity Solution Integrated Filling and Cooling selection performs a Filling & Post-Filling simulation and then performs a Cooling simulation.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. Windows NT 4. only a Filling simulation was performed. TCODEs have been added to the material and process templates for specifying coolant. Previously. (where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) 2 Run setup. Windows NT 4. Since the post-filling time is longer than the filling time. and additional processing parameters associated with the capability to run Productivity and Performance Solution simulations. the following obsolete TCODEs have been removed from the parameter file templates: TCODE # Description 300 Pressure convergence criterion 301 Flow-rate convergence criterion 400 Max # of pressure iterations 401 Max # of flow-rate iterations 522 Age of mold (COOL) For the gas-assisted injection molding process.0 DEC Alpha AXP NT. which improves the accuracy of the resulting integrated solution.

ANSYS to C-MOLD mesh translator The ANSYS to C-MOLD mesh translator executable image name changed from ansys to ans2cm.com/cm_info/solutions.00001 Max # of cooling iterations 10 In most cases. a problem occurred that caused discrepancies in results for some cases. For example. A partial workaround exists for C-MOLD Cooling 98. Although both objectives were achieved. compared to results from previous versions of the software.7 general release (refer to the C-MOLD 98. before the solution was converged. It was observed in some cases that the resulting mold-wall temperature was unreasonably uniform and the temperature difference was too small.html) for information about product prerequisites. C-MOLD Cooling Premature exit and non-converged solutions Significant changes to C-MOLD Cooling simulation were introduced in the CMOLD 98. If you access the mesh translator from the graphical user interface in C-MOLD Control Panel or C-MOLD Modeler. you will see no difference. using the workaround should cause the simulation to continue the iterations until the maximum number is reached. Refer to the C-MOLD product descriptions on our Web site (http://www. the C-MOLD Gas-Assisted Injection Molding module requires CMOLD Filling & Post-Filling.C-MOLD License Manager C-MOLD License Manager now checks license dependencies when a C-MOLD module is launched. and the C-MOLD Microchip Encapsulation module requires C-MOLD Reactive Molding and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage.cmold. . These changes were introduced to remove the limitation of cooling-channel overlap at bends and to reduce the computation time required.7 users: simply set the Max # of iterations to a desired number and and reduce the Mold temp convergence criterion to a very small value. The License Manager now checks that each prerequisite license is available. For example: 313 413 1 1 Mold temp convergence criterion 0. The program could exit from the iterations prematurely. both of which are due to insufficient iterations of the solution. Only if you run the translator from the command line or from some custombuilt scripts will you need to take into account the new name.7 Release Notes for details). Problems fixed in this release. This removes a possible conflict that could arise from having the same executable name used by both ANSYS and C-MOLD.

C-MOLD Cooling 98. either Run . 3.1.12 results in a more accurate cooling solution. However. In contrast. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. The C-MOLD Cooling 98. in C-MOLD Cooling 98. Interface file changed The interface file from C-MOLD Filling & Post-Filling to C-MOLD Cooling.7 general release). your selection. 2.1 simulation for the same converged solution.1. In order to save the design. the channel element length had to be approximately 3 to 5 times the diameter to avoid overlap problems at bends. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. Note that for a successful C-MOLD Cooling simulation of a gas-assist part. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. For example. The new interface file enables C-MOLD Cooling to be integrated with C-MOLD GasAssisted Injection Molding to implement the new Productivity Solution and Performance Solution capabilities for the gas-assisted injection molding process. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog.12 (or later versions). baffles and bubblers to the same global mesh size used by runners and triangular elements. Known problems in this release.12 Cooling simulation is considerably faster than the 98. is replaced in C-MOLD 98.12 incremental release.12 results are comparable to results of C-MOLD Cooling 98.7 simulation should upgrade to C-MOLD 98.PFC. The smaller channel element size possible in C-MOLD Cooling 98. especially when the cooling channel is very close to the mold wall. Users who experience problems with C-MOLD Cooling 98. Users now should set the mesh size of regular channels. now it is possible to predict the warpage of gas-assist parts due to mold-wall temperature differences. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. formerly filename. connectors cannot be used when modeling the gas channels.12 by filename.12 on all of the cases where problems with the 98.12: 1.12 simulation now is integrated with C-MOLD Gas-Assisted Injection Molding to provide Productivity Solution and Performance Solution capabilities. On Windows and using Exceed 5.This premature exit and some other minor problems have been identified and fixed in the C-MOLD 98. We have tested C-MOLD Cooling 98. C-MOLD Cooling does not handle connector elements between 1D (part runner) elements and triangular elements in the part mesh. Summary of benefits of C-MOLD Cooling 98.PPC. The C-MOLD Cooling 98.7 release were reported. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. Cooling-channel element size is no longer limited.1 (before the changes introduced in the 98. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design.1.

Run as Batch. Web Path Name: /C-MOLD_develop/del/v9812. All Rights Reserved. Inc. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available. Resin database changes.11 incremental release are detailed in the appendix. or Cancel will be processed. Changes to the C-MOLD Resin Database since the 98. Copyright 1998 Advanced CAE Technology.html Security Classification: proprietary .Now.

The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below.0 IRIX 5. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. contact your local C-MOLD office. .0 HP-UX 10. The 98.3 IRIX 6. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486. consult your system administrator.20 AIX 4. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. Supported platforms.11 incremental release.5 (SunOS 5.5) Installation procedure. If you run into problems installing the new release. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in May 1998. These notes describe what is new in this release. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4.C-MOLD 98.11 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release.0 Windows NT 4.2 Solaris 2.11 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4.

type . where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. IRIX 6. HP: type .20 IBM.Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. Digital UNIX v4.1 For Windows NT 4. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. 2 For all but SGI computers. HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. For UNIX machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • • • • • • DEC Alpha AXP. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir.2 Sun SPARC./install. type mkdir cdrom_dir.3 SGI (MIPS IV). and follow the on-screen instructions.\. It was distributed in hard copy form with the CMOLD 98. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. Solaris 2.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: . IRIX 5.0 HP 9000.1 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive./INSTALL. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.5 (SunOS 5. AIX 4.2 SGI (MIPS I). Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set. HP-UX 10. Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir 5 For all but HP computers.5) SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode.

(where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) 2 Run setup. Pentium. Performance Solution capability is extended to the gas-assisted injection molding process. This test version of the new functionality enables simulation of mold filling through shrinkage and warpage for gas-assist applications. C-MOLD plans to extend Performance Solution capability to other molding processes in future releases. type cwarp98 to run C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage.• • • PC 486. users must access the new capability through the command line interface. which define the upper and lower resin-gas interface locations.exe.) Extending the Performance Solution capability to gas-assist applications is possible because of the layerbased residual stress calculation introduced in the 98. Windows NT 4.10 and later incremental releases. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. After it finishes successfully. Beta Test of Gas-Assisted Injection Molding Performance Solution In this C-MOLD 98.0 DEC Alpha AXP NT. or Pentium Pro. Problems fixed in this release. C-MOLD Fiber Orientation . Among other changes.7 that could produce inconsistent results when the temperature difference between consecutive time steps is very small has been corrected in the C-MOLD 98. Customers with current Support & Update Service who license a Performance Solution package for injection molding and C-MOLD Gas-Assisted Injection Molding can test the new capability included in this release. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro. In this test version. Type cgas3w to run the enhanced GasAssisted Injection Molding simulation.11 incremental release. Windows NT 4. users will notice two new data sets are available.5 incremental release and distributed to all users with current Support & Update Service in the 98.7 general release (May 1998). (C-MOLD Performance Solution packages are available commercially for traditional injection molding and injection/compression molding. Enhancements introduced in this release.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage A problem in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage 98.

All data provided in the standard C-MOLD Database was unaffected.1. Run as Batch.2 version of C-MOLD.2.2.9 incremental release are detailed in the appendix. or Cancel will be processed. C-MOLD was built with AIX 3.1. Changes to the C-MOLD Resin Database since the C-MOLD 98. either Run Now.2 or higher is required to run C-MOLD on SGI MIPS IV computers.fit files has been corrected. In order to save the design. your selection.5 compilers and libraries. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. only the most recently customerentered flow data would be accessible. 64-bit IRIX 6. Known problems in this release. Resin database changes.5 release. . the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. Previously. These have been consolidated to a single warning message which indicates the labels of the non-converged elements. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. Customers running earlier versions of AIX will need to upgrade their operating system level. Previously.Previously. Previously. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. C-MOLD License Manager on SGI MIPS IV computers: A problem that prevented C-MOLD applications from connecting to the License Manager has been corrected. Our stated operating system requirement for C-MOLD remains at AIX 4.1. the workaround was to run the IRIX 5. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available. On Windows and using Exceed 5. Process Estimator on Windows 95/NT computers: A problem that occurred when adding multiple materials to the thermoplastic resin data via . The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. However. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. Note that with this problem correction. C-MOLD Fiber Orientation generated many non-convergence warning messages. C-MOLD on IBM computers: C-MOLD for IBM computers now is built with compilers and libraries included with the AIX 4.

Copyright 1998 Advanced CAE Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Web Path Name: /C-MOLD_develop/del/v9811.html Security Classification: proprietary

C-MOLD 98.10 Release Notes
The C-MOLD 98.10 incremental release.
The 98.10 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in May 1998. These notes describe what is new in this release. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release, contact your local C-MOLD office.

Supported platforms.
The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486, Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4.0 Windows NT 4.0 HP-UX 10.20 AIX 4.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4.0 IRIX 5.3 IRIX 6.2 Solaris 2.5 (SunOS 5.5)

Installation procedure.
This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory. If you run into problems installing the new release, consult your system administrator.

Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. It was distributed in hard copy form with the CMOLD 98.1 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens. Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set.

For UNIX machines
Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms:
• • • • • •

DEC Alpha AXP, Digital UNIX v4.0 HP 9000, HP-UX 10.20 IBM, AIX 4.2 SGI (MIPS I), IRIX 5.3 SGI (MIPS IV), IRIX 6.2 Sun SPARC, Solaris 2.5 (SunOS 5.5)

SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. 2 For all but SGI computers, type mkdir cdrom_dir, where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir, where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir, where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions. Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir 5 For all but HP computers, type ./install, and follow the on-screen instructions. HP: type ./INSTALL.\;1

For Windows NT 4.0 and 95 machines
Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms:

In C-MOLD Fiber Orientation on HP computers: A problem that caused non-convergence of the fiber-orientation calculation has been fixed. or Cancel will be processed.• • • PC 486. However. Problems fixed in this release. or Pentium Pro. Windows NT 4. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. (where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) 2 Run setup. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. In C-MOLD Cooling on HP computers: A problem that caused a core dump when running the simulation with a very large model has been fixed. On Windows and using Exceed 5.1. Pentium. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. Known problems in this release.1. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. your selection. In C-MOLD Residual Stress: A problem that resulted in unreasonably large residual stress values when the temperature difference between consecutive time steps was very small has been fixed. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog.0 DEC Alpha AXP NT.exe. In C-MOLD Modeler on DEC Alpha NT computers: Protection for a situation involved with creating tangent lines that resulted in a divide-by-zero error has been added.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. Resin database changes. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. either Run Now. Windows NT 4. In order to save the design. . Run as Batch. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro.

.Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available.

2 Solaris 2.0 IRIX 5. The 98.9 incremental release. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486.0 Windows NT 4. The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory. If you run into problems installing the new release.C-MOLD 98.3 IRIX 6. contact your local C-MOLD office. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release.20 AIX 4.9 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you.5) Installation procedure.0 HP-UX 10. consult your system administrator. . These notes describe what is new in this release. Supported platforms.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in May 1998.5 (SunOS 5. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.9 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process.

HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. It was distributed in hard copy form with the CMOLD 98. Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir 5 For all but HP computers. HP: type . IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: . IRIX 6. HP-UX 10. Digital UNIX v4. IRIX 5./INSTALL.5) SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode.\. Solaris 2. type .1 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens. 2 For all but SGI computers.3 SGI (MIPS IV). and follow the on-screen instructions./install. For UNIX machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • • • • • • DEC Alpha AXP.0 HP 9000.2 Sun SPARC. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems.20 IBM. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive.2 SGI (MIPS I). Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir.1 For Windows NT 4. type mkdir cdrom_dir.5 (SunOS 5. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. AIX 4.

Pentium. Windows NT 4. your selection. knit) lines that occur due to melt-front hesitation during filling. C-MOLD's weld-line prediction has been improved to better capture weld (meld. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog.1. (where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) 2 Run setup. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. .0 DEC Alpha AXP NT. On Windows and using Exceed 5. Resin database changes. In order to save the design. Enhancements introduced in this release. Run as Batch. or Cancel will be processed. However. Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available. either Run Now. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. or Pentium Pro. Improved weld-line prediction. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. Windows NT 4.• • • PC 486. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog.exe.1. Known problems in this release. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog.

contact your local C-MOLD office.2 Solaris 2.6 incremental release.6 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. Supported platforms. The 98.C-MOLD 98. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4.0 IRIX 5. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in November 1997.3 IRIX 6. If you run into problems installing the new release.0 HP-UX 10. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486.0 Windows NT 4. The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below. .6 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. consult your system administrator.5 (SunOS 5. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory. These notes describe what is new in this release.5) Installation procedure.20 AIX 4. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.

/INSTALL. AIX 4.20 IBM. HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir.2 Sun SPARC. Digital UNIX v4. type mkdir cdrom_dir. Solaris 2. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom.2 SGI (MIPS I). 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive.1 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens.3 SGI (MIPS IV).0 HP 9000./install.5 (SunOS 5. IRIX 5. and follow the on-screen instructions.5) SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode. 2 For all but SGI computers. HP: type .\.1 For Windows NT 4. For UNIX machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • • • • • • DEC Alpha AXP. Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir 5 For all but HP computers. It was distributed in hard copy form with the CMOLD 98. type . Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: . IRIX 6. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir. Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set. HP-UX 10. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration.Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration.

This treatment.5 and later releases).5 incremental release. . and it is no longer necessary to disconnect the channel elements to avoid overlap. Windows NT 4. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. The enhanced C-MOLD Cooling includes two significant improvements compared to earlier versions: the problem of overlapping cooling channel elements has been overcome. a new model is used to deal with cooling channel elements. No more overlapping cooling channel elements. This overlap may cause problems in the numerical simulation. In the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling (98. An enhanced version of C-MOLD Cooling is included in this incremental release. however. in previous versions of C-MOLD Cooling. because the temperature and heat flux calculations could not vary continuously along the disconnected channel elements. it is possible for the channel elements to overlap in the model of the cooling system. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. Enhancements in C-MOLD Cooling simulation. (where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) 2 Run setup. and the speed of the simulation is much faster. or Pentium Pro. Pentium. To overcome such problems. as shown in Figure 1. and the accuracy of simulation is improved.0 DEC Alpha AXP NT. and related elements were shortened or ignored to minimize the effect of the overlap. which was first introduced in the 98. When a bend occurs in a cooling channel. These release notes give more detail about the changes that were implemented and what users can expect when they use the new C-MOLD Cooling.exe. also introduced some error in the solution. Windows NT 4.• • • PC 486. Thus all physical parameters can vary continuously along the cooling channels (see Figure 2). the channel elements were treated as disconnected.

In the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling. Improved cooling channel efficiency results from the enhanced CMOLD Cooling (version 98. the residual is defined as [R]=[A][x]-[b]. an iterative solution method is used.Figure 1. The solver determines the convergence rate of the solution. In older versions of C-MOLD Cooling. A new initial solution and a new solver are employed. which make the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling run much faster than older versions. CG solver. The results are continuous along the entire length of the channel. because of a technical difficulty. which is used as the starting point for the iterations. instead. which is the accuracy of the solution. The disconnected elements and the discontinuous results at the bends in the channel are easily seen. Since the related matrix is full and very large. Solver: this refers to the specific iterative technique that is used. it is very timeconsuming to solve this system of equations directly. all of these key factors have been changed.5 and later). the Gauss-Seidel solver. and so on. A solution is considered to be converged when the residual is small enough. In an iterative method. In addition. an indirect method other than the residual. a new convergence criterion is used. and if the change was less than the . In a matrix equation [A][x]=[b]. for example. there are three key factors: • • • Initial solution: this is an assumption of the value of the real solution. Faster running speed: The boundary element method (BEM) is used in mold cooling simulation. How good the assumption is (how close the assumed value is to the real value) directly affects the running time required to complete the simulation. which relies on a system of equations. Convergence criterion: this specifies the acceptable level of approximation allowed between iterations in solving the system of equations. Figure 2. This indirect method checked the change in the solution value from one iteration to the next. Cooling channel efficiency results from the old C-MOLD Cooling. was used as the convergence parameter.

the solution was assumed to be converged.9572E-04 % 35 2. However.05 . . above) Old C-MOLD Cooling (98.25 .75 8. the residual after the last iteration is much larger than the convergence parameter in the last iteration.5 and later) and older versions would result in different solutions. in the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling.49 29.4129E+00 % 9. In the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling. the results of the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling are often more accurate as well. Known problems in this release. compare these results of the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling and the older version when the simulation is run on a simple rectangular plate with the convergence criterion specified as 0. Sometimes this indirect method failed to reflect the real convergence approximation.0136E-06 (same as last iteration convergence parameter. which eliminates a source of error that occurred in the older version. Impact on solution accuracy: In some cases. just compare the residuals. and it has become possible to use the residual directly as convergence parameter. but it is not used as the convergence parameter. so the convergence parameter becomes a true measure of the solution accuracy.14 . To determine which is the more accurate solution.49. the former technical difficulty is also solved. it is possible that the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling (version 98.8376E-05 27.35 8.21.4 and earlier) 3. For example.1618E-01 % 7.5 and later) first iteration convergence parameter last iteration convergence parameter number of iterations residual after last iteration mold wall temperature range temperature difference range 1.93 This example clearly shows us why the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling runs faster. since the storage of BEM elements has been improved.22. these values are the same. and in addition. The result with the smallest residual value is the more accurate solution. While the old C-MOLD Cooling also gives the residual. It can also be seen that in the old C-MOLD Cooling. Using the enhanced C-MOLD Cooling will always require fewer iterations to reach the solution than were required with the old version.convergence criterion.0136E-04 % 6 7. The enhanced C-MOLD Cooling uses the residual as the convergence parameter.001: Enhanced C-MOLD Cooling (98.04 .51.

Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available. . The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. or Cancel will be processed. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. However.1. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. In order to save the design. Run as Batch. your selection. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. either Run Now.1.On Windows and using Exceed 5. Resin database changes.

Supported platforms. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. . These notes describe what is new in this release.C-MOLD 98. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. The 98.5 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release. consult your system administrator. Pentium or Pentium Pro Intel-based PC Pentium or Pentium Pro SGI (MIPS I) SGI (MIPS IV) Sun SPARC Minimum C-MOLD OS Level Digital UNIX 4.5 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in November 1997.3 IRIX 6.0 IRIX 5. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms.5) Installation procedure.5 (SunOS 5. Hardware Platform DEC Alpha AXP DEC Alpha AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel-based PC 486.5 incremental release.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. If you run into problems installing the new release. The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below.0 HP-UX 10.0 Windows NT 4.2 Solaris 2.20 AIX 4. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install CMOLD to a restricted directory. contact your local C-MOLD office.

IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. Type cmdoc once C-MOLD is installed to access the on-line documentation set. HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir.Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems.0 HP 9000. For Windows NT 4. It was distributed in hard copy form with the CMOLD 98.3 SGI (MIPS IV). HP-UX 10. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. Solaris 2.5 (SunOS 5. HP: type . Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive.5) SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only on a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode./install. 2 For all but SGI computers. IRIX 5./INSTALL\. For UNIX machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: • • • • • • DEC Alpha AXP.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions to install C-MOLD on the following hardware platforms: .2 Sun SPARC. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. IRIX 6. 5 For all but HP computers. type . type mkdir cdrom_dir.1 general release and is available on-line in HTML format from the documentation screens..20 IBM. Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir 4 Type cd cdrom_dir. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer.2 SGI (MIPS I). Digital UNIX v4. 3 DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir. AIX 4. and follow the on-screen instructions.

In modeling.0 1 Intel CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. a baffle or bubbler is defined by at least two nodes: one for the coolant entrance. In addition. C-MOLD Coolant Flow The output format of pressure drop in cooling manifold has been changed. Pentium. . (where xxx corresponds to the particular release you are installing) 2 Run setup. The change will affect the display of coolant pressure drop only at junctions of regular cooling channels with baffles or bubblers. C-MOLD Interactive Modules On HP computers. Windows NT 4. C-MOLD Cooling A new representation is used for cooling-channel elements. or Pentium Pro. and the solution now is more robust. DEC Alpha AXP CPU: locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. users are no longer required to adjust the relaxation number. Windows 95 PC Pentium or Pentium Pro. Enhancements introduced in this release. C-MOLD interactive modules now require X11 R6 run-time environment software.exe. Windows NT 4. which eliminates overlap problems that could occur in previous releases at bends in cooling channels.• • • PC 486. CPU time required to complete Cooling simulation on a mid-sized model has been reduced significantly. and the other for the free end where the coolant changes direction (see Figure 329 and Figure 3-30 in the C-MOLD Modeler & Visualizer User's Guide for details). Previous versions required R4 or R5.0 DEC Alpha AXP NT.

respectively.) Coolant pressure Figure 2. after the code change. C-MOLD Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage Update: Layer-based Residual Stress Coupling with Fiber Orientation      Terminology Coupling with Fiber Orientation Layer-Based Information vs. however. In the baffle or bubbler. (Click to zoom in. the pressure drop of entering flow and returning flow is still displayed on the element(s) from the entrance node to the free-end node. Model representation of baffle or bubbler.) Improved coolant display before the code change. Figure 1.Figure 1. the pressure is discontinuous at the two sides of the baffle plate or bubbler plate. (Click to zoom in. Equivalent Loadings Technical Details How to Use the New Feature . an abrupt change of pressure at the entrance node should be seen in the graphical display. Therefore. the coolant pressure at the free-end node should be the same as the coolant pressure at the entrance node from the exit side of the baffle or bubbler. It is obvious that at the entrance node. This change has no effects on results of C-MOLD Cooling simulation. Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the displays of coolant pressure before and after the code change. pressure display after the code change. In other words.

which is different from the equivalent loadings used by previous versions. The intermediate. C-MOLD Residual Stress and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage are now tightly integrated with layer-based residual stress and mechanical properties calculations. C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory now provides fast-cooling pvT testing for semicrystalline materials. and therefore. Shrinkage & Warpage predictions can be improved to within 10% accuracy by using the fast-cooling pvT data.What is new • • • • • The Fiber Orientation option for Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage simulation gives improved deformation result compared to previous versions. Why Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage? The predicted final deformation of a part after ejection is what a user expects a simulation to produce. What is molded-in residual stress? After part ejection. Molded-in residual stress can be measured on a molded part. and the part is free to shrink and deform. residual stress. the remaining stress inside the part is called molded-in residual stress. the constraints from the mold cavity are released. The interface between C-MOLD Residual Stress and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage is now layer-based. in-cavity residual stress has no practical application for users. because of the coupling of the residual-stress and thermo-mechanical properties calculations with the fiber-orientation calculation. It is calculated by C-MOLD Residual Stress and stored in the interface file to C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage (filename. After it settles to an equilibrium shape. . This in-cavity residual stress is the driving force of part shrinkage and warpage after ejection. instead of in-cavity residual stress. it no longer included in C-MOLD output file.ppt). In-cavity residual stress cannot be measured on a molded part because of the stress relaxation that occurs after ejection. or simply. The difference between in-cavity residual stress and molded-in residual stress is whether or not the constraints imposed by the cavity on the part have been released. Terminology What is in-cavity residual stress? The in-cavity residual stress refers to the internal stress accumulated during the solidification of the part inside the cavity until the temperature and pressure within the cavity drop to ambient conditions. This new release of C-MOLD includes the option to output the molded-in residual stress. The number of layers used for the Residual Stress calculation is the same as the number of layers specified for Filling & Post-Filling simulation. The molded-in residual stress after part ejection is now optional output as requested by users.

This new version of C-MOLD calculates the local thermo-mechanical properties based on predicted fiber orientation. The pvT behavior of semi-crystalline materials can be quite different under a fast cooling rate. the material's crystallinity depends on several processing parameters.this feature is not provided with interfaces to other. It has been verified by the Polymers Department of the GM Research and Development Center (under NIST/TED project) that fast-cooling pvT data in the simulation can improve the shrinkage prediction to within 10% accuracy for semi-crystalline materials. C-MOLD recently developed a technique to measure and predict pvT under the fast-cooling conditions similar to an injection molding process. therefore resulting in different amounts of shrinkage. Check with your resin suppliers or C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory for details. the Shrinkage & Warpage predictions are now based on the residual stress and thermo-mechanical properties coupled with fiber orientation prediction. and the local residual stress corresponds to the local thermomechanical properties. . Why fast-cooling pvT? The physical properties of semi-crystalline materials (such as PET.) depend on the degree of crystallinity. especially on the cooling rate. the local thermo-mechanical properties would depend on the fiber orientation. In cases where the material is fiber-reinforced. general-purpose structural analysis programs. Nylon. PBT. Equivalent loadings were calculated for each node and element based on in-cavity residual stress that was distributed over thickness. C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory offers the fast-cooling pvT material testing service. Layer-Based Information vs. For fiber-reinforced materials. The influence of fiber orientation and molded-in residual stress can be considered in the structural design of plastic parts. Conventional pvT testing is based on measurements at equilibrium or at a very slow cooling rate. Users can add a service-loading simulation after the residual-stress calculation in order to predict part performance under service. etc. Residual Stress and Thermo-Mechanical Properties Calculations Coupled with Fiber Orientation Calculation Previous versions of C-MOLD used the thermo-mechanical properties in the flow and transverse directions for the Shrinkage & Warpage calculations. During the injection molding process. equivalent loadings were output into the interface file and used for Shrinkage & Warpage calculation. Equivalent Loadings In previous versions of C-MOLD Residual Stress.

Such equivalent loadings are self-balanced before part deformation. so there would be no way to solve the equations. the optimized quasi-planar (OQP) method is now used instead of the quasi-planar (QP) method that has been used in previous versions. Orthotropic closure is derived to agree with analytical solutions in extreme orientation states. This change also resulted from work under the NIST/TED project. In C-MOLD Fiber Orientation. In previous versions of C-MOLD Residual Stress. The in-cavity residual stress should be used directly. • • • The micromechanics model used is now the Tandon-Weng model. because it is always self-balanced. It is not possible to perform a geometric non-linear Shrinkage & Warpage simulation with equivalent loadings based on in-cavity residual stress.ppt. no matter how the part is deformed. this assumption is no longer valid for fiber-filled composites. Micromechanics is a way of studying a composite material on a very localized scale with extreme orientations. such as the perfectly aligned case. which means that thermo-mechanical properties (isotropic or transversely isotropic) are uniformly distributed. Users do not have to know these details to run the new version. In this update. which has been used in previous versions. the improvement is marginal. instead of the Halpin-Hsai model that has been used in previous versions. Results of the NIST/TED project suggested that the Tandon-Weng model would give slightly better predictions. a part was assumed homogeneous. When this happens. but can become unbalanced after large deformation. After the introducing geometric non-linear analysis in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage. however. the originally balanced equivalent loadings may become unbalanced. In calculating average orientation. and used as input to the final Shrinkage & Warpage prediction. Incavity residual stress is used for Shrinkage & Warpage prediction in this update. layer-based thermo-mechanical properties are calculated for each layer of each element and used for Shrinkage & Warpage calculation. The OQP method was derived by Professor Charles Tucker under the NIST/TED project. it became possible to calculate large deformations. Tests from GM Research and Development Center indicate that . resulting in a rigid-body motion to the Shrinkage & Warpage prediction. Technical Enhancements These technical explanations of differences from previous versions are provided for reference. In-cavity residual stress is predicted for each layer of each element. Closure approximation may not be based on physics. orthotropic closure is now used instead of hybrid closure. the number of unknowns are more than the number of equations. The layer-based information mentioned above is stored in filename. that is. Closure approximation adds an extra equation or equation group to complete the equation group for fiber orientation. Without it.

For simulations of applications using semi-crystalline materials. In C-MOLD Residual Stress. but rather to the material data that is input to the simulation. and when elastic constants were used. The temperature and time can be superposed into a material time. This means that E33 (elastic modulus in the thickness direction) is no longer assumed equal to E22 (elastic modulus in the planar direction perpendicular to the E11 direction) for fiber-filled materials. The instant freeze model assumes that the polymer or polymer composite will become elastic immediately after the temperature drops below the transition temperature. Most of these stresses are useful only to analysts.par) to control the various layer-based stress outputs. it is found that the biggest influence on the Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage result is the pvT data. the thermo-rheological simple viscoelastic model assumes that the material gradually gains strength based on temperature and time change after the temperature drops below the transition temperature. These T-CODEs are used by CMOLD Shrinkage & Warpage module only. which is a more reasonable assumption. The amount of data can be large because stress data is stored for each element and each layer. the instant freeze model is now used instead of the thermo-rheological simple viscoelastic model that has been used in previous versions. • T-CODE 00614 and T-CODE 00615 have been added to the parameter file (filename. using fast-cooling pvT data as input to the simulation will definitely yield more accurate results. This change is not to the code itself. it essentially performed as an instant-freeze model. In the previous implementation. How to Use the New Features All of these improvements were internal to the C-MOLD modules. Among all the changes.• the OQP method gives orientation results that are closer to measured orientation values. This change has been implemented because few users employed the relaxation moduli in the thermo-rheological simple viscoelastic model available in previous C-MOLD Residual Stress versions. T-CODE# Equation: Units: 00614 NONE NONE • • • • • . and the relaxation moduli as functions of the material time can then be used in the residual-stress calculation. • • Fiber-filled composite materials now are assumed to be orthotropic instead of transversely isotropic. which has been assumed in previous versions. From the user's point of view. T-CODE 00615 is used only when service loadings are defined. but it took more CPU time and memory. elastic models could be considered as subsets of the thermo-rheological simple viscoelastic model. In contrast. there is almost no change in how to prepare for and launch the Integrated Shrinkage & Warpage simulation.

the fast cooling pvT data is not included in the C-MOLD Database that is released to customers. More tests are required. Known problems in this release. Translation from this file to an equivalent input file to any other structural analysis package capable of doing layer-based shell analysis is possible by anybody who knows both file formats. at this time.1. On Windows and using Exceed 5.ppt. putting the informational message under a .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Range: Default Value: Option output Option Option Option T-CODE# Equation: Units: 0-4 0 no molded-in stress output 1 for Principal Residual Stress (Molded-in) 2 for option 1 plus Max Shear Stress 3 for option 1 plus Mises-Hencky Stress 4 for all the stress outputs 00615 NONE NONE Range: 0-4 Default Value: 0 no stress output for service loading and combined with service loading Option 1 for Principal Residual Stress (service) and (molded-in + service) output Option 2 for option 1 plus Max Shear Stress Option 3 for option 1 plus Mises-Hencky Stress Option 4 for all the stress outputs • • The interface to ABAQUS from C-MOLD Residual Stress is temporarily suspended. which is in C-MOLD output file format. beginning with this 98. Due to the limited number of tested resins. All the T-CODE's involved for geometric non-linearity calculation in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage are still effective. To get fast-cooling pvT data requires additional material testing and data reduction. Contact your resin suppliers or CMOLD Polymer Laboratory for the data and testing services.1. and the developers welcome any comments or reports of problems with this update. The layer-based in-cavity residual stresses and/or thermo-mechanical properties are stored in an ASCII interface file called filename. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. Data has been generated for only a handful of resins so far.5 incremental release. More Testing Required This major update has had only limited tests so far.

Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. In order to save the design. However. and 325 have juncture loss data. of which 809 have pvT data. or Cancel will be processed. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Resin Database page on C-MOLD's Web site to see what data is available. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. your selection.file selection dialog. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. either Run Now. 189 have mechanical properties data. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. .370 resins. Run as Batch. The C-MOLD Resin Database now includes viscosity data for 4. Resin database changes.

These notes describe what is new in this release. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in November 1997. contact your local C-MOLD office. . We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms.5 Sun SPARC Installation procedure. Supported platforms.0 HP-UX 10. consult your system administrator. The 98. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release.0 Windows NT 4.4 incremental release. Hardware Platform DEC AXP DEC AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel PC SGI (MIPS I and MIPS IV) Current C-MOLD OS Levels Digital UNIX 4.4 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. If you run into problems installing the new release. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 98 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4.20 AIX 4.0 IRIX 5.3 IRIX 6.C-MOLD 98. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below.2 for MIPS IV version Solaris 2. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install C-MOLD to a restricted directory.4 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release.

/INSTALL\. It is available in HTML format on the CD. and follow the on-screen instructions. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. • Intel CPU 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. 4 Type cd cdrom_dir.0 or Windows 95. Typically. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir./install.exe . HP users will need to type .cmold. from our web site www. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. For Windows NT and 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT 4.. A printed copy was included with the last general release. newer versions of operating systems are upward compatible. 5 Type . For UNIX machines SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode.Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. 2 For all but SGI computers.com or in hard copy format. type mkdir cdrom_dir. 2 Run setup.

Known Problems in this Release • On Windows and using Exceed 5. However. either "Run Now". Note that normally using a melt temperature near the transition temperature or b5 does not match the physical processing conditions and indicates either a problem in the material selection or data or the processing conditions. error message 99621 is displayed and execution stops. in the case of an incompressible material. a warning message is issued and the program continues to calculate.1. the design diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the save design selection dialog. The work around is to save your design before entering the design diagnostics dialog. You can force the program to use incompressible density model by manually adjusting the material input file. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. . or "Cancel" will be processed. In order to save the design you need to dismiss the design diagnostics dialog.1 the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. Normally pvT data is used and compressible behavior of the polymer is accounted for.exe Enhancements Introduced in this Release • C-MOLD Filling and Post-Filling o The clamp force prediction at the end of filling. This provides melt front advancement information up to the short-shot to be viewed. "Run as Batch". the incompressible material assumption would propagate the entrance pressure through out the cavity. Problems fixed in this Release • C-MOLD Gas Assisted injection molding o When the pre-set post-filling time is exceeded. output follows the normal short-shot procedure instead of stopping immediately. o If the input melt temperature is less than the material's transition temperature.• Alpha AXP CPU 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the design diagnostics dialog. Even though you dismiss the design diagnostics dialog your selection. If the input melt temperature is less than b5 of the pvT model. is modified to calculate using the final pressure distribution at the instant before complete fill. This reduces the clamp force prediction because otherwise. 2 Run setup.

Material Database Changes Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Material Database Internet web page to see what data is available. . Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1998 Advanced CAE Technology.

5 Sun SPARC Installation procedure. .3 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release. Hardware Platform DEC AXP DEC AXP NT HP 9000 IBM Intel PC SGI (MIPS I and MIPS IV) Current C-MOLD OS Levels Digital UNIX 4. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 98 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.2 Windows 95 Windows NT 4.C-MOLD 98. The 98. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you.0 Windows NT 4. These notes describe what is new in this release. consult your system administrator.3 IRIX 6. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms.20 AIX 4. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. Supported platforms. If you run into problems installing the new release. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in November 1997. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install C-MOLD to a restricted directory.3 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below. contact your local C-MOLD office.0 IRIX 5.2 for MIPS IV version Solaris 2.0 HP-UX 10. This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process.3 incremental release.

where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. 2 Run setup. It is available in HTML format on the CD. • • Intel CPU 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD.exe Enhancements Introduced in this Release .Refer to the C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir.com or in hard copy format./INSTALL\. A printed copy was included with the last general release.exe Alpha AXP CPU 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. and follow the on-screen instructions. HP users will need to type . 4 Type cd cdrom_dir. 2 For all but SGI computers. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. type mkdir cdrom_dir. Typically.0 or Windows 95. newer versions of operating systems are upward compatible./install. 2 Run setup.cmold. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. 5 Type . from our web site www. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. For UNIX machines SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. For Windows NT and 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT 4.

You can use the CMOLD_GP_PRINT_USE_SCREEN environment variable to bypass use of the GL pixmaps. or "Cancel" will be processed. Even though you dismiss the design diagnostics dialog your selection. o Some implementations of OpenGL do not properly implement GL pixmaps which may cause a problem when saving the screen image to a TIF file for printing. However. Known Problems in this Release • On Windows and using Exceed 5. "Run as Batch". Just set this variable to 1 before starting the Visualizer. In order to save the design you need to dismiss the design diagnostics dialog. Previously. the design diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the save design selection dialog. On user request we've changed the program to output 11 settings if only 2 settings are input. Using the suggested ram speed profile will keep melt front speeds more uniform. o A wider variety of OpenGL terminals are now supported. only 2 suggested settings would be output. Ram speed profile settings are provided for the number of settings provided in the process conditions. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. allowance for negative coefficient of thermal expansion for fiber filled materials has been added.1. The new visualizer prototype can be started once the C-MOLD environment has been established by typing cviz97 in a console window. say at 0% of stroke and 100% of stroke for example. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the design diagnostics dialog. The OpenGL driver automatically determines if the workaround is necessary and implements it without any changes required by you. either "Run Now". if you only had 2 settings. Problems fixed in this Release • New Visualizer prototype o Workarounds for light shading problems on Solaris and Digital UNIX implementations of OpenGL have been added.1 the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. New Visualizer prototype o Reduction of the amount of memory usage during animation by using temporary disk files improves performance on systems with limited amounts of available RAM. resulting in a molded part with less molded in stresses. C-MOLD Filling/EZ A suggested ram speed profile is one of the outputs from C-MOLD Filling/EZ.• • • C-MOLD Filling and Post-Filling Based on a user request. The work around is to save your design before entering the design diagnostics dialog. . putting the informational message under a file selection dialog.

All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1997 Advanced CAE Technology.Material Database Changes Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Material Database Internet web page to see what data is available. Inc. .

2 For all but SGI computers. IBM RS6000 AIX 4. It was distributed in hard copy form with the C-MOLD 98. DEC Digital UNIX v4. Our last general release to all customers with current Support & Update agreements was made in November 1997. If you run into problems installing the new release.2.2 incremental release. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir.C-MOLD 98. Installation procedure This release uses the same interactive procedure as C-MOLD 98.5. consult your system administrator. type mkdir cdrom_dir. Type cmdoc once CMOLD is installed to access the online documentation set. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. For UNIX machines These instructions will work for the following hardware platforms: HP 9000 HP-UX 10.20.3 (MIPS 1) and SGI IRIX 6. .1 general release and is available online in HTML format from the documentation screens. SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions. contact your local C-MOLD office. Sun SPARC Solaris 2. You might need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install C-MOLD to a restricted directory.2 release of C-MOLD is an incremental release.2 (MIPS IV). 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. and SGI IRIX 5. Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features for you. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. The information-packed C-MOLD System Administrator Guide is intended for use by your system administrator for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.1 that guides you through the installation process. where # is a digit depending on your hardware configuration.0.2 Release Notes The C-MOLD 98. These notes describe what is new in this release. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. The 98.

For Windows NT 4. 1 If running on an Intel based PC. Inc.1. 3 Run setup. .exe. Included on the C-MOLD 98. locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. Copyright 1997 Advanced CAE Technology.2 incremental release supports Exceed 6. UNIX users with an OpenGL capable workstation can type cviz97 at the command prompt to start the prototype visualizer.0 or Windows 95. and follow the on-screen instructions.0 and 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT 4. Changes in the location of locale information between Exceed 5 and 6 require a patch for earlier versions of C-MOLD. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.1 The Windows 95/NT C-MOLD 98. Changes since C-MOLD 98. 5 Type install. 2 If running on a DEC Alpha AXP based machine. To try it out.IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. We'd like to hear your comments about it. All Rights Reserved. 4 Type cd cdrom_dir.2 CD is a copy of the new visualizer prototype which demonstrates the look and feel of our upcoming user interface design. HP and Windows versions of the visualizer are not yet available but are planned for a future release. Contact your local C-MOLD office for information about obtaining the patch if you are running an earlier version of C-MOLD and Exceed 6. navigate to a directory containing C-MOLD results and experiment with the new visualizer. This incremental release has no other significant changes to formal C-MOLD products since C-MOLD 98.

The C-MOLD web page is also a good place to look for the latest information about our products.10µ Entrance nodes on connectorsµ 97.11µ Moldingµ Microchip Floating point numbersµ 97.10µ .10µ & Warpage directly from Control Panelµ Coolant Flowµ Correction in the heat loss calculationµ 97. Table 1 lists the enhancements to and problems fixed in this latest general release of CMOLD.8µ Multiple gas-injection sitesµ 97.8µ Material compressibility during fillingµ 97. TABLE 1. the incremental release version of a fix or enhancement is noted in the monthly summaries.Release Notes 98.8µ Managerµ Setting the non-linear analysis option for Shrinkage Control Panelµ 97.1 Introduced C-MOLD productµ Enhancement/problem fixedµ in releaseµ C-MOLD License Losing IGES interface licensesµ 97.9µ Wire-sweep and paddle-shift analysesµ 97.1 Introduction In addition to twice-yearly general releases.11µ Output data sets addedµ 97. our monthly incremental releases provide for timely problem corrections and the implementation of new features. and gives the incremental version of the software in which the change was introduced. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release.8µ Maximum # of elements µ 97.10µ Injection Compression Predicted clamp forceµ 97.8µ Gas-Assisted Injection Full pvT modeling for both filling and post-filling Moldingµ 97. Summary of changes to C-MOLD products in release 98.9µ Encapsulationµ Maximum pressure differenceµ 97.8µ stagesµ Program stop time consistent with PMA analysisµ 97.12µ Pre-filled polymer volume fractionµ 97. contact your local CMOLD office. When applicable.

See the inside cover of your CD case for complete installation instructions. Installation procedure This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process.11µ 97.9µ 97. If you are updating directly to the 98. Keyfiles As long as your Support & Update agreement is current and you are updating from a 96.1 release from a version of C-MOLD earlier that 96.12µ 97.10µ Running C-MOLD It is now possible to operate in the root directory. If using your existing keyfile with the 98. your existing keyfile will enable this release. To run version 98. While uncommon for UNIX users. . Find the line with the key for C-MOLD that looks like this: 2eac 4f4a 8ah6 8d74 23d6 28gf d373 6k93 cmold NO EXPIRY 12/01/96 15users The date in mm/dd/yy format is your Support & Update expiration date. you will need a new keyfile.1. some Windows users might want to start in the root directory. If you have a question about your Support & Update agreement.8µ 97. non-linear deformationsµ Analysisµ Patranµ µ Ansysµ IDEASµ Weldlines and Air Improved usability and maintainabilityµ Trapsµ Material Databaseµ Specific heat datasetsµ 97.8µ 97.1 release results in an Inconsistent encryption code error. this date must be after 03/31/97. You can check your C-MOLD license key for the recorded Support & Update expiration date.7.7 or higher version. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 98 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. contact your local C-MOLD office to obtain your new keyfile. please call your local C-MOLD office.8µ 97.Memory allocationµ Reactive Molding enhancementsµ Shrinkage and Warpage Geometric linear vs.8µ 97.

8 incremental release.0 (or higher)µ DEC Alpha AXPµ Windows NT 4. TABLE 2.5 (SunOS 5.20 (or higher)µ IBM RS/6000µ AIX 4. Setting the non-linear analysis option for Shrinkage & Warpage .1 operating system requirements are given in the table below. We routinely review this list as part of our semi-annual software update schedule and will periodically make adjustments to reflect available and popular platforms.0µ DEC Alpha AXPµ Digital UNIX 4. With the C-MOLD 98. although spaces in directory and filenames are more common in Windows than in UNIX.You can also install C-MOLD and work in folders whose names contain spaces.1 release.2 (or higher)µ Sun SPARCµ Solaris 2. Pentium.3 (or higher)µ SGI (MIPS IV)µ IRIX 6.2 (or higher)µ SGIµ IRIX 5. or Pentium Proµ Windows 95µ PC Pentium or Pentium Proµ Windows NT 4. We began implementing these changes with the C-MOLD 97. C-MOLD License Manager We've fixed a problem manifested by losing IGES interface licenses over time when the license manager was running on an IBM workstation.5) (or higher)µ Control Panel To boost performance. files from the temporary run directory are now moved to the design directory instead of copying them. Supported platforms Hardware Platformµ C-MOLD Minimum OS Levelµ PC 486. we're changing our supported configurations. Supported platforms The current release supports the hardware platform and operating system configurations given in the table below. This saves both time and disk space.0 (or higher)µ HP 9000/700µ HP-UX 10. This is available on both the UNIX and Windows version. These and the C-MOLD 98.

You can now set the controls for non-linear analysis in Shrinkage & Warpage directly from the user interface. you can expect consistent results from this release for polymer filling and packing stages as well as gas-assisted stages. Some of the new features in this release are: • • • • • • Preliminary packing before gas injection in post-filling stage Valve-gate opening and closing Dynamic memory allocation Conjugate-Gradient (CG) solver for pressure solution Error/Warning messages in text report output Text report on post-filling Output data sets The following table shows the changes made to the output data sets in the 98. Go to the Analysis Parameters file in the Design Diagnostics dialog to edit the Option for non-linear warpage analysis. Filling & Post-Filling It is now possible to pre-pack the main cavity before opening a valve gate to an overflow area. Coolant Flow We made a correction in the heat loss calculation at the juncture between a regular cooling channel and a bubbler or baffle. The change is noticed only in a small set of modeling cases. As a result. The shaded entries are those that have been removed since the last general release. Output data set changes Data setµ Data typeµ Data categoryµ Skin-polymer half-gap thickness (top)µ Elementµ Designµ Skin-polymer half-gap thickness (bottom)µ Elementµ Designµ . Gas-Assisted Injection Molding The enhancements to C-MOLD Gas-Assisted Injection Molding simulation further improve simulation results and provide more useful features to C-MOLD customers. the rest are new. specifying the maximum number of iterations. TABLE 3.1 release of Gas-Assisted Injection Molding simulation. The program is built on top of the same framework on which C-MOLD Filling & Post-Filling simulations are based.

each gas-injection point has its own control.e. 1. Releases earlier than 97.. in part.7 treat the polymer melt as an incompressible fluid during the filling stage. the process conditions file shown. including timing and profiling. the ratio of Resin injection time to Fill time is the volume-filled percent before gas injection.9/2.7 PROC 1 15 10100 10101 10602 50 50 50 10 30 50 Description of TCODE .0) at the time of gas injection.Volumetric shrinkageµ Frozen-in shear stressµ Melt front speedµ Recommend ram-speedµ Percentage fillµ Melt front velocityµ Total design weightµ Average flow lengthµ Error/Warning messagesµ Report on post-fillingµ Elementµ Elementµ Elementµ Scalarµ Scalarµ Scalarµ Scalarµ Scalarµ Textµ Textµ Design (post-filling)µ Detailµ End of fillingµ Designµ Designµ Designµ Designµ Designµ Summary reportµ Summary reportµ Multiple gas-injection sites Support for multiple gas-injection control was added in the new release. with a constant Ram speed profile (rel).. Additional information is available in New Multiple Gas-Injection Control Feature.. Pre-filled polymer volume fraction A new concept of "pre-filled polymer volume percentage" has been introduced. in Figure 1 will lead to a pre-filled polymer volume of 95% (i.. For example. As a result. Figure 1 Process conditions file (partial) from version 97.9 22 Ram speed profile (rel) 0 50 20 50 40 50 . This enhancement allows you to simulate the injection of gas at multiple locations with independent gasinjection controls-that is. 1 Fill time 2. The current implementation even permits using both gas-pressure control (process that controls the gas pressure and its profile) and gas-volume control (process that compresses pre-charged gas in a compression cylinder) at different gas-injection points within the same part.0 1 Resin injection time 1.

if there is no Timer for hold pressure in the input file (or if the value specified is zero). Therefore. then there will be no packing imposed on the polymer after the F/P switch-over point. as it will in reality.53% rather than 95%. In this case. the polymer melt actually is compressible even during filling. an input variable designated to Pre-filled polymer volume % has been introduced. the new release will read-in the same input files created for earlier releases (Figure 1). When used with a non-zero Timer for hold pressure. Resin injection time. It will also account for a variable ram-speed profile (such as the one specified in the . In the new release. On the other hand. the predicted pressure inside the cavity will decay. the F/P switch over by % volume serves as the fill-to-pack switch-over criterion as usual. the F/P switch over by % volume is used for this purpose. . allowing gas to be injected. In the present implementation. if the gas injection defined by the Timer for core or gas injection is triggered before the completion of F/P switch over by % volume. and Ram speed profile (rel). this condition triggers the closure of polymer entrances. First of all. thereby signaling the end of polymer injection. Second. the program recognizes only the sequential (polymer-then-gas) process. To make the transition smoother. this variable can be used as the Pre-filled polymer volume % for the Gas-Assisted Molding simulation. What it does internally is to calculate the Pre-filled polymer volume % and store it as F/P switch over by % volume based on the Fill time. If there is a delay time after the polymer entrances close. However. the polymer injection will continue (under flow rate control) until F/P switch-over by % volume is completed and the pressure control takes place for the remaining process. with a variable ram speed profile. In other words.5 Timer for core or gas 1. In order to handle the cases for which the pre-filled polymer volume percentage is known before the injection of gas. which is simply the ratio of Resin injection time to Fill time. the polymer injection will terminate and gas entrances will open at this moment.9 There are two deficiencies with the previous implementation.prc file in Figure 2). the pre-filled polymer volume for the process conditions file is 96. it becomes difficult to specify the resin injection time that delivers a known pre-filled polymer volume percentage. That is.60 50 50 50 70 90 10103 10200 injection 50 50 1 1 80 100 Gas injection time 1. There is no need to modify the existing process conditions file.

00 1 Resin injection time 1. since the program will do it internally. specification of Resin injection time or F/P switch over by % volume will depend on the actual machine control. This is particularly true when the injection pressure is high. . As the pressure increases with more and more material being injected into the cavity. This results in a longer actual fill time than the user-specified fill timewith a typical difference of about 5%. Material compressibility during filling There is no doubt that including material compressibility during filling will further improve the solution accuracy. Polymer flow rate The new release computes the polymer flow rate at the polymer entrance. 1 Fill time 2. You can find out how to modify these variables in the Process Estimator User's Guide. On the other hand. then the user can still use the Resin injection time in the input file. If the original input file with Resin injection time has been specified in such a way that gives a proper pre-filled polymer volume percent. there is no need to modify the input file.5 Timer for core or gas 1. ram-speed profile..90 With this new option in the new release. the polymer temperature variation is large.Figure 2 Process conditions file (partial) from new release PROC 1 15 10100 10101 10602 10 30 50 70 90 50 90 100 100 80 10103 injection 10200 1 1 Description of TCODE . If the injection of polymer melt is controlled by a timer.. based on the user-specified fill time. the user should replace Resin injection time with F/P switch over by % volume in the process conditions file. the volumetric flow rate at the polymer melt fronts is typically smaller than at the polymer entrance due to material compressibility.90 22 Ram speed profile (rel) 0 30 20 40 60 80 70 100 100 100 100 30 Gas injection time 1. if the Pre-filled polymer volume % is the known input. or it involves a pressure decay during the delay period when the injection screw bottoms a pre-set amount of polymer into the cavity before gas injection.. and the cavity volume. depending on how the material is being compressed.

entrance pressure = 3.2098E+07 Pa. END OF POLYMER INJECTION/PACKING. the pre-filled polymer volume will be 95% (see the screen message in Figure 3. entrance pressure = 2.05 % of volume filled. if the user specifies a fill time of 2 seconds.00 % of volume filled.9010E+00 sec.7674E+00 s.4386E+01 % of volume filled. Because of the incompressible approximation. gas injection at entrance # 1 STARTS. gas injection triggered by timer.8744E+07 Pa.For example. 2.9010E+00 sec. the polymer injection will be terminated with a warning due to the onset of gas injection.9000E+00 sec. At time = 1.0000E+06 Pa. the new release will try to inject 95% of the polymer into the cavity. filling under ram speed control. 1.9 seconds-the same time gas injection begins.51 % of volume filled.386% of the polymer in the cavity (see Figure 4). let us look at the behavior of the previous and new releases using the process conditions file shown in Figure 1. resin injection will complete in 1. 95. 9.9252E+05 N. resin injection completed 1.7068E+01 % of volume filled. 95.0260E+00 sec. With the previous release. For example. after 1. Polymer injection time The material compressibility also affects the time it takes to inject a pre-set amount of polymer into the cavity.05 % of volume filled. total clamp force = 1. POLYMER ENTRANCE IS CLOSED.8): At time = 1. At time = At time = At time = On the other hand. 8. filling under gas control. total clamp force = 2. entrance pressure = 5. Figure 4 Screen message with the new release Screen message with the new release (97. 95.1 seconds. 95. total clamp force = 7. In other words. Full pvT modeling for both filling and post-filling stages . However. the cavity will fill in around 2.9 seconds have elapsed. gas entrance # 1 pressure = 5. the polymer injection could be cut short due to material compressibility. ** WARNING ** TRY TO INJECT GAS BEFORE POLYMER INJECTION STOPS. filling under ram speed control.9 seconds into the process. total clamp force = 3.3281E+05 N. leading to 94. filling under gas pressure control. Figure 3 Screen message with the previous release At time = 1. Note that the gas will be injected 1. below).9173E+00 s.9173E+00 s. At time = 1.0000E+06 Pa. when there's little or no delay time.5231E+04 N.6174E+04 N.

. The part geometry for the designs were provided by Chung-Yuan Christian University. the CPU time is 20% more than regular PMA analyses without gas injection and up to 6 times longer than previous CMOLD releases.6 seconds. if the ramspeed profile is not constant. the following two process conditions files will both give a pre-filled polymer volume of 96% with the new release. then the larger value will be used. Illustrative Examples The examples illustrated here are designed to demonstrate the usage of the new release.The 2-domain modified Tait polymer density model should be used instead of the isotropic thermal expansion coefficient. Longer CPU time Because of the more rigorous analysis. a pre-determined amount of polymer (96%) is injected into the cavity before the gas injection time of 1. 1 Fill time 1. to specify the Post-fill time since the analysis will calculate it as follows: Post-fill time = Timer for core or gas injection + Gas injection time .536 1 Gas injection time 2.prc file so that 96% of polymer is injected. then it will be more difficult to set the Resin injection time in the first . Program stop time consistent with PMA analysis The program will stop at the end of Post-fill time rather than the end of Gas injection time in order to be consistent with the PMA analysis. It is not necessary. Generally speaking. As discussed above. depending on the size of the models. However. The isotropic thermal expansion coefficient previously used by early releases of Gas-Assisted Molding will not be recognized by the new release.0 ..prc file.. however. Figure 5 Process conditions files suitable for both previous and new releases PROC 1 15 10100 10101 10103 Description of TCODE . The Post-fill time starts counting from the instant the cavity is filled.75 seconds. For a better description of material behavior with rapid temperature and pressure changes. pvT data-which are available with all the termoplastic resins in the C-MOLD material database (specific or generic)-should be used. the new release requires a longer CPU time compared with earlier releases.Fill timeµ If the user does specify a Post-fill time in the . Case 1: Short-shot process In the first example. The time it takes to fill the entire cavity with polymer is 1.6 1 Resin injection time 1.

is more agreeable with the actual findings. the predicted gas penetration in terms of skin polymer fraction at the end of the process using both the previous and the new releases are shown in Figures 7 and 8. .750 1 Gas injection control option 0 22 Ram speed profile (rel) 0 50 10 20 50 30 40 50 50 60 50 70 80 50 90 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 For the purpose of comparison. In addition. When compared to actual experimental observation.10200 11302 10602 50 50 50 50 50 1 1 22 Timer for core or gas injection 1. the prediction from the new release.. 1 Fill time 1.750 Gas injection control option 0 Ram speed profile (rel) 0 50 20 40 60 80 100 50 50 50 50 50 10 30 50 70 90 Figure 6 Process conditions files suitable for the new release PROC 1 15 10100 10300 10103 10200 11302 10602 Description of TCODE .6 1 F/P switch over by % volume 96 1 Gas injection time 20 1 Timer for core or gas injection 1. Figure 9 shows that the overall gas volume percentage (hollowed-out volume) in the cavity is near 6% of the entire volume.. respectively.. which shows no gas permeation into the thin section.

Figure 7 Predicted gas penetration in terms of skin-polymer fraction at the end of the process using the previous release .

.Figure 8 Predicted gas penetration in terms of skin-polymer fraction at the end of the process using the new release.

The user should prepare the process conditions as shown in Figure 10.. Figure 10 PROC 1 17 10100 Description of TCODE . the new release allows the cavity to be completely filled with polymer and then undergo a short packing stage before gas is injected. 1 Fill time 1..6 ..Figure 9 Predicted overall gas volume percentage as a function of time using the new release. Case 2: Full-shot process As mentioned previously.

10300 10400 10702 80 10103 10200 11302 10602 50 50 50 50 50 1 1 4 1 1 1 22 F/P switch over by % volume 99 Timer for hold pressure 1 Relative pack/hold pressure profile 0 80 100 Gas injection time 20 Timer for core or gas injection 1. The distribution of volumetric shrinkage at the end of post-filling is shown in Figure 14. when the cavity is 99% filled with polymer. the gas volume percentage levels-off after 12 seconds. This is further evidenced by the predicted volumetric shrinkage of several elements in the part (see Figure 13). In this case.655 seconds. The predicted gas penetration in terms of skin-polymer fraction at the end of post-filling and the total gas volume percentage are plotted in Figures 11 and 12. respectively. In this case. suggesting further packing will not reduce the volumetric shrinkage any more. the F/P switch over by % volume serves as the regular fill-to-pack (flow rate control to pressure control) criterion.750 seconds. a pressure equal to 80% of the polymer entrance pressure (specified by the Relative pack/hold pressure profile) at the switch-over point will be used to fill and pack out the cavity until the Timer for hold pressure ends or gas is injected. pressure control will take place. indicating that further holding of the gas pressure will not advance the gas penetration. which levels off after 5 seconds. the total gas volume percentage reduces to 3. In other words. and the preliminary packing ends earlier than the specified one-second duration as the gas injection triggered after 1.3%. Due to pre-packing.750 Gas injection control option 0 Ram speed profile (rel) 0 20 40 60 80 100 50 50 50 50 50 50 10 30 50 70 90 Note that when used with a non-zero Timer for hold pressure. Moreover. whichever comes first. the cavity gets filled after 1. .

Figure 11 Predicted gas penetration in terms of skin-polymer fraction at the end of the full-shot gas injection process. .

Figure 12 Predicted overall gas volume percentage as a function of time for the full-shot process. .

.Figure 13 Predicted volumetric shrinkage of several elements in the part.

. Problems corrected in this release The following two system updates apply to both the Gas-Assisted Injection Molding and Injection Molding modules.Figure 14 Predicted volumetric shrinkage distribution at the end of post-filling. Maximum # of elements An artificial limit of 5000 for the maximum number of elements has been removed.

Maximum pressure difference The simulation now calculates the maximum pressure difference separately in each region. in models containing 1-D elements. the maximum pressure difference was calculated at the same time in every region. we also changed the code to handle: • • Missing elements: situations where the element numbering is not continuous. Isolated nodes: previous releases required you to use the Modeler's Check Mesh function to find and delete free nodes. the node will become filled. we do not take into account compression of 1-D elements. in multiple-cavity system. by including a runner element at the entrance. This caused problems when the maximum pressure difference in different regions occurred at different times. In the injection-compression simulation.fem) file. Aside from the enhancements detailed in the sections below. Microchip Encapsulation A number of changes have been made to Microchip Encapsulation to improve its robustness and usability. the three-digit exponent would cause two numeric fields to "touch" each other. This is consistent with the Filling and Post-Filling simulations. such as the finite element mesh (. Then a following valve gate defined on a connector can be closed at a later time.Entrance nodes on connectors The program now accounts for a modeling situation in which your entrance node is defined on a connector that leads to one or more other connectors. However. Injection Compression Molding Predicted clamp force We made a correction in the predicted clamp force to include 1-D elements. Floating point numbers We solved problems in the Windows NT and Windows 95 versions associated with threedigit representation of exponents for floating point numbers. Closing a valve gate that causes unfilled isolated nodes to occur will cause the program to stop. the clamp force calculation has been revised to include the contribution from the 1-D elements. However. causing a problem when trying to read the file later on. some cavities may fill earlier than other cavities. In previous versions. In some files. unless the node has been filled. for example. For example. . their use in the model is discouraged for this reason. you should not "isolate" nodes-including entrance nodes-by closing a valve gate.

In the first case. Wire sweep.os1 file first. Memory allocation Version 97. Two cases were used for testing. However. where the wire length was about 3 mm. before running Microchip Encapsulation. The small deformation from non-linear C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage is because it does not consider plastic deformation (unlike in ABAQUS). the following TCODE in the .5 mm. The previous version might not have enough memory allocation for Reactive Molding output data.enc file has to be changed.1:Analytic. To use this option.par file for Reactive Molding. the wire sweep values from linear Shrinkage & Warpage were about 12 times bigger than those from ABAQUS. 90020 2 1 Wire Deformation Calc (0:ABAQUS. The wire length in the second case was about 5. a problem arose if the number of design output from Reactive Molding Analysis. On the other hand.8 removed the limits of design output data sets from Reactive Molding. or (2) to specify less than ten design outputs in the .Wire-sweep and paddle-shift analyses Wire-sweep and paddle-shift analyses can now be performed using C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage's new non-linear analysis capability. Reactive Molding enhancements . If there was no . The workaround was (1) to run Reactive Molding to get an . 2:CWARP) 0 : Use ABAQUS for paddle-shift (or wire-sweep) analysis 1 : Analytic equation for wire-sweep analysis 2 : Use non-linear C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage for paddle-shift (or wire-sweep) analysis Comparisons We performed tests and compared the results from ABAQUS and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage.par) file. was larger than 10 (current default = 12). ABAQUS and C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage (linear or non-linear) gave wire sweep values in the same order of magnitude. the non-linear Shrinkage & Warpage values were about 10 times smaller than those from ABAQUS. as specified in the parameter (. In this trial. ABAQUS and non-linear C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage gave similar values.os1 file and Microchip Encapsulation was launching Reactive Molding. Paddle shift. it allowed only up to ten design output data sets from Reactive Molding.

. the above assumptions will introduce error into the predicted results. This problem typically occurred when there were a large number of wires so that the nodal properties associated with fixity of wire bonds became huge. Therefore. The current implementation expects the full "package" thickness.7 if other nodes along the wire happen to have smaller z-coordinates than that of the wedgebonded end node. Entering the thickness of the sub-cavity will cause about a 20% error. and the stiffness of the original structure will not change during the deformation. the sum of the upper and lower sub-cavities. Nodal property label The program used to run into difficulty if the label of the nodal property was larger than the total number of mesh elements in the . However. A numerical NaN (Not a Number) problem will occur with v97. and the stiffness of the part actually could change because of the large deformation. any internal force on the original structure will not change its direction. Shrinkage and Warpage Analysis Geometric linear vs. Gel conversion The new release takes gel conversion equal to 1. transversely isotropic material behavior and thin-shell modeling.0.fem file. Reactive Molding would not output conversion layer fraction as its design output. If the gel conversion was specified as 1. Under these assumptions. Any internal force on the part could change its direction.mtl file to 0. a plastic part can undergo a large deformation after the mold is opened. the program also assumed linear elastic. We've fixed this problem in the new release. not the thickness of the sub-cavity where the wires are located. Wire loop geometry This release is more robust with unusual wire loop geometry. Representative cavity thickness We found that many users did not specify the Representative cavity thickness (TCODE 90100) correctly. namely. non-linear deformations A geometric non-linear analysis option is now available. The workaround was to change gel conversion in the . which caused a problem with Microchip Encapsulation.0 in the previous release.99. Microchip Encapsulation expects the wedge-bonded end node (on the leadframe side) of the wire to have the smallest z-coordinate. The C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage program (versions earlier than 97. if the actual shrinkage and warpage become large.7) previously assumed that only small and geometric linear part deformations occur.The new release does better conversions with calculated results from ABAQUS.

when connectors are used in modeling the part itself. but it does not mean that the predicted deformation must be larger than the results of the previous C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage simulation using linear assumptions. in most cases. the two connected nodes should have the same displacement values. the additional constraints might introduce some error. they will not be included in the calculations. The new. and predicted results will become more accurate for molded parts that exhibit large shrinkage and warpage. in which the loading could result in large deformations. such that results of the calculations now show no relative deformation between the two nodes linked by a connector element. Using connector elements in the model introduces additional constraints on the Shrinkage & Warpage simulation because. when resulting deformation becomes large. and unrealistic displacement values could be predicted by the previous CMOLD Shrinkage & Warpage program. two TCODES are introduced in the parameter file (. Differences to expect The non-linear analysis can give a more accurate solution for large-deformation problems. non-linear analysis option in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage is better used for a service-loading analysis.Accounting for geometric non-linearity releases the constraints of the small and linear deformation assumptions. if you encounter a modeled problem that produces large linear shrinkage and warpage. by definition. using the non-linear analysis option should produce more accurate results compared to the previous C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage results. This problem has been considered and is handled in the updated C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage program. Accounting for geometric non-linearity also gains significance in the service-loading analysis. the non-linear analysis results in smaller predicted deformation. However. When connectors are used in the runner system or between a runner and the cavity. However. On the contrary. Using the non-linear analysis option To use the geometric non-linear analysis option in the updated C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage simulation. The geometric non-linear analysis will handle changes in the internal stresses as well as the stiffness of each element as the part deforms during the calculation. 1 (non-linear) TCODE 613 Maximum number of non-linear s&w iterations Default = 20 Recommended range 1 £ and £ 30 .par): • • TCODE 612 Option for non-linear warpage analysis Default = 0 (linear).

Ansys The ANSYS interface has been updated to accept lines up to 120 characters long.3 format with long line formats. Then run cflowez for Filling/EZ. yet the actual physical property table entry does not exist. Previously it would accept lines of up to 80 characters. arrange all your input files in a working directory and include the cflcom. and so on. After running the filling program. If you use the Control Panel or cmlaunch to run the simulation modules. cweld with no argument would assume Filling/EZ results were present. This change permits the reading of finite element meshes created in ANSYS R5. It is usually more convenient to use the Control Panel for setting up and launching the jobs. Most users won't be notice any difference. this takes care of the cflcom. The FEA Interfaces are available from the File pull-down menu of the Control Panel and the Modeler. cflow for Filling.fnm file and running cweld for you. Previously.FEA Interfaces Patran The Patran mesh interface has been enhanced to handle cases where the mesh elements have a physical property table entry defined. The arguments to cweld are: • • • • flowez (for processing Filling/EZ results) flow (for processing Filling and Filling & Post-filling results) gasflow (for processing Gas-assisted results) set (for processing Reactive results) To run cweld manually. If you run the cweld executable manually-that is. Weldlines and Air Traps Improved usability and maintainability The Weldlines and Air-traps module has been reorganized for better usability and future maintainability.fnm file containing the shared name of the input files. . run cweld manually by typing the command and the appropriate argument (listed above). not from the Control Panel or using cmlaunch-you should note that the program argument is now required. these changes won't affect you. cpack for Filling and Post-filling. IDEAS The IDEAS interface has been updated to accept IDEAS Master Series 5 meshes.

. Even though you dismiss the dialog. The workaround is to save your design before opening the Design Diagnostics dialog. placing the informational message under a file selection dialog. you will be prompted to first save your design when you try to leave the dialog. A general review of the specific heat datasets was also made to ensure consistent data values. Known Problems in this Release Windows stacking out of order The problem On Windows and using Exceed 5.1.1. your Run Now.Material Database Specific heat datasets Some datasets that contained a large number of specific heat versus temperature pairs could cause performance problems with the Control Panel and Process Estimator . the Control Panel analysis launching sequence will sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. or Cancel selection will be processed. If you have not saved your design prior to opening the Design Diagnostics dialog. The solution Dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog with the Close command on the window menu button (in the upper-left corner of the window frame). You can then save your design. Run as Batch. The number of these pairs of datasets has been reduced. Because of the problem stated above. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog.

The C-MOLD web page is also a good place to look for the latest information about our products. your existing keyfile will enable this release.7 release of C-MOLD is a general release available to all customers with current Support & Update agreements. To run 97. . Find the line with the key for C-MOLD that looks like this: 2eac 4f4a 8ah6 8d74 23d6 28gf d373 6k93 cmold NO EXPIRY 12/01/96 15users The date in mm/dd/yy format is your Support & Update expiration date. the incremental release version of a fix or enhancement is noted in the monthly summaries. Keyfiles Provided your Support & Update agreement is current and you are updating from a 96.7 or higher version. please contact your local C-MOLD office. If using your existing keyfile with the 97.1 general release in November of 1996. When applicable. this date must be after 03/31/97. contact your local C-MOLD office (see Appendix B for a listing).Release Notes 97. contact your local C-MOLD office to obtain your new keyfile. Copies of the monthly release notes issued since the last general release are contained in Appendix A of this document. our monthly incremental releases provide for timely problem corrections and the implementation of new features. Running C-MOLD It is now possible to operate in the root directory.7. While uncommon for UNIX users.7 The 97. If you have a question about your Support & Update agreement. You can check your C-MOLD license key for the recorded Support & Update expiration date.7. you will need a new keyfile.7 release from a v4 or 96 release prior to 96. These notes describe what is new since the 97. What's changed in this release? These release notes summarize all that's new and different in the system since the last general release. Monthly releases In addition to twice yearly general releases. If you are updating directly to the 97.7 release results in an inconsistent encryption error. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. some Windows users might want to start in the root directory.

7 is supported on the following hardware platforms and operating systems.0) Digital Alpha AXP (Windows NT) HP700 (HPUX 9.1 release to guide you through the installation process. Note that multiple copies of the same interactive module launched from the Control Panel use a single license and the status report will show only the first process ID that obtained the license for that display. We periodically update this list to reflect currently available and popular operating system levels. • • • • • • • DEC Alpha OSF1 (OSF/1 2. please contact your C-MOLD office. If you want to run CMOLD on an Alpha NT Workstation.1) PC Pentium (Windows NT 3. and window system requirements. how many are currently in use. On Windows. Hardware support summary C-MOLD 97.5 and AIX 4.2. you need to determine the machine that matches the system ID and use the UNIX ps -eaf | grep PID command. although spaces in directory and filenames are more common in Windows than in UNIX. For licenses in use. use the Task Manager to find the user matching the process ID. To track down a particular user running C-MOLD from a UNIX machine.51) PC Pentium (Windows 95)1 SGI (IRIX 5. Please refer to C-MOLD System Administrator Guide for detailed hardware.01) IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3. and how many remain available. For each floating license in the keyfile. You can also install C-MOLD and work in folders whose names contain spaces.Installation procedure This release uses the same interactive procedure as the 97.2) . Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 97 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. software. you can find out the licensed number of seats or nodes. graphics. C-MOLD has been ported to the Digital Alpha generation series of workstations running the Alpha NT version of Windows. Hardware platforms New platform In response to customer requests. This is available on both the UNIX and Windows version. C-MOLD License Manager The License Manager -status command was enhanced to provide you with information about floating licenses in use. the computer system ID and the process ID (PID) using the license are also displayed. See the inside cover of your CD case for complete installation instructions.

you should enter: set CMOLD_SMALL=yes C-MOLD Cooling Simulation . UNIX users In UNIX systems. With the 97. Mold process icon This release corrects a sizing problem with the mold process icon corresponding to the process being simulated. in csh for example.1. but could be confusing. SUN OS 5.• SPARC (Solaris 2. These empty directories were harmless. these directories would sometimes not be removed after the Run Now or Run as Batch job had completed. Windows users Run directories C-MOLD uses run directories for storing intermediate results while the simulations are executing. Small version of C-MOLD It is possible to use a smaller-windowed version of C-MOLD by setting the CMOLD_SMALL environment variable before launching the application. In some of the incremental releases since 97. these temporary run directories are now properly removed once the analysis completes.6 release. On Windows NT and Windows 95 systems.4.4) C-MOLD Control Panel Injection/compression dialog The Design Diagnostics dialog for launching an injection/compression molding process from the Control Panel has been changed to look more like the dialog for launching an injection molding process. This is useful when using a system with limited screen resolution or to maximize screen real estate when you want to work with several windows open at once. the bitmap image of the selected process could be partially obscured by the mesh pull-down menu. you should enter the following: setenv CMOLD_SMALL yes Windows users In Windows systems.

The reason for this change is that changing the region normal direction sometimes produced different cooling results. Accuracy of the solution To judge the accuracy of the Cooling simulation results.par) file.01 percent. so that the program error no longer occurs.4. or to add coolant manifolds to your model. To achieve the correct result. you should refer to the residual value. The iterative solution convergence is checked by comparing each iteration's result to the previous iteration's values. the residual would be zero. A residual greater than about 0. the default value for the mold wall temperature convergence criterion (T-CODE 313) has changed from 0. Note that the residual is not what is being compared against the mold wall temperature convergence criterion.01. and comparing this percentage change to the mold wall . However. For this reason. and re-run the analysis. This will retain the geometry information for your model in case you need to run the analysis again.01 or smaller indicates the results are accurate. The problem was fixed in the 97. The residual is printed in the log file or on the screen at the end of the iterative run. and recalculating it would dramatically increase the computation time of the cooling analysis. In this case. we needed to reduce the mold wall temperature convergence criterion. The workaround was either not to run a cooling analysis when you had no coolant manifolds defined. indicates that the solution has not yet reached the desired level of accuracy. you should reduce the mold wall temperature convergence criterion by a factor of two. but in some cases. you do still need to define at least one coolant manifold in order to run a Cooling analysis. The change increases the accuracy of results at the expense of a longer computation time. at the end of the iterative solution. For an exact solution. with the exception of a change in the region normal definition. This could be seen by comparing the results of two cooling analyses run on the same geometry. you should also turn on the Save restart file (T-CODE 520) switch in the parameter file by setting its value to 1. This value is set in the parameter (. the residual is computed only once. and save about onethird the computation time. Reducing computation time To save computation time.6 incremental release. A value of about 0. Mold wall temperature convergence criterion Change in the default value With the January 1997 incremental release of C-MOLD 97.Coolant manifolds Attempting to run a Coolant Flow simulation when there were no coolant manifolds (circuits) defined in your model used to cause a program error. The results should have been identical. The residual is computationally expensive to calculate. they were not because the solution had not converged.05 to 0. You should keep in mind that the restart file can occupy a lot of disk space.

C-MOLD Coolant Flow The Coolant Flow simulation has been re-written to make the code easier to maintain and to improve the robustness and accuracy of the product.3 and earlier versions. total-flow-rate solutions.temperature convergence criterion. if one uses the predicted (output) total flow rate as the input. We present three examples below. Correction of the Reynold's number calculation in certain situations. Example 1: Cooling channels with large D/L ratios The first example deals with a cooling circuit that contains one disk-like cooling channel element with a large D/L ratio (as shown at the junction between the largest and the smallest channel elements in the top section in Figure 1). and compare the predictions from the previous version (C-MOLD 97.4 incremental release. . The customer also benefits in the following ways. Consistent total-pressure-drop vs. the iterations stop. and successfully produces solutions. However.. Namely. When the percentage change from one iteration to the next is less than the mold wall temperature convergence criterion.4 handles elements with large D/L ratios without having to re-mesh. D/L > 40). More robust behavior in handling disk-like cooling channel elements with large diameter/length (D/L) ratios (e. as shown in the lower section in Figure 1. Capability of handling bubblers and baffles with variable (step-wise or tapered) cross sections. the new implementation in C-MOLD 97. and then the residual is computed. the new analysis will generate the original total pressure drop. Elimination of program defects that occasionally caused questionable pressure distribution predictions in bubblers.3 and earlier) with those of the new version. This disk-like cooling channel element will cause abnormal termination of the Coolant Flow analysis in C-MOLD 97. Examples The new Coolant Flow analysis became available beginning with the 97. The workaround for this problem is to re-mesh the cooling channels so that the D/L ratio is at least larger than 1.g. Benefits to the customer • • • • • • Better computational efficiency with no change in the usage of the analysis and output data.

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Figure 1 Example 2: Coolant pressure distribution in bubblers The second example involves a combination of parallel bubblers (four in a group) connected in series. and the more reasonable solution is shown in Figure 3.4. the pressure at the tips of the bubblers predicted by older versions of C-MOLD is actually higher than the predicted pressure at upstream locations. one would expect to see a monotonic decrease in pressure from the base of the bubbler to its tip.3 and earlier versions is shown in Figure 2. as the pressure drop is the driving force for coolant flow. however. The problem has been fixed in C-MOLD 97. Figure 2 Normally. The coolant pressure distribution along the bubblers predicted by CMOLD 97. . As Figure 2 illustrates.

the required overall pressure drop to deliver a user-specified flow rate is 400 Pa (0.Figure 3 Example 3: Pressure distribution in elements with variable diameters This example illustrates the functionality added in C-MOLD 97. inner and outer flow paths. which enables the Coolant Flow analysis to handle bubblers and baffles that have variable (step-wise or tapered) diameters.0004 MPa). Most of the pressure drop occurs along each of the bubblers. Shown in Figure 4 is the predicted pressure distribution within a group of five straight bubblers. connected in parallel. For this case. which have higher flow resistance due to the divided. . There is only a small pressure drop along the two cooling channels that connect the five bubblers.4.

as shown in Figure 5. This new function in C-MOLD 97.Figure 4 If one employs bubblers with step-wise cross sections.400 Pa) as a result of more restrictive flow areas. . the required pressure drop increases significantly (from 400 Pa to 5.4 makes it possible to simulate cases in which bubblers or baffles of variable diameters are used due to special design requirements.

Previously. consideration of juncture losses should be included in your simulation. The change allows for the juncture loss calculation to take place whenever the runner diameter changes. To model juncture losses. Enhancement of juncture loss model . C1 and C2. there needed to be a change of diameter greater than or equal to 2 for the juncture loss calculation to take place.Figure 5 C-MOLD Filling & Post-Filling Simulation Juncture loss calculation The Filling and Post-Filling simulations have improved handling of the juncture loss calculations. When you are especially concerned about pressure losses in the melt delivery system. See Appendix C of C-MOLD Rapid Designer User's Guide for more information. C-MOLD uses the two Bagley correction constants.

Remember that in those versions. juncture loss was applied to pressure calculations only when two consecutive runner or gate elements had a diameter ratio greater than 2. Impact on releases prior to 97. and the net effect depends on the C2 value: If C2 = 1 then C1 is 1/10 of what it should be. however. This model can accurately describe the extra pressure loss at the juncture of a tube and a reservoir. Now: • • If the diameter ratio equals 1. Based on this information.5 release. In a typical runner and gate design. we enhanced the juncture loss calculations by using a continuous model that can be applied to all runner and gate elements in the mesh. we can report that you should see improved results when using C-MOLD 97. Incorrect C1 value in juncture loss conversion It came to our attention recently that there was a problem with the reported juncture-loss data for materials tested in the C-MOLD Polymer Laboratory. Therefore. With the 97. then extra pressure drop equals zero (no juncture loss occurs when the diameters are the same). The data from the C-MOLD simulation was compared to experimental data generated at the Cornell Injection Molding program. this extra pressure drop equals zero at the juncture of two tubes with the same diameter.1 release. It is a continuous model.12 release. when there was an abrupt change in gate or runner sizes. The mistake occurred when converting from CGS to SI units. Corrections to 97. then extra pressure drop equals the calculated value from the C1 and C2 model. the juncture loss (or extra pressure drop) is not as significant as the data derived from capillary viscosity data. We ran a series of simulations to gauge the effect of using the correct C1 value and the enhanced juncture-loss modeling. C1 is undervalued. If the diameter ratio equals infinity.1. If C2 = 2 then C1 is 1/100 of what it should be. In the limiting case.1 We expect that there would be little impact on the simulations you may have run using CMOLD releases prior to 97.5 release Corrections have been made to the C-MOLD resin database and were included in the 97. This meant that the extra pressure loss was applied only to elements with an abrupt change in size between them. in other words. so it can be applied to all runner and gate elements in the mesh. the juncture-loss calculations were applied only when the ratio of the diameters of two consecutive runner elements was greater than 2. the abrupt size change is not as drastic as the change between a tube and a reservoir. Prior to the C-MOLD 96.5 and later releases. Tests also showed that: . and led to a very close match with the experimental data.The C1 and C2 juncture loss model was derived from capillary viscosity data.

3 incremental release. This problem was resolved in the 97. problems have surfaced in the field in which models either can no longer be read into the Modeler or become corrupted (unreadable) after being read into the Modeler and saved. tolerance problems with reading IGES and GEO format models were corrected.7 and 97. C-MOLD Modeler Point attributes We fixed a problem involving the deletion of point attributes when running on 64-bit UNIX machines.5 incremental release of the Modeler addresses this serious problem with a collection of fixes. You are then able to reload that model and retain all the . and you are prompted to save the model immediately. Likewise.12 release to solve a problem involved in importing several IGES models. merging them often caused the model to become corrupted. In previous releases. are not allowed. Mesh Mesh nodes The Mesh pull-down menu contains commands for editing mesh nodes and elements. When these duplicate points were used by other entities yet to be read from the model. duplicate entities. The problem was traced to the tightening of the internal tolerance. which caused more points to be identified as duplicates and merged.• • Using the incorrect C1 value and the old juncture-loss calculation methods made no difference to the predicted gate pressure. To determine when two points are at the "same" location. The 97. a tolerance needs to be used. the information up to the point of damage is successfully read. New mesh size checks were added to avoid this. Mesh size An infinite loop used to occur if meshing was performed on surface or region boundaries when no mesh size information was assigned. Using the correct value of C1 with the old juncture-loss calculation method led to over-prediction of juncture loss. Our tests indicate that the 97. you could not delete them. Although you could previously set and query point attributes like polymer entrances. This tolerance was decreased in the 96. such as the MIPS IV SGI and DEC Alpha.1 versions of the Modeler. Duplicate entities Due to internal constraints in the Modeler's geometry database. moving mesh nodes could cause the Modeler to crash under certain circumstances. Now when the Modeler attempts to read a corrupted model.5 and later releases of the Modeler can successfully read and save uncorrupted models created by both 96. Although internal testing on hundreds of models uncovered no problems with this tolerance change. such as points.

slf service loading file output from the Modeler was being incorrectly read by the Windows version of the Shrinkage and Warpage module. it can also happen on models built entirely within the Modeler. you can now specify any of the seven constants as either a positive or negative value. there is a single. not all constants were allowed to be negative. Although the model corruption problem is most prevalent when importing large IGES models containing many closely spaced points. In a solid model. Non-zero loads or moments could possibly be interpreted incorrectly. In the IGES representation. To manually detect and clean up duplicate points: 1 Select the Edit Geometry. In this way. This results in two boundary curves-at the same or nearly the same physical location-at the boundary between the two faces. when adding your own data for the Moldflow 2nd order viscosity model. Merge Points command from the Modeler. the task of detecting other duplicated entities is left to the user.uncorrupted information. leading to incorrect results. Since the current IGES import function performs only duplicate point detection and clean up. each face can get its own set of boundary curves. . your converted IGES model will be a "legal" C-MOLD model C-MOLD Rapid Designer In response to user requests. Problems with IGES models Why do the IGES models sometimes cause problems in the Modeler? One reason for the duplicated points and entities is that many IGES models originate from solid models. The Modeler's internal geometry database does not allow for duplicated points and entities. Previously.4 incremental release. 2 Query Geometry on these points to find which entities reference the points and then clean up these entities. C-MOLD Shrinkage and Warpage Analysis Windows users The . The problem was corrected in the 97. and choose a method of merging points. shared joining boundary curve. The system will display messages informing you which points it can't merge. where two faces join.

7 version. Chapter 4 and Appendix B of the C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage User's Guide describes this in more detail.. Z translations and rotations about X. and Z axes) are needed.Fixities When performing the Shrinkage and Warpage Analysis the model needs to be constrained for rigid-body translations and rotations. due to its formulation. Six degrees of fixity (X. the free rigidbody motions are prevented by fixing six degrees of freedom at three nodes. The change in the neutral (. When comparing to measurements of an actual part.. Y.g. required the fixities to be defined at three nodes. The second node lies on the line N1-N2 of the initial shape.8 format instead of G12. This is possible because of a reworking of the element formulation used in C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage and an increase in the numerical precision of the neutral (. Previously.g. With the differences in the anchor plane . the translations are set to zero. cavity in a multicavity mold). an anchor plane should be defined to match the constraints on the measuring device. For each substructure. that is.1 In the 97. The third node lays in the plane defined by N1-N2-N3 of the initial shape. each substructure has its six fixities assigned.. Version 97. the six degrees of fixity are determined by the C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage module. anchor plane). This new element formulation is somewhat stiffer than before. These three nodes were determined by C-MOLD Residual Stress and stored in the neutral (. in each substructure (e.g. Distance between nodes is the best way to compare results because it does not depend on the coordinate system (e. which will reduce predicted warpage. the requirement of three nodes is removed and the fixities can be placed at a single node.1 version. it is important to consider that displacement is related to the fixities and corresponding best fit transformation. if the part consists of several mechanically independent substructures (e.7 In the 97. Version 97. a node near the geometric center of the substructure is found and the translations and rotations set to zero there. you should review it to see if any changes are needed. At the first node. Y. but usually with slightly smaller changes to the original distance due to the stiffer element formulation.neu) file.neu) file to a structural analysis program. which.neu) file involves using G16.4 format. This makes the module easier to develop and verify as well as more efficient computationally. This provides up to four additional digits of precision to prevent unbalanced loads from accumulated truncation errors. With new enhancements to Allman's element based on research at the Cornell Injection Molding Program. Distance results You can expect that distance results will be close to previous values. When reviewing displacement results in C-MOLD Visualizer. we've used Allman's membrane element.neu) file. a multi-cavity mold where each cavity is treated separately). CMOLD Residual Stress chooses these three nodes for each substructure of the part. If you have developed your own interface from the neutral (.

trying to compare displacement contour or shaded plots is not feasible because redefining the anchor plane in C-MOLD Visualizer does not affect the contour and data-shaded plots. different fixities were used (the anchor plane defined in the neutral file for 97. the results look different between the two versions. analytical derivation and numerical tests showed the new formulation eliminates disadvantages in the previous formulation.1 results. 4 Run C-MOLD Shrinkage & Warpage on the same model and use the Visualizer to open the new outputs. 2 Establish the anchor plane to match how your physical data was measured or to a convenient reference. as seen from the distance between nodes results. During development of the revised Allman's element. C-MOLD Visualizer's Select Anchor Plane plot will be helpful here. Now notice how the displacement plot shown as a contour or data-shaded plot looks different than before.definition between the two versions. during the calculation. 1 Use C-MOLD Visualizer to open the Shrinkage & Warpage outputs on your 97. Of course the original distances should be identical and the computed distances should correspond with your recorded values. C-MOLD Visualizer The enhancements in the C-MOLD Visualizer have centered on the print function in this general release. Printing PCX The PCX hard copy driver now supports direct color and/or pseudocolor visuals. Comparing results between versions To do the comparison on your model. . Since redefining the anchor plane in C-MOLD Visualizer does not affect the contour and data-shaded plots. 3 Query the distance between important datum nodes in your model and record the information. the versions give close to the same answers. 5 Establish the anchor plane using the same nodes used before and again query the distance between the nodes recorded earlier. which is coordinate-system independent.1 and the "geometric center node" for 97.7). However. Note the node labels of your reference plane. This is because. follow these steps.

Moldflow interface Moldflow release 9 files are now supported. FEA Interfaces The number of formats with which C-MOLD can interface has increased. you'll still need to specify the proper polymer entrances. and IDEAS interfaces Polymer entrance nodes The default number of polymer entrance nodes has changed from one to zero. This will bypass the prompts for the polymer entrance node values. FEA Interfaces menu in the Control Panel and the Modeler. You can run the Moldflow Release 9 to CMOLD Mesh (mf90fem) interface by typing its name at a command prompt or from the File. The FEA Interfaces are available from the File pull-down menu on the Control Panel and the Modeler. If you don't know the entrance node numbers. The black/white reverse option is available for both TIFF and RGB outputs. Ansys. This can be done in the FEA . Before running a C-MOLD analysis. you can accept the default value (zero) by pressing Enter when prompted for the number of polymer entrance nodes.Print dialog The print dialog has been modified to merge the White-to-black and Black background toggles into a single Reverse black/white toggle. Patran. This requested change makes it easier to translate a file when the node numbers are unknown. and the translation requirements have changed slightly in this release.

On Windows 95 and NT versions. User Interface The user interface of C-MOLD's interactive modules-the Control Panel. PATRAN A problem in translating part runner elements from PATRAN format files has been corrected. and Rapid Designer-was changed slightly in this release. these icons are now attached to common Windows application programs. Modeler. The fully indexed C-MOLD documentation is now only a mouse click away whenever you need a quick reference. global sharing of C-MOLD simulation results with internal and external customers and project team members. and will eventually have the capability to select specific enhancements that can be immediately downloaded to produce custom software. On-line browsing capabilities We've added a new icon to the system palette in the form of a bookshelf. you'll find a series of icons in the lower right side of the window called the system palette. The user can also use this tool to access other Web-based resources. Ansys C-MOLD now supports Ansys release 5. When selected. such as material suppliers' home pages or industry forums. System palette Windows users In Windows versions of the C-MOLD interactive modules. Sending e-mail from within C-MOLD allows for real-time. A graphical icon also allows the user to send e-mail from within the C-MOLD environment. Visualizer.Interface by giving the number of entrance nodes and their labels or by using the C-MOLD Modeler to assign the polymer entrances. Future applications of this capability include the ability to download material or molding machine data from the C-MOLD Web site or from a supplier site directly into the CMOLD database. Users have the ability to view C-MOLD's monthly incremental releases on the Web. Known Problems in this Release .3. the icon launches an HTML browser on our on-line documentation titles. These icons allow for easy access to such functions as starting an editor or reading your mail.

Windows stacking out of order The problem On Windows and using Exceed 5. placing the informational message under a file selection dialog. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. Run as Batch. If you have not saved your design prior to opening the Design Diagnostics dialog. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence will sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order.1. . or Cancel selection will be processed. your Run Now. The workaround is to save your design before opening the Design Diagnostics dialog. Because of the problem stated above. The solution Dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog with the Close command on the window menu button (in the upper-left corner of the window frame). You can then save your design. Even though you dismiss the dialog. you will be prompted to first save your design when you try to leave the dialog.1.

The information-packed Installation Guide has been renamed C-MOLD System Administrator Guide. and is intended for use by your system administrator for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. The following incremental release notes make up this appendix: C-MOLD 97.6 Release Notes C-MOLD 97. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release.3 Release Notes C-MOLD 97. UNIX machines These instructions will work for the following hardware platforms: HP 9000. Sun SPARC Solaris 2. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer.4).4 Release Notes C-MOLD 97. consult your system administrator. If you run into problems installing the new release. DEC AXP OSF/1. Installation Procedure This release uses a new interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. You might need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or install C-MOLD to a restricted directory. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 97 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.2 Release Notes C-MOLD 97. Our last general release to all customers with current support & update agreements was made in November of 1996. . and SGI (MIPS 1 and MIPS IV).4 (OS5. contact your local C-MOLD sales and technical support office.Appendix A: Incremental Release Notes Incremental releases provide a method for us to quickly provide problem resolution as well as early implementation of new features. SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions. IBM RS6000.2 Release Notes These notes describe what is new in this release.5 Release Notes C-MOLD 97.

where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. Windows NT and 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT or Windows 95. Problems Corrected in this Release . IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. type mkdir cdrom_dir. Previously. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. 5 Type install. 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration.2 For all but SGI computers. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions. Filling & Post-Filling These analyses have improved handling of the juncture loss calculation. there needed to be a change of diameter greater or equal to 2 for the juncture loss calculation to take place. 4 Type cd cdrom_dir. and follow the on-screen instructions. 2 Run setup. The change allows for juncture loss calculations to take place whenever the runner diameter changes. C-MOLD Visualizer allows enabling of black/white reversal for both TIFF and RGB outputs.exe Enhancements in this Release Visualizer PCX hard copy driver now supports direct color and/or pseudocolor visuals. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration.

where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. Sun SPARC Solaris 2. type mkdir cdrom_dir.3 Release Notes These notes describe what is new in this release. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration.4). consult your system administrator. UNIX machines These instructions will work for the following hardware platforms: HP 9000. and is intended for use by your system administrator for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. The information-packed Installation Guide has been renamed C-MOLD System Administrator Guide. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or to install C-MOLD to a restricted directory. 2 For all but SGI computers. SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 97 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes.com or in hard copy format.4 (OS5. It is available in HTML format on the CD. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. C-MOLD 97. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. and SGI (MIPS 1 and MIPS IV).C-MOLD Injection Compression Molding simulation can now be launched from the CMOLD Control Panel. DEC AXP OSF/1. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir . A printed copy was included with the November general release. from our web site www. Installation Procedure This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. contact your local C-MOLD sales and technical support office.cmold. If you run into problems installing the new release. IBM RS6000. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir.

HP users will need to type .exe Enhancements in this Release FEA Interfaces Ansys release 5. you can now specify any of the seven constants as either a positive or negative value. A future release of C-MOLD will add this interface to the pull-down menus. 4 Type cd cdrom_dir./install. Previously. Intel CPU: 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. not all constants were allowed to be negative. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.3 is now supported. 2 Run setup. The mf90fem program is not yet installed in the pull-down menus of the Control Panel and the Modeler. .exe Alpha AXP CPU: 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD./INSTALL\.SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. 2 Run setup. Rapid Designer When adding your own data for the Moldflow 2nd order viscosity model. Windows NT and 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT or Windows 95. Visualizer The print dialog has been modified to merge the "white to black" and "black background" toggles into a single "reverse black/white" toggle.. and follow the on-screen instructions. 5 Type . You can run the mf90fem interface by typing its name at a command prompt. Moldflow R9 files are now supported.

C-MOLD It is now possible to operate in the root (/) directory.3 release. C-MOLD 97. moving mesh nodes could cause the Modeler to crash. Problems Corrected in this Release Modeler A problem involving moving mesh nodes which may cause the Modeler to crash has been corrected. It is available in HTML format on the CD or in hard copy format. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 97 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. consult your system administrator. contact your local C-MOLD sales and technical support office. In certain circumstances. A printed copy was included with the November general release.4 Release Notes These notes describe what is new in this release. If you run into problems installing the new release. Installation procedure A problem copying your existing key file to the new installation location has been corrected. C-MOLD has been ported to the Digital Alpha generation series of workstations running the Alpha NT version of Windows. and is intended for use by your system administrator for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. In response to customer requests. please contact your C-MOLD sales and technical support office. It is now possible to install C-MOLD and to work in folders whose names contain spaces. In the mesh pull-down menu there are commands for editing mesh nodes and elements. Installation Procedure This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. The information-packed Installation Guide has been renamed C-MOLD System Administrator Guide. If you want to run C-MOLD on an Alpha NT workstation. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or to install C-MOLD to a restricted directory. some Windows users may want to start in the root directory. This problem has been corrected in the 97. Digital Alpha AXP workstations running Windows NT are now supported. . While uncommon for UNIX users. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. This is available on both the UNIX and Windows versions of C-MOLD although spaces in directory and filenames are more common in Windows than in UNIX.

2 Run setup. Intel CPU: 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD./install. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.UNIX machines These instructions will work for the following hardware platforms: HP 9000. HP users will need to type ./INSTALL\. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. IBM RS6000. 2 Run setup. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. DEC AXP OSF/1. type mkdir cdrom_dir. 5 Type . SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode. and follow the on-screen instructions. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir.4). where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration.4 (OS5. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration.exe Alpha AXP CPU: 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. Windows NT and 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT or Windows 95. Sun SPARC Solaris 2. and SGI (MIPS 1 and MIPS IV). 4 Type cd cdrom_dir.. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive.exe . 2 For all but SGI computers.

Elimination of program defects that occasionally caused questionable pressure distribution predictions in bubblers. If the residual is greater than that. Capability of handling bubblers and baffles that have variable (step-wise or tapered) cross sections.01 percent is a balance between the increased computation time and the increased accuracy.05 to 0. Namely.par) file. Cooling Analysis The default value of the mold wall temperature convergence criterion has been changed from 0.01 percent. Reducing the mold wall temperature convergence criterion reduces this effect.g. Objectives: • • • Rewriting the C-MOLD Coolant Flow Analysis code for easy maintenance and extension in the future. D/L > 4. Making necessary modifications to improve the robustness and accuracy of the CMOLD Coolant Flow Analysis. Making use of state-of-the-art software development tools and functions for shorter time-to-market development cycle and better computational efficiency. This change increases the accuracy of results at the expense of a longer computation time. This requested change makes it easier to translate a file when the node numbers are unknown.01 or smaller indicates the results are accurate. FEA Interfaces In Ansys. you may want to halve the mold wall temperature convergence criterion and re-run the cooling analysis. when prompted . if one uses the predicted (output) total flow rate as the input.Enhancements in this Release Coolant Flow The Coolant Flow Analysis has been re-written with the following objectives and benefits. total-flow-rate solutions. If you don't know the entrance node numbers. To judge the accuracy of the cooling analysis result. A value of about 0. the new analysis will generate the original total pressure drop. More robust behavior in handling "disk-like" cooling-channel elements with large diameter/length (D/L) ratio (e. Patran. The mold wall temperature convergence criterion is set in the parameter (. and IDEAS interfaces. In some cases. Benefits: • • • • • Better computational efficiency with no change in the usage of the analysis and output data. The value of 0. the default number of polymer entrance nodes has changed from one to zero. it was noted that only changing the definition of the region normal incorrectly changed the cooling analysis results.0). Consistent total-pressure-drop vs. you should consider the residual value displayed with the console messages at the end of the cooling analysis..

for licenses in use. Moldflow R9 is now available in the FEA Interfaces menu. Before running a C-MOLD analysis. Previously "duplicated" points from the IGES file would be removed from the entity being processed without checking against other entities that may possibly have used the duplicate point. and how many remain available is displayed. You can also run the mf90fem interface by typing its name at a command prompt. although you could set and query point attributes such as polymer entrances. such as the MIPS IV SGI and DEC Alpha. At this time . how many are currently in use. use the Task Manager to find the user matching the PID. This will bypass the prompts for the polymer entrance node values. has been fixed. On Windows machines. you still need to specify the proper polymer entrances. New mesh size checks are made to avoid this. To track down a particular user running C-MOLD you need to determine the machine that matches the system ID and use the UNIX ps -eaf | grep PID command. Problems Corrected in this Release Modeler A problem involving the deletion of point attributes running on 64-bit UNIX machines. just press the Enter key to accept the default value of zero. Previously. The FEA Interfaces were enhanced in the 97. In addition. Then open the geometry data you just saved. The IGES translator now automatically collapses points using a tolerance of 1. information about the licensed number seats or nodes. Note that multiple copies of the same interactive module launched from the Control Panel use a single license and the status report will show only the first process ID that obtained the license for that display. An infinite loop could occur if meshing was performed on surface or region boundaries when no mesh size information was assigned. this support is extended to make the Moldflow R9 to C-MOLD Mesh interface available from the FEA Interfaces menu in the Control Panel and the Modeler.3 release to include support for Moldflow R9 files.for the number of polymer entrance nodes.0e-10. This can be done in the FEA Interface by giving the number of entrance nodes and their labels or using the C-MOLD Modeler to assign the polymer entrances. License Manager The License Manager -status command has been enhanced to provide information about floating licenses in use. This change resolves errors involving importing IGES files with points very close together. and connectors (1D elements) may still be corrupted because they partially depend on topology information which may be in the corrupted portion of the original CVG file. the computer system ID and the process ID (PID) using the license is displayed. cooling channels.4 release. If you encounter an error while reading a CVG Modeler geometry file. For each floating license in the keyfile. The new way collapses points in a safer manner. you could not delete them. Runners. you can save all the geometry that was read in before the error by immediately using the Save Geometry As function in the File pulldown menu. In the 97.

find which points can not be merged. each face can get its own set of boundary curves. and process conditions files.slf service loading file output from the Modeler was being incorrectly read by the Windows version of the Shrinkage and Warpage module. In order to save the design you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. Duplicated entity detection and clean up is left to the user. material. The problem is corrected in 97. C-MOLD Shrinkage and Warpage: The . In a solid model. License Manager Some users reported that running the License Manager on an IBM workstation. there is a single shared joining boundary curve. where two faces join. In any case. IGES licenses were not being freed after the Modeler process was killed by the user. and using the "Use Existing" option to select the mesh. Query Geometry on these points to find which entities reference the points and then clean up these entities. however. Windows versions C-MOLD Control Panel: When starting a new design. Run as Batch.4. However.4. the enhanced -status option will make it easier to see where licenses are being used. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. or Cancel-will be processed.1. The current IGES import function does duplicated point detection and clean up. a problem remains for Exceed 5.there is no way to delete these corrupted 1D-type elements. The problem is corrected in 97. The Modeler's internal geometry database does not allow for duplicated points and entities. At the boundary between the two faces. From the messages generated by the Merge Points command. . Changes to the License Manager to implement the enhanced license status reporting are expected to remove any possibility of this occurring. your selection-either Run Now. there can be two boundary curves occupying the same or nearly the same physical location. Why do the IGES models cause problems in the Modeler? One reason for the duplicated points and entities is that many IGES models are originally from solid models. In the IGES representation.1 users where the dialogs stack in the incorrect order. Move Geometry command to move the corrupted 1D-type elements away from the good portions of your model. and then going to Design Diagnostics directly without first saving your design it was possible to corrupt your mesh. you can use the Edit Geometry. This apparently occurred often enough to be a problem. material. and after you were prompted to save your design and answered the next prompt to overwrite the design file. In this way. Non-zero loads or moments could possibly be interpreted incorrectly leading to incorrect results. This only happened on Windows. or process conditions files. your IGES model will be safely converted. but not enough for easy debugging. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog.

Installation on a Digital Alpha AXP workstation running Windows NT 4.0 failed in the 97.3 release. There is a problem in the InstallShield installation program. The workaround was to perform the installation under Windows NT 3.51 and copy the C-MOLD folder to the Windows NT 4.0 machine. With the 97.4 release, this problem has been resolved.

Known Problems in this Release
Coolant Flow
The Coolant Flow Analysis requires that all coolant manifold IDs defined in the process conditions (.prc) file exist in the modeled mesh (.fem) file. For example, if there are only two cooling manifolds defined in the mesh and there are three or more cooling manifolds defined in the process conditions, you will receive a message that the coolant entrance and exit are not defined. The workaround is to remove the extra cooling manifold specifications from the process conditions file.

Windows and Exceed 5.1.1
The Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order, putting the informational message under a file selection dialog. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog, when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. However, the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the save design selection dialog. In order to save the design, you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. Even though you dismiss the design diagnostics dialog, your selection-either Run Now, Run as Batch, or Cancel-will be processed. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. The Design Diagnostics analysis program launching dialog does not properly set the "fast" cooling analysis option. Although you can set the option, it is not properly passed to the Cooling module, which then performs a full analysis. The work-around is to prepare all your input files, including cflcom.fnm containing the filename of your input files, and manual run ccool -fast. Please contact your technical support office for additional details.

C-MOLD 97.5 Release Notes
These notes describe what is new in this release. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release, contact your local C-MOLD sales and technical support office.

Installation procedure
This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 97 without system administrator assistance in less than ten minutes. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or to

install C-MOLD to a restricted directory. If you run into problems installing the new release, consult your system administrator. The information-packed Installation Guide has been renamed C-MOLD System Administrator Guide, and is intended for use by your system administrator for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. It is available in HTML format on the CD or in hard copy format. A printed copy was included with the November general release.

UNIX machines
These instructions will work for the following hardware platforms: HP 9000, DEC AXP OSF/1, IBM RS6000 and PowerPC, Sun SPARC Solaris 2.4 (OS5.4), and SGI (MIPS 1 and MIPS IV). SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. 2 For all but SGI computers, type mkdir cdrom_dir, where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir, where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir, where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions. 4 Type cd cdrom_dir. 5 Type ./install, and follow the on-screen instructions. HP users will need to type ./INSTALL\;.

Windows NT and 95 machines
Follow these instructions if you're running on Windows NT or Windows 95. Intel CPU:

1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. 2 Run setup.exe Alpha AXP CPU: 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD. 2 Run setup.exe

Enhancements in this Release
Injection/ Compression
The launch dialog from the Control Panel for the injection/compression molding process has been changed to be more like the injection molding process launch dialog.

FEA Interfaces
The femchk interface to check C-MOLD-format finite-element mesh (.fem) files has been enhanced to allow for un-ordered nodes and/or elements. When nodes or elements are found to be out of order, they will be renumbered. Consecutively numbered nodes and elements are required for C-MOLD analyses.

Windows on interactive modules
In C-MOLD interactive modules, such as the Control Panel, Modeler, and Visualizer, at the lower right side of the window are a series of icons called the System Palette. These icons allow for easy access to such functions as starting an editor or reading your mail. On Windows 95 and NT versions, these icons are now attached to common Windows application programs.

Problems Corrected in this Release
Modeler
Due to internal constraints in the Modeler's geometry database, duplicated entities, such as points, are not allowed. To determine when two points are at the "same" location, a tolerance needs to be used. In the 96.12 release, this tolerance was decreased in order to solve a problem involved in importing several IGES models. Although internal testing on hundreds of models uncovered no problems with this tolerance change, in the field problems have surfaced where models either can no longer be read into the Modeler or become corrupted (unreadable) after being read into the Modeler and saved. The problem was traced to the tightening of the internal tolerance, which caused more points to be identified as duplicates and merged. When these duplicate points were used by other entities yet to be read from the model, merging them could cause the model to become corrupted.

You are then able to reload that model and retain all the uncorrupted information.7 and 97.DLL. In the previous release. The model corruption problem is most prevalent when importing large IGES models containing many closely spaced points. Any extra definitions in the process conditions file are ignored.5 incremental release of the Modeler addresses this serious problem with a collection of fixes.DLL. Installation On Windows 95 and NT platforms.fem) file.4 release. the information up to the point of damage is successfully read. and you are prompted to save the model immediately. the Design Diagnostics analysis launching dialog did not properly set the fast cooling analysis option.5 Modeler can successfully read and save uncorrupted models created by both 96.4 release would report a missing dynamic link library. Refer to the C-MOLD 97. This is now corrected. MSVCRT. Although you could set the option. The instructions there referred to lines not present in the file. a new Coolant Flow simulation was shipped. With these fixes.5 release. an error would be generated. the 97. which then would perform a full simulation. Likewise. With the 97. However. The System Administrator Guide provides information about how to modify the Cmold application defaults file to use the OpenGL version of the Visualizer by default. In that release. If you have run into corrupted models or often import IGES models. Although not common for UNIX users. Microsoft has changed the naming of their DLLs to no longer include the version number in the library name. when the Modeler attempts to read a corrupted model.5 release.4 Release Notes for details. Changes in the Control Panel now allow this.prc) file did not match the number of manifolds in the mesh (. tolerance problems with reading IGES and GEO format models are corrected. it can happen on models built entirely within the Modeler. Known Problems in this Release . The workaround was to copy the MSVCRT40. Cooling Analysis A problem in running the fast cooling option of the Cooling simulation has been corrected. if the number of cooling manifolds (circuits) defined in the process conditions (. you are encouraged to install and run this incremental release. running in the root directory may be common for PC users. In the 97.1 versions of the Modeler. Control Panel Running in the root directory is now possible. This has been revised so that the number of manifolds defined in the mesh is used to determine if there are enough definitions in the process conditions file.DLL to MSVCRT. this problem has been resolved.The 97. it was not properly passed to the Cooling module. these lines are included in the application defaults file. In the 97. Our tests indicate that the 97.

Most users will be able to install C-MOLD 97 in less than ten minutes. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. Please refer to the Search the C-MOLD Material Database Web page to see what data is available for every material included. when you try to leave the dialog you will be prompted to first save your design. and is intended for use by your system administrator for setting up special configurations and/or troubleshooting system problems. However. or Cancel-will be processed. Run as Batch. C-MOLD 97. Coolant Flow Attempting to run a Coolant Flow simulation when there are no cooling manifolds (circuits) defined in your model will cause a program error. For information on obtaining the latest monthly incremental release. putting the informational message under a file selection dialog.5. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. Installation Procedure This release uses an interactive procedure that guides you through the installation process. you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order. In order to save the design. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. This limitation will be removed in the next release.1. A printed copy was included with the November 1996 general release. without system administrator assistance.5 Material Database Changes. contact your local C-MOLD sales and technical support office. The workaround is to add cooling manifolds to your model. If you run into problems installing the new release. your selection-either Run Now. Material Database Changes Changes in the C-MOLD Material Database that have been implemented since the previous update are summarized in C-MOLD 97.6 Release Notes These notes describe what is new in this release. The information-packed Installation Guide has been renamed C-MOLD System Administrator Guide. It is available in HTML format on the CD or in hard copy format. consult your system administrator.1.Windows and Exceed 5. You may need superuser privileges in order to mount the CD or to install C-MOLD to a restricted directory. . If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog.1 On Windows and using Exceed 5.

1). IBM: type mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 cdrom_dir Sun: type mount -F hsfs -r /dev/sr0 cdrom_dir SGI: The mount is done automatically by the media daemon to /CDROM or /cdrom. Sun SPARC (tested on Solaris 2. type . 2 For all but SGI computers.4). where device is the device name for your particular hardware configuration. and follow the on-screen instructions.exe Alpha AXP CPU (Windows NT): . newer versions of operating systems are upward compatible. Typically. 2 Run setup.3. 5 For all but HP computers.20)./INSTALL\.UNIX machines These instructions will work for the following hardware platforms: HP 9000 (tested on HPUX 9.1). and 6. Substitute the appropriate name (/CDROM or /cdrom) for cdrom_dir in the subsequent instructions.2 and OSF/1.. SGI users should install the MIPS IV version only if they are using a machine with an R8000 or higher CPU that is capable of executing MIPS IV instructions in 64-bit mode.2. 5. and SGI (MIPS 1 and MIPS IV) (tested on IRIX 5. 1 Insert the CD-ROM into the computer. 3 HP: type /etc/mount -rt cdfs /dev/dsk/#s0 cdrom_dir. Windows NT® and Windows® 95 machines Follow these instructions if you're using the Windows NT or Windows 95 operating system.5). Intel CPU (Windows NT or Windows 95): 1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winintel\ on the distribution CD. type mkdir cdrom_dir. DEC: type mount -t cdfs -o noversion device cdrom_dir.4 and 2. HP: type . 4 Type cd cdrom_dir. IBM RS6000 and PowerPC (tested on AIX 3.5 and AIX 4.2. DEC AXP OSF/1 (tested on OSF/1.01 and HP-UX 10./install. where cdrom_dir is the directory to which you'd like to mount the CD-ROM drive. where # is a digit reliant on your hardware configuration.

but they could be confusing and should have been removed. In the previous release. 2 Run setup. The FEA Interfaces are available from the File pull-down menu of the Control Panel and the Modeler. the Control Panel analysis launching sequence can sometimes stack windows in the incorrect order.exe Problems Corrected in this Release Control Panel It is possible to use smaller windows by setting the CMOLD_SMALL environment variable before starting C-MOLD. putting the . The program error no longer occurs. FEA Interfaces A problem in translating part runner elements from PATRAN format files has been corrected.5.1.1 Locate cd_rom_drive_letter:\cmoldxxx\winalpha\ on the distribution CD.1. Known Problems in this Release Windows and Exceed 5. These empty directories were harmless. In UNIX systems. you would enter the following: setenv CMOLD_SMALL yes In Windows systems. you would enter: set CMOLD_SMALL=yes This release corrects a sizing problem with the bitmap images corresponding to the process being simulated. These temporary run directories are now properly removed after the simulation is completed. or to add cooling manifolds to your model. However you do need to have at least one cooling manifold defined in order to run a Cooling simulation. The workaround was either not to run a cooling analysis when you had no cooling manifolds defined. the run directories used to store intermediate results while the simulations are executing sometimes would not be removed after the Run Now or Batch job had completed. On Windows NT and Windows 95 systems.1 In Windows systems and using Exceed 5. This is useful when using a system with limited screen resolution or when you want to have many windows going at once. Cooling Analysis Attempting to run a Coolant Flow simulation when there were no cooling manifolds (circuits) defined in your model would cause a program error in the previous release. in csh for example. the bitmap image of the selected process could be partially obscured by the mesh pull-down menu.

your selection-either Run Now. If you have not saved your design prior to entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. or Cancel-will be processed. The workaround is to save your design before entering the Design Diagnostics dialog. Even though you dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog.informational message under a file selection dialog. However. you will be prompted to first save your design. the Design Diagnostics dialog will remain on top of the Save Design selection dialog. . you need to dismiss the Design Diagnostics dialog. when you try to leave the dialog. In order to save the design. Run as Batch.

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