x
2
+ y
2
, 0 z H has the parametric representation
r(u, v) = ucos vi + usin vj + uk, u, v in rectangleR : 0 v 2, 0 u H.
The components of r(u, v) are
x = ucos v, y = usin v, z = u.
Indeed, this yields x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
.
Tangent to a surface
Get a curve C on S by a pair of continuous functions
u = u(t), v = v(t)
so that C has the position vector r(u(t), v(t)). By the chain rule, we get a tangent vector of a
curve C
r
(t) =
dr
dt
=
r
u
u
+
r
v
v
.
Hence the partial derivatives r
u
and r
v
at a point P are tangential to S at P and we assume
that are linearly indepedent. Then their vector product gives a normal vector N of S at P,
N = r
u
r
v
= 0.
The corresponding unit normal vector n
n =
1
N
N =
1
r
u
r
v

r
u
r
v
.
If S is represented by
g(x, y, z) = 0,
then
n =
1
grad g
grad g.
EXAMPLE 4 Unit normal vector of a sphere
g(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
a
2
= 0:
n =
1
grad g
grad g =
1
a
grad g =
_
x
a
,
y
a
,
z
a
_
=
x
a
i +
y
a
j +
z
a
k.
EXAMPLE 5 Unit normal vector of a cone
g(x, y, z) = z +
_
x
2
+ y
2
= 0:
n =
1
grad g
grad g =
1
2
_
x
x
2
+ y
2
,
y
x
2
+ y
2
, 1
_
=
x
x
2
+ y
2
i +
y
x
2
+ y
2
j k.
Denition and evaluation of surface integrals
A surface integral of a vector function F(r) over a surface S is dened as
_
S
_
F ndA =
_
R
_
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v)dudv,
where
r(u, v) = [x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)] = x(u, v)i + y(u, v)j + z(u, v)k, u, v R
is a parametric representation of S with a normal vector
N = r
u
r
v
= 0
and the corresponding unit normal vector
n =
1
N
N.
Note that
ndA = nNdudv = Ndudv,
and it is assumed that the parameters u, v vary in a domain R on the u, vplane.
In terms of components
F = [F
1
, F
2
, F
3
) = F
1
i + F
2
j + F
3
k,
n = [cos , cos , cos ] = cos i + cos j + cos k,
N = [N
1
, N
2
, N
3
) = N
1
i + N
2
j + N
3
k,
and _
S
_
F ndA =
_
S
_
(F
1
cos + F
2
cos + F
3
cos )dA =
_
S
_
(F
1
N
1
+ F
2
N
2
+ F
3
N
3
)dudv.
EXAMPLE 1 Flux through a surface
Compute the ux of water through the parabolic cylinder
S : y = x
2
, 0 x 2, 0 z 3
if the velocity vector is v = F = [3z
2
, 6, 6xz].
Solution. S is represented by
r(u, v) = [u, u
2
, v] = ui + u
2
j + vk, 0 u 2, 0 v 3
because one can set x = u, z = v, and y = x
2
= u
2
.
From this
r
u
= [1, 2u, 0], r
v
= [0, 0, 1];
the vector product of r
u
and r
v
gives a normal vector N = 0 of the parabolic cylinder
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
1 2u 0
0 0 1
1 + 4u
2
(2ui j).
On S
F(r(u, v)) = F(S) = [3v
2
, 6, 6uv] = 3(v
2
i + 2j + 2uvk).
Hence
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v) = 3[v
2
, 2, 2uv] [2u, 1, 0] = 3(2uv
2
2) = 6(uv
2
1).
The parameters u, v vary in the rectangle R : 0 u 2, 0 v 3. Now we can write and
calculate the ux integral:
_
S
_
F ndA =
_
R
_
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v)dudv =
_
3
0
_
2
0
6(uv
2
1)dudv = 6(
_
3
0
v
2
dv
_
2
0
udu
_
3
0
_
2
0
dudv) = 6(3
2
2 6) = 72.
EXAMPLE 2 Surface integral
Compute the surface integral for S being a portion of the plane
S : x + y + z = 1, 0 x, y, z 1.
for F = [x
2
, 0, 3y
2
].
Solution. Setting x = u and y = v, we have z = 1 uv, so that S can be represented by
r(u, v) = [u, v, 1 u v], 0 v 1, 0 u 1 v.
From this
r
u
= [1, 0, 1], r
v
= [0, 1, 1];
a normal vector
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
1 0 1
0 1 1
= i +j +k = [1, 1, 1].
The corresponding unit normal vector
n =
1
N
N =
1
3
(i +j +k).
On S
F(r(u, v)) = F(S) = [u
2
, 0, 3v
2
] = u
2
i + 3v
2
k).
Hence
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v) = [u
2
, 0, 3v
2
] [1, 1, 1] = u
2
+ 3v
2
.dudv.
The parameters u, v vary in the triangle R : 0 v 1, 0 u 1 v. Now we can write and
calculate the surface integral:
_
S
_
F ndA =
_
R
_
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v)dudv =
_
R
_
(u
2
+ 3v
2
)dudv =
_
1
0
_
1v
0
(u
2
+ 3v
2
)dudv =
_
1
0
dv
_
1v
0
u
2
du + 3
_
1
0
v
2
dv
_
1v
0
du =
= (1/3)
_
1
0
(1 v)
3
dv + 3
_
1
0
v
2
(1 v)dv = (1/3)
_
1
0
t
3
dt + 3
_
1
0
(v
2
v
3
)dv =
(1/3) (1/4) + 3(1/3 1/4) = 1/3.
Divergence theorem of Gauss
Recall that if v(x, y, z) is a dierentiable vector function,
v(x, y, z) = v
1
(x, y, z)i + v
2
(x, y, z)j + v
3
(x, y, z)k,
then the function
div v =
v
1
x
+
v
2
y
+
v
3
z
is called the divergence of v.
Formulate the divergence theorem of Gauss.
Let T be a closed bounded region in space whose boundary is a piecewise smooth orientable
surface S (consists of nitely many smooth surfaces). Let F(x, y, z) be a vector function that is
continuous and have continuous rst partial derivatives everywhere in some domain containing
T. Then _ _
T
_
div FdV =
_
S
_
F ndA.
Here n is an outer unit normal vector of S pointing to the outside of S.
In components,
_ _
T
_
_
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
_
dxdydz =
_
S
_
(F
1
cos + F
2
cos + F
3
cos )dA.
or
_ _
T
_
_
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
_
dxdydz =
_
S
_
(F
1
dydz + F
2
dzdx + F
3
dxdy).
EXAMPLE 1 Evaluation of a surface integral by the divergence theorem
Evaluate
I =
_
S
_
(x
3
dydz + x
2
ydzdx + x
2
zdxdy),
where S is a piecewise smooth surface consisting of the cylinder x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
(0 z b) and
the circular disks z = 0 and z = b (x
2
+y
2
a
2
) (S consists of three parts of smooth surfaces).
Solution. We have
F
1
= x
3
, F
2
= x
2
y, F
3
= x
2
z.
Hence the divergence of F = [F
1
, F
2
, F
3
] is
div F =
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
= 3x
2
+ x
2
+ x
2
= 5x
2
.
Introducing the polar coordinates
x = r cos , y = r sin (cylindrical coordinates r, , z)
we have
dxdydz = rdrddz,
and by the divergence theorem, the surface integral is transformed to a triple integral over the
closed region T in space whose boundary is the surface S of the cylinder,
_
S
_
(x
3
dydz + x
2
ydzdx + x
2
zdxdy) =
_ _
T
_
div FdV =
_ _
T
_
5x
2
dxdydz =
5
_
b
z=0
_
a
r=0
_
2
=0
r
2
cos
2
rdrddz =
5b
_
a
0
_
2
0
r
3
cos
2
drd = 5b
a
4
4
_
2
0
cos
2
d =
5b
a
4
8
_
2
0
(1 + 2 cos )d =
5
4
ba
4
.
EXAMPLE 2 Verication of the divergence theorem
Evaluate
I =
_
S
_
F ndA), F = 7xi zk
over the sphere S : x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 4 by the divergence theorem and directly.
Solution. We have
F = [F
1
, 0, F
3
], F
1
= 7x, F
3
= z.
The divergence of F is
div F =
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
= 7 + 0 1 = 6,
and, by the divergence theorem,
I =
_ _
T, ball
_
div FdV = 6
_ _
T, ball
_
dxdydz = 6
4
3
2
3
= 64.
Now we will calculate the surface integral over S directly. Use the parametric representation
of the sphere of radius 2
S : r(u, v) = 2 cos v cos ui + 2 cos v sin uj + 2 sin vk,
u, v in rectangle R : 0 u 2, /2 v /2.
Then
r
u
= [2 sin ucos v, 2 cos v cos u, 0],
r
v
= [2 sin v cos u, 2 sin v sin u, 2 cos v],
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
2 sin ucos v 2 cos v cos u 0
2 sin v cos u 2 sin v sin u 2 cos v
= [4 cos
2
v cos u, 4 cos
2
v sin u, 4 cos v sin v].
On S we have
x = 2 cos v cos u, z = 2 sin v,
and, correspondingly,
F(r(u, v)) = F(S) = [7x, 0, z] = [14 cos v cos u, 0, 2 sin v].
Hence
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v) =
(14 cos v cos u)4 cos
2
v cos u + (2 sin v)(4 cos v sin v) = 56 cos
3
v cos
2
u 8 cos v sin
2
u.
The parameters u, v vary in the rectangle R : 0 u 2, /2 v /2. Now we can
write and calculate the surface integral:
_
S
_
F ndA =
_
R
_
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v)dudv =
8
_
2
0
_
/2
/2
(7 cos
3
v cos
2
u cos v sin
2
v)dudv =
8
_
7
2
_
2
0
(1 + cos 2u)du
_
/2
/2
cos
3
vdv 2
_
/2
/2
cos v sin
2
vdv
_
=
56
_
/2
/2
cos
3
vdv 16
_
/2
/2
cos vdv sin
2
vdv =
8
_
7
_
/2
/2
(1 sin
2
v)d sin v 2
_
/2
/2
dv sin
2
vd sin v
_
=
8
_
7
_
1
1
(1 t
2
)dt 2
_
1
1
t
2
dt
_
=
8[7 (2 2/3) 4/3] = 8 4/3 6 = 64.
The values obtained by both methods coincide.
EXAMPLE 2 Applications of the divergence theorem
By the mean value theorem for triple integrals,
_ _
T
_
f(x, y, z)dV = f(x
0
, y
0
, z
0
)V (T)
where (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) is a certain point in T and V (T) is the volume of T.
By the divergence theorem,
div F(x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) =
1
V (T)
_ _
T
_
div FdV =
1
V (T)
_
S(T)
_
F ndA.
Choosing a xed point P : (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) in T and shrinking T down to onto P so that the
maximum distance d(T) of the points of T from P tends to zero, we obtain
div F(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) = lim
d(T)0
1
V (T)
_
S(T)
_
F ndA,
which is sometimes used as the denition of the divergence. From this expression, it follows
that the divergence is independent of a particular choice of Cartesian coordinates.
EXAMPLE 4 A basic property of solutions of Laplaces equation
Recall that we can transform the double integral of the Laplacian of a function into a line
integral of its normal derivative. In the same manner, by the divergence theorem, we can
transform the triple integral of the the Laplacian of a function into a surface integral of its
normal derivative. Indeed, setting
F = grad f
we have
div F = div grad f =
2
f
x
2
+
2
f
y
2
+
2
f
z
2
=
2
f.
On the other hand,
F n = grad f n
is, by denition, the normal derivative of f (the directional derivative in the direction of the
outer normal vector to S, the boundary of T ),
f
n
. Thus, by the divergence theorem, the
desired formula for the integral of the Laplacian of f becomes
_ _
T
_
2
fdxdydz =
_
S
_
f
n
dA.
Thus, if f(x, y, z) is a harmonic function in T (
2
f = 0 in T), then the integral of the
normal derivative of this function over any piecewise smooth orientable surface S in T whose
entire interior belongs to T is zero.
PROBLEM 9.5.1
Find the normal vector to the xyplane
r(u, v) = [u, v] = ui + vj
and the parameter curves u = const and v = const.
Solution. Recall that the vector product a b of two vectors a = [a
1
, a
2
, a
3
] and b =
[b
1
, b
2
, b
3
] is a vector v = ab perpendicular to both a and b so that a, b, v form a righthanded
triple:
v = [v
1
, v
2
, v
3
] = a b =
i j k
a
1
a
2
a
3
b
1
b
2
b
3
= v
1
i + v
2
j + v
3
k,
or
v
1
=
a
2
a
3
b
2
b
3
, v
2
=
a
3
a
1
b
3
b
1
, v
3
=
a
1
a
2
b
1
b
2
i j k
1 0 0
0 1 0
= k.
The corresponding unit normal vector
n =
1
N
N =
1
1
k = k.
The parameter curves u = const and v = const are straight lines.
PROBLEM 9.5.3
Find the normal vector to the cone
r(u, v) = ucos vi + usin vj + cuk = [ucos v, usin v, cu]
and the parameter curves u = const and v = const.
Solution. The cone is given by the representation z = c
x
2
+ y
2
. We have
r
u
= [cos v, sin v, c], r
v
= [usin v, ucos v, 0],
and a normal vector N = 0 of the cone
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
cos v sin v c
usin v ucos v 0
i j k
8 0 4
0 6 4
=
24i + 32j + 48k = 8(3i + 4j + 6k) = 8[3, 4, 6].
The corresponding unit normal vector
n =
1
N
N =
1
61
(3i + 4j + 6k).
PROBLEM 9.5.15
Find a parametric representation of the ellipsoid x
2
+ y
2
+ (1/4)z
2
= 1.
Solution. Setting
x = cos v cos u, y = cos v sin u, z = 2 sin v.
we see that x
2
+ y
2
+ (1/4)z
2
= 1, which yields the parametric representation of the ellipsoid
r(u, v) = cos v cos ui + cos v sin uj + 2 sin vk,
Then
r
u
= cos v sin ui + cos v cos uj, r
v
= sin v sin ui sin v cos uj + 2 cos vk.
The normal vector N = 0
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
cos v sin u cos v cos u 0
sin v sin u sin v cos u 2 cos v
= 2 cos
2
v cos ui+2 cos
2
v sin uj+sin v cos vk.
PROBLEM 9.5.24
Find the unit normal vector to the ellipsoid 4x
2
+ y
2
+ 9z
2
= 36.
Solution. We have g(x, y, z) = 4x
2
+ y
2
+ 9z
2
36 = 0. Find the partial derivatives
g
x
= 8x,
g
y
= 2y,
g
z
= 18z.
Then
grad g = 2[4x, y, 9z], grad g = 2
_
16x
2
+ y
2
+ 81z
2
,
and the unit normal vector is given by
n =
1
grad g
grad g =
1
2
16x
2
+ y
2
+ 81z
2
grad g =
1
16x
2
+ y
2
+ 81z
2
[4x, y, 9z] =
1
16x
2
+ y
2
+ 81z
2
(4xi + yj + 9zk).
PROBLEM 9.5.25
Find the unit normal vector of the plane 4x 4y + 7z = 3.
Solution. We have z = 1/7(3 4x + 4y). Therefore, setting x = u and y = v, we obtain
a parametric representation
r(u, v) = [u, v, 1/7(3 4u + 4v)] = ui + vj + 1/7(3 4u + 4v)k.
Then
r
u
= [1, 0, 4/7], r
v
= [0, 1, 4/7],
and a normal vector N = 0
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
1 0 4/7
0 1 4/7
=
(4/7)i (4/7)j +k = (1/7)(4i 4j + 7k) = (1/7)[4, 4, 7].
The corresponding unit normal vector
n =
1
N
N =
1
9
(4i 4j + 7k).
On the other hand, we have the representation of the plane in the form g(x, y, z) = 4x
4y + 7z + 3 = 0. Find the partial derivatives
g
x
= 4,
g
y
= 4,
g
z
= 7.
Thus
grad g = [4, 4, 7], grad g =
16
2
+ 16
2
+ 49 = 9,
and the unit normal vector is given by
n =
1
grad g
grad g =
1
9
(4i 4j + 7k)
which coincides with the previous result.
PROBLEM 9.6.1
Compute the surface integral for F = [3x
2
, y
2
, 0] and S being a portion of the plane
r(u, v) = [u, v, 2u + 3v], 0 u 2, 1 v 1.
Solution. We have
r
u
= [1, 0, 2], r
v
= [0, 1, 3];
a normal vector
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
1 0 2
0 1 3
= 2i 3j +k = [2, 3, 1].
The corresponding unit normal vector
n =
1
N
N =
1
14
(2i 3j +k).
On S
F(r(u, v)) = F(S) = [3u
2
, v
2
, 0] = 3u
2
i + v
2
j).
Hence
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v) = [3u
2
, v
2
, 0] [2, 3, 1] =
6u
2
3v
2
= 3(2u
2
+ v
2
).
The parameters u, v vary in the rectangle R : 0 u 2, 1 v 1. Now we can write and
calculate the surface integral:
_
S
_
F ndA =
_
R
_
F(r(u, v)) N(u, v)dudv = 3
_
R
_
(2u
2
+ v
2
)dudv =
= 6
_
1
1
dv
_
2
0
u
2
du 3
_
1
1
v
2
dv
_
2
0
du == 12
_
2
0
u
2
du 6
_
1
1
v
2
dv =
6[2 (8/3) + 2/3] = 32 4 = 36.
PROBLEM 9.6.5
Compute the surface integral for F = [x z, y x, z y] and S being a portion of the cone
r(u, v) = ucos vi + usin vj + uk, u, v in rectangleR : 0 v 2, 0 u 3.
Solution. We have
r
u
= [cos v, sin v, 1], r
v
= [usin v, ucos v, 0],
and a normal vector N = 0 of the cone
N = r
u
r
v
=
i j k
cos v sin v 1
usin v ucos v 0
_
R
_
u
2
(sin v cos v sin v cos v)dudv =
=
_
2
0
(sin v cos v sin v cos v)dv
_
3
0
u
2
du =
(1/3)(
_
2
0
sin vdv
_
2
0
cos vdv
_
2
0
sin v cos vdv) = (1/3)(0 + 0 + 0) = 0.
PROBLEM 9.7.1
Find the total mass of the mass distribution of the density
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
in the box T : x 1, y 3, z 2.
Solution. The required total mass M is given by the triple integral
M =
_ _
T
_
(x, y, z)dxdydz =
_
2
z=2
dz
_
3
y=3
dy
_
1
x=1
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)dx =
_
2
2
dz
_
3
3
dy
_
1
1
x
2
dx +
_
2
2
dz
_
3
3
y
2
dy
_
1
1
dx +
_
2
2
z
2
dz
_
3
3
dy
_
1
1
dx =
= 4 6
2
3
+ 4 2 2 3
2
+ 6 2
16
3
= 16 + 144 + 64 = 224.
PROBLEM 9.7.13
Evaluate the surface integral for F = [x
2
, 0, z
2
] over the surface of the box T : x 1, y
3, z 2.
Solution. We have
F
1
= x
2
, F
2
= 0, F
3
= z
2
.
Hence the divergence of F = [F
1
, F
2
, F
3
] is
div F =
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
= 2x + 2z.
By the divergence theorem, the desired surface integral equals a triple integral over the box
T _
S
_
F ndA =
_ _
T
_
div FdV =
2
_ _
T
_
(x + z)dxdydz = 2
_
2
z=2
dz
_
3
y=3
dy
_
1
x=1
(x + z)dxdydz =
_
2
2
dz
_
3
3
dy
_
1
1
xdx +
_
2
2
zdz
_
3
3
dy
_
1
1
dx = 0.
PROBLEM 9.7.15
Evaluate the surface integral for F = [cos y, sin x, cos z] over the surface of the cylinder S
consisting of the cylinder x
2
+ y
2
= 4 (z 2) and the circular disks z = 2 and z = 2
(x
2
+ y
2
4)
Solution. We have
F
1
= cos y, F
2
= sin x, F
3
= cos z.
Hence the divergence of F = [F
1
, F
2
, F
3
] is
div F =
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
= sin z.
Introducing the polar coordinates
x = r cos , y = r sin (cylindrical coordinates r, , z)
we have
dxdydz = rdrddz,
and by the divergence theorem, the surface integral is transformed to a triple integral over the
closed region T in space whose boundary is the surface S of the cylinder of radius 2 and height
4,
_
S
_
F ndA =
_ _
T
_
div FdV =
_ _
T
_
sin zdxdydz =
_
2
z=2
sin zdz
_
2
r=0
_
2
=0
rdrd = 0.
PROBLEM 9.8.1
Verify basic property of solutions of Laplaces equation for f(x, y, z) = 2z
2
x
2
y
2
and S the
surface of the box T : 0 x 1, 0 y 2, 0 z 4.
Solution. Set
F = grad f = [2x, 2y, 4z].
Then
div F = div grad f =
2
f
x
2
+
2
f
y
2
+
2
f
z
2
=
2
f = 2 2 + 4 = 0,
so that f(x, y, z) = 2z
2
x
2
y
2
is a harmonic function.
Now calculate directly the surface integral over the sixe successive sides of the surface of the
box T beginning from its upper side parallel to the x, yplane and situated in the plane z = 4,
then taking the opposite side in the plane z = 0 etc.:
_
S
_
f
n
dA =
_
S
_
f
z
z=4
dxdy
_
S
_
f
z
z=0
dxdy+
_
S
_
f
x
x=1
dydz
_
S
_
f
x
x=0
dydz+
_
S
_
f
y
y=2
dxdz
_
S
_
f
y
y=0
dxdz =
4 4 2 0 + (2) 8 0 + (4) 4 0 = 0.
PROBLEM 9.8.3
Evaluate
I =
_
S
_
F ndA, F = [x, z, y]
over the hemisphere S : x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 4, z 0 by the divergence theorem.
Solution. We have
F = [x, z, y], F
1
= x, F
2
= z, F
3
= y.
The divergence of F is
div F =
F
1
x
+
F
2
y
+
F
3
z
= 1 + 0 + 0 = 1,
and, by the divergence theorem,
I =
_ _
T, one half of ball
_
div FdV =
_ _
T
_
dxdydz =
1
2
4
3
2
3
=
16
3
.