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# FIRST TERM: MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS Topic 1 Physical Quantities and Units 1.

1 Base quantities and SI units Teaching Period 6 Learning Outcome Candidates should be able to:

(a) list base quantities and their SI units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K) and quantity of matter (mol); (b) deduce units for derived quantities;

1.2

## Dimensions of physical quantities

(c) use dimensional analysis to determine the dimensions of derived quantities; (d) check the homogeneity of equations using dimensional analysis; (e) construct empirical equations using dimensional analysis;

1.3

## Scalars and vectors

(f)

determine the sum, the scalar product and vector product of coplanar vectors;

(g) resolve a vector to two perpendicular components; 1.4 Uncertainties in measurements 2 (h) calculate the uncertainty in a derived quantity (a rigorous statistical treatment is not required); (i) write a derived quantity to an appropriate number of significant figures.

## Kinematics 2.1 Linear motion

6 2

Candidates should be able to: (a) derive and use equations of motion with constant acceleration; (b) sketch and use the graphs of displacementtime, velocity-time and acceleration-time for the motion of a body with constant acceleration;

2.2

Projectiles

(c) solve problems on projectile motion without air resistance; (d) explain the effects of air resistance on the motion of bodies in air.

## Topic 3 Dynamics 3.1 Newtons laws of motion

Teaching Period 12 4

Learning Outcome Candidates should be able to: (a) state Newtons laws of motion; dv dm v for constant (b) use the formula F m dt dt m or constant v only; (c) state the principle of conservation of momentum, and verify the principle using Newtons laws of motion; (d) apply the principle of conservation of momentum; (e) define impulse as F dt ; (f) solve problems involving impulse;

3.2

3.3

## Elastic and inelastic collisions

(g) distinguish between elastic collisions and inelastic collisions (knowledge of coefficient of restitution is not required); (h) solve problems involving collisions between particles in one dimension;

3.4

Centre of mass

(i) (j)

define centre of mass for a system of particles in a plane; predict the path of the centre of mass of a twoparticle system;

3.5

Frictional forces

(k) explain the variation of frictional force with sliding force; (l) define and use coefficient of static function and coefficient of kinetic friction.

## Work, Energy and Power 4.1 Work

5 2

Candidates should be able to: (a) define the work done by a force dW (b) calculate the work done using a forcedisplacement graph; (c) calculate the work done in certain situations, including the work done in a spring;
F ds ;

4.2

## Potential energy and kinetic energy

(d) derive and use the formula: potential energy change = mgh near the surface of the Earth; (e) derive and use the formula: kinetic energy
1 2

mv 2 ;

Topic

## Learning Outcome state and use the work-energy theorem;

(g) apply the principle of conservation of energy in situations involving kinetic energy and potential energy; 4.3 Power 1 (h) derive and use the formula P (i)
Fv ;

## Circular Motion 5.1 Angular displacement and angular velocity

8 1

Candidates should be able to: (a) express angular displacement in radians; (b) define angular velocity and period; (c) derive and use the formula v

r ;

5.2

Centripetal acceleration

(d) explain that uniform circular motion has an acceleration due to the change in direction of velocity; (e) derive and use the formulae for centripetal acceleration a =
v2 and a = r r
2

5.3

Centripetal force

(f)

explain that uniform circular motion is due to the action of a resultant force that is always directed to the centre of the circle;

(g) use the formulae for centripetal force mv 2 F and F mr 2 ; r (h) solve problems involving uniform horizontal circular motion for a point mass; (i) solve problems involving vertical circular motions for a point mass (knowledge of tangential acceleration is not required).

## Gravitation 6.1 Newtons law of universal gravitation

10 1

Candidates should be able to: (a) state Newtons law of universal gravitation and GMm use the formula F ; r2 (b) explain the meaning of gravitational field; (c) define gravitational field strength as force of gravity per unit mass;

6.2

Gravitational field

Topic

Teaching Period

Learning Outcome
GM for a gravitational r2

## (d) use the equation g field; 6.3 Gravitational potential 3

(e) define the potential at a point in a gravitational field; (f) derive and use the formula V
GM ; r

(g) use the formula for potential energy GMm U ; r (h) show that U mg r mgh is a special case GMm of U for situations near to the r surface of the Earth; (i) (j) use the relationship g
dV ; dr

explain, with graphical illustrations, the variations of gravitational field strength and gravitational potential with distance from the surface of the Earth;

6.4

## Satellite motion in a circular orbit

(k) solve problems involving satellites moving in a circular orbit in a gravitational field; (l) explain the concept of weightlessness;

6.5

Escape velocity

(m) derive and use the equation for escape 2GM 2 gR . velocity ve and ve R Candidates should be able to: (a) define centre of gravity; (b) state the condition in which the centre of mass is the centre of gravity;

## Statics 7.1 Centre of gravity

6 1

7.2

Equilibrium of particles

(c) state the condition for the equilibrium of a particle; (d) solve problems involving forces in equilibrium at a point;

7.3

r F;

## state the conditions for the equilibrium of a rigid body;

Topic

Teaching Period

Learning Outcome (g) sketch and label the forces which act on a particle and a rigid body; (h) use the triangle of forces to represent forces in equilibrium; (i) solve problems involving forces in equilibrium.

## Deformation of Solids 8.1 Stress and strain

5 1

Candidates should be able to: (a) define stress and strain for a stretched wire or elastic string; (b) sketch force-extension graph and stress-strain graph for a ductile material; (c) identify and explain proportional limit, elastic limit, yield point and tensile strength; (d) define the Youngs modulus; (e) solve problems involving Youngs modulus; (f) distinguish between elastic deformation and plastic deformation;

8.2

## Force-extension graph and stress-strain graph

(g) distinguish the shapes of force-extension graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric materials; 8.3 Strain energy 2 (h) derive and use the formula for strain energy; (i) calculate strain energy from force-extension graphs or stress-strain graphs.

Kinetic Theory of Gases 9.1 9.2 Ideal gas equation Pressure of a gas

14 2 2

Candidates should be able to: (a) use the ideal gas equation pV

nRT ;

(b) state the assumptions of the kinetic theory of an ideal gas; (c) derive and use the equation for the pressure exerted by an ideal gas p
1 3

c2 ;

9.3

## Molecular kinetic energy

(d) state and use the relationship between the Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant

R ; NA

Topic

Teaching Period

Learning Outcome (e) derive and use the expression for the mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule,
1 2

mc 2

3 2

kT ;

9.4

(f)

## calculate the r.m.s. speed of gas molecules;

(g) sketch the molecular speed distribution graph and explain the shape of the graph (description of the experiment is not required); (h) predict the variation of molecular speed distribution with temperature;

9.5

## Degrees of freedom and law of equipartition of energy

(i) (j)

define the degrees of freedom of a gas molecule; identify the number of degrees of freedom of a monatomic, diatomic or polyatomic molecule at room temperature;

(k) explain the variation in the number of degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule ranging from very low to very high temperatures; (l) state and apply the law of equipartition of energy;

9.6

## Internal energy of an ideal gas

(m) distinguish between an ideal gas and a real gas; (n) explain the concept of internal energy of an ideal gas; (o) derive and use the relationship between the internal energy and the number of degrees of freedom.

## 10 Thermodynamics of Gases 10.1 Heat capacities

14 2

Candidates should be able to: (a) define heat capacity, specific heat capacity and molar heat capacity; (b) use the equations: Q C , Q mc , Q nCV,m
Q nCp,m ;

and

## 10.2 Work done by a gas

(c) derive and use the equation for work done by p dV ; a gas W

## Topic 10.3 First law of thermodynamics

Teaching Period 5

Learning Outcome (d) state and apply the first law of thermodynamics Q U W; (e) deduce the relationship (f)
U nCV, m T from

the first law of thermodynamics; derive and use the equation Cp,m
CV,m R;

(g) relate CV,m and Cp,m to the degrees of freedom; (h) use the relationship types of molecules; 10.4 Isothermal and adiabatic changes 6 (i) (j) describe the isothermal process of a gas; use the equation pV changes; use the equations pV constant for isothermal
Cp, m CV, m

to identify the

TV

## constant for adiabatic changes;

(m) illustrate thermodynamic processes with p-V graphs; (n) derive and use the expression for work done in the thermodynamic processes. 11 Heat Transfer 11.1 Conduction 10 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the mechanism of heat conduction through solids, and hence, distinguish between conduction through metals and non-metals; (b) define thermal conductivity; (c) use the equation
dQ d kA for heat dt dx conduction in one dimension;

(d) describe and calculate heat conduction through a cross-sectional area of layers of different materials; (e) compare heat conduction through insulated and non-insulated rods; 11.2 Convection 1 (f) describe heat transfer by convection;

## Topic 11.3 Radiation

Teaching Period 3

Learning Outcome (h) describe heat transfer by radiation; (i) (j) use Stefan-Boltzmann equation define a black body;
dQ dt e AT 4 ;

## 11.4 Global warming

(k) explain the greenhouse effect and thermal pollution; (l) suggest ways to reduce global warming.