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I.

Crow ley

University of Maine
Orono, Maine

SANSKRIT READER:
WITH VOCABULARY AND NOTES
BY

CHARLES ROCKWELL LANMAN


CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE (ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS ET BELLES-LETTRES), ETC., PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY

FIRST EDITION, SIXTH ISSUE

BOSTON

GINN AND COMPANY


1912

Entered according to Act of Congress,


C. R.

in the year 1888,

by

LANMAN,

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

TYPOGRAPHY OF THE TEXT BY GEBRUDER UNGER, SCHONEBERGER STRASSE, 17A, BERLIN, SW.

TYPOGRAPHY OF THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES BY


J. 8.

GUSHING &

CO.,

BOSTON, MASS.

Annsx

PK

TO

MY

TEACHERS,

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY


OF YALE COLLEGE,

ALBRECHT WEBER
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN,
AND

RUDOLF ROTH
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TUBINGEN,

IN TOKEN OF THANKS AND AFFECTION.

2047520

PKEFACE.

THE
into our
slight

results of comparative philology are

now

so generally incorporated
it

modern

classical

grammars, lexicons, and text-books, that even a


if it

knowledge of Sanskrit,

be accurate so far as

goes,

is

of great

service to the classical teacher

in

making

his

instruction

interesting

and

As independent disciplines, moreover, Sanskrit and comparative effective. and the literatures and religions of India, are constantly gaining philology, in importance, so that, for example, Sanskrit is now taught at all but one of
the twenty universities of the German Empire. The design of this work, then, is twofold.

In the

first

place,

it

is

to

serve as an introduction to these subjects for the students of our colleges The excellent Chrestomathy of BOEHTLINGK has no and universities.

vocabulary
of

and few persons can be expected to buy the costly dictionaiy WILLIAMS or that of BOEHTLINGK AND ROTH, at the outset, when the} are uncertain whether Sanskrit will be of sufficient interest or use to them
;

to warrant their continuing

its

study.

What

the beginner needs

is

an

elementary work comprehending both text and vocabulary in a single volume. And accordingly, this Reader is meant to furnish ample material
for about fifty weeks' reading,
in a course of three hours a week, and, with the text, the appropriate lexical apparatus. The Reader is made as a companion- volume to WHITNEY'S Sanskrit Grammar, and these two books

supply all that is needed for the first year's study. This Reader is designed, in the second place, to render a knowledge of Sanskrit accessible to the classical teachers of high-schools, academies, and

These teachers, if they pursue this study at all, usually do so colleges. without the aid of an instructor. And it is especially the requirements of
unaided private study that I have taken constant pains to meet. I state this fact thus explicitly, because, both here at Cambridge, and during my connection with the Johns Hopkins University (where the plan for this work

was formed) numerous inquiries for such a book have been addressed to me by persons very remote from any of the higher institutions of learning. If, incidentally, this work should help to correct some of the false
,

notions which are prevalent respecting the relations of Sanskrit to other languages of the Indo-European family, and to save the literature from

undue depreciation and from exaggerated praise, it will have served a worthy object. So cumbrous or so meagre have been hitherto the appliances for acquiring even a moderate knowledge of Sanskrit, that classical students, when seeking such knowledge as an auxiliary to their special work, have found the labor These students unquestionably have a legitimate and discouragingl}' great. sufficient reason for undertaking Sanskrit, and I venture to hope that the difficulties of the beginning (see p. xv) have been so materially lessened that they will now find even a modicum of Sanskrit well worth the trouble of
attainment.

In making my selections 1 from the various Sanskrit writings, I have had two practical aims in view first, to provide abundant material for thorough drill in the language of the classical period and, secondly, to furnish a
: ;

works of the Vedic period, Mantra, Brahmana, and Sutra. Accordingly I have not sought to give any thing new, but The easy Nala is the rather that which is best suited for beginners. Anabasis of Sanskrit students, and quotations from it appear Xenophon's very often in the grammars. And the first five chapters here given form a complete story. For an elementary reader, the Hitopadea is unrivalled, and to leave it out would have been an inexcusable omission, unless, indeed, From this latter work I attempted its place were taken by the Panchatantra.
brief introduction to the

to prepare some selections but the text is in so unsatisfactory a condition, And so, although the Hitopadega has been that I relinquished the plan. 2 printed very often, I have given a considerable part of it here, choosing the
;

fables

on the ground of

their intrinsic excellence

and

their interest as

3 For similar reasons the six originals of well-known occidental stories. tales from the Katha-sarit-sagara were selected. On account of their easy

and simple narrative, they furnish admirable matter for exercise in rapid The selections from " Manu" are so made as to illustrate some of reading. the most important and interesting matters of Hindu custom and belief. 4 Among the Vedic hymns (or Mantra-material) are, first, some of the
style

easiest
1

5
;

then some taken on account of their poetic 6 or dramatic 7 merit, or

These include 68 pages of classical San- which was appealed to as scriptural authorand 37 pages of Vedic Sanskrit. ity for the practice of widow-burning. Com2 Nineteen fables there are forty-three pare also the notes on 28 28 57 3 and 65 9 ff., in all. with those on 65 6 91 16 , and 97 2 respecskrit
:

See the introductions to the fables in tively.


5

the Notes.
4

Such are

selections xxxi. (Rigveda

i.l),

Compare

the table of contents.

The

xxxiii., xxxviii., xxxix., xli., xlv.,xlvi., andlix.


6
7

text-selections are intended to be


illustrative as far as

mutually

Selection xxxii.

is

the best,
Ivi.

may

be.

Thus the

Selections xxxv., xxxvii., and

are in
xviii).

8 passage 64 ff. is given for its interesting n bearing on Rigveda x.18.7 (86 ), the verse

dramatic form (see WHITNEY, page

and are among the most

difficult.

[v]
l and finally some taken because of their historical imFor the most part, a repetition of the hymns given by DELBRUECK portance. The and by BOEHTLINGK in their Chrestomathies has been avoided. Brahmana pieces are chosen in such a way as to show the relation of this kind of literature to the hymns or Mantras. 3 The selections from the Grihya-sutras are the two most interesting chapters of Indian private These texts are, to a antiquities, the wedding and the burial service. certain extent, rubrics, and prescribe that numerous specified stanzas of the Rigveda be repeated at these ceremonials. Care has therefore been taken that all the stanzas here cited by their first words should be given in full among the selections from the hymns. 4

their ethical interest


2

Concerning the text,


folly or idle pretense to

little

need be
5

said.

It

would have been either

make

elaborate text-studies for the short extracts


I

of which the Reader

is

composed.

in the main, with reprinting the text of the best editions.

have accordingly contented myself, Misprints have

of course been corrected, and I have endeavored to make the orthography conformable to the best standard 6 and consistent throughout. 7 Of some
will be made in the Notes. For the Nala, BUEHLER in his Third Book of Sanskrit 8 ; for the Hitopadega, the text of BOEHTLINGK in the second edition of his 8 for the Katha-sarit-sagara, BROCKIIAUS Chrestomathy, and MUELLER " I regret that the results and for Manu," LOISELEUR DESLONGCHAMPS.

slight emendations,

due mention

followed the edition of

of the studies of BUEHLER, BURNELL, HOPKINS, and JOLLY on the text of " Manu" are not yet available.

from Rigveda x. 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 53, 154, and 155 (selections xlix.ff.), and i. 97 (selec2 Such are the hymns for the dead and tion xxxiv.). This last hymn is mere trash, the wedding-hymn likewise selection xxxvii., and would not have been included among and selection xxxvi. (which contains the the texts, had not A9walayana (at iv.6.18)
1

Such are the Varuna-hymns,

selections

xliii.-xlv.

Savitri).

Selection

Ixii.

is

the Maitrayani

version of the Hiranya-garbha

hymn, Eig- but

prescribed that it be used as a burial-hymn I could not allow room for the " Sun;

veda
those

x. 121,

who

given partly in order that possess copies of the Rigveda


is

and

hymns"
at iv.6.18.
5

(sauryani) and the "Blessings"

(svasty-ayanani), which are also mentioned

may
3

study the two versions comparatively,


selections
Ixvi.,

See A. WEBER, Indische Studien, ii. 151. and Ixxii. stand in connection Especially in the use of anusvara and of I have with the Mantra selections Ivi., xlvii., Ixii., the nasal mutes, of b and of 5. written ccb. where WHITNEY (see and xlvi. respectively. 227)

Thus the Brahmana

Ixvii., Ixviii.,

4 The stanzas required for the wedding writes ch. 7 But some of the interesting orthographceremonial are given in selections Iviii., Ivii., and lv. From this the student will see why ical peculiarities of the Maitrayani Sanhita there are some selections consisting of only I have allowed to stand,

one or two stanzas.

The

burial-stanzas are

See the " Brief List," page

xvii.

[vi]
It is

way no

a pleasant duty to acknowledge my thanks to BOEHTLINGK, who, in less generous than unexpected, volunteered to look over all the

For the well-established and wellproofs of the classical part of the text. edited Vedic texts, such help was of course not needed.
For the Rigveda, AUFRECHT'S second edition was made the standard. For the selections from the Maitrayanl Sanhita, I am indebted to the kindThe extracts ness of its editor, Dr. LEOPOLD VON SCHBOEDER, of Dorpat. from the Brahmanas naturally follow the editions of WEBER and AUFRECHT. The chapters from Acwalayana are a reprint from STENZLER'S edition, witt some unimportant t} pographical licenses.
1
T

icon of

The vocabulary, it is almost needless to say, is based on the great LexBOEHTLINGK AND ROTH. I should of course deviate from it only
;

with the utmost circumspection


slavishly.

but I trust that I have not followed

it

As for the extent of the vocabulary, it is designed to be complete for the text given in the Reader, and also, it may be added, for the text in the Appendix to the Grammar.
mention here several matters touching the general plan of mere list of the actually occurring Sanskrit words with their English equivalents. So far as possible, it aims to do with thoroughness two things
It is proper to

the vocabulary.

It is not a

First, as regards the forms, To enable the student to trace every word back to its root, by giving references to WHITNEY'S chapters (xvi. and xvii.) on word- formation, and by giving the root itself, and, in the case of

secondary and tertiary derivatives, the intermediate forms, even when these do not occur in the text at all. Thus, for the complete explanation of
mithyopacara (p. 217), are given, first, mithya, then the older form thereof, 2 mithuya, then the adjective mlthu from which the adverb is derived, and finally the root mith, although neither the adverbs nor the adjective nor
an}- verbal
is

form of the root occurs in the given solely on account of upacara.


Secondly, as regards the meanings,

text.

In like manner, car + upa

To

signification

back to the radical

idea,

enable the student to trace every b}* giving not only the meaning

required for translating a particular passage, but also, if this is a secondary or tertiary or later meaning, the intermediate meanings, and in their logical

order of development.
1

Thus the only meanings of


attention

the

word

pada, as

it

He gave them to me in manuscript, before he himself began printing. 2 By looking out the reference to 1112e
(under mithu), the student will have his

drawn to the peculiar form and accent of the adverb and will find the explanation thereof,

[vii]

foot' or occurs in the text of this Reader, are leg,' in ten passages, and 12 The history and 'verse of a three- versed stanza,' in one passage (60 ). uses of the word may be clearly understood from BOEHTLINGK AND ROTH.
' '

The

original meaning foot to the meaning ' limb of a

'

'

was extended
'

to that of

'

'

leg

then specialized

quadruped

then generalized to the meaning

'quarter' (as, conversely, the English word quarter is specialized to the meaning 'fourth part of a quadruped, including a leg,' e.g., in quarter of once more it is specialized to the meaning quarter of a four- versed beef} and then, at last, the use of the word is illogically verse stanza,' i.e. and it is made to denote a verse of even a three- versed stanza. extended, To have given the meanings foot, leg, verse,' in three words, and perhaps in the order verse, leg, foot,' would have sufficed, it is true, for the purpose but such translation demands of the student onl}' of making a translation On the other hand, by inthe most thoughtless and mechanical labor. the development and connection of meanings, the attention dicating briefly
'
;

'

'

'

'

of the student
in the life

is

and growth of language

directed to the processes which are constantly going on and thus, although Sanskrit is a dead
;

language, the study of Sanskrit may be made a study of life and growth. The illustration of the transitions of meaning by analogies from the

English and other familiar tongues would, it seemed to me, greatly increase And so, considerable space the interest and usefulness of the vocabulary. a has been devoted to this matter. Thus under vyama (p. 254, top) i.e. a fathom,' are adduced the closely parallel English fathom, stretch-out,'
'
,

'

from Anglo-Saxon /ceSm, the extended arms,' and also opyvid and French fathom,' and of common origin respectively with 6/>eyw toise, both meaning and Latin tendere, stretch.' 1 In a book intended partly for persons whose chief interest in Sanskrit is from the side of its relations to the classical languages and to our mother' '
'

tongue, etymological comparisons are plainly called for. Accordingly, the kindred words from the Greek, Latin, Anglo-Saxon, and English have been
alwa}*s along with their meanings. parisons, presenting, as they do, many familiar
2

given,

and

It is hoped that these comwords with which the learner

can associate what


ory.
1

is

Et} mology

is

new and strange, will prove a useful aid to the mema subject in which there is large room for reasonable
to

pie,

parallels, compare, for examabharana, barhis, bhavana, vanga, varna. Sometimes the understanding of the parallelism depends on a knowledge of the etymology of an English word thus under root nud + vi, are adduced the English di-vert, dis-port, and s-port, and a reference to SKEAT'S dictionary or to WEBSTER'S may be necessary for the student, in order
;

For other

find

how

these words

are parallel

in

and metaphor. On this subject in general, compare CURTIUS, Grundb pp. 111-116, and BRINKMANN, Die ziige Metaphern, Bonn, 1878. 2 To give them without their meanings and without showing the connection of ideas is, for an elementary book, a useless
specialization
,

task.

[viii]

difference of opinion on matters of detail, and on such matters well-recognized I have tried to use the standard works of referauthorities often disagree.

ence in the light of the best and latest etymological criticism at my command, and to distinguish with care between what is certain and what is mere conjecture.

had the

In the revision of the greater part of my manuscript for the press, I 1 His acceptance of the curbenefit of KLUGE'S valuable dictionary.

rent comparisons has often given me assurance, and his sober judgment has often confirmed me in scepticism or silence on doubtful points. In the

numerous cases where the undoubtedly allied words are too many to be given in full, I have usually selected those forms which were the simplest or the most interesting, or those whose kinship was clearest. 2 These comparisons include only genuinely cognate words, as distinguished from borrowed words the latter have as a rule been excluded, or, if given, Thus eras, Latin sen-ex, and have been characterized as borrowings. 3 English sen-green are given on page 266, all as genuine cognates of sana; the words senate, senator, senatorial, senescent, senile, senility, senior, sire,
;

are not mentioned, because they are not genuine but only more or less ancient borrowings or more or less English cognates, 4 direct derivatives from the Latin. So under the root srp (p. 276) are given
sir,

seigniorage,

etc.,

Latin serpens and

reptilis,

and

it

would be superfluous to add the borrowed

English serpent and reptile. The accents of all words have been regularly marked in the headings of the articles, so far as the accents are known from the occurrence of the

words

in

any accentuated texts of the

literature.

But

in addition to these

words, the verb-forms immediately following the root have been uniformly accented, according to the rules, except in a few doubtful cases and a
;

number of compounds occurring on the pages of Nala have been accented,


1

Entitled Etymologisches Worterbuch der


Strassburg, Sprache. Price 10 1883. Royal 8.

deutschen
Triibner.

Karl

J.

6 For these accents I have relied on BOEHTLINGK'S Sanskrit-Wdrterbuch in Kiirz-

Mark

erer

50 Pfennige.

to the

Fassung as far as it has appeared, i.e. end of bh, and for the rest of the

2 Thus under sana (p. 266) might have alphabet, on the great thesaurus of BOEHTbeen given, in addition to Latin senex, the LINGK AND ROTH. There are many words words senior, senectus, senilis, senesco, senator, accented in more than one way (e.g., rajya, but these are readily suggested rajyk, rajya, asana, asana, daridra, darsenatus, etc.
;

by
8
is

senex.

idra,

daiva,

daiva,
;

bhuti, bhuti,

vrsti,

Thus the

interesting

compound

sene-schal

vfsti,

vend, v6nu)

added under sana, not as a genuine Eng- been left unmarked but as a borrowing through words like manu, dvipad, pati, papa, and the French from Continental Germanic, mati, the prevailing accent is given, espewhere its first member is indeed a genuine cially, if (as in the case of bhrti or patrl)
;

such have generally but of a few common

lish cognate,

cognate.
4

the other accent


2
,

is

rare, or (as in the case

Compare note

above.

of gtiska) not authenticated.

[ix]

according to the rules, in order to make more tangible the difference between 1 homonymous determinatives and possessives. What form should be given to the headings of articles is often a question.

For denominative verbs,


;

I have chosen the stem-form (e.g., mantraya rather to this is prefixed the root-sign (V), merely in order to than mantray) catch the eye the sign must not be understood as meaning that such stems
;

The stems of the perfect active are in any wise co-ordinate with roots. and of the primar}' comparatives are given as ending in vans and yans, but without any implication that these are theoretically better than the
participle

weaker forms. Roots with medial or final ar or r are given in the latter 2 form, and so are the stems in ar or r. The synopses of conjugational forms which follow each verbal root are based on the collections, still in manuscript, made by Professor WHITNEY. 3 These were placed at my disposal by him with the greatest kindness. They include all the verb-forms cited by the St. Petersburg Lexicon and BOEHTLINGK'S Abridgment, as occurring in the actual literature, besides very extensive gleanings made independently by Professor WHITNEY from texts
4 represented in the Lexicon, and from others published since its completion, or even not yet published. 6 In the description and classification of the forms,

have followed WHITNEY.

It often
;

happens that there are several forms

in

actual use for the

same tense

in

such cases, the commonest one has been


,

given, or else the one prescribed sometimes more than one form.

by the Hindu Root-book (dhatu-patha) or Although in the case of many roots the

less

uorist is confined almost exclusively to the Vedic language, I have neverthegiven the aorist in such cases in order to fill out the conjugational

scheme, since this seemed desirable from a pedagogical point of view. For pedagogical reasons, also, the secondary conjugations have been for the most part omitted. Many roots which are conjugated regularly in only one
voice show forms of the other voice in the Epos, especially where the metre demands them. It is very difficult to say just how far such forms should be included, and my course in accepting or rejecting them has been, I fear,

not wholly consistent.

The Notes, which form


as
is

the third part of this work, will be issued as soon

It is designed that they shall be as brief as possible, but shall render ample assistance in the interpretation of difficult passages and

practicable.

* For Compare bhimaparakrama and bhimaexample, the C/atapatha and Aita206. parakrama, p. reya Brahmanas. 2 5 See WHITNEY, 107 and 108, and comEspecially GARBE'S edition of Apastam370. ba's Qrauta Sutra, and VON SCHROEDEK'S pare

See Proceedings of

the

Society for

May,

1882, p.

xiii.

American Oriental Maitrayani. 6 The Jaiminiya Brahmana.

M
the explanation of allusions to the antiquities of India. The plan includes also concise literary introductions to the various selections.

An

open acknowledgment of

vocabulary, Messrs. J. S. GUSHING with such intelligence, accuracy,


recognition.

my thanks is due to the printers of the & Co. They have performed their part
and
skill

as

to

merit most

cordial

In conclusion, I desire to
interest in this undertaking

make
and

public expression of

my
I

gratitude to

my

honored teacher, Professor WILLIAM

D WIGHT

WHITNEY,
aid.

for his constant

for his

generous

can only hope

that the book may do something to further the cause in which he has labored 7 long and devotedly, and that it ma} help to enlarge the scope of classical

teaching, to quicken the interest in the history of our mother-tongue, and to

make

Sanskrit study

among us

increasingly fruitful.

C. R. L.
HOLLIS HALL, HARVARD COLLEGE,

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, December, 1883.

NOTE TO THE FOURTH ISSUE


THE
of the

(1903).

references to Whitney's Sanskrit

Grammar which

III. of this

book

are, I believe, absolutely correct

are given in Parts II. and throughout for the first edition

Grammar.

The second

edition of the

Grammar

did not appear until after the

The section-numbers of plates for Parts II. and III. of the Reader were made. the second edition of the Grammar (see Whitney's Preface thereto) are substantially
in the sequence

unchanged from those of the first; but there are some slight alterations, notably from 98 to 713 708 to 108, and again in the sequence from (whereby the references to the section on the important verb cru are thrown out of gear). Occasionally, too, a statement has been taken from one section and put and more appropriate section: thus the euphonic treatment
176a to
174b.
of bhos

into another

has been shifted from

more thoroughly marked (with a, b, c, etc.) second or third edition of the Grammar will often have to

Moreover, the subsections are much in the second edition. Users of the

make a slight allowance for these changes, seeking, for example, 844 8 under 844a, 371 12 under 371k, and the like. It seemed hardly worth while to alter the plates to suit these changes
a
little

sense will usually offset the apparent inaccuracy. Mention of these matters has already been made by me below, in the Postscript, p. 405; but as it seems usually to be overlooked there, I have thought it well to repeat the
practical

common

mention in this more conspicuous place.


JUNE, 1903.

C R L

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Introductory suggestions Brief list of books for students of Sanskrit

.....

xv
xvii

PART
A.
SELECTION
I.

I.

From

the Maha-bharata.

The

story of

Nala and Damayanti

.......
......

B.
II.

From

the Hitopadec,a.

Preface and introduction

16

III.

IV.

V. VI.
VII.
VIII.

X. XI.
XII.
XIII.

XIV.

XVII. XVIII.

XIX.

XX.
XXI.

The old tiger and the traveller The deer and the crow, and the jackal The blind vulture, the birdlings, and the cat The ass, the dog, and the thief The lion, the mouse, and the cat The crows and the serpent IX. The lion, the old hare, and the well The birds and the apes The ass in the tiger-skin The elephant, the hares, and the moon The blue jackal The two geese and the tortoise XV. The three fishes XVI. The herons, the serpent, and the ichneumons The hermit, and the mouse that was changed to a tiger The heron, the fishes, and the crab The Brahman and his jar The Brahman with the goat, and the three rogues The Brahman and his faithful ichneumon
.

20

23
27 30
31 31

32 33

34 35
36

37 38
.

.39 .40
41

42
. .

.43
44

C.

From

the Katha-sarit-sagara.

XXII. King Putraka and the seven-league boots XXIII. Story of Mousey, the thrifty merchant XXIV. King Qibi, the falcon, and the dove

45
46 48 48

XXV.

.......

Story of Ahalya

[xii]
SELECTION

XXVI. The king who didn't know his Sanskrit grammar XXVII. The pathetic history of the stories
XXVIII.
D.

From

the Manava-dharmac.astra.*

[xiii]

F.
SELECTION

From

the Maitrayanl.
PAGE

LXIL

Hiranya-garbha.
of the

LXIII. Legend of

The god Ka or Who Yama and Yami. The creation


winged mountains
sacrifice

91
of night
.

LXIV. Legend

LXV. The

potency of the

....... ........
.

.92
92
93

G.

Other Brahmana-pieces.

LXVI. Legend of Agni the oblation-bearer, and of the fish LXVII. Legend of Indra and the Maruts, and Vritra LXVIII. Legend of Indra and the god Ka or Who LXIX. The two kinds of deities, the gods and the Brahmans

.....
...
. .

93

94

94 94
95 95
97 97

LXX.

Truth, untruth, and silence


got his share

LXXI. How the gods got immortality and how Death LXXII. Legend of Indra and Namuchi

LXXIIL

Nirukta on KV.

i.32.10, selection

xxxii

H.

From

the Grihya-sutras.

LXXTV. Wedding-customs and

the wedding-service
.

98
.

LXXV. The

customs and ritual of cremation and burial

101

PART
Vocabulary Explanations and abbreviations
List of abbreviations

II.

...........
.

Ill

289
293

PART
Notes

III.

....

.....

297

raTKODUCTOKY SUGGESTIONS.

IT
selves.

is

chiefly at the

beginning that the

difficulties

of Sanskrit present them-

The

variety of forms, the strange alphabet, the peculiarities of


all

word and

sentence combination,
outset.
is

these simultaneously confront the student at the very

Accordingly, the plan followed with


is

my

classes,

and

for

which provision
These

here made,

to distribute these difficulties of

over the

first first

few weeks of the


be learned.

course.

The common paradigms


by the

nouns and verbs should

Grammar in transliteration. The reading of the first four pages The Reader gives these in of the N"ala in Roman letters should then be taken up. The transliteration on an inset conveniently facing the same text in nagarl letters.
are given

student

may

thus become familiar with the form and sound of the vocables, without

being embarrassed by the alphabet and the running together of the words. the same familiar text should be read aloud over and over again in nagarl
I in

Next,
letters.

am
it

convinced that the easiest

way

to master the alphabet

is

to read frequently

words which one already knows.


five to

The next

step will be the reading of

pages

nine without the help of a transliteration, but with the aid given

by
is

the typographical separation of the words, which has been carried out so far as
practicable,

the reading

though in violation of Indian usage. Finally, from this point on, may be continued without other help for the difficulties of euphonic and graphic combination than is offered by the notes.
After finishing the Nala, the student should take up the Hitopade9a.
Selec-

tions xvii., xx.,

and
vi.

short ones
ii.

from

good to begin with. The remaining to xxi. may then follow in order and finally the long selections
xi.

are very easy

and

are

to v.
It is

recommended that the student use the

stories

for exercise in rapid reading, as soon as he has acquired a f ah vocabulary " " precedes. The passages from Manu may be read as they stand.

from the Katha-sarit-sagara from what

Of the Vedic
and

selections, the easiest are

xxxviii., xxxix., xli., xlv., xlvi.,

and

lix.

numbers xxxi. (Rigveda i. 1), xxxiii., and it is advisable to read these first
and

in the order here mentioned.

Selection xxxii., as being one of poetic merit


it,

not over-hard,
xliii.-xliv.
;

may

next be taken up, and after

the Varuna-hymns, selections


xxxvii.,,

then the hymns in dramatic form, selections xxxv.,

and

Ivi

[xvi]
After these, selections xxxvi.,
read.
lx.,

xl., xlii., xlvii., xlviii., liv.,

and

Ixii.

may be
Iv.

rapidly

There will then remain the selections for the

burial-service, xlix.-liii.,
Ivii.,

Ixi.,

and xxxiv., and those for the wedding,


last, in

Iviii.,

and

These

ML, may

properly be read
Sutras,

order that they


is

may

be fresh in the mind when reading the

where constant reference


pieces

made

to them.
;

The Brahmana

may be
and

selections Ixvi., Ixvii., Ixviii.,


Ivi., xlvii., Ixii.,

Ixxii.

read in the order in which they are printed but ought not to be taken up, unless selections

and

xlvi.

have previously been studied.


is

It is

very undesirable to attempt to read the Sutra chapters until one

familiar

with the burial and wedding stanzas just mentioned.


translation of these chapters,

It is advisable to write

out a

and

to insert therein each mantra in its proper place,


full,

writing out the original of the mantra in


metre,
if

and

its

translation, the latter also in

possible.

Since the synopses following each verbal root in the vocabulary represent the
great mass of all the forms in actual use (rather than those simply prescribed by the

grammarians), and so correspond to the "principal parts" of the Latin and Greek verbs, the student should make it his duty to learn the synopsis for each root when he first meets verbal forms of that root in the text.
Attention
is

called to the

explanations and abbreviations (pages 289-294)}

these should be looked over carefully before using the vocabulary.

A BRIEF

LIST

OF BOOKS FOR STUDENTS OF SANSKRIT,

1 has a purely practical aim, and is restricted to a few of the 2 more important and useful books and to such as are neither rare nor

THIS

list

out of print.

It includes (a) a grammar, (6) readers, (c) dictionaries, for the study (e) of the Rigveda and its litera(d) classical works, books of the Atharvaveda, and last (g) some books on antiquities ture, and (/) and the history of the literature and the religions of India.

1.

Whitney, William Dwight.


and Hartel.
This

Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical

language, and the older dialects, of

Veda and Brahmana.


Co.
1879.

London, Trubner

&

8.

Leipzig, Breitkopf Price (bound in cloth)

12 shillings. may be had in Boston of Ginn and Company. translation, which may be had of the Leipzig publishers.
2.

The work

exists also in

a German

Biihler,

Georg.

Shastri Pandit.

With a glossary by Vishnu P. Third Book of Sanskrit. Second edition. Bombay. 1877. 12. 128 pages of text
Price 9 annas.

and 97

of glossary.

This book can be procured from Trubner & Co. in London (price 3 shillings). It contains the entire Story of Nala (26 chapters), Da^aratha's Death (Ramayana, ii. <>3-64), and four For beginners, the typography proves troublesome and the stories from the Panchatantra. glossary too meagre but the little volume is inexpensive and contains excellent material for and rapid reading, and so is highly to be recommended to those who have finished the easy classical part of this Reader and wish to continue their Sanskrit. For such students the glossary would be quite sufficient.
;

3.

Bohtlingk, Otto.

Sanskrit-Chrestomathie.
1877.

St. Petersburg. Auflage. 80 Pfennigs.

Large 8.

Zweite, ganzlich umgearbeitete Price 4 Mark 372 pages.

This work and the two following are publications of the Russian Imperial Academy, and should be ordered through the Academy's agent, Leopold Voss, of Leipzig. The volume contains selections from the Veda (Mantra, Brahmana, and Sutra), from the Maha-bharata, Ramayana, Vishnu-purana, Katha-sarit-sagara, Hitopade(;a, "Manu's Laws," and Panini's Grammar, and from various other books a rich collection of proverbs the Vedanta-sara, a philosophical and the entire drama, Ratnavali. The Vedic hymns are all treatise, in text and translation translated in the volume mentioned below, no. 15 and the notes show where many of the other selections may be found translated. Like all publications of the Academy, this is sold at an extremely low price. Since the book has no vocabulary, the student will at this point need to get a dictionary.
;
;

Hence the

and the
dollar.

shilling

prices are included. Both the Mark may be reckoned as a quarter of a

cent.

The books

will cost the


less

American purchaser
facilities for

somewhat more or
-

prices given with the titles are publishers' prices. To these prices, except when given in dollars, should be added the duty, which is 25 per

The

according to his obtaining foreign books.

With perhaps one exception, no. 18, which can, however, be had of second-hand dealers.

[xviii]
4.

Bohtlingk, Otto.
1879-.

Sanskrit- Wb'rterbuch in kurzerer Fassung.

St.

Petersburg.

4.

be ordered through Voss (see above). Parts I. to IV. have appeared, and reach to the they cover 1167 pages, i.e. nigh two-thirds of the whole, and cost 34 Mark 80 The manuscript is ready as Pfennige. The rest may be expected in the course of 1885.

To

end of bh

far as varna.
5.

The work

is

an abridgment of the following.

Bohtlingk, Otto, and Rudolph Roth. Sanskrit-Worterbuch. St. Petersburg. 1855-1875. Seven volumes. 4. Price 177 Mark 90 Pfennige.

To be ordered through Voss (see above). This work, which is often called the "St. Petersburg Lexicon," is by far the most important production of Sanskrit scholarship. To such as wish to make any special study of the language and literature, it is absolutely indispensable.
6.

Williams, Monier.

Sanskrit-English Dictionary, etymologically and philo-

with special reference to Greek, Latin, Gothic, German, London and Anglo-Saxon, and other cognate Indo-European languages. New York, Macmillan and Co. 1872. 4. 1186 pages. Price 94 shillings 6d. in England, or $24 in the United States.
logically arranged,
It is is the only dictionary of Sanskrit into English which approaches completeness. compact and handy volume and is very convenient for reading works of the classical period. Unfortunately, the common meanings of a word are not distinguished from those which are seldom or never found. All Sanskrit words are given in transliteration, and the roots and more important words in ndgarl letters also.

This

in one

7.

Williams, Monier. Second edition.


339 pages.
This gives
literal

S'akuntala, a Sanskrit

drama in seven acts, by Kalidasa. London and New York, Macmillan and Co. 1876. 8.

Price 21 shillings in England, or $5.25 in the U.S.

English translations of all the metrical passages, explanatory notes, and the Sanskritization of the Prakrit passages, and all on the same page with the text of this,
the most famous of the plays.
8.

Kielhorn, Franz, and Georg Buhler.

Panchatantra.

Edited with notes.

Bombay.

1868.

8.

The work constitutes numbers IV., III., and I. of the "Bombay Sanskrit Series." Number IV. (comprehending book I.) appeared in a second edition in 1873. The book may be had of Triibner & Co., London. The price of the entire work is 8 shillings but the first book may be had separately for 3 shillings. The Panchatantra is easy and entertaining reading. It has been admirably translated into German by Benfey Pantschatantra. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus. 1859. 2 8 '. Price 24 Mark. The translation is accompanied by a very valuable history vpls. of fable-literature.
; :

Vedische Chrestomathie. Mit Anmerkungen und GlosBuchhandlung des Waisenhauses. 1874. 8. Price 3 Mark. This contains 47 hymns from the Rigveda. Of these, only five are repeated in this Reader. Both text and glossary are in transliteration. On account of the small price of the book, its mention may prove useful to such as do not wish to buy the two complete editions following
9.

Delbriick, Berthold.
sar.

Halle,

(numbers 11 and

12).

10.

Windisch, Ernst. Zwolf Hymnen des Rigveda. Mit Sayana's Commentar. Text. Worterbuch zu Sayana. Appendices. Leipzig, S. Hirzel. 1883. 8. Price 5 Mark.

text

This gives the text, and the comment of the great scholiast, both in ndgarl letters. The is printed with the genuine accentuation (as in this Reader). The book serves a useful purpose as introduction to the native Hindu or traditional exegesis of the Veda. The vocabudoes not cover the hymns themselves but lary the little book mentioned below, no. 15.
;

[xix]
11.

Aufrecht, Theodor.
Auflage.

Die Hymnen des Rigveda. Zweite Herausgegeben. Bonn, Adolph Marcus. 1877. 2 volumes. 8. Price 20 Mark.

The entire sanhita text is given in transliteration, and extracts from the pada text at the foot of each page. The exceedingly valuable appendix contains lists of the poets, divinities, and metres, and a complete table of first lines of every stanza, with references to the concordant texts of other Vedas.
12. Miiller, F.

Max.

The Hymns

of the Rigveda, in the

Samhita and Pada

texts,

Second edition. reprinted from the editio princeps. 8. Price 32 shillings. 2 volumes. 1877. Co.
names
13.

London, Triibner &


The

This edition gives the two texts complete on parallel pages and in nayarl letters. of the poets, divinities, and metres are given at the beginning of each hymn.

Grassmann, Hermann. Wdrterbuch zum Rig-veda. 1873 [-1875]. 8. Price 30 Mark.

Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus.

This is not only a dictionary, but also a complete concordance to the Rigveda. It is a work of wonderful industry, method, clearness, and accuracy. Aside from the St. Petersburg Lexicon, this dictionary stands next in importance, for Vedic students, after the Vedic text itself.
14.

Grassmann, Hermann. Rig-veda. Uebersetzt und mit kritischen und 1876. ternden Anmerkungen versehen. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus. 2 volumes. 8. Price 24 Mark.

erlau-

1877.

This translation is entirely in metre, except for a few corrupt or difficult hymns. The student can almost invariably see just what word Grassmann intended as the rendering of any given word of the text. This work is especially useful as giving a convenient general view of the contents of the Rigveda, and as enabling the student to grasp easily many matters touching the metres, the arrangement, and the textual condition of the original.
15.

Geldner, Karl,

und Adolf

Kagi.

Siebenzig Lieder des Rigveda.

Uebersetzt.

Mit Beitragen von R. Roth. 12. Price 3 Mark. 1875.

Tubingen.

H. Laupp'sche Buchhandlung.
were

Thirty-six of the seventy hymns of which this book gives metrical translations later incorporated by Bohtlingk into his Chrestomathy (no. 3, above).

16.

Aufrecht, Theodor. Das Aitareya Brahmana. Mit Ausziigen aus dem Commentare von Sayanacarya und anderen Beilagen herausgegeben. Bonn, Adolph Marcus. 1879. 8. Price 11 Mark.
;

This Brahmana belongs to the Rigveda. The text is in transliteration. The translation of (London, Triibner & Co. 1863) would be of help but it is inaccurate and hard to get. A good many passages are translated in volumes I., II., and V. of Muir (below, no. 26). Using these as an introduction, and the St. Petersburg Lexicon for help in hard places, an advanced student can make good progress with this text.

Haug

17.

Indische Hausregeln. Sanskrit und deutsch herausA9valayana. Erstes Heft. Text. Leipzig. 1864. 8. Price 2 Mark. Zweites Heft. Uebersetzung. 1865. Price 3 Mark. Published by the German Oriental Society, in volumes III. and IV. of the Abhandlungen

Stenzler, Adolf Friedrich.

gegeben.

I.

fur die

Kunde

In Leipzig.

des Morgenlandes. To be ordered through the Society's agent, F. A. Brockhaus, These are the Grihya-sutras belonging to the Rigveda.

18.

Atharva Veda Sanhita. Herausgegeben. Roth, R., und Whitney, "W. D. Erster Band. Text. Berlin, Ferd. Diimmler. 1856. Royal 8. Price 28 Mark
This
after the Rik.
It is full

50 Pfennige. is the most important and interesting of the Vedas, incantations and other products of curious superstitions.

of magic

[xxj
19.

Oarbe, Richard.
critical notes

Vaitana Sutra.

The Ritual

of the Atharvaveda.

Edited with
5 shillings.

and

indices.

London, Triibner

& Co.

1878.

8. Price

20.

Garbe, Richard.
skrit iibersetzt

Vaitana Sutra. Das Ritual des Atharvaveda. Aus dem Sanund mit Auinerkungen versehen. London, Triibner & Co.

1878.

8.

Price 5 shillings.

Since this is the only Qrauta-sutra published with translation, and since it is to be had easily and cheaply, it is recommended as an introduction to the works of this class.
21.

Weber,

Albrecht.

second
edition.

German

The history of Indian Literature. Translated edition by John Mann and Theodor Zachariae.

from the Second

London, Triibner

&

Co.

1878.

8.

Price 10 shillings 6 pence.

a systematic treatise covering both the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit literature. As a guide and as a work of It gives abundant and practical bibliographical information. reference it is of the utmost value.
This
is

22.

Die Cultur der vedischen Altindisches Leben. Zimmer, Heinrich. Nach den Samhita dargestellt. Berlin, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.

Arier.
1879.

8.
ture,

Price 10 Mark.
different categories

Under the

geography, climate, minerals, plants, animals, agricul-

the Vedic texts touching commerce, dress, food, amusements, family relations, art, etc. these subjects are discussed, and the results deducible from them are put together in a very readable and pleasant way.
23.

Kagi, Adolf.
beitete

Der Rigveda. Die alteste Literatur der Inder. Zweite, umgearund erweiterte, mit vollstandigem Sach- und Wortregister versehene 12. Price 4 Mark. Auflage. Leipzig, Otto Schulze. 1881.

This contains an account of the Vedic writings in general, descriptions of the gods in language agreeing closely with the actual words of the original as cited in the notes, and sketches of some of the more important phases of Vedic life and thought. The numerous notes are highly useful as a guide to the already extensive literature of these subjects, and point out many interesting parallels of custom, belief, and expression to be found in biblical and classical antiquity.

24. Earth,

Wood.

Auguste. The religions of India. Authorized translation by Rev. J. London, Triibner & Co. 1882. 8. Price 16 shillings.
:

The subject is treated in five chapters corresponding to the five grand phases of religious development in India the Vedic religion Brahmanism (ritual, philosophic speculation, deBuddhism Jainism and Hinduism (the sects and their great deities, Vishnuism cline) and 9ivaism, reforming sects, cultus). The copious references to the literature of the subin hand add greatly to the value of the work. jects
;
; ;

25.

Oldenberg, Hermann. Buddha; his life, his doctrine, his order. Translated from the German by William Hoey. London, Williams and Norgate. 1882.

8. Price 18 shillings. Oldenberg has recently finished editing (in five volumes) the Yinaya Pitakam, one of the most important among the Buddhist sacred books. He has a wide and deep knowledge of the original Pali sources, and in his use of them he is guided by rare critical acumen and good common-sense. His account of Buddha's life, doctrine, and order contains the best results of his studies and they are presented in an extremely attractive form.
26.

Muir, John.
trated.

Original Sanskrit texts on the origin and history of the people

of India, their religions

and institutions. Collected, translated, and London, Triibner & Co. 1872-1874. 5 volumes. 8.

illus-

third edition.

four volumes have appeared in a second edition, and the second volume in a The third volume costs 1(5 shillings. The price of each of the others is 21 shilvolume discusses the origin of caste. The fifth is devoted to the cosmogony, lings. mythology, religious ideas, life, and manners of the Indians in the Vedic age.
first

The

The

first

PART

I.

THE SANSKRIT TEXT.

Transliterated Text of Sanskrit Reader.

[Page 1.]

atha nalopakhyanam.
brhadagva uvaca.
asid raja, nalo nama, virasenasuto ball,

upapanno gunair
6 atisthan

istai,

rupavan, agvakovidah.
yatlia,

manujendranam murdhni devapatir


;

upary upari sarvesam aditya iva tejasa


aksapriyah, satyavadi,
ipsito

brahmanyo, vedavic, churo, niaadhesu mahipatih,

mahan aksauhinipatih

10

naranarinam, udarah, samyatendriyah, raksita, dhanvinam gresthah, saksad iva manuh svayam. tathaivasid vidarbhesu bhimo, bhlmaparakramah,
^urah, sarvagunair yuktah, prajakamah, sa caprajah.

sa prajarthe
tarn

param yatnam

akarot, susamahitah.

abhyagacchad brahmarsir, damano nama, bharata.

15

tarn ssrbhimah, prajakamas,

toaayam asa, dharmavit, mahisya saha, rajendra, satkarena, suvarcasam.


tasmai prasanno damanah sabharyaya varam dadau,

[Page 3.]
tato 'ntariksago vacam vyajahara nalam tada: hantavyo 'ami na te, raj an; karisyami tava priyam;

damayantisakage tvam kathayisyami, naiaadha, yatha tvad anyam puruaam na sa mansyati KarM cit. evam uktas tato hansam utaasarja mahipatih. te tu hansah samutpatya vidarbhan agamans tatah.

vidarbhanagaiim gatva, damayantyas tadantike nipetua te garutmantah, sa dadarca ca tan ganan.


sa,

tan adbhutarupan vai drstva, sakhiganavrta,

10

hrata grabitum

khagamans tvaramanopacakrame.

atha hansa visasrpuh aarvatah pramadavane. ekaika^as tada kanyas tan hansan samupadravan.

damayanti tu yam hansam samupadhavad antike,


15
""

manuslih giraih krtva, damayantim athabravit: damayanti, nalo nama, nisadhesu mahipatih,
sa,

agvinoh sadrgo rape ; na samas tasya manuaah. tasya vai yadi bharya tvam bhavetha, varavarnini, saphalam te bhavej janma, rupam cedam, suinadhyame,
vayaih hi devagandharvamanasoragaraksasan drstavanto; na casmabhir dratapurvas tathavidhah.

20

tvam

vigistaya vigistena

capi ratnam narinam, naresu ca nalo varah samgamo gunavan bhavet.


pate.

evam ukta tu hansena damayanti, vigam

[Page 2.] kanyaratnam, kumarang ca trin udaran, mahayagah,

damayantim, damam, dantam, damanam ca suvarcasam, upapannan gunaih sarvair, bhiman, bhimaparakraman.
5

damayanti tu rupena, tejasa, yagasa, griya, saubhagyena ca, lok|u yagah prapa, sumadhyama.
atha
tarn,

gatam,

gatari?

vayasi prapte, dasinarii samalamkrtam sakhinam ca, paryupasac, chaclm iva.

tatra sma raj ate bhaimi, sarvabharanabhusita, -^akhimadhye, 'navadyangi, vidyut saudamani yatha,
10

ativa rupasampanna, grir ivayatalocana. na devesu, na yaksesu, tadrg rupavati kva

cit,

manusesv api canyesu, drstapdrvatha va


cittapramatbini bala
15

grata,

devanam api

sundari.

af**

nalag ca naragardulo, lokesv apratimo bhuvi, kandarpa iva rupena murtimau. abhavat svayam.

tasyah samipe tu nalam pracagansuh kutuhalat, naisadhasya samipe tu damayantim punah punah. tayor adrstakamo 'bhiic chrnvatoh satatam gunan

20

kaunteya, sa vyavardhata hrcchayah. nalah kamam tada dharayitum hrda, agaknuvan antahpurasamipasthe vana aste raho gatah.

anyonyam

prati,

sa dadarga tato hansan jatarupapariskrtan vane vicar atam tesam ekam jagraka paksinam.
;

[Page 4.]
abravit tatra tarn hansam
:

tvam apy evam

nale vada.

tathety uktvandajah kanyam vidarbhasya, vigam pate, punar agamya nisadhan, nale sarvam nyavedayat.
iti

nalopakhyane prathamah sargah.

brhadagva uvaca. chrutva vaco hansasya, bharata, tatah prabhrti na svastha nalam prati babhuva sa.

damayanti

tu, tac

_ babhuva damayanti
10

tatag cintapara, dma, vivarnavadana, krga, tu, nihgvasaparama tada.

urdhvadrstir, dhyanapara, babhuvonmattadargana,

panduvarna ksanenatha, hrcchayavistacetana. na gayyasanabhogesu ratim vindati karhi cit. na naktam, na diva gete, ha heti rudati punah.
16

damayantyah sakhijanah nyavedayat tam asvastham damayantim naregvare. tac chrutva nrpatir bhimo damayantisakhiganat, cintayam asa tat karyam sumahat svam siitam prati.

tato vidarbhapataye

svam sutam praptayauvanam, apagyad atmana karyam damayantyah svayamvaram.


sa samiksya mahipalah

20

sa

samnimantrayam asa mahipalan vigam patih: anubhuyatam ayam, virah, svayamvara iti, prabho.
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13.

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LXin. MAITRAYANI SANHITA


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MAITRAYANI SANHITA

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BRAHMANA.
I

93

W
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LXV. MA1TRAYANI SANHITA

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LXYI. TAITTIRIYA SANHITA

II. 6.

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III. 20.

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LXVHI. AITAREYA

BRAHMANA

III. 21.

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LXIX.

QATAPATHA BRAHMANA

II.

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LXXIV. AgVALAYANA'S GRIHYASUTRA

I.

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Tftt

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106

SUTRA.

GEBRUDER UNGER, BERLIN, SW-

PART

E.

SANSKRIT-ENGLISH VOOABULAET.

[.For Explanations

and Abbreviations,

see

pages 289-294.]

[111]
1 a, pron. root, see 2 a negative prefix, see an.
,

[agni
a.

idam and

502.

a-ksata,
i.e.)

anga,

m. (that which one gets,


;

one's

unhurt, uninjured; unbroken-, as m. pi. unbroken or unhusked grains, esp. of barley,


a.

portion

and

so,

generalized, portion, part.

aksata-kesara,
mane,

having an uninjured
or

[Vlag, 'get.']
or shoot of the angii, m. juicy internodium and so, shooting ray (of Soma-plant
;

aksata-deha,
perfect body,

a.

having an unhurt
[cf. uir-unr-a,
' '

light).

aksan
a. rich in

[431],
'

n.
' ;

eye.

'have
;

ahQumant,

beams, radiant

as

seen,' dty,
oc-ulus,

eye

m. the sun, 16*. [angii, 1235b.] ' ' a n s a , m. shoulder, [perhaps, the strong Lat. um-erus, (part), Vam, 1197a: cf. 3>/j.-os,

'eye';

Lat. eyes the kinship of AS. edge,


otrcre, *bic-je,
:

Eng.

eye,

aksa-priya,

remains to be proved cf. Viks.] a. beloved of the dice, i.e.


unable,

a-kasmat,

Goth, amsa, 'shoulder.'] adv. without any "wherefore "; without apparent cause unexpectedly
; ;

a-ksama,
w.
inf.

lucky at gaming. a. not equal to a thing

accidentally.

akasmad-agantu,
rival, a

m. an accidental ar-

chance comer.
m. the sound or letter a.

a-ksaya, a. imperishable. aksayatva,n. imperishability, [aksaya.] a-ksara, a. imperishable; as n. word;


syllable; the sacred
syllable,

a-kara,
ney, 18.]

[Whit-

om, GO 14

sound, letter, 61
n.

4
.

a-karana,
causelessly.

lack of cause; -am, adv.

aksara-nyasa,
a-ksara,
a.

m. the

commitment

to

letters, the writing.

a-kirti,/. non-fame,

disgrace.
dis-

not pungent.
n.

akirti-kara,
graceful.

a.

causing disgrace,

aksaralavana,
gent and not
salt,

that which

is

not pun-

[alavana

a-krta,
aktii, m.

a.

not done; uncooked.


I.

aksaralavanagin,
beam
cutris,
is

1253b.] a. eating that which


:

ointment;
night,

2. light,

of light;
'

-3.

[for 2, cf.

not pungent and not salt, abstaining from seasoned and salted food, [agin.]
[431], n.

beam.']

aksi
,

eye;

see

aksan.

a- kriyamana
[Vlkr,

a.

not being accomplished.

aksauhini,/

'do,' 770c.]

a complete army. aksauhinl-pati, m. master of an

army;

a-krura, a. not harsh. general. 1 aksa, n. for aksan at end ofcpds [1315a]. a-khila, a. without a gap, entire all. 2 aksa, m. a die for playing, [named, a - g a d a a. not having disease, well, healthy,
;
,

perhaps,
'

from

its

'eyes'

(1

aksa)

or

spots.']

whole wholesome as m. medicine. a gar a, m. n. house,


; ;

aksa,
eax,

m. axle.

[cf.
(i.e.

&tav, Lat. axis,

AS. agni, m.
of
fire,

fire; esp.

a sacred

fire;

the god

Eng. axe

'axle'),

and

axle.']

Agni, mediator between

men and

agnikunda]

[112]
3, cf . oyxos,
cf.

gods, messenger who carries the sacrifice to them, protector from the terrors and
spirits of darkness,

Lat. uncus, AS. ongel, ' hook Eng. angle, not a borrowed word.]
on, grapple,

' ;

and hearth,
' '

[perhaps,
V aj,
';

and keeper of house the quickly mov'

ankhaya
hook

(ankhayati [1056, [from anka,

1067]).
'

hook,'

ing or agile one,'


fire/ agilis,
'

1158

cf Lat. ignis,
.

despite the aspiration.]


V

agile

akin, poss.,

is

flashing light.']

agni-kunda,
for the sacred

n.

round hole

hi the

+ pari, clasp, embrace. ang. move, in derivs. ground a n g a asseverative particle, yad anga,
aty\ri,
,

just

fire.

when

te anga, they only.


n.

agni-vela,^
the sacred
fire
;

fire-hour, time for kindling

anga,

limb,

member;

by synecdoche,
cf.

afternoon.
n.

body, person, form.


(a

[Vang: for mg,


'

agni-hotra,

fire-sacrifice

burnt-

angiili, angiistha.]

offering of fresh milk).

angana
/.
fire-sacrifice

n.

court,

[orig.,

perhaps,
i.e.

gang-

agnihotra-havani,
ladle.

way,' ^ang.]

ang ana,
n.

f.

(fair)

form,

a woman,

agny-adh6ya,
of the sacred

placing or setting up
[acct, 1272.] agre, in front, before,

[anga.]

fire,

angara,
esp.

m. coal.

agr a,

n.

1.

front

angiras,7n.

in presence of, w. gen.; 2. beginning; agre, in the beginning, in the first place,
first;

3.

tip,

end.

[perhaps,
:

'that
.

1. orig., probably, messenger ; messenger between gods and men 6^ 2. as pi. Angirases, a eminence, Agni; name applied by the Hindus to a certain race
;

which goes before,

leader,' V aj

cf

&yu,

among

their forefathers (perhaps because

'lead,' ffTpar-rryos, 'army-leader.']

their intercourse with the gods

was con-

agratas,

adv.

in

front [1098c 3 ]; before


in front, cause

(one's self) ; w. kr, place to lead, [agra, 1098b.]

ceived as very intimate), these forefathers 3. as s. being regarded as half divine


;

agrya, a. foremost, best, [agra, 1212c.] agha, a. distressful, harmful as n. harm,


;

the (mythical) ancestor of the Angirases. angiili, f. finger. [Vang, 1191: for mg,
cf.

anga.]
m. thumb,
or a no (acati, aiicati
[cf.

trouble, evil;

sin;
'

sorrow,
' '
:

[like

anhii,

angustha,
V

narrow,' and v- angh or anh,


'

anhas,
straiten

distress,'

from
'
>

ac

cf

KX OS

dis-

tress ; &yx.a>, Lat. ango, ' ange, anxious,' Ger. enge,


'

'

'

'

strangle
'

AS.

-acya). bend. + a. bend.

mg, cf. anga.] akna, ancita ; anka and vbl anc.]


[for
;

distress
'

'
:

narrow,' Angst, for connection of mgs, cf Eng.


.

straiten,

' ' to narrow and to distress.'] a (aghayati). harm; plan mis- a-cit, agha y

a. not moving; as subst. plant (as distinguished from animals). a-cala, a. immovable; as m. mountain.

a -car a,

a.

not knowing; unwise; foolish.


f.

[agha, 1059b.] a-ghoracaksus, a. not evil-eyed. d-ghnya, m. bull (the animal that
'

chief,

a-citti,

unwisdom;

folly.

hard to overcome,' or more exactly, ' be slain'). & g h n y a f. cow. [formed as a pendant
to
,

a-citva, grd. without piling. [Vlci.] is a-cintya, a. incomprehensible. not accha, vbl prefix, to, unto; hither; w.
;

VV

2 nag, ya, vah, vrt often accha, 248a. drive. V aj fajati, -te). [orig. 'put in

to

aghnya.]
m.
1.

motion
the bend at the groin

anka,

made
2. the

'lead':

by taking a

sitting position, lap;

+ ud,
,

Lat. ago, lead, drive also agra, ajira, aji.] drive out.
:

'

cf

'

' ;

&y<a,

cf.

bend just above the hip (where babes, sit- a j a m. he-goat, [prob. the agile one,' cf af, goat.'] V aj ting astride, are carried by Hindu women see aroha) 3. hook; 4. (like Eng. a-jara, a. not aging; ageless. pot-hook) mark, sign. [Vane: for 1, cf. aj aramaravat, adv. as if ageless and
' '

v,

'bend in arm or wall or shore'; for

immortal,

[ajara-amara, 1107, 1257.]

[113]

[atra
a.

a-jasra,
(of fire).

a.

not dying

out;

perpetual

anda-ja,
V

egg-born; as m. bird.

at

(atati, -te; atita).

wander about,

[cf.

aja,/.

she-goat,

[see aja.]

Vat.]

a-jata, a. unborn. ajina, m. goat-skin;


'

pelt,
'
,

[aja: cf
goat.']

alyls,

a-tandrita, a. unwearied. atas, adv. 1. (as abl. ofpron.


'

goat-skin, Aegis,' w. aff


a.

ajira,
Lat.
V

agile,
'

swift.

[Vaj,

1188e:

cf.

agilis,

agile.']

root a [1098], and synonymous w. asmat) from it; .so 22 9 sc. pankat ato nya, other than it, 68 12 -2. from this (place), 83 15 -3. from this
,

ajiraya
a.

(ajirayate). be swift; swiftly onward, [ajira, 1059b.]

press

21 (time), 96 ;

cf.

16 -4. iirdhvam; then, 40


; ;

from

a-jna,
a -j
L

not knowing, ignorant; foolish;


a.

as m. fool.

35 10 therefore, 27 3 etc.; w. correl. yatas, 36 8 hence and so, 39 4 42 21 ; so then, 73 12 [pron. root a, 502.]
this (cause),
,
; ; .

at a

unknown. [Vjna
'

cf &-yv<aros,
.

dti, adv. across, beyond, past, over, as


.

vbl

Lat. i-gnotus, Eng. un-couth,

ajnata-kulagila,

a.

unknown.'] whose family and

character are unknown.

prefix; in cpds, to excess, excessive, see 1289b ; as prep, beyond, over. [cf K-n, ' ' Lat. et, ' besides, and.'] further, besides
;

a-jnatva, grd. without knowing. a-jnana, n. ignorance; -at and


out of ignorance.
V

atikrama,
-atas,

m. act of overstepping or overati.]

coming.

[Vkram +
m. guest,

atithi,
cpds
[see

anc, see Vac. anc, as vbl at end of


turning, directed
;

ud-anc, upward. [for ing, cf. Eng. -ward (in to-ward, etc.), which is akin w. Vvrt,
e.g.
'

407-9], directed

ati-durvrtta, ati-dura, a. very

['wanderer,' Vat.] a. excessively wicked.


far or distant;

as

n.

great distance. ati-bhara, m. excessive burden.

ati-laulya,

n.

excessive greediness.
rain.

turn.']
V arij or aj (anakti,

ati-vrsti,yi excessive

ankte; anaiija, anaje a-tisthant, a. not standing; restless. [Vstha.] [788]; anjit; akta; aktva; -anjya, -ajya). 2. adorn, [cf. aktu: ati-samcaya,m. excessive accumulation. 1. smear; anoint;
'
.

cf Lat. ungo, + a , anoint.

anoint.']

ati-samnidhana,
atlndriya,
a.
;

n.

excessive nearness.
;

transcending the senses


[ati

as

+vi
fest
;

1.
;

anoint

2.
:

adorn and

so,
;

to notice

vyakta

adorned, fair
2.

bring mani-

n. soul, spirit,

indriya, 1310a.]

ativa,

caws,
,

make
anoint;

clear or manifest.

+ sam
by

1.

adorn;

3. unite

a-tyajya, aty-ugra,

adv. exceedingly; very, [ati + iva.] a. not to be abandoned.


a.

extraordinary.
a.

['exces-

19 4. generalized, unite anointing, 89 ; 10 with, take to one's self (e.g. food), 88


.

sively strong.']

atyugra-punyapapa,
;

extraordinar-

an j all,

two hollowed and open as n. pi. extraordinarily ily good and bad hands placed side by side the hands so good and bad deeds. 1. (asloc.ofpron. placed and raised to the forehead, i.e. a atra (atra, 248a), adv. root a [1099 4 ], and synonymous w. asmin) gesture of reverent salutation; a double 10 handful (as measure). in this case, 31 5 ; substantively : in it, 97
m.

the

aiijas, adv. quickly, suddenly, [prob. adv. ace. or instr. of an obsolete subst. anjas,
'

a slippery

way
;

or a gliding motion,' V anj .]


;

on this point, 29 2 ; : w. antare: in this interim, adjectiv ely 19 45 2 50 22 55 4 on this meantime, 24


in that
case,
; , , ,
;

18 n

at (atati, -te atisyati; atita atitva). wander about, [cf. Vat.] at an I, f. the notched end of a bow. a t a v I / forest, [perhaps, roaming-place,'
'

occasion,

at

this

juncture,
;

19
5
,

n
;

atra
in

sarasi, in this pool

2. in

this or that

(place); here, 25 that world (opp.

16
;

there, 33
'in

89*;

to

this

world'),

Vat.]

87
n.

!'

7 9
'

-3.

in that

(time), then,

56.

anda,

egg.

[pron. root a, 502.]

atri]

[114]
Rishi.

Atri, m. Atri, name of a famous

asav aliam.
103 5
;

am

so-and-so,

61
the

14
;

60 21

atha

(atha, 248a), adv.


:

temporal or resultant

expresses a sequence, then so so then ;


; ;

follows at a
it

distance

which

refers,

thus

word to 1 emphasizing it, 23


.

1. thereupon; temporal: [see 501 and 503.] atha upehi, run past, and aditi, a. without bond or limit; infinite; as e.g. ati drava, 19 83 18 in apodosis after infinthen go unto , f. infinity, the endless heaven, 79 5 6 7 8 96 22 ; 2. resultant: e.g. ma, ity, personified as a goddess, Aditi, 75 yada, 84

accordingly;

'

rudbhih sakhyam te astu, atha jayasi, make friends with the Maruts, and then shalt conquer, 82 2 N. (if thou dost) thou
;

[apparently a
'bond,'
'bind,'

-f

*diti, acct,

1304a 2
as

diti,

would be a
but
does
is

reg. deriv. of \/3da,

not

occur
diti,

3. very frequent as

a simple continuative

although
a

there

a word

q.v.,

such, of

now;

tence (e.g.

so; then; usually at beginning of sen20 1 ) or cloka (e.g. 2 6 ); sometimes


(e.g.

quite different rug and origin.]

-din a,

a.

within the cloka


the end,

3 14 ); exceptionally at

adinatman,
daunted,
luck.
-gali,

not depressed. a. with cheerful


-I, a.

spirit,

un-

13 9
;

at beginning of section or book,


;

[atman.]
bringing no bad
cf.

16 here beginneth (cf. Hi), I 1 now, 98 sometimes much attenuated in meaning ; often almost equivalent to a capital letter, to mark

a-durmangala,/.
[for

declension,

sumangala,

and 355b.]
a.

the beginning

n; 4. pleonasnecting parts of sentence, 4 w. tatas, 13 9 ; mere verse-filler, 10 19 tically


;

of a new clause,

e.g.

94 18

con-

a-dfsta,
seen.

adrsta-kama,

unseen, unnoticed. [Vdrg.] m. love for one not yet

16 6. atho, i.e. atha u, and also, 90 ; as a point d'appui for an enclitic, serving which may thus precede its word : e.g. devo,

5.

a-deva, m. non-god, who is no god. adbhis, see 393.

[1288a

4
.]

adbhuta,
[despite

'

tha va yaksas, a god or a Yaksha, instead


;

18 of devo, yakso va, 8

so 2 12 ; in this use,
;

va atha va
:

va;

7.

root a,

cf. que atque cf. atha va, or rather, 26 7 N. [pron. 1101, 502; later form of adha
:
:
:

27 21 ;

bhuta, 1310a
:

'

a. wonderful; as n. wonder, anatidbhuta, prob. from at(i)transcending what has existed/

cf.

ambara.]
a.

adbhuta-rupa,

having

wonderful

(which
Lat.
V
at,

is
'

more common

in the

Veda)

cf.

then, further, but.']


eat; consume,
:

beauty. adya, adv. to-day; adya nii, in this night 8 now; adya yavat, until (just past), 61
;

ad
[cf
.

(atti; atsyati; attum).


8eo,

now
see

Lat. edo, AS. etan, Eng. eat

cf

adya^arabhya, from now on. haps from *a-dyavi, on this day,'


; '

[per-

1122f,

anna.]

dyu

cf Lat. ho-die,
.

'

to-day.']

ad, vbl. a d a a.
,

eating, consuming, in cpds. eating, in cpds.


a.
[vf

a-dravya,
adri,
bruising the

n.

non-thing, unworthy object.

ad.]

a-danstrin,
teeth.

without tusks or large


given.
a.

m. rock; stone; esp. Soma-stone (for Soma) ; missile stone.


a.

adrivant,
not

having

or

armed with the

a-datta, a. not a-dantajata,


['not having

hurling-stone.

having
for

teethed,

adha

grown

teeth,'

a-jata-

sequence

(adha, 248a), Vedic adv. expressing a 8 so then, 89 18 : then, so, 79


; ;

danta.]

adha yad,
i.e.

adds

[501], pron. yon, yonder, that, that there, in opposition to the one here or just mentioned.- e.g. asau, 22 7 , that one (the last mentioned at 20 19 ) so 31 10 ; traveller
;

14 just then when, 76 ; (then, 8 18 78 6 , besides, i.e.) and, 77 [1104


. :

cf.

atha.]
a.

a-dhanya,

not rich; poor.


[cf.

adhama
and 474
:

[525], a. lowest; worst,

adhas

asmin, that one in that world, this one in this, 103 7 that one 6 n as (correl. ya), 7 , 37 designation of per-

asav amutra,

ayam
;

cf Lat. infimus,
.

'

lowest.']
[cf.

adhara
474:
cf.

[525], a.

lower,

adhas and

sons not to be named, so-and-so, N. or

M.

Lat. inferus, 'lower'; Eng. under.'] a-dharma, m. unrighteousness.

[115]

[anamayitnu
an
(aniti [631];

adhah-gayin,

a.

lying low,

i.e.

sleeping

ana; anisus

anisyati
'

on the ground. ad has, adv. below; down. adhastat, adv. below; as


[1130], under,

anita; anitum; -anya).


live,

[cf anila, &ve/*os,


.

breathe, blow; Lat. anima, cur'

prep.,

iv.

gen.
16

rent of air
,

' ;

Goth, an-an,
iclam.

breathe.']

[adhas, HOOb.j

ad hi,

adv. over, besides, in addition, 96 ; as prep, above, over, on; w. instr. (of snii
only),

+ p r a breathe. ana, pron. stem, see

over, 79 ; w. abl. from, out 13 n 7 of, 103*; w. loc.: over, 90 ; on, 70 ,92 adhika, a. (like Eng. over in adj. uses) ad-

away

an-agha, a. faultless. an a (I v ah [404], m. bull,


anas + vah.]

['cart-drawing/

ditional

superior,

surpassing the usual measure, extraordinary; as n. surplus,


a.

an-adhigata, a. un-studied. an-anusthana, n. non-observance,


lect.

neg-

[adhi, 1222a.]

an-antara,
surpassingly or

adhika-rupavant,
most beautiful.

adhikanuraga,
most
affection,

m. superior affection or

1. a. having no interval; immediately adjoining; -am, ado. immediately afterwards, afterwards thereupon ; 2. as n. non-interval, in sam-.
;

[anuraga.]
'

an-amiva,
well
;

a.

without sickness or trouble,

adhikara,
office.
office.']
[\f

m. authority; office; duties of


1

as

n.

weal,

[amiva, 1304a.]
priceless.

kr + adhi,

put over

or

in

an-arghya, a. not to be priced, anarghyatva, n. pricelessness.


an-artha,
tage.

[1239.]

adhij ya,
i.e.

a.

having the bow-string up

or on,

m. non-advantage;

disadvan-

strung.

adhi -pa,
1289a
:

[2jya, 1305.] m. lord; ruler,

['over-keeper,'

anala,

m.

fire.

354.] adhi-pati, m.

cf.

an-avadya,
over-lord;

a.

not
a.

un-praiseworthy

sovereign.

blameless, faultless.

[1289a.]

anavadyanga,_/.
[352],

-I,

having a faultless

adhi-pa
1289a.]

m.

lord,

['over-keeper,'

body,

[anga.]

an-aveksa,
n.
;

adhisthana,
[\lstha

standing-place; (of the soul) a dwelling-place or manifestation.

a. without any looking around -am, adv. without looking around,

[aveksa.]

+ adhi.]
the sacred cord

an-aveksamana,
[V Iks

a.

not looking around.

adhuna, adv. now. adho-nivita, a. having


(worn) low.
[adhas.]

+ ava.]

adhyayana,
Veda.
[Vi

adhyaya,
Veda;
,

n. reading; study, esp. of the adhi, 1150. la.] m. reading; study, esp. of the

an-agru,a. without tears, [agru, 1304a.] a-nasta, a. not lost. [\/lnag.] anasta-pagu, a. who loses nothing from
his herd.
'

anas,

n.

[prop. cart for

having a not lost herd.'] heavy burden, [cf. Lat.

(like
,

Eng. lesson),
[\|

lectio,
1

chapter,

onus, 'burden.']

66 16 58 15
vice
V

etc.

+ adhi,

148. 2.]

an-agata,

a.

not arrived; not (yet) come,


[\lgarn.

adhvara,
;

m. religious or liturgical sersacrifice, esp. Soma-sacrifice.

impending, future,

a.]

anagatavant,
future.

a.

having to do with the


m. arranger for the

adhvarya
rifice,

(adhvaryati). [adhvara, 1059d.]


m.
priest,

perform

sac-

[1233.]

anagata-vidhatr,
did the actual

adhvaryii,
work

who

oldest period as
see rtvij.

of the sacrifice, and appears in the companion of the hotr


[V

Forethought, name of a fish. 2 aii-agas, a. without sin. [acct, 1304a ].


future
;

an-adhrsyd,
1285.]

a.

un-approachable.

[acct,

adhvarya, 1178h.]
a,

an,

before

consonants
acct,

negative
cf.

prefix.

an-amayA,
as
n.

a.

without disease, healthy;


a.

[1121a;
Lat.
in-,

1288a,
un-.]

1304a:

w-,

a-,

health.

Eng.

an-amayitnii,

not sickening; healing.

anayudha]
an-ayudha,
an-aruhya,
(

[116]
a.

weaponless; defenceless.
without

[ayudha, 1304a.]
yrd.

anurodha, m. regard. anurodhin, a. having


[V 1

[V 1

rudh + anu.]
for.

(some) regard

going

into

rudh + anu.]
a.

danger)

[V ruh

a.]

an-ulbana,
to
rest.

not lumpy; smooth or per-

anil a,

[Van, 1189.] a-nivigamana, a. not going


[acct, 1283.]

m. wind.

fect (of a weft).

[1288a

.]

anuvrtti,
ance.
[V

f.

sequence, and

so,

continu-

vrt

+ anu.]

a-nivegana,
unsettled,

a.

having no resting-place,

[nivegana, 1304a.] an-ista, a. undesired; disagreeable; unapproved, unlawful. [V 1 is.]

anu-vrata, a. acting according to the will or command (of another), obedient;


devoted
cf.

to, w. ace. [272],

16
,

100 4

[1310a

apavrata.]
lies

anista-cintana,

n.

the thinking about

anugaya,
which

something unlawful. an-istva,<7rJ. without

m. repentance, [perhaps 'that down after one or follows one

sacrificing. [Vyaj.]

to his bed': Vgi

+anu.]
devotion
to
to,

anika,
4.

2. Jig. appearance; face; 3. of a hatchet (face, i.e.), sharp edge;

n.

1.

anusthana,
[V

n.

observance.

stha

+ anu.]
yrdv.
n.

front,

and
a.

so,

by synecdoche, troop.
4.]

anustheya,
[see Vstha
[V sr

be

accomplished,

[so Lat. acies has

mgs 3 and

+ anu, and

963a.]

a-nitijna,
duct,

not knowing discreet con-

anusarana,
+ anu.]

a going after, a searching.

anu,

prep, after, along, toward; w. ace. along or over ; after, i.e. according to. anugati,/. a going after. [V gam + anu.]

anustarana,
over;
f.

a.

anustaranl

strewing over, covering (sc. go), a cow,

an u car a,

going after; as m. attendant; companion. [\l car + anu.]


a.
a. living

slaughtered at the funeral ceremony, and the pieces of which are used for covering

over the corpse, limb by limb.


anu.] a n u can a,
see

[V str

anu- jivin,

upon, dependent; as

m. a dependent.

[V jiv

+ anu.]
i.e.

807 and 784.


anrta,
i.e.

anu-tta, ppl. a-nutta, a.


[Vnud.]

see

VI da + anu.
invincible.

an-rta,
wrong,

a.

untrue; not one,

n.

untruth;

un-moved,

[rta, 1288a.]
a.

an-eka,
a.

more than one;

anuttama,

most highest; best, most 'most best,' excellent; supreme. [lit. formal superl. to anuttara, which is itself
logically a superl.]
a.

many.

anekadha, adv. many times. [1104.] anekagas, adv. in large numbers. [1106.] a-nedya, a. not to be blamed; blameless,

an-uttara,
best,

not having a superior,


cf.

i.e.

[acct, 1285a.]
a.

[for

mg,
a.

nihgreyasa.]

an-enas,
1304a.]

free

from

guilt.

[enas,

an-udita,

not arisen.

an-omkrta, a. not having om uttered, i.e. an-udyoga, unaccompanied by om. [see omkrta.] anunaya, m. conciliation. [Vni + anu.] 1. vicinity, 2. proximity; an-upakarin, a. not doing or unable to ant a, m.
do a friendly service.
border; limit; end.
end.~\

[Vi + ud.] m. non-exertion,

[see anti: cf. Eng.

anu-purva,
order.

following the one preceding, one after another -am, adv. in regular
a.
;

antah-pura,
citadel;

[1310a.]

anumati,/.
to the pious)

approbation; favor (of gods [Vman personified, Grace.


;

n. inner stronghold or inner apartment of the royal 21 citadel, gynaeceum, harem, 2 [antar,
.

1289a.]

+ anu.]

dntaka,
a conception.
1222a.]
'

m.

ender
a.

(death).

[anta,
as
m. de-

anumana, n. the forming of [V 1 ma + anu, conceive.']


anur a ga,
m. affection.

anta-kara,
stroyer.

end-making;

[Vraj+anu.]

[117]
.4

[anvita
a.

u tarn a,
.

a.

nearest, very near; as m. in-

antima,
('

last.
),

[anti,

474:

for

mg

timate, companion, [see anta, mg 1, and ' 474 cf Lat. intumus, inmost.'] adv. inward, inwardly, within; antar,
:

endmost

"?

cf.

anta

2,

and antya.]
[lit.

ante-vasfn,

m. pupil,

'abiding in

prep.,

w. loc. : between, among, within 12 cf. Mi, gam, dha. [cf. along with, 78
;

the vicinity,' 1250c.] antya, a. being at the end, last; lowest; of lowest caste, [anta.]

Lat.
1

inter,

'between.']
a.

antya-jati,
in V.

a.

having lowest

birth.

antara,
[see anta,

very near, only


1,

and B. antyajatita,yi condition of having lowest birth.

mg
a.

and 474.]
n.

[1237.]
f.

antara,
middle
;

water

the interior, jala^antare, in the middle of the in the water, 50 7 ; vana^antarainner; as


1.
;

antya-stri,
a
iid.

woman

of lowest caste.

ha,

a.

13 samcarin, wandering in the forest, 49

and has, anna, n.

blind; blinding (of darkness). n. darkness, [cf. andha.]

2. interval

see

atra;
the

3.

distance be;

tween two things;


4. difference, at

7 difference, 29

food ; esp. rice, usually boiled, the chief food of the Hindus; grain. [Vad, 1177a: cf. eJSap, Lat. esca, *ed-ca, 'food';
'

end of cpds [1302c5]: -antara, that which has a difference 33 l 38 12 23 , 43 6 -5. i.e. another of -, u occasion, juncture, 19 [antar: cf.
-

'

ador,

spelt

AS.

dta,
n.

Eng.

oat.~\

anna-pragana,
anna-rasa, annavant,
[anna.]

rice-feeding, the first

-,

feeding of an infant with rice. n. food and drink.


a.

inwards, guts.'] antar-atman, m. the in(-dwelling) soul;


fVTfpa,

'

provided

with

[1253b.] food,

heart.

[1289.]
n.
'

any a
see

[523], pron. a.

another, other, else;


i.e.

antari-ksa,

the atmosphere, see 92 9 N. or situate in the middle between [' lying heaven and earth antar + ksa for mg,
:

anyac
34
,

ca,
;

and another thing,


, ;

again,

ca 3 other than, different from, w. abl., 24 19 68 12 104 u otiose, 2 12 yad an, ;


;

16 yat kim cana, whatever else, 9 anya or eka the other, 90 13 traversed by Iris.] anya, the one 29 8 Goth. an-\>ar, [cf. evioi, 'some'; antariksa-ga, a. moving in the air as m. bird, 'other,' Eng. other,.] [for mg, cf. khaga.] antariksa-loka, m. atmosphere-world anyatama, a. one of several, some one. 3 the atmosphere, regarded as a [anya, 525 .] [1280b] world. any at as, adv. from another direction separate

cf.

rb

fj.effrjyv,

as used of the aerial space

antar-gata,
within
;

a.

gone within,

i.e.

being

[1098b],

otherwise;

elsewhere
9

[1098c

],

hidden.
n.

to another place,

[anya.]

antardhana,
w.
i,

abiding; disappearance;

any at ha,
become

disappear. [V 1 dha + antar, q.v.] a n t a r - 1 a j j a , /. inward shame. [1289. ]

adv. otherwise, 18 ; w. bhu, 5 otherwise, suffer change, 17 ; otherwise than ,it really is, falsely, 35 20 ;

antar-vedi,
ficial

a.

situate within the sacri-

otherwise

(i.e.

if

not), 48

8
.

[anya.]
day.

bed

-di, adv. within the sacrificial

spot.

[1310a.]
'
'

anya-hrada, anye-dyus,

m. another pool. adv. on the next

anti, adv. opposite, in front, before; near. [see anta cf avrl, opposite,' &vra, face
:
.

['altero die': 1250c.]

anyonya,
any 6 'nya
gen.,

pron.

a.

one

the

to

face';

Lat.

ante,

'before';

antlcus,

[175a],
s.

the first

other, for part being a


;

'former, ancient'; AS. and-swaru, Eng.


an-swer.]
1

crystallized nom.

m. [1314c]

w. value of

antika,
used
like

n.

neighborhood

or

presence;

anyonyam prati hrcchaya = anyasya^anyam prati h., love of one towards


the other, 2
19
.

samipa, q.v. [anti.] 2 antika, for anta at end of cpds, 1222,


1307
;

[see paraspara.]

an vane
after,

[409c], a. directed after, following

grahana^antika, having acquisition

as its conclusion.

anvita,

being behind, [ami + anc.] see Vi + anu.

ap]
ap

[118]
a -par a,
a.

water; waters. [393], f. plurale tantum. [unrelated to Lat. aqua, 'water/ Goth.
'

boundless,
unto, close

dpi,

indecl.

[para: acct, 1304a.] 1. upon or on;

ahva,

stream.']

prep, to, w.
off
;

apa
see

prep,
VV
i,

away, forth,
kr.
of.]

opp. of lipa,
'

sides,

i.e.)

2. adv. (thereto, beVgam; further, also; connecting clauses


;

[cf

air6,

Lat. a&,

from

' ;

(63

23
)

or

words (65 11 )

connecting sentences,
;

Eng.

off",

apakara, m. injury. [Vlkr + apa.] apakarin, a. injuring, [do.] apacara, m. going off; absence. [Vcar
+ apa.] d-patighni,
[402
:

and besides, 29 9, see ca 3 api 23 ca api, and, 54 api, both % 12 5 26 ; and and, 5 ca, capi, both
api ca,
;

also, 12

;,'
,

caiva,

15 capi, 65

capi,
6 ca, 16 ,

21 ca, 3 ,

16";

capi,

ca,
,

a. f.

not husband-slaying.

60 10 ; na
9 9 na
; ,

na_api
,

acct, 1288a.]
n.

na

% neither vna capi, 22 ; na


,

nor
,

api
12
; ,

apatya,
animals),

offspring; child;

young
[cf.

(of

ca, neither

nor

nor also
,

[apa,
a.

'off,'

1245b.]
&iro5-es,

va,

va^api, either

or

or even

a -pad

[391],

footless.

62 2
the

'halt': 1304a.] a p ab hr a st a , fallen off ; deviating ( from


.

3. also, too, immediately following 12 II 3 21 18 24 21 emphasized word, 6 mam api, me too, 41 20 4. even, imme; , , , ;
;

good grammar)

provincial.

[Vbhrang +

diately following the emphasized word,


often

and
:

apa.] ap a ra [525], pron.

marking a circumstance under which a


is
13
,

a. hinder, opp.

o/purva

thing
e.g.

true where this is not to be expected

former one (purva), 86 13 later westerly, opp. to purva cf. pranc a following one, i.e. an other aparaih ca, and another thing, and further, see ca 3
following a
; ; ;

28 7

18
,

33 19 ; tatha^api, so even,

i.e.

nevertheless, 21

concessively, although,
;

29 \ 21", 61 1
indefinites,
all,
,

'

6
;

w. na, not even, 19 15

w.

apari [cf. 355b], f. pi. the (days), the future, [lit. 'remoter,'
474.]

future
fr.

kada cid api na, not ever at 31 w 32 s -5. but, immediately follow;

apa,

ing a

6 15
a.

a-paranmukha,
face,
i.e.

not having an averted


.

28 9

'

new subject, after change of subject, 28 21 , 32 22 , 41 -6. at least, U 7. converts an interr. into an indef. ;

.;

not turning the back, 5 19


a.

[507];
[cf
.

so
'

ka,

17

n
, '
;

etc.;

katham, 51

*.

a-parajita,

unconquered; w. dig, the

M,

on,

upon

perhaps Lat.

op-, ob-,

northeast quarter, 99 23 N. [Vji.] aparadha, m. sin. [s radh apa.]

'unto, on.']

a-parijata,
an embryo),
born,

a.

not completely grown (of

a-pidayant, a. non-oppressing. [Vpid.] a-purv4, a. having no predecessor; unprecedented


acct, 1304a.]
;

i.e.

[see pari-jata

prematurely born, and ref.]


without

still-

incomparable.

[purva
[Viks

a-pariniya,
around.

grd.
a.

any leading

apeksa,/
apa.]

regard; expectation.

[VnL]

a-parimita,
[v/lma.]

unmeasured, unlimited.
disobedient;
stubborn.
cf.

a-praja,

a.

having no offspring,
a.

childless,

[praja, 367b.]
a.

apa-vrata,
vrata.]

a-prajnata,
clearly to be

undistinguished
[Vjna.]

or

not

['away from command,' 1310a:

dnu-

known.
a.

apas,
apas
'
,

see ap.
n.

a-pratarkya, a-pratima, a.
unequalled,
see

un-imaginable. without match or equal;

work, [perhaps from V *ap, ' reach,

take hold
work.']

of

Vap:

cf.

Lat. opus,

-prat it a,

a.

[pratima, 367b.] not gone against; not with[Vi

stood; invincible.

+ prati.]

a pay a, m. a going away; what takes one a-pratta, a. not given (in marriage). from the mark (cf. upaya) danger [Vlda + pra, 1087e.] diminution. disadvantage [Vi + apa, a-prayucchant, a. not heedless; watch;
;

1148. la

for

mg,

cf.

Eng. untoward.]

ful.

[V2 yu

+ pra,

q.v.]

[119]

[amimarisya
a.

a-priya,
able.

a.

not dear; disliked; disagreeof a class of semi-divine

abhi-giras,
w. ace.

having the head towards,


-vat [1107], fear-

[1305.]
a.

apsaras,yi one
saras, 67
12

a-bhita,
lessly,

fearless;

beings, wires of the


N.

Gandharvas

an Ap-

[1151. 2d.]
a.

abhipsu,
[s/ap

a.

desirous of obtaining, w. ace.


1178f, 1038.]
a.

a-buddhimant,
abda,
m.
lit.

unwise; foolish.

+ abhi,

water-giving; (then, perhaps,

[ap + da, but rainy season, and so) year, w. irreg. acct, 1269 for rag, see varsa.] a-bhaksya, a. not to be eaten; as n. that which ought not to be eaten.
:

abhy-adhika, abhy-antara,
[1310a]; as
self
n.

a.

additional; more, situated in the inside


;

interior
a.

interval,

abhy-atma,
[1310a]
;

directed

-am, adv.
[V 2

towards one's towards one's


as

a-bhaya,
[bhaya:

as n. safety; a. dangerless feeling of safety; superl. greatest safety.


;

self [ISlOd].

abhyasa,
abhra,
'

acct,

1304a 2 .]

n.

m. study. rain-cloud,
'

abhi, q.v.]
'rain';

[cf. o/j.Bpos,
.

a-bhava, m. non-existence; absence; lack. a-bhavin, a. not about to be, not destined
to be.

Lat. imber,
water.']

rain

'
:

cf

ambhas and ambu,

abhravakagika,
.

abhi,
'

adv. to, unto; against; frequent as vbl prefix ; as prep, unto, w. ace. [cf a/*4>/,

a. (having, i.e.) affording an opportunity for the rain, exposing one's self to the rain, [abhra + avakaga,

around around
'

'
;

Lat. ambi-, amb-,

'

on both
'

sides,
'
;

1307.]
V

AS. ymbe, Ger. um,


abhitas.]
a.

around

am

(amiti [634]

ame; amayati).
cans. [1041
2
],

press

for mg,

cf.

abhijna,
[Vjfia
10
;

knowing, acquainted with.


sides;

on violently; harm; be sick. [cf. ansa.]

harm;

+ abhi, 333.] abhitas, adv. on both


101

on

all sides,

a-mantii,
1304a.]

a ma, pron. this; he. [503*: cf. ama.l a. without intention, [mantu:
m. an
like a

around

near,

[abhi.]

abhidroha, m. offense. [Vdruh + abhi.] a-mara, a. deathless; immortal; as immortal, a god; -vat [1107], adv. abhidha,/. name cf. akhya. [V 1 dha +
;

abhi, q.v.]

god.
[do.]

[mara: 1304a end.]


!!

abhidhana, n. name; designation, abhidhyana, n. the thinking


[Vdhya + abhi.]

upon.

amarottama, a. amaropama, a.
367b.]

chief of gods. [uttama.J


like

a god.

[upama,

abhinivega, m. [Vvig + abhi-ni.] abhibhasin, a.


3 abhi, 1183 .]

inclination

towards.
[\fbhas +

a-martya, a. immortal, a-marsa, m. non-endurance;


anger.

impatience;

addressing.

a-mahatman,
superiority; as a. [1157.2],

a.

not high-minded,

abhibhuti,/.
superior.

a ma, adv.

[V bhu

abhi.]
a.

by
superior

one.

abhibhuty-ojas,
might.

having

amatya,
relative,

home, chez soi; ama kr, keep [ama, 1112a and e.] m. inmate of the same house,
at

[ama, 1245b.]
guile; sincerity, m. a dwelling (of the

abhimati,/!
ter,

hostile plot; concrete, plot-

a-maya,,/! no

foe.

[Vman +

abhi,

1157. Id

ama-vasa,
at

moon)

irreg.']

home

(i.e.

with the sun).


a.

abhi-mukha,
facing
cation.
;

a. having the face towards turned towards. [1305.]

amavasya,
night of

of

amavasa

f. -a, w. or
i.e.

without ratri, the night of

amavasa,

abhivada,

m. salutation; at 60 22 , signifi-

new moon.
a.

[1212d4.]

[Vvad + abhi.]

a-mithuna,
sexes).

not forming pairs (of both


a.

abhivadana, n. salutation, [do.] abhivadin, a. signifying, [do.] abhivadya, grdv. to be saluted, [do.]

a-mimansya,
question.

not

to

be

called

in

amiva]

[120]
a -rap as,
a.

am iv,a,
tress
;

n., but generally -a, f. plague, disas m. tormenting spirit. [V am.]

without infirmity;

whole,

amlva-catana,
disease.

/.

-I,

a.

driving

away

[rapaa, 1304a.] aram, adv. so as to

[1271.]
[402], a. slaying the torment-

amiva-han
ing
spirits.

fit or suit, ready, at hand, enough; w. kr, make ready, serve, 79 2 w. gam, attend upon. [adv. ace. of ara, Vr, lllld: cf. alam.j
;

a mil, pron. root, see adas. [503 2 .] a m u t a s adv. from there, opp. of itas
,

a-rati,
;

f.

non-favor; malignity; personi-

fied, pi.,

there,

[amu.]
adv. there; in the other world, adv. so.
a.

arf

amiitra,
opp. of

[acct, 1288a.] 1. eager, esp. in one's re[343d], a. lations to the gods, and so, pious; 2.

malign hags,

iha or asnxin (loke).

amuya,
a-mfta,

[amii.] [amii, 1112a, e end.] immortal; as subst. an immor-

greedy;
'

3. hostile; as m.
'
:

enemy.

[\/r,

go for

cf arya.]
.

tal; as n.

immortality; the drink of imapfrpoffia.


'

a-riata, a. unharmed. [Vris: acct, 1284.] aristatati, f. unharmedness, health,


[ariata, 1238.]

mortality,

['not dead,' mrta, immortal.']

1284a

cf &-fj.&poTos,
.

aruna,

a.

ruddy; as m. Aruna, name of a


.

amrtatva, ambara, n.
ing,

n.

immortality,

[amrta.]

u teacher, 95

[cf.

aruaa.]

garment; sky.

envelope,'
cf.

Vlvr +

[prob. 'coveranu, for an(u)-

a-rundhatf,/

Arundhati, name of the faint star Alkor in Ursa Major, conceived


as consort of the Seven Rishis.
:

vara:

adbhuta.]

rudh,
cf.

691 acct, 1283a.] ambu, n. water, [see abhra.] 2 aruaa,/. arual, a. ruddy, [see 362b ambu-ja, a. water-born; as n. lotus. n. water, ambhas, [see abhra.] aruna.] ay a, a. subst. going, a going. [Vi, 1148. lab.] are, word of address. Ah! [voc. of

ari,

ay ana,

a going; place of going, way; course; esp. course (of the sun from one solstice to the other), i.e. half-year. [Vi,
n.

1135c

cf. re.]

1150. la.]

ay as,
gen.
dr,

n.

metal; iron.
Lat. aes,
'

[cf.

Old Lat.
' ;

ais,

a-roga, a. not having disease, diseaseless. arka, m. the sun. [<Jrc, 21(3.1.] argha, m. worth, price. [\/arh.] arghya, a. of price or that may be priced,
[argha, 1212.]

ais-is,

metal, bronze

AS.
\1

'bronze/ Eng. ore; perhaps AS. ' iren, Eng. iron, f errum, f erreus.']

tsern,

[see maya.] a-yiij, a. not paired; in uneven numbers,


[cf. S-fv|,

ayasmaya,

a. iron,

arc, arcis, V arj


,

see Vrc.
n.

flame.

[Vrc, 1153.]

see V2rj.
n. acquisition.

a-yuj
'

a, a.

'unyoked.'] not paired, uneven,


vya
t>

arjana, arjuna,
art ha,

[V2rj, 'get.']

a. silver-white. 1.

'unpaired'; also even or odd.']

&-vyos, &Cvya, the game


[cf.

m.

[V3rj, q.v.] aim, object, purpose, er-

rand, sake; artham and arthe [1302c4], for the sake of, on account of, for, esp.
frequent at end of cpds
2. (object, ; thing, matter, affair, cause, business ;
i.e.)

a-yuddha,
ara,

n.

no

fight.

[1288a.]

a-yoddhf.m. non-fighter, coward.


m. spoke,
[vfr,

[1288a

.]

3.

caus.

'fit in.']

arana,
arani
,

a. distant,

f. piece of

strange. wood for kindling fire

advantage, profit (w. instr.), 4. aim, intent, meanwealth, property; 15 ing, 59 ['that which one goes for,' Vr,
(object,
i.e.)
.

by

attrition.
n.

1163.]

aranya,

wilderness, forest,

['strange

artha-tattva,
ter or case.
\f

n.

true state of the mat-

land,' fr. arana.]

aranya-rajya, n. forest-sovereignty. aranya-vasin, a. dwelling in the forest. aranyani, / wilderness, [aranya, cf.
1223b.]

art hay a (arthayate,


object,

-ti).

seek for an

[artha, 1067.]

a bhi, ask, entreat. + p r a desire, sue for.


,

[121]

[avasana
adv. to a small degree,
;

artha rj ana,
[arjana.]

n.

acquisition of an object,

alpagas,
V

[alpa.]

av

(avati

ava; avit; avisyati; uta;


1.

art hin,

a.

having

an
i.e.)

object,

desiring,

-avya).

set a-going;
;

2.
;

further,
4.

seeking; (begging,

needy,

[artha.]

arthya, a. wealthy, [artha.] ardha, a. half; as m. the half. ardharca, m. half-stanza, [ardha + rca.] ardhika, a. amounting to half, [ardha.] arpana, n. the sending, consignment, entrusting,

favor, wish well pleasure in (ace.),


'

3. refresh
[cf.

have

Lat. avere, 'have

pleasure

in,'

ave,

hail.']
;

pra,

show forth favor


to
'

then,

be atten-

tive or heedful (as, conversely, in Eng. at-

tention Aas come


or courtesy').

mean act of kindness


off.

arbuda, arbuda-gikhara,
name

[caus. of Vr.] n. a hundred millions.

ava, vU prefix,

down;

m.

Million-peaks,

avaka,

of a mountain.
a.

grassy octandra Richard.


f.

swamp-plant,

Blyxa

arya,
['

faithful;

3 attached, kindly, 79

avakaga,
and

m.

1.

going eagerly

to,'

Vr

cf.

arya.]

so) opportunity.

2. (place, open place; [Vka ava.]


t-

arya man

[426a], m. bosom-friend, esp.


irapavvfj.<t>ios
;

avajna,
mg,
cf
.

f.

contempt.

[Vjfia

I-

ava

for

bridegroom's friend,

Arya-

avamana.]
m. descent, esp. of supernatural inearth ; an epiphany
;

man, name of an Aditya (invoked at the wedding, and often with play upon the

avatar a,

beings to the
ava.]

mg of the word), [arya.] arvak-kalika, a. belonging to hither


appellative
or nearer time, posterior
ority,
;

carnation, Anglo-Indian

avatar.

[Vtr

-ta, f. posteri-

avatta,

see 1087e.

[arvanc (1249a) + kala, 1222c2.] avadana, n. cutting off. [V2da + ava.] arvanc [409a], a. directed hitherwards; a-vadya, a. un-praiseworthy ; as n. imperw. kr, bring hither w. nud, thrust hither, fection. [1285.] i.e. downwards. V avadhiraya (avadhlrayati). despise;
;

arh

(arhati,

-te;
;

arhayati).

deserve;
;

reject.

have a right to w. inf., be able w. inf., caus. give a as a weak imperative, 7 17


;

a-vadhya,
ble,

a.

not to be harmed, inviolam. inviolability, 35


21
.

[vadhya, 1285.]
with bent

right to, present with.


a.
fit.

arha, deserving; worthy; [Varh.] 34 17 a-laksana, a. without any characteristic [Vnam.] mark without special mark, i.e. plain, avamana, m. contempt; self-contempt, unornamented. [laksana.] 50 u [Vman + ava for mg, cf. avajna.] a-laksita, a. unnoticed. [Vlaksaya.] avalambitavya, grdv. to be held on to. a-labhamana, a. not catching. [V lamb + ava.] a 1 a m adv. enough sometimes equiv, to an a-vaga, a. not willing or submissive; un. ; . :
,

avadhya-bhava, avanata-kaya, a.

down body,

adj.,

adequate,
ready,

fitting,

ready;
;

w. instr.
w. Rr,

controlled,

4 [vaga: acct, 1288a .]

enough with, have done with

avagyam,
an unused

adv. necessarily, surely,


adj.

[fr.

make

sv-alamkrta, well adorned; sam-alamkrta, well (samz'ntens.,


;

adorn

a-vaya,
;

'unyielding.']

1077b) adorned, [later form of aram.] a-lavana, a. not salt.

avas, avas,
from.

n.

furtherance

adv.

downwards;
ava.]

grace. [\/av.] w. abl. [1128],

down

[cf.
,

a-lasa,

a.

not

lively;

without energy;
absence of cu-

ava

n.

refreshment, nourishment. [V av,


m. occasion.

slothful; tired.

mg3.]

a-lobha,
pidity.

m. non-greed;

avasara,
mg,
'

[Vsr
'

+ ava:

for

cf.

alpa, a. small. alpa-dhi, a. small-minded,


telligence.

fall,'

Lat. casus, ' occasion,' w. cadcre, and Ger. Fall, case, instance,' w.
n.

of small in-

fallen, 'fall.']

avasana,

place of rest.

[^Jsa

+ ava.]

avastha]
avastha,
ava
t

[122]
f.
state,
cf.

condition.

[V

stha -

for

mg,
4.]

Lat. status w.

stare.']

a-vahant,
[V vah,

a.

not

flowing,

standing.

a-gaknuvant, a. not being able. [Vgak.] a-gakya, a. impossible. a-ganka, a. without hesitation, [ganka:
cf.

mg

aviganka.]
n.

a-vacya,

a.

not to be spoken

to.

agana,
ace.

food.

4 vane [409a], a. directed downwards; s. n. avak, adv. downwards, in depth.

a-guci,

a.

[V2ag.] impure.
disagreeable.

a-gabha,
a-geva,
a-gesa,
a g man,
3.
'

a.
a.

avi, m. sheep; as
Lat. ovis,
' '

f.
;

ewe.

[cf.

6is,

*uFis,

not dear;

hostile.

[geva:

sheep

Eng.

ewe.'}

acct, 1288a,]
a. without remainder, entire; -tas, adv. entirely, without exception.
TO. 1. stone; 2. thunderbolt; vault of heaven, 79 9 [cf. aK^iav, ' anvil, thunderbolt ; kinship w. Eng.
.

a-vicchindant, a-vicchinna, a.
[do.]

a.

not severing. [Vchid.]

not severed, continuous,

a-vijnaya,gfrc?. without discerning. [Vjna.] a-vijneya, a. unknowable, [do.]

a-vidasin,
[Vdas.]

a.

not drying up, perennial.

hammer uncertain.]

agmanvant,
a.

a. stony,

[agman.]

a-vidvans,
1288a.]

unwise; as

TO.

fool,

[acct,

agru, agva
ehu,

n.
TO.

tear.

a-vidhava,
acct,

f.

not widow,
adv. not

[vidhava:
according
to

TTTTTOS-,

horse ; agva, f. mare, steed, [cf . dialectic IKKOS, Lat. equus, Old Saxon
'

1288a 4.]

AS.

eh, eoh,

a-vidhanatas,
regulation.

agva-kovida, a. agva-medha, TO.


agvin,
a.

horse.'] well skilled in horses.


horse-sacrifice.

a-vipluta,
[Vplu +

a.

not dishonored; unsullied.

vi, q.v.]
a.

a-viveka,
a-viganka,

without discrimination.
lack of judgment.

horsed; as dual m. the A9vins, 15 gods of the morning light, 85 N. [agva.] agvya, a. consisting of horses of a horse,
;

avivekata,/

[1237.] a. without hesitation, unhesi-

[agva

cf. 'hnrios,
3
],

'

of a horse.']
[cf. OKT<!>,

ast
octo,

[483

num. eight,

Lat.

2 tating, [viganka, 334 , 1304a.] a-visaya, m. a non-province; something out of one's line or that one has no busi-

AS.

eahta,

Eng.

eight.]
8 [asta, 487 .]

a s t a md, a. eighth, asta-vidha, a. of


[vidha, 1302c 5.]

eight sorts; eight-fold,

unlawful thing. a-vrka, a. not harmful; -am, adv. harmlessly, lovingly, [vfka acct, 1288a *.]
; :

ness to do

astanga,
1312.]

n.

eight

members.

[anga,

aveksa,

/.

a looking around.
a.

[Viks
TO.

+ astanga-pata,
bers/
i.e.

3 ava, 1149 .]

a-vyakta,

not manifest; as
[Vanj.]

The
V

TO. a fall on eight memon hands, knees, feet, breast, and face, i.e. a most profound obeisance.

All-soul, 67".

asti,/^ attainment.

[Vlag.]

a-vyaya,
V

imperishable; not subject to change; unbroken. [1288a.]


a.

-1. be, exist; be (asti [636]; asa). present or on hand; take place, happen;
asti, asit, there
is,

las

asta ; asti ; [788 ] ; agitum). reach ; attain ; obtain, get. [cf iroS-Tji/e/c' ' ' fis, reaching to the feet ; tfy-ryK-a, car.

lag, anag

orig.

ang (agn6ti, agnute


4

ananca,

there was, very frequent


2. be, w. predicate pos-

at beg.
sessive

of stories ;
gen.,
;

i.e.

belong to; asti

mama,
;

I
'

ried': see also the closely related V2nag.] + upa, attain to.
\f

have have
'

observe that Skt. has no verb for


3.

most frequent as simple copula


e.g.
'

2ag
taste
;

(agnati;
;

ta; agitum
eat.

aga; agit; agisyati; agiagitva -agya). partake of


;

further, w. ppls: come, didst thou

[a specialization of V 1 ag cf. &K-O\OS, 'bit': for mg, cf. bhaks.]

prapto 'si, art thou 1 come, 9 hantavyo smi, occidendus sum, 3 2 ; gepano 'smi, I have 4 7 sworn, 97 redundantly [303b end] e.g.
; ; :

tatha^anusthite

sati, it
,

being thus per-

+ pra,

partake of; cas. feed.

13 39 16 M formed, 35"; so 37

prahrstah

[123]
12 san, being pleased, 48
;

[ahata
1. a. spiritual

4.

w. advs

a sura,

(used of the gods,

tusnim
be
'

asit,

kept silent;
s.v.
'

evam
;

astu, so

it
.

w. pradus, see

5.

become,
.

96 19
is,

[w. as-ti, s-anti,


exists,'
fieri,

is,

are,' cf
*'ivTi,
'

ftr-n,
'

Doric

tv-ri,

are,' are,'

and designating esp. the difference between celestial and mundane existence) 2. as m. a spirit of life, a god; asura 6 adeva, spirit that is no god, demon, 82
;

Lat.

es-t, s-unt,

AS.

is, #is-t,

s-ind,

is,

3.

later,

demon

(45

),

enemy
if

of

the

\1

cognate are a-m, ar-t, are.] asa asisyati asta; ; asitva asitum throw, cast, -asya). shoot throw aside, [cf asf, the bran-

Eng.

is ;

gods, an Asura, a not-god (as

the word

as

(asyati, -te
;

were a-sura

whence, by popular ety-

'

mology, the pendant sura, 'god'), [asura, 1226 (cf. 1188f), and as-u fr. VI as,
1178b.]

dished

'

sword j Lat.
'

'

ensis,

sword

' ;

dlea,
fr.

*aslea, 'die,'

like Ger.

Wiirfel,

'die,'

asurya,
V

a.

godlike;

as

n.

pi.

godhead.

werfen,

throw.']
direct

[asura, 1212d4.]

+ vy-ati, throw over, cross. + abhi, throw (one's self) upon,


(one's attention) to, study,

asuya

(asuyati).

asuya,/.
asrj
'

impatience.

be impatient, 6 [Vasuya, 1149 .]


.

[for rag, cf.

[432], n. blood,

24 22

[cf.

Cyprian

tap,

irpoaf^eiv without rbv vovv.~\ + ni, throw down; deposit; commit.

blood.']

a sail,

see 501

and adas.

+ pari-ni,
over.

throw down over,

stretch

asta, n. home; astam, w. i, gam, ya, go home esp. of the sun [see 1092b], set.
;

+ nis, throw
+ vi, away
1.
;

out; root out; destroy.

[prob. V 1 as

cast asunder; cast or throw

asta-mauna,
abandoned
a,sii,f. being.

for mg, cf bhavana.] a. having thrown aside or


.

2.
,

break in pieces, 70 14

silence.

[V2as.]
oareov,

+ s a m cast or put together. a-samhradayant, a. not


rattle,

causing

to

asthan
stem

[Vlas.] [431], n. bone.

[cf.
'

Lat

[Vhrad.]
a.

ossi-, *osti-,

nom.

os,

bone.']

a-satyasamdha,
erous.

unfaithful,

treach-

a-sthavara,
asthi,
see

a.

not standing,

asthan.
a.

a-sant,
ence.

a.

non-existing; as
a. related

n.

non-exist-

a-sprgant,
as ma
Lesbian

not touching.
we, us.

[Vsprg.]
[cf.
rjfj.f'is,

[494], prow. stem,


&fj.fj.es,

a-sapinda,

more distantly than

'we.']
in

in the sixth generation, see sapinda.

as mad, as stem
majestaticus,

cpds [494], our; as


4 [asma, 516 .]

pi.

a-samartha,

a.

unable.
non-success.
a.

my.
of us; our.
a.
a.

a-sampatti,/.

asmaka,

a.

a-sambaddha,
ent, w.

un-connected, in-coher-

same fig. mg as
a.

a-sambandha,
ship.

Eng. [s/bandh.] not having relation-

in

a-svapant, a-svastha,
tained, not

not sleeping. [Vsvap.] not well, ill; not self-conself.

master of one's
free

a-sambhavya,
sible.

a.

unsupposable, impos-

a-sveda, a. V ah (attha,
[801a]).

from sweat.
ahathus,
'

aha,

-tus,

ahus
[cf.

say; call; ahus, they say.


'

a -sail a,

a.

impatient.
life.
4

Lat. aio,
'

say,' ad-ag-ium,

saw, proverb,'

asu,

m. vital spirit; vigorous

[VI as.]
1

nego,

say no.']
to be.
assev. particle,

a-sutfp, a. insatiable. [1288a .] asu-tfp, a. life-robbing, [vbl of V2trp.] asu-nlti, f. the leading or continuing of
life (in

+ pra, declare

aha,

certainly, of course;
cf.

namely,
2

[pron. root a:
in cpds.
a. 1.

1104 3 end.]

the other world); spirit-life; spirit[acct, 1274.]


a.

aha, for ahan

world,

a-hata,
(Soma),
i.e.

a-sunva,
indifferent

not
the

pressing
gods,

[1209a, 1315a.] not beaten; 2. (since Hindu washermen wet the clothes and
stones) unwashed, of a

to

godless.

[see

pound them with


garment,
i.e.

1148. 3b

and

716.]

new.

[Vhan.]

ahan]
ahan,
a ham
ahar, ahas [430a], 16 day. e.g. 92
;

[124]
n.

day

(as opp.

akarsikakhya,
akarsika.

a.

having
shape
the

the

name

to night),

[akhya.]

[491], pron.

I.

[cf.

ly&, Lat. ego,

akara,
[V 1

m.
:

make
.

appearance.
shapely.

Eng. /: see 491 and ma etc.] ahar, see ahan. ahar-niga, n. day and night, wx^rifj-fpov ;

AS.

ic,

kr + a

cf akrti.]
a. like

akaravant,
[akara.]

Eng.

-am, adv. constantly,

[niqa

1253b.]

akaga, m
Vkag +
a.]
a.

Veda, m.;

later, n.

free or

open

ahaly a, /
ahas, see a-hasta,

Ahalya, Gautama's wife. ahan.


a.

space; sky.

[prop, 'outlook, clearness,'

handless.

[hasta, 1304a.]
[1135a.]
stolen.
to be stolen.

akula,
q.v.]
V

ahaha, excl. ofjoy or sorrow. a-harya, a. not liable to be aharyatva, n. non-liability

2. fig.

1. bestrewn, covered, filled; confused agitated. [V3kr + a,


;

akulaya
n.

(akulayati).
end.

confuse; aku[akula.]
a.]

[1239.] a hi, m. serpent; esp. the dragon of the sky, often identified w. the demon Vritra. [see under agha : cf ex is > I>at. anguis, ' ser.

lita, at one's wit's

ak ut a,
akrti,
[V 1

intention.

[Vku +
shape
:

f.

make

appearance.

kr +

a, 1157.

Id

'

pent

fjx f ^ vs>

^a

*'

'

anguilla,

eel.']

akhu,

m. mold-warp

akara.] mouse, ['burrower,'

cf.

Vkha + a, 1178a end.] ahi-gopa akhya, f. name; at end ofcpds, having their keeper. as name. [1302 *.] [Vkhya + a.] ahivat, adv. as a dragon. [1107.] akhyana, n. tale. [Vkhya + a, 1150.] ahi-hatya, n. the slaying of the dragon; agantavya, grdv. seeVgam T a.

a-hinsa,/.

non-injuring (any creature). [352], a. having the dragon as

the

(victorious)

fight

with the dragon,

agantu,

m.

arrival;

and

so,

as in Eng.,

person arriving. [V gam + a, 1161.] a-hrnana, a. not being angry. [V2hr.] a g a a n a n. a coming hither w. punar, a returning. [V gam + a.] aho, excl. of astonishment, pleasant or un[acct, 1272a, 1213c.]

pleasant.

[1135a
n.

aho-ratra,
[ahas +

euphony, 138f.] day and night, vu


:

a gas,
V afij
:

n.

sin.
.

[orig.,
' '

perhaps,
:

'a
is

slip,'

cf

&yos,

guilt

different

ayos,

ratri,

1253b

see ratra.]

a, adv.

1.

a. glowing, beaming. [V2ghr, 'glow/ -fa, 1158.] hither, unto, as prefix w. verbs angirasa, a. descended from Angiras.

aghrni,

of motion ; sides ca
;

2. conjunctively,
a,

thereto, be3. as-

both
to,

5 and, 85 ;

acamana,
[V

[angiras, 1208a.] n. the rmsing of the mouth.

severatively,

(up

i.e.)

quite,

entirely,

cam -f

a.]

73 *;
all

4. as prep., w. abl.: hither

from,

acamaniya,
the mouth,

m. dish for use in rinsing

the

way from
.

way

to, until,

49 13 , 64", 103 M 105 6 106 2


, ,
.

ana* then [293c], all the


;

[acamana, 1215.] a car a, m. walk and conversation; conduct;


usage observance. [V car + a.] a car y a, m. teacher, esp. of the Veda.
; '

' as far as, 105 10 [cf Lat. a, from,' which is not akin w. ab, 'from.'] 1. accumulation, abundance ; akara, m.

[perhaps,

the

man

of observances,'

fr.

2.
V

mine.

[V3kr +
listen;

a, q.v.]
;

acara, 1212d 4.]

akarnaya
akarnya).
'

(akarnayati

akarnita

ajar as am,

adv. to old age. adv. to old age. the preceding, as

[from the
[dat. (1113)
if

give ear to;

hear,

phrase a jaras-am.]

[denom. fr. the possessive adj. *akarna, having the ear to, i.e. listening.']
a.

ajarasaya,
formed
fr.

that were

akarsaka,
[Vkrs

attractive;

f.

-ika

ace. of ajarasa.]

[1222d], Pleasanton, as

name

of a town.

aji, m. race; contest; battle.


cf.

[Vaj, 1155.

+ a.]

ay-wv, 'contest.']

[125]
&j n a
,

[Vap
m. respect, notice, care.
n.

/.

order

command.

[V jna

a.]

adara,
a,
:

[V2dr +

ajya,
etc.);

n.
cf.

clarified

ghrta.
.

butter (for anointing, 20 [Vanj fa, see 100


'

'regard.']

cl

ah an a,
n.

burning-place, place of crea.]

for

mg, cf Eng. noun smear, ointment,'


m.
n.

mation.

[V

dah +

and verb smear.]

ad ana,
rest

receiving.

[Vlda +

a,

'take,'
8

ajya-gesa,
butter,

of

the

clarified

1150.]
1. in-ception, beginning, 60 adi, m. adim adatte, he makes a beginning; adav
;

ajyahuti,/.
[ahuti.]

oblation of clarified butter.

eva, just before, just


n.

now;
:

2. esp. at

end

anjana,
'

ointment.

[Vanj + a:
rich,

cf.

Lat.

unguen,

ointment.']
a.

of adj. cpds [see 1302c 1] as the beginning, i.e.


or,

-adi,

having
;

adhya,

wealthy;

[perhaps

fr.

arthya.] at, adv. thereupon;


[lit.

ad

Id,

then indeed.

and so forth omitted, and the adj. cpd being used as subst., and so forth. [undoubtedly f r. V 1 da + a,
the qualified

noun

being

'from

that,' abl. of a, 1114a.]

'take,' 'a taking hold of,

atithya,
1211.]

n. hospitality,

[atithi, 'guest,'
2

1155. 2e: an-fangen,

for mg,
'

cf.

i.e. beginning,' Lat. in-cipere, Ger.

take hold

of, begin.']

atman in cpds, 1249a adika, equiv. to adi in 1. son atmaka, for atman in mg 4 at end of cpds ad it y a, m. murderplied to the gods of [1222, 1307]; e.g. mara^atmaka,
at
,

ma

for

use 2.

[1222, 1307.] of Aditi, name apthe heavenly light,


;

atman,
(cf.

natured, murderous, m. 1. breath;

2. spirit; soul

84 8 N.), as principle of life and feeling; 3. self very often so used as a simple 36 16 reflexive pron. [514] e.g., myself,
;

2. AditVaruna, Mitra, Aryaman, etc. ya, name of the sun-god, son of Aditi the sun. [aditi, 1211.]
;

ad in,
'

a. eating,
n.

adevana,
play,'

3 devouring. [Vad, 1183 .] 3 gambling-place, 98 [VI diy


'
.

15 thyself, 26
16 his, 17
;

19 in genitive: himself, 4 5 one's own, 21 18 , 58 22 her, 46


;

a.]
first; equiv. to

adya,
1211.]

a.

adi

in use 2.

[adi,

4.

nature, character, peculiarity;


see

esp.

at

end of cpds,
KO.T
.

atmaka

5.

the
uni-

adhipatya,
1211
2

n.

sovereignty,
to

[adhipati,

soul

Qoxfy, the
[cf.

soul of

the

end.]
grdv.

8 verse, 66
'

a.vT/j.j)v,

'

vapor
cf.

AS.

wj>m,

seftm,

'breath'; ar/j.6s, ' ' breath for


:

adhrsya,

be ventured against;

mg,

irvtvfia

and Lat. anima, 'breath,


m. one's
a.

approachable. [Vdhrs + a, 963d.] adheya, n. a placing, esp. of the sacred


fire.

spirit.']

[V 1

dha +

'

a,
n.

atma-paksa, atma-prabha,
own
splendor,

own

party.
or

adhvaryava,
their
priest,

put,' 1213c.] service of sacrificing

having his

[prabha, 354.]
m. the

anaduha,
into exist-

[adhvaryii, 1208c.] a. of a bull, taurine.


of anadvah, 404
;

[anaduh,
'the
irpoff-

atma-bhava,
ence of one's

coming

weak form

1208a.]

self.
n.

anana,
one's

n.

atma-mansa,
atmavat,
atman
:

own

flesh.

breather,'
i.e.

mouth; Van: cf.


air-rivfjs,

face.

[prop,

fyea-, 'face,' in
' '
:

adv. as one's self,

[atma,

i)vi)s

and
'

with face turned

to.

1107.]

wards,'

with face averted

for mg, cf

atma-gakti, /. one's own power. atma-gonita, n. one's own blood.

nay an a.]
V
self,

atma-samdeha,
personal risk.

m. danger of one's

atma-hita,
i.e.

n.

one's
n.

own

welfare.

atmaupamya,
[aupamya.J

likeness to one's self, a putting one's self in another's place.

apat apsyati apta -apya apyate ipsati reach; win; get; [1030]; apayati). 1. having bring upon one's self; apta: and so, adereached extending over
(apn6ti; apa
;
;

ap

aptnm

aptva

quate, suitable,
i.e.

fit;

2.

having reached,
so,

being near or intimate, and

as m.,

apana]
a friend;
desires
to
Ipsita,

[126]

whom
sought

or

what one ayasa,


desired.
cf. tfirtos,

a. metallic,

of iron;

as n. metal,

obtain,

for,

iron,

'

[prob. for a-ap, 108g, see apas: ' approachable, friendly ; Lat.

ay am

[ayas, 1208a.] like Eng. extent, a, m.

i.e.

length.

ap-iscor,

'reach/ ap-ere, 'seize, fasten';


for
air),

airrta (Va<

[Vyam + a, 'extend.'] ayu, a. active, lively.


akin are
^vs, tty'v-s, tvs,

[Vi,
'

1178a: prob.
generalized, the phrase

'fasten.']

active, doughty,
e5, cf.

abhi, reach
strive to

to a thing, attain; desid.


cans, cause to

win

reach the

mark, i.e. carry out fully, + a v a come upon, fall


,

96 n
in

-, mighty,' 'strongly,' 'well': for mg of ayii, " full of

go."]

with
;

obtain,

acquire

take upon one's self


incur;
;

incur.

ayudha, n. ayusmant,
ayus,

weapon. [Vyudh + a.] a. having life or vitality;


[ayus, 1235a.]
liveliness,

+ pra,

reach; arrive; come upon; catch;


;

long-lived; old.
n. (activity,

win, obtain, get

prapta: reached,

and

so) life;

found, caught, obtained reached, arrived, cans, cause to arrive at, having come
;

18 vitality ; personified as a genius, Ayus, 85 ; period or duration of life ; long life ; (like

bring to, 53"; prapamya, to be brought 1& to, 53


.

Eng.
cf
.

life, i.e.)
:

ay-ll
'

cf

living creatures. [Vi, 1154, al-wv, Lat. ae-vu-m, AS. sew,

+ vi, reach through, pervade, 66 9 apana, m. market. [Vpan + a.]


apad
,

&,
'
'

life-time,
' ;

time
sef-re,

' ;

AS. dwa,
ev-er.~]

d,

Eng. aye,

ever

AS.

Eng.

f. misfortune,

'

[lit.

a getting into

aranyaka,

(trouble), V pad + a: for specialization of ' mg, cf arti, and Eng. ac-cident, lit. a hap.

a. pertaining to the wilderness; as n. forest-treatise (to be read in the solitude of the wilderness Whitney,

pening' (of trouble).]

p. xvi.).

[aranya, 1222e.]
n.

apas, see ap. api, m. friend,


tfirtos, s.v.

aradhana,
who has reached
(cf.

the gratifying, propitiation,


a, caus.]
i.e.

['one stands near another'


ap.]

or
cf.

service.

[V
n.

radh +
lit.

apta), Vap:

arogya,
[aroga.]

diseaseless-ness,

health,

apta-daksina,a. having or accompanied aroha,


by
suitable presents,
a.
2 [daksina, 334 .]

a woman,
child
'

m. the swelling hips or buttocks of ' the seat on which a [prop.


'

abdika,
lasting

annual;
n.

-abclika,

-ennial,

is

carried

astride

by
take
.

its

mother,
seat

years,

[abda.]
:
.

Vmh + a,
upon
:

'get

upon,

one's

abharana,
'

ornament (jewels, etc.). is worn,' V bhr + a for mg, cf [' what garment,' w. <pfpw, and Ger. Tracht, <t>apos,
'

see

anka and

cf the

words of an
Qronim, nes-

ogress,

MBh., aruha

mama
'

dress,'

am a,

a.

w. tragen, ' wear.'] raw. [cf. wfj.6s, 'raw'; Lat. am-

get upon my hip, I will carry thee through the air.'] arta, a. visited, esp. by trouble afflicted;
;

yami tvam vihayasa,

drus, 'bitter.']

m. injury; disease, [caus. of v'am.] amayitnu, a. sickening, [caus. of Vain,

amay a,

for stricken; distressed. [Vr + a, q.v. mg, cf American slang phrase gone for.]
:
.

arti,^
cf.

a visitation (of evil),

i.e.

trouble,

1196b.]

15 misfortune, see 93 N.

[Vr

+ a:

for mg.

amisa, n. flesh, [cf. ama and amis.] amisagin, a. flesh-eating. [ain.]


amis, n. raw flesh flesh, ara6da, a. gladdening; [s mud + a.]
;

arta and apad.]


a.

ardra,

wet.
a.

arya, a. belonging to the faithful, i.e., as m., man of one's own tribe, an Aryan, as designation of a man of the Vedic Indian ayatana, n. foot-hold; resting-place; esp. as aay. Aryan tribes noble reverend place of the sacred fire, fire-place. [Vyat
;
;

[cf ama.] as m. fragrance.


.

ardra-vasas,

having wet garments.

+.]
a.

(used in respectful address), [arya, 1208f

ayata-locana,
[Vyam + a.]

having

long

eyes.

cf

Avestan

'

airya,

Aryan

' ;

New
o

Persian,

Iran, 'Persia';

Hdt.

vii. 62,

M^Soi &co-

[127]
\eovro
en'nn,
ari,

[Vi

W\ai name
n.

'Aptoi; Keltic

nom. m'w,
Ir-ish
:

ace.

remain
on,

continue,
18
.

64 u
'

3.

w.

ppl.

of Ireland

Eng.

cf

[1075c], continue (doing anything),

keep
asa,

arya.]
sloth,

32 u

[cf

TJO--TOI,

sits
'
;

'
;

Lat. anus,

alasya,

'

[alasa.]
n.

*ds-nu-s,

seat,
'

buttocks

Old Lat.

alasya-vacana,
ist's

sloth-dictum,

as

Lat. dra,

designation for the ignava ratio or fatal-

+ adhi
+ upa,
serve),

family-seat, hearth, altar.'] take one's place in, i.e. visit, 49 16 ;


i.e.
1T put on, 45
.

argument.
m. talk; conversation.
n.

get into (shoes),

alapa,

the beholding. ava, pron. stem, 491. avis, adv. forth to sight, in view; w. kr,

alokana,

[Vlap + a.] [Vlok + a.]

by (in sign of readiness wait upon (a command), 92 4


sit
;

to
sit

by (expectantly), sit waiting for, 91 + pary-upa, sit around, surround,


a sana,
n. sitting,

7
.

make
aga,
TO.

visible.

[1078.]

12
;

seat.
colloq.

[Vas.]

a vft,/. a turning,
food.
[

[\fvrt-fa.]
'

asara,
a.]

m.

(like

Eng.

a pour,

i.e.)

V 2 ag,

eat.']

pouring

rain.

a gay a, m. lying-place; abode. [Vgi + a 9 a 8 f. wish, hope, [gans + a .]


,

a sura,
1208f.]

a.

[Vsr +a, 'run.'] demonic; as m. demon,

[asura,

as6cana, n. cavity (into which one pours). aga,/. hope, [younger form of agas.] region; quarter (of the sky), [spe[Vsic +a.] aga,y. cialized from 'place, objective point, that asecanavantfCf. having a cavity, hollow,
which one reaches,'
V 1 ag,
'

reach.']
3

agavant,

a.

hopeful,

[aga.]

ahati,/.
a hands,

[asecana.] blow.

[V

ban +

a,

1157

and

Id.]

agin, a. eating, in agis [392], f. wish


[v/gas

cpds. [\[2ag, 1183 .] or prayer, esp. for good.


:

a. swelling,

fermenting, foaming.

+ a, 639, 225 2 cf. pragis.] aglr-vada, m. expression of a


wish,
i.e.

ahavana, n. ahavaniya,
agni,
oblation-fire

oblation.
a.

[Vhu +

a.]
?r.

of or for the oblation;


;

(good)

oblation-fire

a benediction, a

[agis, cf. 392.]


a.

a g I r v a d a bhidhanavant,
designation
of

containing a benediction. [agir'

(the 2 oblation), see 102 N. ahara, m. the taking

as m., without agni, one that receives the

[ahavana, 1215.]
to

one's

self
i.e.

(of

vada + abhidhana, a g u a. swift. [cf


, '

1233.]
.

food), eating;
swift
'
;

what one takes,

food.

UKV-S,

Lat.

oc-ior,

swifter.']
n.

agcarya,
tion,
i.e.)

wonder; prodigy.
1.

[Vhr + a.] ahara-dana, n. giving of food. ahara-parityaga, m. relinquishment


of food.

a gram a, m.

(place of self-castiga2.

hermitage;
life

stadium in a

aharadi,
1302cl.]

n.

food and so forth.


a.

[adi,

Brahman's religious
are four
:

(of

which there

that of the student or

brahma- ahararthin,

seeking food,

[arthin.]

carin, that of the householder or grhastha, that of the hermit or vanaprastha,

ahitagni,
fire
;

having a set or established as m. one who is keeping alive a


a.
' ' \f
:

and that of the beggar or bhiksu), see 1 dha + a, set sacred fire, [ahita, 65 S N. [Vgram + a.] 1299a.] agraya, m. that on which anything leans ahuti,/. oblation, offering (used both of or rests the act and of the thing offered) cf. the support refuge protection hu + a w. -huti, cf later word homa. authority. [V ri + a.] [\f
;
;

agray a-bhuta,
tection,
i.e.,

a.

having become a pro[1273c.]


!

'

X'u-ffi-s,

a pouring.']
n.

as m., protector.

ahvana,
hva + a.]
i,

call

invitation.

[Vhu or

ofjoy or of displeasure, ah V as (aste [628], aslna [619 s ]; asam cakre; asista asisy ate asita asitum ; asitva ;
,

as

excl.

pron. root, see


i (eti

idam
;

ana"

502 3

-asya).
J down, 93
;

1.

sit;

seat one's self;


19 dwell, 85
;

settle

-2. abide;

stay;

itd;

[612]; iyaya, iyiis [783b ]; esyati; eturn itva -itya). 1. go; go


;

Vi]
to or towards
12 on, 88
;

[128]
;

come
3.

enter
to,

2.

move

dead;
inent.

2.

come

out, stick out, be

prom-

pass;

go

i.e.

attain (a
2

thing or condition) ; iyase [1021 ], goest hither and thither, 90 15 ; -Imahe [1021 2 ],
(like

+ prati, go against, withstand; go back 16 to; recognize, 98 ; pratita, recognized,


approved.
separate; disperse, 83 2 spread one's self over, i.e. pervade, 72
vita, at beg. of cpds, i.e. free from
.

Ger.

an-gehen)
'

we approach with
.

prayers, beseech,
'

[w. i-mas, cf

f-/j.tv,

Lat.

+ vi, go asunder;

15
;

i-mus,

we go

Goth, i-ddja, AS. code,

'went'; radically akin, perhaps, is AS. gdn (stem gd for *ga-i, ga- being the inseparable prefix), Eng. go, Ger. gehen : see
also ayii, ayus.]

having departed
;

+ s am, come

together

assemble.

go beyond or past or over; overwhelm; transcend; leave behind, get rid ij, vbl. sacrificing, in rtv-ij. [Vyaj, 252.] 9 of, 68 ; escape. ijy ,,_/! sacrifice. [Vyaj, 252.] + adhi, come upon, notice; take notice, itara [523], pron. a. other; the other; 87 18 middle adhite [612 note], go over another other than, i.e. different from,
; ;

+ ati,

iccha,y; wish; desire; inclination. 'seek': cf. AS. iesce, 'an asking.']

[VI is,

for one's self, repeat, learn, read ; ppl. adhita : w. act. mg, learn-ed, 18 6 ; w. pass,

w. abl.
'

[pron. root

i,

502 3

cf.

Lat. iterum,

another time.'] 15 cans, adhyapayati it as, adv. 1. used like the abl. of a pron. mg, learnt, 21 ; 18 2 [1042e], cause to learn, teach. [1098c ], 24 ; -2. from this (place),

+ upa^adh.i, in upadhyaya. + a n u go along or after accompany


,
;

itas tatas, here


(time), now, 41

from here; here; from this (world), 5 8 and there 3. from this
; ;

ppl. anvita,
filled or

accompanied by, endowed


the same.

or

8
.

[pron. root

i,

502 3 .]
did,

connected with.

iti, adv. see 1102a.

1. in this

way, thus;

sam-anu,
,

so;

iti
;

deva akurvan, thus the gods


2.
:

+ an tar, go within; retire, withdraw. + a p a go off slink away. + abhi, go unto; become embodied in.
;

+ ava, approach. + a come near or


,

used w. all kinds of quotations made verbis ipsissimis tatha^ity uktva, " 2 upon saying Yes," 4 ; sa prstavan kau he asked, "Who are ye," 45 5 yuvam iti,
;

96 9

unto or hither ;

w.

the adv.

punar, go back.

+ abhy-a, approach, go near. + u p a_a come unto. s am-a come near to together
,
-

tau dhavitau, with the words, "So be it," the two ran off, 45 16 so EV., 85 12 so MS., 92 15 ; ity akarnya, on hearing (so, i.e.) the preceding clokas,
iti
; ;

evam astu

as-

semble.

of; ppl. upeta, gone unto, attended by, provided with.

+ ud, go up, rise (of the + ttpa, go unto; fall

sun). to the lot

17 2a. designating something ; ; cf. 18 as that which was, or under the circumstances might have been said or thought or intended
or known, sometimes (46
1S
)

16

10

preceding
iti,

it,

but

usually following

it

martavyam
;

at the

9 thought, "I must die," 29

gardabho

+ sam-upa, come hither. + n i go into or in cf. nyaya. + para, go away or forth; depart. + anu-para, go forth along (a path). + vi-para, go away separately. + pari, circumambulate; walk round
, ;

'yam
" This

iti
is

jnatva, recognizing (the fact), an ass," 34 20 2b. interr. in


;

place of the exact quotation

In'm

iti ; alleg-

ing or intending what, under what pretext, with what intention, 30 4 41 5 2c. used
,
;

(the fire).

+ pra,
esp.

1. go forward or onward, 83 n go forth out of this world, and so (like


;

an authority: iti dharana, so (is) the rule, 62 "; ity eke, so some folks 9 2d. used in citing a Vedic (say), 101
in giving
;

verse by
etc.
(cf.
)

its first

Eng. depart), die ; pretya, after dying, i.e. in the other world (opp. of iha) preta,
;

2e. at the end of

word (60 13 ) or words (98 20 a section or book


,
;

4 atha), here endeth, 4

2f. w. verbs

[129]
of naming, considering, etc., the predicate, marked by iti, is nom., sometimes ace.
both constructions at

[iras
now.
[pron. root
i,

idanim, adv. V idh or indh


aindhista
kindle,
;

1103b.]
;

61 22

damayanti^iti
;

(inddhe [694]; idhd [783b] iddha ; -idhya). indhisyati


; '
.

" 3 D.," 6 vigruta, known as or named 3. used to include under one head or as
in

[cf

atO-ta,

burn

' ;

Lat. aed-e-s,

a
;

list

several separate objects, 2 1

7
,

100 8

'fire-place, hearth, dwelling' (cf. stove and Ger. Stube, ' room ') ; aestus, *aid-tu-s,
'

12 superfluously added, 61 60 "; -5. iti ha = iti, 12 8 iti doubled, 61 18 [pron. root i, 1102a: cf. Lat. iti-

105 7

4.

evam

heat
'

' ;

AS.

'

ad,

funeral pile

' ;

dst,

Eng.

oast,

kiln for drying hops


trans,

or malt.']
intrans.

dem, 'just so.'] itihasa, m. story, legend. [agglomeration of iti ha asa, thus, indeed, it was
'

+ sam, kindle, idhma, m. fuel,


Eng.
V

and

[v/idh, 1166: for

mg,

cf.

kindlings.]
/. fuel-pile.

'

idhma-citi,
in
force
;

1314b.]

(in-6-ti, prop.
in

i-n6-ti [713]).
.

drive;

ittha way

(V. only) and ittham, adv. in this so ; kim ta ittha, how does this
?

enas.

[cf V inv.]

indra,
the

m. Indra,

name

of a Vedic god; in
its kind, the numerous

happen thee
:

73 8

[adverbs
i-d, of
itd

made from

later

language,

the best of

the ace. sing, neut., cf. Lat. i, see 1101

the pron. root


item, 'so.']

chief,

prince,

[none of
is

and

proposed derivations

satisfactory.]

ity-adi,

end of possessive adj. cpds used " " as its substantively, that which has
at

indra-purogama,
leader, preceded

a.

having Indra as
[1302c2.]

beginning, i.e. 1302c 1 end.]

"

"

by Indra.

and so forth,

[see

indra-loka, m. Indra's world, heaven. indra-gatru, a. having Indra as his


conqueror.

id, V.

pel. just;

the preceding

word and
lllla:
cf.

exactly; even; emphasizing to be rendered by


that word.

indra-sena,

[1302.] f. Indra's missile

weapon;
;

laying emphasis on

[ace.

of

pron. root
1

i,

Lat.

i-d, 'it.']

personified as his bride, RV. x. 102.2; n N. m. hence, name of a woman, see 16


-a,

id am [501-2 forms made from four stems, a and ana, i and ima, those from a
being
this,

name

of a

man, formed as a mere pen-

dant

to the fern,

often

unaccented,

see

74 9

N.],
10
,

pron.

indragni,
agni
pati.
:

[indra + 1 sena.] m. Indra and Agni. [indra

this here, rJSe, e.g. 20 9 , 86 contrasted w. asau, ' that one,' 103 7
;

87

8
;

acct, 1255b.]

asmin indra-brhaspati, m. Indra and Brihas[acct, 1255a.]


n.

12 without loke and loke, in this world, 66 contrasted w. amutra, 103 8 ; iclam vic,vam

indrayudha,
rainbow,

Indra's

weapon,

the

bhuvanam,

this

whole world, 85 12
;

idam
;

21 so 66 19 to Indra; as sarvam, this entire (world), 63 indriya, so idam, rb irav, 56 15> n 1. the quality pertaining especially iyam prthivi,
;

[ayudha. ] a. belonging

n.

to
6

this earth, 10

10
;

iyam

alone, this

earth,

93 1

>

2
;

refers very

often, like rdde, to

some-

thing following (just as

etad and

TO.VTO. to
,

22 7 u something preceding), e.g. 13 , 26 , 45 51 6 ; occasionally refers to something imme9 74 12 , 79*; diately preceding, e.g. 10", 24
,

97 ; great might, power, 73 one of a man's powers, i.e. a sense or organ of sense, [indra, 1214b.]
Indra,
i.e.
,

18

2. in general,

V V

indh, see idh. inv (invati).


root from
i,

drive; send, [secondary 749b, 716 cf. in.]


:

joined w. pronouns comes here ? 27 12

which

seen here, 16 nom. to be rendered here is or here, 76 l 4 21 imau vatas, blow hither, are, 56
is
;

ko yam ayati, who ima, pron. stem, see idam. yo yam drc,yate, iyacciram, adv. so long, 46 17 mam imam, me + ciram.]
' '

[iyant (1249a)
so

iyant
iras,
'the

[451],
i,

a.

so great;

much.

[fr.

pron. root

502.]

90 12
2

[cf.

Lat.

i-d,

Goth,
86 19

i-ta,
;

Ger.

'

es,

it.']
.

n. ill-will;

anger; assumed as basis of


'

idam,
[lllla:

adv. now,
cf.

9 9 here, 80 , 96

502.]

' following denom. [V r, go for cf Lat. Ira, anger.'] tile sense


'
:

in hos-

Virasya]
V

[130]
(irasyati).

irasya

be

evil

disposed.

ista-labha,
object.

m. acquisition of a desirable
n.

[iras, 1058.]

[1 ista.]

irasya,
1149 6
:

/.
cf.

ill-will

wrath.

[Virasya,

ista-purtd,

what

is

offered (to

the

irsya.] frina, n. a run or runlet; gulch; gullied and so desert land. [Vr, 1177b: for mg,

gods) and bestowed (upon them), i.e. what a man offers to the gods for his benefit
after death, and so, by metonymy, such fruit of these offerings as can come to him,

iva, end.

brook.'] 2. used to as; like; a strong expression, in a manner modify so to speak, 56 16 ; as it were, I 10 ; perhaps;
.

cf Provincial
pel.

Eng.
1.

'

run,

83 13

N.

[2 ista, 247, 1253b.]

isti, f. sacrifice (simple offering of but101 6 ter, fruit, etc.), [Vyaj, 252,
.

almost,
just,

34 13
;

3. sometimes

(like

quite [pron. root

nacirad
1102b.]

iva,

right

eva), soon,

1157. la.] iha, adv. here,

opp.

i,

amutra
id
has,

(64
;

6
) ;

hither, 9
6
;

l of atra (87 ) and 2 here on earth,


;

iy6sa, isiis [783b] ; aisit ; esisyati ; ista ; estum ; -isya). seek ; desire ; esp. w. inf. [981 3 ] ; pass, be desired; be approved or recognized, and
so pass for, 59 able, 1
*.

lis (icchati [753];

27 2

opp.

o/pretya
w.
loc.
10

(Vi),
[cf.
,

59 2 58 ";
,

in this book, 17

1099*], iha
.

samaye, in
root
i,

this case, 41

42 15

[pron.

llOOa.]

18
;

ista, desired,

i.e.

desir-

[radical
'

being merely a
iptpos,
cf.
*tfj./j.epos,

go, go for,' V 2 is causative of V 1 is : cf

mg,

'

desire

' ;

w. iccha,

'

desire,'

Iks

(iksate
;

rksam cakre
;

aiksista
;

AS.

*dsce,

'petition,'

whence

dscian,

iksisyate

iksita

iksitum
'

iksitva

Ger. (h)eischen, Eng. ask: icchati for *isskati, cf. Vvanch.]

look; look at; see; -iksya ; Iksyate). behold, [desid. of V*a, see,' contained in

+ anu, + abhi,
dear, 21

seek after. seek for; ppl. abhista, desired,


.

18

ak-san, 'eye,' etc., 108g: see aksan.] + a p a look off to (like Ger. es absehen auf ) ; regard expect.
,
;

V 2 is (isayati [1042a 2 ]; also isyati [761c] ; isita ; iyesa, isus [783b] ; isayitum ; send; set in swift motion; im-isya).
pel, 74
19
.

+ ava,
i.e.

look after; look after one's look behind or around.

self,

[caus. of V 1
1.

is,

q-v.]

+ pra,
e.g.

presayati: send forth; send,

w. two mgs, like Eng. overlook , look over, i.e. inspect; and 2. (more commonly) look beyond, i.e. neglect.
:

+ upa
1.

9 10

2.

pr6syati

drive forth, impel


;

start

up

(e.g.

game)

aicchan, sought to start


3.

praisam [970a] 16 and so up, 93


;

+ nis, look out or after; contemplate. + pari, look about one; investigate;
consider.

presyati: call upon or summon (technical term used of the chief priest's calling

upon another 103 6


.

to

begin

text

or action),

+ vi, look; look on; viksita, beheld. + s am, look upon; behold; perceive, iksaka, m. beholder; spectator. [Viks,
1181.]

is,/, refreshment; strength; vigor; w. urj, drink and food, like Ger. Kraft und Saft.
is A,
1.

iksana,
V

n.

a look; glance.
-te
;

[Viks.]
-te

inkh
2

(inkhati,
]).

inkhayati,

m.

= is

[399];

2. as a. vigorous,

[1041
V

move

unsteadily.
[628, 630] ; perf. ile ; call upon ; praise.
2 [Vid, 963

fruitful.

+ pr a,
[V2is, 'send':
desire.'
cf.
16s,

rock or pitch onward.


itte
;

Isu, m.
'

f. arrow.

id

(lie, ilise,

*la6s,

arrow.']
see V 1 is,
1.
'

ilita).

supplicate
54.]

ista,

[Whitney,
2. as n.

2 ista,
sacrifice,

offered;

offering,

idya,
d
:

grdv. to be praised.
ilia,

and

istaka,
pile.

holy work. [Vyaj, 252.] f. brick used in the sacred

pronounced
a.

Whitney,

54.]

fire-

idfa,

of this sort; such.

[502 end,

[2 ista.]

and 518.]

[131]
Ip sit a,
a.

[ujjayini
2 soon; pragrhya [see 1122a 138c] when combined with atha (90 16 ), lipa (78 u ), ma 9 9 (87 ) for 83 and 84", see notes ; -3. in
, ;

desired to be obtained

desired,

[desid. of Vap, 1030.] 1. as ace. s. of pron. root im, end.

i,

him,

her,

it

7 him, 79

2.

indef.,

3. quicunque, RV. x. 125. 4 ; 18 4. to avoid hiatus: between pray? 77 ;

ya im, ka im, who

classical Skt. only w. (atha,

kim, and) na,


18.]

and

not, 2 1

14
,

27 n

u-kara,
see

m. the sound u.

[Whitney,

atha and enam, 84 5


V

'

6
.

[see lllla

and ukta,

Vvac.
declaration,

502 end.] ir (irte [628]; irna; irayati, -te; irita). cans, set in set one's self in motion;

ukti,

expression; f. [Vvac, 1157. la.]


n.
;

53 16

uktha,
praise

motion ; cause
into existence;

to

go forth,
2.

bring utter (a sound), 14 23


.

i.e. :

1.

hymn

utterance, esp. of devotion; invocation. of praise


;

[Vvac, 1163a.]

[near akin w. V r.]

uktha-vardhana,
.

a.

strengthening,^,

+ ud,
utter
;

up; cans, rouse; send out; 16 announce, 53


rise
V

refreshing or delighting one's self with hymns of praise, [acct, 1271.]

+ sam-ud, cans, utter, declare. + pra, cans, drive or steer onward (ship). + s am, cans, bring together, i.e. into shape
or

uks

[252] or

vaks
;

(uksati, -te
-liksya).
.

atiksit;

uksisyati; uksita

sprinkle;

being;

create,

75 6

samerire", estab-

7 besprinkle ; drop, intrans., 75 [secondary form (108g end) of V *uj or ug: cf. vy-pos,

5 lished (as an ordinance), instituerunt, 88 N.

'wet'; Lat. uvens (*ugvens) caelum, 'the


'

Irsya,
giras.]
V

f. ill-will;
fr.

envy; jealousy,
:

[con-

dropping sky
impregnator,

w. uksan,
.

'

besprinkler,
'

tracted

irasya, q.v.

cf

girs-an and

bull,' cf

Goth, auhsa,

bull,'

Eng.
own, be master
'

ox,
,

ig (ige [628]; igisyati).


of, w. gen.
'

+ pra

and for mg, Vvrs.] sprinkle before one by way of

[cf
'

AS.

dg-an,

possess,'

Eng.

consecration.

owe,

possess (so Shakespere often), 'possess another's property, be in debt'; thence the participial adj. dgen, Eng. adj.
'

ugra,

mighty; exceedingly strong; ter[Vvaj, 252, 1188; see 6jas.] ugra-gasana, a. having a terrible way
rible.

a.

'

own,

proprius

thence the denom. dgnian,


V

of ruling

as m.

a,

strict ruler.
;

[1298a.]
[783b],

Eng. verb own; further, to ah, preteritopresent of dgan, is formed a secondary


past tense, dhte, 'possessed,' Eng. ought,

uc

(licyati [only w. preps]

uv6ca

ucivans [803]; ucita). be pleased; be wonted ucitd 1. with which one is


;

'possessed' (so Spenser), 'was under obligation.']

pleased tomed.

proper

suitable

2.

accus-

iga, 7?i. master; lord, [Vig.] m. master lord prince gvara 2 man, 22 [Vig, 1171a.]
, ; ;
.

ucca,
;

a.

rich

of sound, loud. (1112e) of lidanc.]

lofty; uccais, adv. [1112c], high; [fr. ucca, adv. instr.

Vis (Isate

hasten from, flee ise; isita). before, w. abl. [if not desid. of Vi
;

u c c a y a m. heap,
,

pile, collection.

[V 1 ci

ud,

'

heap

up.']
;

end), perhaps akin w. VI

is,

orig. 'go.']

u c car a, + ud.]
diverse,

m. evacuation

excrement.

[Vcar

uccavaca,
u
,

Vedic end. copula. 1. and ; also ; further; used in one (oftenest the latter) of two

a. high and low; various; [ud + ca w. ava + ca, 1314b.]

ucchista,

ppl.

left; as n. leavings,
[V gis

esp.

douses or sentences containing things alike or slightly contrasted (e.g. 78 u 79 9 ), esp. in


,

of a sacrifice or of food.

ud.]

ucchedin, a. destroying. [Vchid + ud.] now, straight- ujjayini, /. Oujein, name of a city, way, w. verbs present and past and w. imPtolemy's 'O^vrj. [fern, of ujjayin, 'vic10 3 of like mg are torious,' Vji + ud, 1183 peratives or imperative subjunctives, 71 85 15 85 5 87 8 often followed by sii, right NtKo-TroA.(j and Cairo.']
anaphora
(e.g.

79 5 90 9 )
,

2.

9*

Vunch]
V

[132]
;

unchitum). uttar ena, adv. northerly; north of, w. (linchati, unchati ace. [1129], 102 5 sweep together, glean, [for *unsk, *vansk, [uttara, 1112c.] cf AS. uttarottara, 1. a. higher and higher orig. wipe, or whisk, i.e. sweep 3 wascan, 'wash,' Eng. wash and whisk.~\ [1260]; -am, as adv. more and more, 24 2. as n. answer to an answer [1264]; + p r a wash away wipe out, 23 2 9 tin gist a, same as ucchista. wordy talk, 24 [uttara + uttara.] uta, conj. and; also; even; connecting uttha, see 233a. words, clauses, and sentences ; repeated utpala, n. a Nymphaea, i.e. water-lily or and lotus. uta uta (uta), both (and) [Vpat + ud.] at beg. of verse, 78 12 uta va or even, utpadana, n. procreation. [caus. of

unch

'

'

87

20
;

or,

84 u

(cf.

atha, 6)

utkarsa, m. uttama, a.
esp. at

elevation,
1.

[v/krs

V pad + ud.] apy uta, also. + ud.] utphulla, a. wide open.

[Vphal + ud,

up-most; highest; best,


2.
(see

958.]

+ uttamagandhadhya, a. rich in ex- opment of cellent odors, 15 19 [uttama-gandha + li d prefix,


.

end ofcpds; excellent; chief; i.e.) ut-most; extreme; last 67 6 x. ) 99 20 [lid, up, out,' 473.]
(out-most,
, '
.

utsava,
ning;
[\/2su

m.
2.

1.

an undertaking, begin.

4 16 feast-day, festival, 25 , 49 ud, 'set a-going'; but the devel-

2 from

1 is

not clear.]
;

never used alone

up,

up

forth,

adhya.]

out.

[cf.

AS.

ut,

Eng.

out: see uttara,

uttamadhama madhy ama,


;

highest
N/

uttama.]

and lowest and midmost best and worst and middling. [uttama + adhama +

ud

madhyama, 1257.] uttara [525 2 ], a. upper;

above, (opp. adhara) 2l 2. northupper hand, victorious, 81 ern (on account of the Himalayas, cf.
; ;

1. being higher; 70 18 having the

und (unatti; unna, utta; -lidya). 2. spring; boil or bubble up; flow; ' ' wet, bathe, [cf Lat. und-a, wave ; w. ud-an, 'water,' cf. v8-cap, Eng. wat-er ; w.
or
1.
.

ud-ra, 'otter,'

cf.

SS-pa,

'water-snake/

Eng.
-t-s

otter.']

am,
n.

flow together; wet.

udanc)
north

a^uttarasmat, as
105 10 ;
face
22
;

far

as

the

uda,

water.

[Vud.]
water.

(side),

3. the left
is

in prayer the
cf.

(because turned eastward:

udaka [432], n. uda-kumbha,


water,

[Vud.]
jar with

m.

water-jar;

daksina), 99

4. (like Sffrepos) the


; ;

later (opp. purva) following, udag-ayana, n. north-course (of the 99 22 ; -am, as adv. finally, last, 104 12 -5. sun), or the half-year from the winter to as neuter subst. the final element of a the summer solstice, [udanc.] 3 6. answer, lidagdaga, a. having the seams upward. phrase of salutation, 60 retort, [ud, 473: cf. Sarrepos, 'latter'; [udanc + daa, fringe, border, seam.'] udan-mukha, a. having the face to the Eng. comp. ut-ter, 'outer.'] north, [udanc, 1249a, 161.] uttaratas, adv. northward; to the north 13 udanc [409b], a. directed upward; directed of; w. gen. [1130], 105 [uttara.] northward (on account of the Himalayas), uttara-dayaka, a. giving answer con-

latter

'

tradicting.

uttara-pagcima, uttara-purastat,
w. gen., 1130.

a.

north-westerly. adv. north-east of;


hair above,

uttara), northerly ; in cpds, udak, 1249a. [ud + afic, 407.] udaya, m. a going up; rising (of the sun).
cf.

[Vi (1148.1a)+ud.]

uttara-loman,a. having the


with the hairy side up.

udara,

n.

belly,

[orig.,
:

swelling,' V r

+ ud

perhaps, 'rising, for mg, cf the relation


.

uttara,
330 4 .]

adv. northerly,
n.

[uttara, 1112e,

of belly to

AS.
(like
[\'r

'

belgan,

swell.']
i.e.)

udara,
the northerly

a.

Eng. exalted,

noble,

uttara-patha,

way;

excellent.

+ ud,
a.

'rise.']

the north country.

udara-carita,

of noble behavior.

[133]
ud
i

[upastha
a.

A,

see V vad

ud-ita, see V i.

upadegin,

giving (good) instruction.


grdv. to be taught, [do.] investiture. [technical

3 lidici, see407 , 409b. a. brown. udumbala,

[Vdig + upa.]

upadestavya,
upanayaiia,
n.

uddi5ya

at,

uddhata,

towards, see V dig. see 163 and \ h.-ui.


a.

term, see Vni-+upa.]

having the arms out or extended, [ud + bahu, 1305, 1307.] udya, grdv. to be spoken or pronounced. [Vvad, 1213c end, cf. 963c.] udyama, m. raising (of the hands to

lidbahuka,

upapf c,
+ upa.]

a.

clinging close to, w. gen.

[Vprc

upabhft,
+ upa.]

f.

fices), see sruc.

wooden cup (used in sacri[' td-bringer,' Vbhr (383b)


eating.

work)

exertion.
n.

[Vyam +
i.e.)

ud.]
2. (place

upabhoga,
bhuj + upa,

m. enjoyment;
q.v.]

[V2

udyana,
+ ud,
+ ud,

1.

a walking out;

for walking out,

garden, park.

[Vya
[Vyuj

1150.] udyoga, m. undertaking; exertion.


216. 1.]
a.

up am a, a. highest, upama-gravas,a.
K\TJS or "T\j/i-K\rjs.

[upa, 474.]

having highest glory; as m. Upama9ravas, a name like MeyuTrocomparison, image and so likeend of cpds, having likeness with like [VI ma + upa,
,

udyogin,

active

energetic,
a.

[udyoga.]
terrified

upama

f.

udvigna-manas,
mind, distressed.
look.

having a
a.

ness, resemblance; at
, '

[Vvij.]

unmatta-dargana,
[Vmad +
m.

having a frantic

compare.']

ud.]

upamartha,
[ud
in
-f

m.

purpose of an image;
utility.

unmarga,
marga.]

by-way, evil way.


a.

-ena, figuratively, [artha.] upayoga, m. ap-plication ; use;

unmarga-gamin,
ways.
lip a,

going

evil

1. vbl prefix, to,


;

unto, toward; opp.


ace.,

[Vyuj +upa.] upari, adv. above; as prep., w. gen. [1130], 16 above; at end of cpd [1314f], upon, 39
[cf. vwfip, #vTTfpi,
li

of apa
iv.

2. prep.,

w.

unto, 81

15
;

3. in noun cpds [1289b], ; denoting something near, accessory, or subor' dinate, [cf inr6, Lat. s-ub, under.']
loc.,

in,

77 5

pa1a

Lat. s-uper, over.'] cf. drsad. f. upper mill-stone


;

'

upavancana,
upavana,
(mg
3)
n.

n.

a tottering unto, a
[vlvanc +upa.]
i.e.

fal-

tering approach,

upakanisthika
to the
little, i.e.

(sc. anguli), a. f. next the third (finger), [upa

small forest,

grove,

[upa

(mg

3)

+ kanisthaka, 1222d.]
m. one

+ vana.] lipavlta, ppl. wound about,

esp.

with the

upakartr,
,

who does kindness;


;

benefactor. [V 1 kr + upa, q.v.] u p a k a ra m. friendly service kindness. itself. [V vya + upa, 954c.] [V 1 kr + upa, q.v.] upavega, m. a sitting down.

sacred cord; as n. [1176a], the being surrounded with the sacred cord the cord
;

[Vvig

upakaraka,
[upakara.]

a.

doing friendly service.

upa.]

dpavegi,
a. the

upakarin,
[Vlkr
;

same ; as m. benefactor.

upagama,
+ upa,
'

m. Upave9i, name of a man. m. stopping; cessation. [V2gam

+ upa, q.v.] up a car a, m. a coming to or waiting upon pregnantly, (polite) attention (cor;

stop.']

upasamgrahana,

n. the clasping and taking to one's self (the feet of another),

rect) procedure,

upatya,
vir-Tio-s,

a.
'

i.e. duty. [V car + upa.] lying under, [upa, 1245b cf


:

as sign of great respect.


.

[Vgrah + upa-

sam.]

upatyaka,/.
mountain),

lying under, supine.'] land lying at the foot (of a

upaseva,/.
to.

a serving; a being devoted


a.

[Vsev + upa.]
serving; revering.

[upatya.]

upasevin,
+ upa.]

[Vsev

upadega,

m. a pointing out to, a direction; instruction; advice. [V dig + upa.]

upastha,

///.

lap, groin.

upakhyana]
upakhyana,
I
1
,

[134]
n.

subordinate tale

episode,

uru-vyacas,
wide extending,
V

a.

having wide embrace,


i.e. i.e.

[upa (mg
n.

3)

+ akhyana.]
da + upa^a,
'

up ad an a,

the taking to one's self;


[V 1
take.']

urusya
escape
;

[acct, 1298b.] to distance, (urusyati).


2

appropriation.

put another in the distance,

save, [urti, 'the distance,' 1061 .] npadhyaya,m. teacher. [Vi + upa^adhi.] upanah, f. sandal; shoe, ['under-bond,' uru-nasa, n. having broad snouts,

[uni

Vnah + upa
'

(247): for

mg,

cf.

uW-Sr^a,

(247)

+ nas,

193, 1315c

acct, 1298b.]

sandal.']

up ant a,
anta.]

n.

proximity to the end; edge;

ulukhala, n. a ulba ana* lilva,

mortar.
n.

enveloping membrane
'

immediate neighborhood,

[upa (mg

3)

of an embryo, en[for *ur-va, V 1 vr, close,' 1190- cf. Lat. vol-va, 'covering,

up ay a,

m. approach;

that
;

by which one
;
.

womb.']
a. lumpy, knotty, thick, massy, [ulba, for *urva, hence n, 189.] V us (6sati ; uv6sa; auslt ; usta). burn,

reaches an aim ; means

* expedient, 39

ulbana,

stratagem
adj.]

6 advantage, 39

[Vi

+ upa,

1148. la: for

mg,
n.

cf.

Eng. to-ward, as an
[Vi

[for cognates,

see
'

the

collateral

form
:

upayana,

approach.

+ upa,

V 1 vas,

'

light up,' also usas, usra, etc.


' ;

1150. la.] upara, m. transgression.

cf

'
.

fva>,

singe

ouo>,

kindle

'
;

Lat. ur-o,

upeksa,
-f

/.

[Vr + upa.] overlooking; neglect, [Vflts

'burn,'

and

ustus

usta-s

AS.

ys-le,

'glowing ashes.']

upa.]
ppl.

usas
having abstained
n.
(i.e.

[415b], f.

morning-red
[V 1 vas,
'

dawn
Lat.

per-

up o sit a,
food),
ing.
V

from

sonified,

Dawn.
i)<as,

light up, dawn,'

having fasted; as

[1176a], fast-

252

cf.

Aeolic

aScas,

aurora,

ubh

[V3vas +upa, q.v.] (ubhnati, umbhati [758]; ubdhd;


unite; couple,
[cf.

-ubhya).

ubha.]

'dawn'; radically cognate also is Eng. eas-t, the point where day breaks': see us and usra.]
*ausos-a,
'

+ apa ubha, a.

Lat. ambo, AS. nom. fern. neut. bd, Goth. nom. neut. ba, nom. masc. bai, w. dental extension, bajo\>s,
/*<&>,

bind, fetter. both. [cf.

ustra, m. camel. usna, a. hot. [Vus,


;

1177a.]
'

usra, a. bright; of or pertaining to the dawn as /., usra, dawn. [V 1 vas, light
w. us-ra, cf. Old up/. 252, 1188, 181a Germanic Aus-t-ro, a goddess of the (year:

all

meaning

'

both,'

Eng.

bo-th

orig., per-

ubhaya

haps, 'couple,' and akin w. Vubh.] [525 *], a. of both sorts;

both,

dawn,
the

i.e.)

spring-light,

and AS.

Eos-t-ra,

[ubha.]

name of whose

festival, caster, 'Easter-

ubhaya-kama,
ubhayatas,
both cases,

a.

desirous of both.
in

from both sides; [ubhaya, acct !]


adv.
n.
i.e.

day/ occurring in April, was transferred to the Christian festival that replaced it ;
for
t

between

and

r,

see under svasr:

ubhayatah-sasya,
at both times, year.

having a crop bearing two crops a

see us and usas.]

ura-ga,
for uras

m. serpent, ['breast-going,' ura for mg, cf khaga.]


.

utl,y. furtherance, help, blessing; refreshment, food.

liras, n. breast, [perhaps, 'a cover/ from VI vr, 'cover,' 1151. Ib, w. a specialization
like that in

udhan,
[cf.

[Vav, 1157.] udhar, udhas [430b],


Lat.
iiber,

n.

udder,

oJflap,

AS.

uder,

Eng.

Eng.

'

chest,

thorax.']

udder.~\
' '

urii, f. urvi,
so,

like

a. (prop, encompassing, and tin a, a. lacking, [cf. ffivis, 'bereft'; AS. wan, Eng. capacious) extensive, wide, lacking/ wanian, decrease/ Eng.

great; as
tance.

das Weite) the [Vlvr, 'encompass,' 1178a:


n. (like Ger.

discf.

wane.] urti, m. thigh,


leg,

[prob. 'the thick' of the

tvpv-!, 'wide.']

from

urii.]

[135]
u rj
,

[rna
+ nis,
(go forth,
i.e.)

f. sap

strength

[\[*varj, 'swell with,

vigor nourishment. be full of: cf. opydca,


;

dissolve connection

with.

'swell with, abound'; Lat. virga, 'swelling


twig.']

+ sam, come
9 with, 73
;

together, meet; go along

caus. send; deliver to; con-

urn a,

n.,

and
(cf.

wcna,,f. wool,

['cover,' Vlvr,
tt-Fp-os, Lat.

sign, entrust.

'cover'
vellus,

712):
vulla,

cf.

tlpos,

rkti,

/. praise, in su-v-rkti.
TO.

[Vrc.J

Goth,

urna-mradas,

Eng. woo/.] a. having the softness of

rg-veda,
which
V
is

the Rigveda (each stanza of called an re in distinction from

wool, soft as wool. urna-stuka,y! braid or plait of wool.


V

urnu,

see 712,
a.

and Vlvr.

a yajus and a saman). re (arcati; anarca, anrce [788]; arcisyati ; arcita arcitum ; arcitva -arcya
;

urdhva,

upright; elevated -am, as adv., upwards over beyond; after, w. abl, [1128]; ata urdh; ;

tending upwards;

arcayati).

1.

beam;

2. praise;

sing

(praise); sing (of the winds); honor; caus. [1041 2 ], salute, [cf. arka.]

vam, from now


'

on.

[cf.

Lat. arduus,

fc, /.
that
is is

1.

lofty.']

urdhva-drsti,
gaze.

a.

having

an

upward
bil'
:

that

hymn of praise; esp. a stanza spoken, as distinguished from one sung (saman) or from a sacrificial

urmi,

[1298.] m. wave.
'

[lit.

'roller, rolling
' ;

formula (yajus); 2. stanza or text to which a certain rite or explanation has


5 reference, 98
;

low,' V*VT,
cf. ZAAco,
'

roll,

turn hither and thither


'

3. the collection of re's,


.

*FI-F\-O>, Lat. volvo,

roll

Ger.

the Rigveda, 57 ", 63 3

[V re.] -te

Welle,
V

wave.']
;

rca, for
uhiv/

re, at

end ofcpds [1209a, 1315c].


(rnjati,
;

luh
tum
;

(uhati; auhlt; udha, uhita -uhya).

remove.

Irj or rnj reach out,


(and
so, the

fjyati,

-te).

esp.

in

a straight

direction

2uh

(6hate [745a]; uh6; aiihit, aiihista; uhitum; -uhya). notice. + a p i grasp understand, 88 10
, ;
.

opp. of Vvrj, 'bend, turn,' q.v.


intrans.
the
;

and

see rju), stretch out,


this
.

press
Lat.

on; with

mg

1.
'

reg-ere,

[cf direct

compare reach opey-co,


root,
' ' ;

root raj,
'

out

Eng.

'

right,

straight, not
2

wrong.']
V r

(iyarti [643c]

rn6ti

2 end, 608] ; ara [783a ] ; rta rtva ; -ftya arpayati move, as trans, and as intrans. ;
; ;

rcchati [753 arat; arisyati


;
;

2rj

(arjati;

arjayati [1041

];

arjita).

reach, and

so, get or obtain,

[the

same

[1042d]).
1. rise,
;

as Vlrj, but w. another conjugation and w. trans, for mg, cf Eng. reach, in-

mg

73

10
;

come upon
; ' ;

or unto, reach, attain

trans.,

w. reach,

trans.,

and Ger. langen


'silverroot raj,

2.

raise (e.g. dust);


fit

cans, send; put;


.

and
V3rj,

erlangen.]
in
'
;

fasten
'

in.

rouses
risen
' ;

cf

[w. r-n6-ti, cf up-vvcn, Lat. or-ior, ' rise,' or-tus,


'

rj-rd,

'ruddy,' arj-una,

white

see also the root raj


'

and
;

'

S>p-ro,
;

rose,'

= ar-ta,
cf.
;

3d

sing.

mg
'

2.

'

[cf

apy-6s,
'
;

bright
rajata,
'

Lat. arguo,
'

aor.
'

mid.

w.
'

r-ccha-ti,
'
'

fy-xe-rcu,

make

clear

w.

silver,'

cf

goes,'

also

i\-8e?p,
fit,'
'

go

w. caus.,
'

cf

apyvpos, Lat. argentum,

silver.']

ap-api(TK<a,

Lat. ar-tu-s,

well-fitted,

close,

see also rta.] ; 1. get into (trouble), 93 15 x.; + a, 2. (like the American go for, 'treat harshly
or

narrow

rjisa, a. on-rushing. [Vlrj, 1197b.] rjisin, a. on-rushing, [rjisa, 1230a.]


rjii,
'

a.

straight,

right,

opp.

of

vrjina,

crooked, wrong.'
see Vlrj.
a.

[Vlrj, 1178a.]

by word

deed

')

visit

with trouble
distressed.

ppl.

sf

rnj,

arta, visited

by trouble,
raise.

rna,
mg,

(having

gone
25 2

against or trans-

+ ud, rise + u p a go
,

gressed,
[for
1177],

and

so) guilty; as n.

[1176a and
cf.

against, transgress,

guilt;
:

debt,

[Vr:

Lat.

cf.

rna.]

reus, 'guilty'

for mg,

cf.

upara.]

rta] rta,
a.
fit,

[136]
vealed
the
"
to

1. right; true; as w. [1176a], established order; esp. eternal or divine

them
;

2.

sapta^rsayas

many

Rishis

later,

the seven stars of

order;

2.

order in sacred things, sacred

9 15 custom, pious work, 69 , 74 ; rtasya or sadana, central place of sacred yoni

the Great Bear; 3. a Rishi, i.e. a person renowned for piety and wisdom, 100";
see note to 1

work
89 8
;

world, the altar, in the other world, the holy of holies,


or belief
:

in

this

rati

f. spear.
a.

[V 2 rs.]

rsva,

lofty.

75 7 ; -3. truth, 98 8

9
;

-rtena,

rightly,

[prop, 'fitted, made firm,' Vr: for and mg, cf Lat. ra-tu-s, ' settled.']
.

form

e, pron. root in eka, eta, ena, eva,

evam.
alone

eka

rta-sap
rta van,

[387a], a.

following after right,


a.

[482a], num. (by one's self) ;

1.

one; only;

alone (excluding every

righteous.
f. -vari,

true to established

one else); sole; single; solitary; advly in cpds, solely; 2. one (of two or more)
;

order (of regularly recurring natural phe17 true to sacred nomena, e.g. dawn), 75
;

the one, followed by anya, dvitiya, para ; others ; eke, some eke eke, some
folks,

law, pious (Manes), 91


(god),

10

75 8

[rta,

247

holy, sacred for fern., 435,

some
.

3.

later,

or almost as
8 an, 20

an

indef. article

a certain, quidam ; 3 [482a ], a or

1171 2 .]

[pron. root e.]

rta-vfdh,
(Manes),
r t u , m.
1.

a.

rejoicing

in

right,

holy
esp.

[rta, 247.]

a fixed and settled time

eka-tatpara, a. solely intent on, 45*. ekatra, adv. in one place, [eka, 1099.] eka da, adv. at one time, simultaneously,
at

time for sacrificing; 2. time of year, i.e. season; 3. the menses. [Vr, 1161a:
cf
'
.

37 9 ; elsewhere, at a certain time,

i.e.

'

aprv-oa,

fit

together, prepare

Lat.

once upon a time, [eka, 1103.] eka-dega, m. a certain place, and


place or spot or part.

so,

artu-s, 'joint.']

rt6, prep, without


end.]

except.

[1128 end, 1129

eka-nakaatra,

n.

lunar mansion con-

sisting of a single star or


a. offering at

one whose name


[naksatra,

rtv-ij,

as m. priest ; whom there are

the appointed time; in the ritual, pi., priests, of


four,

occurs but once, see 104 8 N.


1312.]

h6tr,
[rtii

adhvaryti,

eka-patni,
faithful wife,

f.

wife of only one man,


[acct, 1267a.]
-I,

brahman, and udgatf.

+ ij.]
[Vrdh,

fddhi,
1157.]
V

f.

welfare; blessedness.

eka-pada,
one
step,

f.

a.

having

(i.e,

taking)

rdh

(rdhn6ti; anardha, anrdhe [788];


;

eka-bhaksa,
alone.

m. sole food;

at

end of

rddha ; rdhyate). thrive; ardhiayate succeed prosper, both as intrans. and as


;

cpds [1298], having

as sole food, eating

trans,

[cf

M edh, radh

cf

'
.

&\6ofj.a.i,

get

well.']

eka-mati, a. eka-varna,
brindled.

having one mind, unanimous a. having one color, not


.

sani
V

Irs
[cf
'
.

pass, be prospered, (araati; anarsa [788]).


,

i.e.

fulfilled.

flow; glide,
tra.\iv-op<Tos,

ekakin,

a. solitary,

'

&ty-oppos,

flowing back,'

ekanjali,

darting back.']
V

ekadaga,
push; thrust.
by later genera-

[eka.] m. one handful, [anjali.] num. eleven. [eka + daga,


7 [ekadaga, 487 .]

2ra

(rsati; rata).
1.

476 2 .]

fai, m.
tions as

singer of sacred songs, poet;

priestly singer

by one. [apaya.] and ekartha, m. one purpose, i.e. one and the same purpose, patriarchs; one of those inspired poets [artha.] who "saw" the Vedas, which were "re- ekaha, m. one day. [2 aha.]
given
in

; regarded a patriarchal saint or sage of the olden time and as occupying a position

ekadaga, a. eleventh, ekanta, m. an end; a


[anta.] ekapaya, m. diminution
spot,

retired or secret

other

lands

to

the

heroes

[137]

[aikamatya
adv.
1.

ekaika,
+ eka.]

a.

one by itself;
;

one singly;

eva,

in this

way;
;

so; in this

sig-

each one singly

every single one.

[eka

nification Vedic only,


in post-Vedic
l>y

its

evam

place being supplied eva, as yatha


;

ekaikagas, ekona,
eta, 6ta,
see
a.

adv. one

by one;

severally,

so,

86 13
2.

6 eva^id, in very truth, 74

[ekaika, 1106.]
a. lacking one. [una, 477a.] etad and cf. 499b with 497.

just,

exactly,

etc.,

rushing; darting; as m. deer.

[Vi,

, preceding word; in this 85 J , 87 1 , 91 5 ) and post-Vedic; requires the most various translations sometimes mere

emphasizing the sense Vedic (69 5

1176c.]

stress

etat-sama, a. etat-samlpa,
[12(54.]

equal to
n.

[1265.] presence of this one.

this.

than

of voice : precisely; no more nor less nothing short of ; no other than


;

merely

quite ; without exception andha eva, blind outright; vasudha^eva, the


;
;

etad
to

[499b], pron. this here, prop, referring 8 u something near the speaker (e.g. 18 , 19 , 51 19 ) ; this ; refers almost always to what
(e.g. (e.g.

whole earth mrtyur eva, sure deatli musika eva krtas, was changed back to a simple mouse cintayann eva, just while
;
;

precedes

6 9 , 19 3

51

18
,

68 5 ), has just

happened

20 n

been mentioned

(e.g. 7

25 12>13 ), or has just 25 18, 28 n ), as being


,

he was thinking; uktam eva maya, just what I told thee lokaih kimcid vaktavyam eva, folks will be sure to say
;

nearer the speaker; very seldom

28 6 92
,

19
,

something

eka eva,

entirely alone

pu-

what follows ; joined with other 15 w. tad, 45 9 95 6 pronouns: w. yad, 94


to
; ,
;

96 5

in connection w. eva, only males ; pronouns and adverbs: etad eva, this very;

mansa

w.
e,

aham
499b
: :

to be supplied,

52 9

[pron. root
:

tatha^eva,
;

all so,

i.e.

also

in

usage,
adv.
2
,

etad

idam

Tav-

ra

ra5e.]

means w. very attenuated mg and also, and eva ca, and also,
.

na^eva, by no in ca^eva,
the latter at
e,

etad-artham,
therefore.
e tar hi, adv.

for this

purpose

[499b

1302c 4 .]

end of a cloka, 58 15 [pron. root sometimes eva, 248a.]

1102b

nowadays, [eta, 1103c.] such; etadrk, ace. s. n., such as I have, 82 ". [518.] et. yat, such eta-drga, a. such

evam-vld,a. knowing
instructed,

so or such,

i.e.

well

eta-drg,

a.

knowing what's what.


a.

evamvidha,

of such sort, such,

[evam
and

that.

[518.]
a.
;

(1306) +vidha, 1302c 5.] evam, adv. in this way ; so

post-Vedic,
in
;

etavant,
V
(

thus much, 12 9 etavan 10 so great that, 21 yena, [eta, 517.] edh 6dhate edham cakre aidhista
.

supplying the place of


first w. V
;
:

thus,

edhita
[ident.

dhitum).
w.
v'rdh,
q.v.

thrive;
:

cf.

prosper, geha w.

vid have this knowledge, 97 1>3 yatha so evam, as very frequent w. uktva
;

my 1 used ya evam vidiis, who know


;

eva

or grutva,

grha.]

evam
used only substantiveit,

upon saying or hearing this w. impers. ukta, thus addressed


;

en a
;

[500], end. pron.

used ppl., 7

8
,

39 22
so

unemphatic him, her, ly root e.]

them.

[pron.

ma^evam, not
the case, 48 n

evam astu, so yady evam, if

be

it

that's
;

en as,
Vin.]

n. sin.

'

[perhaps,
a. sinful,

deed of violence,'

evam,
52 8 ),

evam, in that case, II 4 ; 7 21 likewise, 103 ; refers back (e.g. 28 or forward (e.g. 31 5 , 37 8 , 50 6 ) used
;

enasvant,
en a,

[enas.]
w.

superfluously w.

iti,

61

12
;

as eguiv.

to

evam-

adv. in this
;

way; here; para ena:


instr.,

beyond here
125. 8
;

beyond,
;

RV. x.

there

thither,

ena, whither [pron. root a, see idam, and cf.

yatra

[pron. root e, 1102b.] evam-bhuta, a. such, [see 1273c.] eso, a Prakrit form for esas, 49 8

vidha, 15*.

eranda,
oil

502 2 andlll2a.] m. Ricinus communis,


plant or

i.e.

castor-

aikamatya,
1211.]

n.

unanimity.

[ekamati,

Palma

Christi.

aitihasika]

[138]
m. teller of old legends,
a.

aitihasika,

[iti-

507] ca, cana, cid, api;

hasa, 1222e 2.]

aindr abarhaspatya,
Indra and Brihaspati.
1204c.]

belonging to

2 a. w. ma: ma kasmai dhatam abhy amitrine nas, deliver us not over to any foe 2b. ka ca,
;

[indrabfhaspati,

some, any, adj. or


thing; w. relative,

subst.

kim
kag

ca,

any-

yag
;

(ca)

ca, (and)

wonted place; home. [Vuc.] om-krta, a. having an uttered om, accompanied by om. [the natural order would require krtaum: order inverted to avoid

6kas,

n.

6jas,
'

such an undeclinable stem.] n. strength; power. [Vvaj oruj, 252, 6 cf. ug-ram 6j-as, 78 cf. Lat. augus-tus,
:

mighty,

i.e.

august.']

what soever, 68 10 2c. w. ca na and cana ka ca na, also or even not any esp. after a negative : na tarn gaknuvanti vyahartum api, kim ca na, can not even speak to him, not even anything, i.e. can not even speak anything to him, 8 19 so 96 21 and so (the feeling for the negation in cana in such collocations becoming lost), ka cana means any, anything, cf. cana w.
:

o jo-da [352], a. strength-giving. o d a n a m. n. grain boiled with milk


,

relative,
;

por-

9 16

ridge.
brew."]

[Vud: for mg,

cf.

Eng.

broth

and

opaga,

m. top-knot; plume,

[perhaps for

; often negative: e.g. thing; certain, 99. 2411 (twice with, twice without) ; kimcit 9 kimcid, each a little, 27 ; w. relative, ya

yat kimcana, whatsoever, 2d. very often ka cid: any body or w. 18 u


;

soever

*ava-pac.a,

V2pa.]

ka
21

cid,

6m, a word

of solemn asseveration and reverent acknowledgment, somewhat like &/j.-fii>; a sacred mystic syllable, uttered at the beg.

n
;

kani kani

whosoever, whatsoever, any soever, 15 ; cid, any soever, 82

and end of Veda-reading


[origin uncertain.]

cf.

pranava.
plant; a

ka api, something, somebody, 17 ; 2 na ka api: some, a or an, a certain, 21 10 21 no, no one", 20 ; nothing, 39
2e.
; ;

3. derivs

of ka,

see

505

4. exclam-

6sadhi,
simple.

later

6sadhi, /. herb;

atory, at beg.

aupamya,
ma, 1211.]

n.

similitude; likeness,

[upa[lipa-

ka-purusa, kim-prabhu, ku-drsti, ko-vida, and see 5. for kim as adv., see kim. 506, 1121e [for the stem-forms ka, ki, ku, see 505
of cpds :
cf., e.g.,
;

aupavegi,

m. patronymic of Aruna.
:

vegi (or upavega?) cf. 1221.] a u sad ha, a. consisting of herbs; as n. medicine. herbs collectively ; simples
;

Attic TO-, in K6-Qev, KUS, etc., 'whence, how'; ri-s, rl, Lat. qui-s, qui-d, AS. hwa, hwas-t, Eng. who, wha-t ; w. kacf.

Ionic

/co-,

tara, 'which of twain,'


uter,

cf.

it6-Tepo-s,
'

Lat.

AS.
'
;

hwce-^er,

Eng.
.,

whe-ther,
'
.

which of
-

[6sadhi, 1208d.]'

twain
2

ka, m. kansa,

ka as indef cf n-s, any one.'] 15 16 N. Who, as name of a god, 94


w. m. metallic vessel;
as
collective,

ka
(18

[504], pron.

1. interrogative,
subst.
6 7
-

who,

metallic implements.

what;
17

used as

(7
e.g.

or

as adj.

kaksa,/.
circular wall
[cf.

1.
;

);

kim

w. instr.:

kim yuddhena,
;

girdle, cincture
;

2. region of the girth; 3. (like French ceinture)


so the

what

(is

use of fighting, 45 14 18 kim w. 'rthas, 17


;

there) with fighting, what's the so 17 19 , 24 9 so ko ;


instr.

and
:

enclosed court,

kankana
1, cf.

nirujah

kim

ausaclhais,

and gen. : e.g. what has a well

for
'

Lat. cinc-tus, 'girded'; coxa, 'hip'; for 3, cf. canc-er,


cf. n.

fence.']

man
61
z
~*

(to
;

ka deed ko
;

21 3 do) with medicines, 22 ; so 32 , w. particles : ko nama, who in-

kankana,
let,

ring-shaped ornament, bracen.

[cf.

kaksa.]
m.
skeleton.

nu,

who pray ko
;

va,

who

pos-

kankala,
kaccid,

sibly,

18 1;

see

kad.
shore; marsh-land
;.

2. indefinite, both adj.


in negative clauses

and subst.,

chiefly

kaccha,

and w.

the particles [see

m. border; the district Cutch.

[139]
m. tortoise, ['keeping, inhabiting the marsh/ vbl 2 pa.] kataka, m. n. dale.

[2kara
a.

kaccha-pa,

i.e.

kanisthaka,
sc.

smallest; f. -ika [1222d],

anguli, the

little finger,

[kanistha.]
a.

kanistha-prathama,
youngest as the
first.

having

the

kana,
[cf.

m. a small grain (as of dust or rice), m. thorn. m. pi. thorn-plants and

kanistha.]

kanlyans,

a.

smaller;

younger.

[cf.

kantaka,

kanistha and 467 2 .]

kantaki-ksirin,
milk-plants.

kandara,

n. cave, [perhaps 'great cleft/ kain (see ka4) + dara.]

kantakin,
[kantaka.]

a.

thorny; as m. thorn-plant,
interr.

kandarpa,
darpa.]

m. the god of love,

[perhaps

'of great wantonness/

kam

(see

ka4) +

k at ham,
in

Vedic katha,

adv.

how?
?

what way ? katham

etat, how's that


?

kanyaka,/
kanya,
kanistha.]

girl,

kathaih nu, how indeed


in

katham

cana,

f. girl;

[kanya, 1222b.] maiden; daughter,


n.

[cf.

any wise soever (emphasizing a preceding negation) katham api, somehow, [ka,
;

kanya-ratna,
maiden.

girl-jewel,

excellent

1101.]
\l

kathaya (kathayati).
:

tell

talk about
'

kapata,

m.

n.

fraud.
m. continued se-

[lit. pass, be called, pass for. how,' 'rb oiroas \tyeiv' denom. fr.

tell

the

kapata-prabandha,
ries of frauds;

katham,

1058.]
1

katha, see katham. 1. story, katha,/.


sion;
'

kaparda, 80 = 1 paua;
tale, fable
;

machination, plot. m. small shell used as a coin,


-aka, m. the same. 1. cup or dish, 102
13
;

discus-

kapala,
cover or

n.
lid,

2.

2. personified, Story,
oirtas,'

56.

[prop.

104 16
'

3.

cranium,

[for

the how, TO

katha-chala,
fable.

n.

katha.] cover or guise

mg,
of

cf Lat. testa,
.

earthen pot/ w. French

'head.'] kap6ta, m. dove.


tete,

katha-pitha,n.
of the
first

pedestal of Katha,

name kam,

pel.
;

1.

emphasizing the preceding


interr. pel.,

book of the Katha-sarit-sagara.


incarnation of Katha.
V

word, 79

-2.

88 10

[ka,

mg 2.] kathavatara, m.
[2 katha,
[2

lllla

cf.

kad, kim.]
;

kam (cakame; kamisyate; kanta [955a]


kamayate,
sire; love.
-ti

katha (mg
title

2)

-j-

avatara.]

katha-sarit-sagara,
ocean,

m. Story-streamof Soma-deva's collection.

2 [1041 ]). wish; will; de[cf. v'kan and Vcan.]

kamandalu,
V

m. water-jar.
; ;

kad, interr. pel. nonne, num; w. cid, num kaccid drsta, was she seen ?
;

nonne,
[crys-

kamp

(kampate cakampe kampita; kampitum; -kampya). tremble or shake.

tallized ace.

s.

n.

of ka, lllla.]

kad a,

when? na kada cana, not at any time soever, never kada cid, once on a time, one day kada cid api na, never.
adv.
;

kambala, m. woolen cloth. kambu, m. shell. kambu-griva, m. Shell-neck


folds in the

(i.e.

having

neck

like a spiral shell),

name

[ka, 1103.]

of a tortoise,
[355c], f.

[griva.]

kadru,
V

a.

brown; kadru

brown
[cf.

kara,

1. a.

Soma-vessel.

or producing, at

doing; making or causing end of many cpds ; 2. as


;

kan or ka

(cake; akanit).

be glad.

m. the hand

v'kam and Vcan.]

nomen
'

kanaka, n. gold. kanaka-sutra, n. gold cord or chain. kanaka-stambha-r ucira, a. shining


with gold columns. kanistha, a. smallest
following words and
;

the busy one) 3. as m. the doing, performance, in duskara, sukara. [V 1 kr : cf Lat. cerus,
(lit.

actionis,

creator.']

kara,
1

m.
:

kara 2
4.]

ray, beam. [prob. same as the rays of the heavenly bodies


cf.

youngest,

[cf the
.

are conceived as their hands and feet,

kana and kanya.]

pada

karavarij

[140]

kara-vari, n. water from the hand, kalyana-kataka, m.n. Fair-dale, name of a place. karuna, a. mournful, pitiable; -a, f. pity, karuna-para, a. compassionate. [1302b.] kavi, a. wise, possessed of insight (of gods, as m. wise man, seer, sage karkata, m. crab; -aka, the same. esp. Agni) karna, m. ear. poet; pi. wise men of eld (whose spirits
;
;

karta,
,

m. (earth-) cut, ditch.

[Vkrt: see
officiating

garta.] k a r t f m. doer
priest, 101
.

hover about the sun), 91 12 [prop, 'seer,' Vkii, 'see,' for *sku: cf. BuoaKdos, *-<TKOFO-S,
.

accomplisher

' ;

inspecting the

sacrifice
' ;

' ;

Lat. cav-ere,

kartavya,
the various

[Vlkr.] grdv. to be done or made, w.

Ger. schauen, AS. scedwian, 'look,' Eng. show, 'cause to look

'

look out, be cautious

mgs of
,

\f

1 kr.

[V 1 kr.]
;

at.']

k a r t a v y a t a /. the to-be-done-ness -tarn kavi-kratu, a. having the power or inbruhi, tell me what I must do. [1237.] sight (kratu) of a wise one intelligent. karpura, m. n. camphor, [1296.] karpura-pata, m. Camphor-cloth, name V kas (kasati; kasta kasayati). move. of a certain washerman, + vi, move asunder; open; bloom; caus. karpura-vilasa, m. Camphor-joy (lit. pass, be made to bloom. having pleasure in camphor), name of a kas mat, adv. why? wherefore? [ka,
;
;

washerman.

karma, for karman


tion,

in cpds,

1249a 2

karma-ccsta,/". deed-performance;

ac-

kansya, a. brazen; as n. brass, [kansa.] kaka, m. crow; f- kaki, crow-hen; cf.


vayasa, 'crow.'
V

karma-ja,

a.

deed-born, resulting from


life.

kanks
kanksita).
\

(kanksati,

-te

cakanksa

the actions of a

karma-dosa, m. deed-sin, sinful karman, n. deed, work, action


work
(as
sacrifice,

deed,
;

kam, but

[desid. of reduplicated somewhat like an


desire, long for.

sacred

intens. (1002),

*kam-ka(m)-s.]
[lit.

ablution);
cid, at

rite,

59 l

kaca,
'

[Vlkr.]

m. glass. kaca-mani, m. rock-crystal, quartz,


glass-jewel.']

kar hi,
V

adv.

when? karhi

any time.

[ka, llOSc.]

kal
on
'
;

' (kalayati). drive, [cf. Kf\f rat, urges ' ' cattle driver ; Lat. celer, &ov-ic6\os,
' '

kancana, kana, a.

n.

gold.

one-eyed;
m.

perforated

(of

the

eye), blind.

(like colloq. driving,

i.e.

hurrying ')

swift.']

kana-bhuti,
Yaksha,
see

Kanabhuti, name of a
'

anu-sam,
a.

lead along after,


indistinct; -am, adv. gen-

53 3 N.
n.

[lit.

kal a,
tly,

dumb;

kanda,

m.

section;

joint
;

Blind-luck.'] of a stalk

and

so pleasantly (of

humming),

from one knot

to another

arrow.

kal ah a, m. strife, contention, kantara, m. n. great or primeval forest. kal a, f. a small part, esp. a sixteenth, kanti, f. loveliness. [Vkam, 1157, cf. 955a.] kalpa, m. ordinance, precept; manner, ka-purusa, m. miserable man, coward. way etena kalpena, in this way.
;

kalmasa,
sin.

n.

spot, stain; Jig., as in Eng.,

[see

Ika4, and

506.]

kam a,
a.

kalmasa-dhvansa-karin,

sin-de-

m. wish, desire, longing; love; at end of possessive cpds [1296], having desire
for
[V
,

struction-causing, preventing the commission of crime,

desirous

of

kaniain, see

s.v.

kam.]
(-dhuk, -duham, -dhugbhis,

ka1ya

a. well, healthy, , [cf ica\6s, fair prob. not akin are AS. hdl, Eng. hale,
. :

'

'

kama-duh
etc. [155]),

whole.'}

kal y an a,
[kaly'a.]

/.

-ani [355b], a. fair, lovely.

1. a. yielding wishes, grant2. as f., sc. dhenu, the ing every wish fabulous Wonder-cow.' [for 2, cf. the
;

horn of Amalthea.]

[141]

[Vkirtaya
visibility, in

k jtm am,

adv.

at will;

if

you please; kaga, m.


,

sakaga.

[Vkag.]
of

kamam
kamin,
[kama. ]

tu
a.

na
,

tu, if she please,


12
.

but

by no means

64

[kama, llllb.]
(spouse).

kastha, n. stick of wood; log. kastha-ccheda, m. dearth


[227.]

wood.

subst.

affectionate

kamini-sakha,
his wives,

a.

in the

company

of

kastha-bharika, m. wood-carrier, kastha, / race-course; course; track


the winds and clouds in the sky. kasthika, m. woodman, [kastha.]
1

of

[see sakha.]

kaya,
43
:

m. body.
.

[Vlci, 'build,'
'

Whitney

body, form/ and ki, cf. Ika 4, ana* 504. build,' and Eng. noun build, as used kim-suhrd, m. a bad friend, Sffjica, and 506.] of a man's figure.']
for mg, cf
'

5e'/*as,

[see

ka 4,

'

kayika,
body,

a.

corporeal; performed by the


as m.

kit ava,
thee
'

m. gambler; f. -vi, as
[poss.
is
'

a.,
'

addicted

[kaya.]
a.

to gaming,

kim + tava,
?

what of

kara,

making;

maker;

deed,

what

thy stake
adv.

']

karana

action; sound, [\llkr.] n. that which makes or occasions


,

kim,
;

1.

as nom.acc.s.n.
interr.

to

-2.

as

[lllla],

kd, see Ika; how? 73 8


13 an, 78

1 7 cause, 57 ; occasion; reason; sake, 10 n ground for a judgment, 22 [Vlkr.]


.

why?

18 10

aham
4. in

as interr. pel.: ; 21 ajnas, am I a fool? 39


3.

num; kim
;
,

karin,
'

a.

causing,

[do.]
singer.

connection w. other pels:


;

kim

ca,
;

karii, m. praiser, poet, mention with praise.']

[V2kr,

karttikeya,
god of war

m.
(so

metronymic of Skanda,
called because

see ca 3 kim tu, however, 20 12 kim cana, somewhat, 46 9 kim punar, how much more (or less)? 17 15 [see

moreover,

he was
:

under

ka.]

nourished by the Pleiads, krttikas)

cf.

kumara and svamikumara.


1216.]

krttika.

karya,
various

grdv. to be done, faciendus, w. the shades of mg belonging to V 1 kr ;

a. having what as object; kimartham, as adv. why ? [1302c4.] kim-prabhu, m. a bad master, [see Ika 4, and 506.] kim-bhrtya, m. a bad servant, [do.]

kim- art ha,

to be

19 requiring to be instituted, 4 ; requiring as n. what is to be done; shown;


;

kiyad-dura,
adv. [1116], a

n.

small distance;

-re, as

little

way.

business

work

n matter, 4

[kiyant.]
1.

affair

duty

kiyant
(how

[451], pron. a.

how

great?
;

emergency.

[V 1

karya-kala, karya-hantr,
mar-plot,

kr, 963b.] m. time for action,

how much? what


great ; small, 1172 2 .]

sort of

a? 45 10
or

2.

great, in a derogatory sense,

i.e.)

not
505,

m.

business-destroyer,
to or unfit for

46

l
.

[1

ka

ki,

karyaksama,
work,

a.

unequal

kiyambu, n. water-lily, perhaps,


kila, kila

[cf.ambu.]

[aksama.]
;

[248a], adv. indeed, emphasizing


2 [Ika, 504

kala,

the foregoing word. m. 1. the right or proper or apso at 88 10 3. kis, interr. pel. 2. time in general ; pointed time see 1117: cf. nakis.] Time, as the destroyer, i.e. Death,

kala-paga,

m. snare of Death,
[kavi.]

kit a, m. worm;
[kidrg, 145.]

caterpillar,

kavya,

n.

poetry; poem,

kidrg-vyapara,

m.

what
a.

business.

kavyagastra-vinoda,
with poetry and science,
1252.]
V

m. entertainment

[kavya-gastra,

kidrgvyaparavant,
business.

having what

kag

(karate; cakag be visible shine.


;

kagita

-kagya).

kidfg,
V

[1233.] a. of what sort?


praiser.

[see 518.]

klri, m.

+ ava, be visible, lie open. + a look on. + pra, shine out; become clear.
,

kirtaya
kirtyate).

[V2kr.] (kirtayati [1056, 1067]; pass.


1.
call,

make mention

of; tell;

-2. repeat;

[kirti, 1061 '.]

kirti]

[142]
tell around, announce. announce,

+ pari, + s am,
[V2kr.]

kill a,

n.

1.

herd or large number

or
;

swarm

kirti,/. mention;

esp.

good report, fame.

quadrupeds, birds, insects) 2. race and so, as in Eng., family good family, noble stock. [V3kr, q.v.
(of
; ;

ku,

see

Ika4, and

504.

cf.

akula.J
n.

kukkura,

m. dog. [younger form of the onomatopoetic kurkura.]


n.

kula-gila,
[1253b.]

family

and

character.

kutumba,
the

household; family; -aka,

kiilala, m. potter.
kii-liga,
'

m. axe. cutting [perhaps well,' see Ika 4, and 506.] kuttani,/. bawd. k uncla, n. round vessel; round hole in kulina, a. of good family, [kula, 1223d.] the ground (for water or sacred fire), kulira, m. crab.

same.

kundala,
kunda and

n.

ring,

esp.

ear-ring.

[cf.

kugd,

1227.]

kiitas, adv. from what place? whence? wherefore? why? how? 19 ". [Ika or kuga-pifij ula, n. tuft or bunch of Ku?a. k u a la, 1. a. in good condition; equal ku, 505.]

m. grass; esp. the sacred grass, Poa cynosuroides, with long stalks and numerous pointed leaves.

kutuhala,

n.

1. interest felt in
;

some-

to or

fit

for a task

able

clever, 46
;

18
;

thing extraordinary

eagerness

-at, as

2. as n.

welfare, well-being

kugalam

adv. [1114b], eagerly;

2. interest
.

caused

te, hail to thee.

u by something remarkable, 56

kugalin,a.
hand.

well; prosperous.
a.

kiitra, adv. where


ku, 505.]

whither?

[Ika or kuga-hasta,
[1303.]

having

[kuala 2.J Ku9a in the


and
per-

ku-drsti,
rodox
506.]

f.

a bad or false view; hete- V


[see
1 kd, 4,

ku

(kuvate).

found only

w. a,

philosophy.

and

haps meaning see, look.


see under kavi.]

[prob. for #sku,


intend,

kunti,/
Pandu.
V

Kunti, one of the two wives of

+a

look forward

to,

i.e.

[see

akuta.]
;

kup

(kupyati

cuk6pa; kupita).
or agitated
;

1.

kuta,

1. n.

become moved
rage. + pra

boil

and

so

mg

2, cf.

2. m. n. peak, horn; [for the Swiss peak-names, Schreck-

2. Jig., as in Eng.,

be angry ; boil with

horn, Wetter-horn, etc.]

kup a,
,

the same.

kumara,
war

m.
;

1.

new-born child; boy;

m. cave, hole; well. [cf. KUTTTJ, ' ' niche for vat,' cave, hut/ Lat. cupa, the dead,' borrowed Eng. coop, ' vat/
'

10 -2. The Youth, epithet of youth, 51 the eternally youthful god of Skanda,

whence

cooper.^

kurma,
V

m. tortoise.

see karttikeya sukumara.]

f. -ri, girl.

[cf.

Ikr (Vedic, krn6ti, krnute [715]; later, kar6ti, kurute [714]; cakara, cakre; V.
akar, akrta [831, 834a]; later, akarsit; karisyati krta kartum ; krtva -kftya
; ;
;

kumara-datta,
['

m.

name

of

man.

given by the god Kumara.']


m. jar; pot; urn.
[cf. Ki5/xr?,

kumbha,
'

kriyate
these

vessel.']

do, cikirsati; karayati, -te). make, in the various meanings and uses of
;

kumbha-kara, m. pot-maker, potter, kumbhika,/ pitcher, [kumbha.]


kuru,
India
m.
;

words;
1.

thus,
;

as pi. the Kurus, a people of as sing. Kuru, the ancestor of that m.

effect

21 perform, 59 accomplish; cause; 15 2 prepare, 83 undertake, 52


;

12 commit, 29

people,

liarity,

9n

kuru-gravana,
'

name

of a prince.

[lit.

glory of the Kurus,' like nv6o-K\rjs :

21 favor, 52 ; an affair, II

6 famihonor, 5 19 18 compassion, 21 ; love, 42 16 attend to contempt, 54


;

show:

e.g.

4
;

acct, 1271.]

quarrel, 42

19
;

n a engage in: trade, 46 2. do something (good or


;

[143]
bad) for a person
(yen.),

Lkrta
1.

2
,

15
;

-3.
;

+ pra,
effectuate,

make

4 procure for another, 82 grant middle: get for one's self; assume:

or

carry forward, accomplish; cause 2. mid. set before


;

human
48 3 40 7
,
;

voice, 3
;

u
;

take on

form
:

or shape,

put before one, i.e. make the subject of discussion or treatment w, buddhim, put
;

49 6

4.

execute;

follow:

advice,
3

a plan before one's

self, i.e.

decide.

food, 68 ; 6. accomplish; be good for, 18 5 7. make a sound, 26 n ; utter the syllable


5.

work

over, prepare

+ prati, work against, counteract. 1. put + sam, together; conficere,


2. treat prepare according to the sacred usages, administer a sacrament
;

8 om, 60

'

9
;

8.

(like

Eng. do
loc.,

in don, doff)

or

on;

w.

81

>,

43 6

set,

put in 105 U w.
;

to, see

samskara; consecrate, 106 3 ;


intens.

3.

adorn.
V

adverbs : see agratas, ama, avis, tiras, 9. make a person (ace.) puras, bahis to be something (ace.), 79 12 transform
;
;

2kr 3kr

(akarit; with praise.

carkarti).

mention

(kirati [242]; cakara, cakre; akarit;


;

into,
ace.,

40 13 ff
18 8
;

render, w. factitive predicate


composition

w. the predicate in
sajji-kr,

17 ready, 34 ; 10. w. adv. in -dha, divide in parts, 57 10 ; 11. do, go to work, proceed, 37 8 ; 16 12. do, esp. sacred pass, impers., 30

[1094]:

e.g.

make

hail-stones) cast forth (missiles); strew; cover or fill ' with. [cf. kula, swarm.']
(e.g.
;

karisyati; kirnd [957b] out or scatter abundantly

-kirya).

pour

+ vy-ati, pass, be scattered in various directions; be brought to confusion, [cf.


vyatikara, 'disaster.'] + ava, strew (loose earth); throw
in.

work
93 12

with

(like pefciv

2 without karma karma, 97 and facere), to sacrifice, Off


;

_ see
desid.

also krta.

cikirsita, that

desire to perform; ppl. [1037], which is sought to be done,

a, scatter abundantly cover over, fill ; aklrna, bestrown, covered, [cf. akara,
;

intention.
cans,

'abundance, mine/ akula, 'full.'] + sam-a, bestrew; cover.

cause to do or
;

make
sa

or

be done

krcchra,
n.

a. distressful;

troublesome; as

or

made
16

see
1
;

to

it

that a thing takes

trouble.
n.

place,

pass,

tena

pranamam krcchra-karman,
ery.
V

hard work; drudg-

karitas, by him he was caused to make 7 obeisance, 36 ; caws, equiv. to simple verb,
265.
'

krt

(krntati, -te [758]

cakarta
krtta
[cf.
;

akrtat;

kartisyati,
ai>To-Kpd-T<ap,

kartsyati
cut; cut

-kftya

independent Kp6-vos, an old harvest-god, Per' Lat. cer-us, ficus, the Completer, Ilipener
[cf.
'

self-actor,

krtyate).
'temple,'
curt-us,

off.

kata

(for
i.e.),

'

karta, 'cut, depression in the head,'

and

Kpdr-cupos,

'temple';

Lat.

'

creator
'

'
;

'

'

Kpaivu,
'
:

accomplish

Lat.

credre,

create

see

kratu

orig. root1

'docked, short.'] ud, cut out or off; cut up, butcher.


vbl in cpds.

form, perhaps, skr, 1087d.] + ad hi, put over; put in office.

krt,

making; doing; caus[Vlkr, 1147c.]


sa-krt.

ing; as m. maker.
2

+ a p a put off injure, opp. of upakr. + a ram or alam, see these words.
, ;

krt, a
Vlkr,
time.']

time,

in

[perhaps
cf.

fr.

'a doing, a time':


1.

kftu,

'a

+a

10 bring hither, 74

prepare, fashion,

make.

krta,
,

a.

made; done;
4.
n.

2.

prepared;
so,

+ vy-a + up a,
apakr.

separate, analyse.
as an auxiliary, opp. of [w. the use of upa, cf. that of sub

3.

attained,
5.

well

done, and
6.

bring something to some one; do


act

a service,

good; made,
die
or

as

deed;

i.e. won) and so, marked with four


;

(perhaps the side of the

spots, the

lucky

in subvenire,

'

aid.']

winning one
of the

7.
first

+ pari, (poss. surround, make ready adorn.


;

deck,

and

so)

name
[Vlkr.]

golden age, 2 yuga, see 58 N.

the

krtakrtya]

[144]
a.

krta-krtya,
or

having one's duty done


f.

a,

draw

on,

attract;

draw from (a

end attained,
condition
[1237.]

source).

krtakrtyata,
krta-buddhi,

of

having

performed one's duty.


a.

+ u d pull up, elevate. + pra, draw forward, place


,

in front.

having

made-up krsti,
'

/. pi. people, folk.


tillages, tilled

[Vkrs,

mg
'

2:

mind, of resolute character. krta-mauna, a. having a kept silence,


silent,
a. having an agreement made, agreed upon as a rendezvous, krtanjali, a. having a made gesture of

orig.

lands/ then

settle-

krsna,

krta-samketa,

ment, community.'] a. black, dark; w. paksa, the dark half of the lunar month, from full to new

moon;

as m.,

sc.

paksa, the dark lunar

reverence, with reverent gesture,

[anjali.]

fortnight. kfsna, m. the black antelope.

krtanna,
[anna.]

n.

prepared
a.

or

cooked food.

krsna-paksa,
night.

m.

the dark lunar fort-

krtavajna,
i.e.)

having contempt (done,


[avajna.]

shown
f.

to one, disdained,

kfti,
2.

kftu,

1. the doing, the production; a production, literary work, [v'lkr.] a doing, a time; only in ace. pi.

m. a very poisonous black Cobra, Coluber Xaga. krsnajina, n. skin of the black antelope,

krsna-sarpa,

[ajina.]
','

krsnaya(krsnayate). blacken, [krsna,


1059b.]

-krtvas, and

that

at

the

end of cpds.
v'

[Vlkr, 1105

.]

kip

krte,
of,

as prep,
for,

on account

of, for

the sake

klpta

(kalpate; caklp6 [786]; kalpsyate ; kalpayati, -te). be in order; be


;

[1130] or in composition. [loc. of krta, lit. 'in the matter of (cf.


5), 1116.]

w. gen.

suitable or serviceable to
in order,
fixed,

help
caus.

klpta,

settled;

put
fix

in
(in

mg

order; ordain; arrange; dispose;


cf.

kftti,
Sfp/j.a,

f.
'

pelt, hide. [Vkrt: for mg, hide/ and Seipw, flay.']


'

kfttika,

f. pi. the Pleiads,

[cf.

krtti

manifold applications of this word as used colloquially). [prob. not akin are Goth, hilpan, Eng. help.~\
the

+ upa, caus. prepare; furnish; provide. perhaps the constellation was conceived as having the shape of a pelt.] + sam, caws, arrange together; determine will purpose. krtya, grdv. to be done; as n. that which ought to be done or is to be done, and so, klpta-ke^anakhagmagru, a. having hair and nails and beard in order, i.e. trimmed. f. -a, action, deed. duty, purpose, end;
;

[v'lkr,

963beni]

[kea-nakha-gmacru, 1252.]

krtvas, adv. times; see krtu. klptanta, having its end prescribed; limited, krtsnd, a. whole; entire. [anta.] V krp (kfpate [745b]). mourn, lament, k6ta, m. intention; desire; will, [v'cit, look, be intent upon.'] krpa,/. pity, compassion. [Vkrp.] kfmi, m. worm. ketu, m. brightness; pi. beams. [Vcit, cf Goth, haidu-s, V kr look, appear, shine cakarga; krgita). (kfgyati [761a]
' '

'

'long lank person/ /co\ooWs, #KO\OK-JOS, colossus Old Lat. crac-entes, Lat. grac-iles, 'lean,

grow

lean.

[cf.

KO\OK-O.VOS,

('appearance, manner/
'

i.e.)

'way/ AS.

'

'

had, way, manner, condition/ Eng. -hood, -head (as in maidenhood, godhead), Ger.
-heit
:

slender.']

cf.
,

under maya.]
a.

krc_a,
V

a. lean,

haggard.

[Vkrg, 958.]

k6va1a
alone
;

exclusive

excluding

all else

krs

(karsati; krsati;

cakarsa

akrk-

-am, adv. only.

sat; karaisyati; kraksyati, -te; krsta;

krastum
ati
:

1. kars-kfsya). 2. krsati: draw tug, draw, pull;


; ;
;

krstva

ke"qa, m. hair (of the head); mane, [see kesara.] kega-paksa, m. du. the two sides of
the hair of the head
;

furrows

plough.

the temples.

[Uo]
k e g a - gmagru-loma-nakha,
nails.
n. pi.

[Vkri
ayati [1042c wards.
2

hair of

mid.]),

step; go;

go

to-

the head, beard, hair of the body, and

keg ant a,
down
;

[1253a.] m. hair-end; long hair hanging


a.

+ ati, step beyond; excel; overcome. 4 sam-ati, excel, [sam intens., 1077b
end.]

locks.

kegfn,
[kega.]

maned,
hair;
:

with

flowing

mane,

a, step near to;

come upon; attack;

overpower.
m.
.

kesara,

mane.
.

[written also
'

+ ud, go + + + +

out; depart (of the vital spirit);

kegara, cf kega cf Lat. caesaries, mane/ but not Eng. hair.']

hair,

cans, cause to disembark.

kesaragra, n. ends of a mane, kaivarta, m. fisher. kotara, n. hollow of a tree.


kotta,
m. fort.
in.

[agra.]

abhy-ud, caws, up a, step unto;


nis, go
out.

cause to step out.


10 approach, 3
.

and

(of an archer), ['goodIka4, and 506.] kodandatani, f. the notched end of a

ko-danda,
stick,' see

bow

step forth; advance boldly; show one's strength or courage. cf kram + [hence parakrama, valor

para,
so,

'

'

vi.]

+ pari, go around, circumambulate.

bow.

kopa,

[atani.] m. anger; -at, adv. [1114b], angrily.


a.

+ pra,
from.

step

forward;

set

out;

start

[Vkup.]

kopakula, kolahala,
ko-vida,
a.

full of anger,
n.

[akula.]
cry.

boldly

m.

uproar, confused

+ vi, move away or on; proceed; attack and so, show one's courage. valor cf kram + [hence vikrama,
;

'

'

[onomatopoetic.]
well

para.]

knowing

or skilled,

[see

-fsam, come together; approach; enter


(a zodiacal sign, said of the sun).

Ika4, and 506.]

kautuka,

n.

curiosity,

eagerness;

-at,

krama,
mam;
[V

m.

1.

step; regular progress or


cf.

adv. [1114b], eagerly. kaunteya, m. son of

order; -ena, -at, gradatim,

yathakra.

Kunti,

i.e.

king
i.e.

2.

21 procedure; method; way, 36

Yudhishthira.

kauravya,
1208c.]

[metronymic, 1216.] m. descendant of Kuru,


[patronymic,
1211
:

kram.]
adv. step

kramagas,
in order.

by

step; gradually;

Yudhishthira.

cf.

[1106.]

kravya,
[v'*kru,

kaulala, n. pottery, [kiilala.] kaugala, n. cleverness; ability, [kugala.] kratu, m. power, whether of body or of
1. might, 73 2. 5 understanding, 80 cf. daksa inspiration, insight, esp. for sacred songs
;
'

n. raw flesh; corpse; carrion. which perhaps means 'coagulate, w. kravis, raw flesh,' cf become stiff
' '
: .

'

Kpeas, *KpeFas,
.

flesh

'
;

w. kru-ra,
'

'

bloody,

mind

or of both:
2
;

raw,' cf Lat. cru-dus,


'

bloody, raw,' cruor,


'
'
;

will,

75

blood

' ;

cf

AS. hrdw, corpse


a.

Eng. raw,
off

Ger. roh, 'raw.']

and acts;
ceremony,
effect,'

3.
cf.
:

sacred deed, sacrifice, 16 7

kravy a- vahana,
corpses.

carrying
corpses,

the

yajnakratu.
orig. sense of
'

[Vlkr, 'do,

1161

word

in

mgs

and 2 was prob.


cf
'
.

an

effecting, a

power
'

to
:

kravyad, a. consuming kravyada, a. the same,


kriya
\/
,

[ad.]

[ada.]
;

do or carry out': for


uparvs,

mg

3,

see \flkrl2

f.

action

performance

doings

mighty,' AS. heard,

strong,

labor, pains.

[V 1 kr, 1213d.]

hard,'
\!

Eng.

hard.~]
;

kri (krmati, krmlte; kresyati;


kretum; kritva; -kriya).
[281b] of price,

krita;

kram

ca(kramati [745d], kramate krama, cakram6 akramit kramisyati, krami-te, kransyate ; kranta [955a] tum, krantum kramitva, krantva
;
;

and

so

meaning
,

'

buy, ic. instr. [perhaps akin w. Vlkr, do business, trade.']

~ u p a buy.
vi,
sell; sell for (instr.).

-kramya

kramyate

kramdyati, kram-

10

Vkrid]
V

[146]
(kridati,
-te;

krid

cikrida,

cikride;

second or princely caste or a


it.
'
:
.

member

of

kridisyati; kridita; kriditum; -kridya).


play, sport.

kr Id a, /. play, sport. [Vkrid.] kritotpanna, a. bought or on hand


food),
V

[from ksa = v 1 ksi 2 cf ksatra-pa, governor of a dominion, satrap,' and the borrowed ffarpd-injs.l

(of

ksatra-bandhu,
ksatriya,
m.
to
1.

m. one

who belongs
l
;

to

[utpanna, Vpad.]
(krudhyati, -te[761]; cukr6dha;
;

the ksatra or second caste.


ruler, 75
2.

krudh
dhva).

one

akrudhat

kruddha

kr6ddhum

krudV

who belongs

be angry.
anger.
or

the ksatra or princely 16 N. [ksatra, 1214a.] caste, a Kshatriya, 57

krudh, /.

ksan
ksata). akin w.

(ksan6ti,

ksanut< hurt
;

aksanista

krudhmi
V

krudhmin, a. wrathful. [V krudh: cf. 1167 and 1231: paroxytone.] akruksat cukr6ga krug (kr6gati cry out; krusta; kr6stum -kriigya).
;
;
;

harm

break,

[closely
or

V 2 ksi, q.v.]

ksantavya,
pardoned.

grdv.

to be

put up with

[Vksam, 212.]
night.
'
:

call

howl,

for y in place of w. rtj/cw, ' melt.']

[cf Kpav-rf, cry/ f r *KpavK-r) ' K, cf r-fiyavov, crucible,'


. :
'.

'

ksa pa,
'

/.

[cf.

oW,
.

'cover,'

<//e'4>os,

darkness
n.

for ^, cf V ksar.]
wxd-fi/J-fpov.

ksapaha,
fig.

a night and day,

krura,

a.

bloody; raw;
1.

harsh,

[see
v'

[2 aha, 1253b.]

under kravya.]

ksam
isyate,

kroda,
terior,

m.
[for

breast,
2, cf.

bosom;

2.

in-

mg

kr6dha,
kr6ga,

m. anger.
call;

garbha2.] [V krudh.]

tum
dure

(ksamate, -ti; caksame; ksamksansyate ksanta [955a] ksan1. be patient; enksamyate).


; ;

put up with
;

ksanta, patient

2.

m.

calling distance; Anglo-

forgive

pardon.
a.

Indian a Kos.

[Vkrng.]
a.

ksa ma,
stationed
at
-f

patient; bearing or enduring;

kr ogamatr avasthita,
the distance of a Kos.
avasthita.]
V

ana" so, equal to a thing, able,

[v'ksam.]

[kroga-matra
ciklega
;

klig

(kligyate,

-ti

klista

klestum; -kligya).

be distressed.

ksama,y. patience; long-suffering, [do.] 1 ksaya, m. dwelling-place. [VI ksi.] 2 ksaya, m. destruction; decay. [\'2ksi.] -te caksara aksar V ksar (ksarati,
;
;

klega,

kv&,

m. pain; trouble. [Vklig.] V. kua, adv. 1. where? whither?

[890]; ksaritd).

-1.
so,

flow;

-2.
'

melt away
cf.
tyeipca
'

and

perish,

liquefy; [for *skar :


destroy,'

kua babhuvus, what kva cid anywhere


:
,

has become of ?
;

2.

(tffireipw)
'

=
:

<p6eip<a,
i^,

in

any

case, ever,

27 20 ; w. na, never. [ Ika, 505.] k s a as collateral form of V 1 ksi in ksa-tra, of the same, w. the mg abiding, situate,' in antari-ksa. ksana, m. instant; moment; -ena, -at.
vbl

for perished ksiti: foT<p0, cf. 2 ksi.]


4-<p0dp-r),

cf

ksapa,

and as

'

ksar a, a. perishable. [Vksar.] V ksa (ksayati [761dl]; ksana).


ksara,
i)p6-s,
'

burn,
cf.
lit.

pungent; saline. [v'ksa: 'dry': for mg, cf. Eng. caustic,


a.
'

as advs [1112b, 1114b], instantly, [prob. ' the time of a glance,' a shortened form

burning,'
V

fig.

Ik si,
'

with

pungent.'] two meanings,

'dwell,'

and

mg, cf Eng. "in the twinkling of an eye," and Ger. glance of an eye, i.e. moAugen-blick,
glance
: .

of Iks-ana,

'

'

for

rule,' attaching themselves to the steins ksi

and ksaya

respectively

thus,
:

'

1. kse-ti,

3d

pi.

ksi-y-anti

abide or

ment.']

ksanika,/. -I, a. momentary, [ksana.] k s a t ppl. of V ksan. 1. rule, dominion, power, ksatra, n. 86 M 2. later, the im, ;

while or dwell, esp. in quiet and safety, 79 18 inhabit, [cf. ksiti, 1 ksaya, ksetra,
;

ksema 1,

'

'

dwelling-place
rest on,
:

a^(pi-Kri-ovts,

'dwelling around,'

Kri-ai-s, 'settlement.']

temporal power,

+ up a,
2.

be dependent on.
pos-sess
.

perium

(as distinguished

from the

spirit;

ksaya-ti

be-sitzen

be

ual power, brahman, 'sacerdotium')

the

master of; rule, 71 9

[cf.

ksema 2,

'pos-

[147]
session
ofiai,
' '
;

[khala

m. hunger and disease. [ksudh: 1253a.] for con- V ksudh be [cf. the collateral form ksa (ksddhyati ksudhita). nection of 1 and 2, cf. the relation of Lat. hungry ksudhita, hungry. sedere, sit,' and pos-sidere, be master of,' ksudh,/. hunger. [ V ksudh, 383a.] and of Ger. sitzen, sit,' and be-sitsen, be k s u d h a f. hunger. [V ksudh.] master of.'] ksudharta, a. distressed with hunger,
K'-/cTrj-yuai,

am

master

of,'

KTO-

ksud-vyadhi,

'get.']

'

'

'

'

l/

2k si

[ksudha + arta.] n ksapa- ksetra, n. dwelling-place, 87 ; piece of ground; field. [Vlksil.] yati [1042e]). destroy; make an end of; exhaust ksina, ruined, ksetra-pati, m. master of a field; pass, wane farmer. caus. weaken, lost [cf <pOtvw, *<t>Qwvia, ' for <f>0, ks6ma, m. 1. abode; place of rest; perish, wane,' <t>6l-pei>os, dead
(ksinati,
later

ksin6ti;

aksesta;

ksita,

ksind

-ksiya

kslyate

'

'

cf.

ksar

w.

the secondary ksa-n,

cf.

security; well-being, 61

8
;

2.

possession;
in acquisi-

KTa.-fj.evos, 'slain,'

Kreivu, *Krev-jta, 'slay.']

kseme
tion,
i.e.

yoge, in possession
in

+ apa, ksit
,

i-bl.

pass, be afflicted, suffer loss. inhabiter or ruler, at end of cpds.

[v'lksi 1

and 2: see 1147c.]


18
;

the enjoyment of what we have got and in the getting of more, [v/lksil and 2: for *ske-ma, 1166: cf.

ksitf, f. dwelling, abode, 79 piece of ground or land; the earth, the ground.
[V 1

Goth, haim-s,

'

'

village

A.S. ham, Eng.

ksiti,

=
V

cf Krl-ffi-s, settlement.'] [V2ksi: cf. f. destruction. ' ' for fy, cf. ksar.] decay <f>diffts,
:
.

ksi 1

'

home, and -ham in place-names; perhaps also Ktafj.il (if for K^JUTJ"?), 'village.']

tyi-ai-s

ksip
;

(ksipati,

-te

ciksepa, ciksipe

kha,
3.

n.

ksepsyati, -te; ksipta; kseptum; ksiptva -ksipya; ksepayati). dart; cast; throw caus. cause to fly or burst, 84 4
,
.

1. hole; hollow; 2. opening; hole in the hub of a wheel 4. void


;

space; the sky.

[Vkhan,

cf.

333.]

kha-ga,

1. a.

moving
[for
'

in the sky, flying;


2, cf.

a,

fling,

8 10

Eng. make flings at), deride, put to shame, 3. draw towards one's self, call out
at;
(like
.

1.

throw

2. fig.

2. as m. bird,

mg

antariksa-

ga and kha-gama, 'bird,' ura-ga and bhujam-gama, snake,' and turam-ga,


'

6 (a person to vindicate himself), 55 + ni, throw down (one's self, one's body).

horse.']

+ vi-ni, lay down separately or orderly. + sam, dash together in a heap; destroy.

kha-gama, khanda, a.
tion,

the

same.
sec-

broken; as m. a break,

piece

khandaka, m. lump-sugar.

ksipta-laguda,
thrown.

a.

having the cudgel


V

Italian,

[hence, prob., through the Persian, Arabic, and French, the Eng. candy.,]

khandaya
khandita,

(khandayati).
(of

ksipra,
quickly.

a.

darting

quick

-am,

adv.

broken

break; command).

ksira, n, ksirin,
[ksira.]

[Vksip.] milk. [prob. Vksar.] a. milky ; as m. milk-plant,


n.

[khanda, 1055.]
V

khan

or kha (khanati, -te cakhana, cakhnus akhan [890] khanisyati khata khanitum khanitva, khatva
;

ksirodaka,
1253b.]
V

milk and water,

[udaka:

-khaya; khanyate, khayate khanayati).


;

dig
(ks6dati, -te

caus. cause to be dug.


'

[if

for *skan,

ksud
small.

-ksudya).

cuks6da; ksunna; shatter; stamp upon; grind


;

cf Lat. can-alls,
.

ditch, canal.']
in

+a

dig,
a.

burrow,

akhu.

khara,
[\lksud.] m. Small-wit,

ksudra, a. small, ksudra-buddhi,


a jackal.
[1298.]

harsh; as m. ass (so called from his harsh bray), 67 19


.

name

of

khala,
mean,

m.

1.

threshing-floor;
fellow.

2.

low-lived

[the

tertium

10*

khalu]
comparationis
'

[148]
for
1

and 2

is

perhaps

khyati,

dirt.']

f. the being well known; fame; khyatim gam, become famous. [Vkhya.]

khalu,

pel.

1.

now

(confirmative)

atha
vbl.

indeed (emphasizing the s 3. to be sure (con- g a , preceding word), 55 ; in 98 3 cessive), khalu, now;
2.
.

madhyaga
n.

going, in many cpds ; situate, e.g. as m. nomen actionis, the ;

V
V

kha,

see

khan.
;

going, in durga, suga.

[v'gam,

cf.

333.]

khad

(khadati; cakhada; khadisyate


;
;
;

gagana,

khadita khaditum khaditva khad- gang a, f. [fr. \'gam^=ga, w. intens. reduplication, 1002b.] yate; khadayati). chew; bite; eat, esp. of animals; feed on, 24 16 devour, 2 1 11 g a j a m. elephant. 3 khadita, eaten, 23 , etc. [if for *skand gaja-yutha, m. herd of elephants.
;
;

sky. the Ganges.

or sknd,
'

cf.

Kvifa,

V/cvtS,

'bite,

sting,'

gajendra,
indra.] gana, m.

m.

a great elephant.
troop, (of Maruts)
;

[see

Ki/i5ij,

nettle,'

khaditavya, V khid (khidati;

but not Eng. nettle.'] [vkhad.] grdv. edendus.

1.

90 18

khinna; -khidya).

de-

press, but only fig. + u d , pull out.

9 host (of stars) crowd, (of friends) 3 38 2. pi. troop-deities, flock, (of birds)
;

inferior deities

which regularly appear not

khila,
gap.

1.

cultivated

piece of waste land between fields ; a bare spot ; 2. a


.

singly, but in troops, 67

n
;

esp.
;

those that
as
sing.,

compose the retinue of Qiva


;

then,

khu, a Prakrit form for khe-cara, a. moving


1250c.]

khalu.
in the sky.

a single one of Qiva's attendants, a Gana, 3. a number. 55 20


[kha,

ganana,
v'

/.

a numbering, calculation, tak[''

ing into account,


n.

khecaratva,
magic).

power of

flying

(by

ganaya

(ganayati).

ganaya.] number, calculate,

[1239.]

[gana, 1055.]

kheda, m. depression, sorrow. [Vkhid.] ganita, ppl. calculated; as n. [1176a], calculation, arithmetic, [v ganaya.] kheda-vaga, a. having depression as
one's controlling influence, under the dominion of sorrow.
V
1. gone, 2 gata, ppl. snatum gata, gone to
21
;

departed;
;

?<-.

inf.
2
;

2 bathe, 44

so

41

khya

(khyati; cakhyau; akhyat [847];


;

2. often

khyayate

khyasyati ; khyata ; khyatum ; -khyaya khyapayati, -te [1042d]).


; ;

ace.,

gone to: 23 15

at beg. of cpds, see these ; 3. w. ace. 5, 15 20 ; w. prati ana"


;

4.
:

(having arrived
;

at,

i.e.)

simple verb only in pass, and caus. be well known ; be talked of

pass. caus.
'shine,

situated in
cpd,
e.g.

w. ace., 62 15

w.

loc.,

5 u ; in

svahasta-gata, situated on
5.

my
see

make known,
appear
-fa,

[orig.

mg, perhaps,
.

own hand;

gone to a condition,
to,
12 (fame) 56
;

or look (intrans.), see (trans.)'.]

Vgam4;
ditioned,
2.

attained
in

-con-

+ abhi,
1.

look at; behold, 78 13

durgata, sugata.
a.

[v'gam,
is

show,
;

tell; narrate,

55 19
;

954d.]

caus. : act. tell designate, name have told to one's self, 105 7 .

mid.

gata-prana,
dead.

whose breath
a.
is

gone,
or

+ praty-a,
away, repulse,
Ger.

(lit.

show back,
9 20
;

i.e.)

turn
[the

gata-samkalpa,
will for the

whose purpose

reject,

refuse,

moment

gone, purposeless.

zuriick-weisen

has

just

the

same
i.e.

[1299.]

mgs.]

gatanugati,
,

+ v y - a show
plain.

to discriminately,

ex-

f. the going after him who has gone (before), the following in the

old ruts,
,

+ sam

tell

together,

i.e.

reckon up.

gatanugatika,
in the old ruts,

[anugati.] a. addicted to following

-pari-sam,

reckon

up completely,

[gatanugati, 1222a.]
life is

gatasu

a.

whose

gone,

[asu.]

[149]
gati,
/.
1.

[garbha
+ adhi,
+ anu, go
-i-

a going,

way
18

of going, ability
;

1.

go to; attain;
cf.

2.

get

at,

to go;

eventus, issue, 15 20 13 ; 3. way of escape, refuge, 52 ; 4. the way or course esp. of the soul

2. progress, 18

learn, study, read

Vi

+ adhi.

after, follow.

antar, go

within, enter.

through different bodies, metempsychosis and so, a condition of the soul during thesL lv transmigrations, a man's lot or fate, 53
65 10 ,G6 6 ,66 21 ff.
'going,

[Vgam, 1157:

cf. ySo-o-i-:.

a pi, go unto, join, 91 5 ff. + abhi, go unto, 1 u go. + a ram, see s.v. lava, come down.
i-

power

to go.']

-i-a,

1.
'

go

to,
2S
;

6 10
2.
etc.

gad (gadati; jagada; gadisyate; gadspeak. ita; gaditum; -gadya).


+ ni
,

22 hither, 5 , 10

come to; come return (52 22 ), ?<SMagata


27
10
;
:

allij

w. punar, 4

3
,

1. ar-

say.

rived,

come,
28 7

79

w. inf. c,rotum agata,


5
;

gad a, m. disease. gantavya, grdv.


[Vgam.]

come
eundum, used
;

to hear, 28
;

so

arrived (as

impers.

guest),

-2.
to a

returned,

24 17

-3.

g and ha,
fumes.

m.

smell
?.

pi.,

w.

gubha, perperhaps, the


2.

condition, e.g. death, having gone 46 3 agantavyam, grdv., as impers.


;

pass. w.
1. orig.,
-=-

anena,

this

one will come hither


5
.

gandharva,
deity of the
in

desid. desire to return, 101

moon, the Gandharva;


;

+ abhy-a, come
as subst. guest.

unto, visit; abhyagata,

Gandharvas, heavenly singers belonging to Indra's court as sing, one of these, a Gandharva.
Epos,
pi.

gabhira
V

V., later)

gambhira,
[833],
;

a.
;

deep.

gam
jagme

(gacchati, -te [747, G08]


;

jagama,

V.

agan
;
;

later

agamat
;

gamisyati, -te
-gatya,
3

gata

gantum
;

gatva

+ + + + + +

upa_a, approach.

sam-upa_a, go to together. sam-a, assemble; meet, 61 8


u d go out, proceed from. u p a go unto, approach.
,
,

nis, proceed from

(abl.),

51

n
;

nirgata,

-gamy a
;

gamy ate

jfgamisati

departed.

1. go, move; go to, gamayati, -te). n 36 6 come 6 go towards go away, 28 w. pratipam, go wrong 2. go by, pass 3 of days, 29 13 (intrans.): of time, 20
; , ; ; ; ;

+ prati, come back, return. + vi, go asunder; vigata, gone, vanished. + s a m mid. come together, meet unite
,
;

one's self with;

and

so,

come

to enjoy;

3.

come

84 7
71
6

7 unto, i.e. arrive at, w. ace., 3 , 8 reach, w. loc., 69 ; come into, w. loc., 19 4. go to a state or get at, 95 ;
:

cans, assemble, as trans.

gam a, a.
garut,
mg,
v

going, at end ofcpds.


a.

[v'gam.]

gambhira,
n.

deep;
a.

cf.

gabhira.
bird,

condition
tion,
i.e.

w.

pancatvam, go
,

to dissolu-

wing.

die,

32 21

etc.

so to destruction,
;

garutmant,
cf.

winged; as m.

[for

29 6

despondency, 44

18

w. nijaiii gatim,

paksin.]
;

(went) to his

own proper

condition,
;

i.e.

g ar J (garjati; jagarja; garjita


itva; -garjya).
roar.

garj-

became a Yaksha once more, 53 12 manasa gam, (go with the mind, i.e.)
ceive, 15
[cf.
10
.

5.

per-

garj ana, n. roar. garta, m. (earth-) cut,


form of karta,
q.v.]

ditch.

[younger

fialvca

(*0avjw, *yFf/jj<a), 'go'; Lat.

vSnio, #gv&mio,

come
in
.

for the

kw which

'come'; AS. cum-an, Eng. is to be expected

gardabha, garbha, m.

m. ass; -i,/. she-ass. [1199.] 1. uterus concipiens, the


;

Germanic

cf Ger. be-quem,

as answering to the old gv, Old Eng. cweme, ' con-ve-

abde garbhad ekaconceiving womb dage, in the eleventh year from (the

nient,

fit,

pleasant':

'go thou';

gata-s,

'(gone over, i.e.) jScuri-?, 'a going': see also v'ga.]

gaccha and &daK, and PUTO-S, passable'; gati-3 and


cf.

womb,
ton's

'gone,'

2. (as in Mili.e.) conception; Earth's inmost womb) the interior,


5
,

inside, 34

43 2

cf.

kroda

at

end of cpds,
,

having

in the interior, containing

cf.

garbhavant]
3. conceptum, padmagarbha; the womb; garbham dadhanas,

[150]
fruit of

garhapatya,

1.

a.
sc.
;

conceiv-

5 7 2. as n. the being embryo, 46 , 93 ; scion; head of the house, 89 6 the housekeeping, [Vgrabh, ' ' 89 17 with garbha in mg 1, cf concipere [grhapati, 1211.] 1. invocation, praise, 74 12 Sf\<(>vs and 8o\<pds, 'womb,' a-Se\<(>6s and gir [392], / 2. sing, and pi. speech, words, 87 16 49 9 ; a.-Se\<f>e-i6-s (= sa-garbh-ya-s), 'of the - 3. voice, 3 ". [V 1 gr, 242 ' 3 .] same womb, i.e. brother'; in mg 3, cf. 8 PpeQos, embryo,' and Eng. calf in moon- giri, m. mountain, 55

ing

fruit,

92 12

householder; as m., holder's fire, 102 2 N.

pertaining to the agni, the house-

and

so

4.

a new-born child.

'

mg 4, cf. Goth. Icalbo, Eng. calf.'} garbhavant, a., in fern, only, pregnant.
calf: in

gu

(intens.

j6guve [1007
.

]).

cause
'

to
'
;

[garbha 3: see 1233.]

sound, proclaim, [cf Lat. bovare, howl.']


'

y6os,

/3o-fi,

cry

garbha-stha,
born.
V

a.

being in the womb, un-

gun a,

m.
;

1.

a single thread of a cord;


bow-string
;

a string
;
;

esp.

2. quality

garb, (garhate garhita; jagarhe garhitum; -garhya). blame, reproach;


garhita, despised.

adscititious quality, as distinguished from the real nature (svabhava, 'ingenium'),

22 20

3. as philosophical technical term,


all

gal (galati; galita). -1. drip; -2. fall; galita, fallen out, gone (claws, teeth,
[hence Jala, 'water': cf. V/3a\ in eyes), interns, mg, e.g. norap.'bs els a\a /SaAAcop,
'river flowing into the sea'; Ger. quellen,
'flow, spring,' Quelle, 'fountain.']

one of the three pervading qualities of


nature,
'

sattva, 'goodness,' rajas, 8 passion,' and tamas, darkness,' 66 ff ; 4. as specialization ofmg 2, a good qual'
.

to wit,

ity, virtue,

4>

12
,

etc.

excellence,

play on ings
in

and

4,

[for see nirguna and

gava,
cpds.

equiv.

of go, 'bull, cow, beeve,'


pasture-land

18 5 .]

[see 1209a.]
;

guna-deva,
generalized, ter-

m.
[lit.

Gunadeva, a pupil

of

gavyuti,/.
for cattle,'

Gunadhya.
god,' 1302.]

'having virtue as his


18*;
excellent,

ritory, abiding-place,
,

[lit.

'having food
is

g6 + utf see go 4: the y


258.]
;

gunavant,
3 22
.

a.

virtuous,

euphonic,
V

cf.

[1233.]
a.

ga
eral

(jigati

agat).

go; come,
:

[collat.

gunagalin,
lent,

possessing virtues, excel-

w. jfgati, cf Laconic &ifidri, 'strides'; w. agat, cf. &ri,


q.v.

form of gam,

[see galin.] gunadhya, m. Gunadhya, see 53 3 N.


'

[lit.

'

went.']

rich in virtue,' adhya.]


a.

+ abhi
weary.

go unto
1.

w.

gramam, become gunanvita,


(of

endowed with excellence ;


[anvita, Vi.]

an asterism) lucky,

gatu,

m.

motion, movement, course;


;

gunin,
V

2. progress

equiv.
cf.

to

the

Eng. -fare
'

in

wel-fare

(for mg,

verb fare,

get on,

go')
course,

see

sugatuya;
refuge,

3. (place of re-

[guna.] (jug6pa; gopsyati; gupita, gupta ; g6pitum, g6ptum; gupyate; jugupsate, keep; guard; desid. seek to keep -ti).

a. virtuous, excellent,

gup

i.e.)

abiding-place,

83 9

one's

self

from,

i.e.

shun, detest

ppl.

[Vga, 'go,' 1161.]


1. (means of moving, i.e.) a ga.tr a, n. limb of the body 2. by synecdoche, the body. [Vga, 'move,' 1185a.]
;

jugupsita, detested, inspiring aversion, 59 12 [prob. a secondary root, originating


.

denom. verb-stem gopaya see this and go-pa.] gamin, a. going, going upon, going to. guru, a. 1. heavy; and so 2. fig. (like 3 3. worthy of Eng. weighty), important; [Vgam, 1183 .] 13 a. relating to the embryo or to 4. as m. the one to be honor, 28 garbha, honored /car' f^o-^v, the teacher or Guru, pregnancy (of sacrifices), [garbha, 1208f.] loc. gurau: in the house of the 60 4 ff. garbhika, a. relating to the womb, pre23 in case of a Guru, 104 4 natal, Guru, 61 [cf. [garbha, 1222e2.]
in the
:
; ; ;
.

[151]
the comp. garlyans
*garu-i-s,
v'
:

[gopa
'
:

cf. ftapvs,
'

Lat. gravis,

parallel

Geier,

vulture,'

is

'

prop.

the

Goth, kaurus,

heavy.']
;

greedy

(bird),'

from

Gier, 'greediness.']

juguha [793f], grdhra-kuta, m. Vulture-peak, a moun[745c] tain in Magadha. aghuksat [910, 155] gudha juguhe 3 [222 ]; guhitum; -giihya). hide; gulha, grha, in V., m. ; later, m. in pi. ; otherwise,

guh

(guhati
;

15 hidden, 76 hide (trans.) away from, w. + apa, 85 u put away, get rid of, 77 1
. .

abl.,

house, 28 79 ; w. mrnmaya, house of earth, the grave grham gam, go home, 52 10 so 40 3 68 n as pi. the house as conn.
,
;

15

giih,
ach-.

/. hiding-place; instr.

guha: used
[Vguh.]

as

sisting of

various rooms and buildings,


7
.

guha

[1112e], in secret.

giiha,/. hiding-place; cavern, [do.] giihya, grdv. cclandus ; secret, hidden,


[do.]

['that which receives one,' V grah cf geha.] grha-pati, m. master of the house, [acct,
;

89 12

mansions, 87
:

1267a.]
m. one of a class of demigods,

guhyaka,
who,

grha-patni,
'[do.]

f.

mistress

of

the house,

like the

Yakshas, wait on Kubera,

god of wealth, and, dwelling in mountain grha-stha, a. abiding in a house; as m. householder or Brahman in the second caverns (guha), keep his treasures, [so named from their living in caverns or stage of his religious life, see agrama.
hidden places
V
:

1222.]
1.

grhagrama,
in a

m. house-stage, second stage


life, see

Igr

(grnati,

grmte; jagara; garisyati;


invoke, call;
' ;

Brahman's
n.

girna[957b]; -glrya).
2. salute,
'

geha,
ident.

house,

[ident. w.

a^rama. grha:
its

cf.

the

praise;
'

3.
'

speak out, say.


yypvs,

Wrdh and
;

[cf
'

gir,
'
;

speech, voice

speech,

g6

voice

' Doric yapvev, speak ; Lat. garrio, ' talk Eng. call.'] + sam, chime in with, agree.
;

[361c], m.f. of bull or cow

edh.] 1. a beef in
pi.

old sense

2gr
[957b]
'

(girati
;

jagara;
'

-girya).
j3i-/3p(a-(rK<i>,
'
;

girnd agaiit swallow. [cf. &opd,


;

beeves, kine, cattle ; the Vedic type or symbol of all welfare and blessing and riches (e.g. 80 IB ), like " " milk and 2. honey with the Hebrews
;

beef

food,'
'

folk-devouring

eat/ Sy/jio-fidp-o-s, Lat. carni-vffr-us, ' flesh'

and now usual sense oj 16 -3. (the flesh; pi. pieces of flesh, 84 milch cow of kings, i.e.) the earth, 63 7
in the

derived

eating,'

de-vordre,

swallow

down,

de-

4.

observe

that

gavyiiti, gotra,
to

gopa,

vour.']

gopati,
(the sun in

gomaya, and many

other cpds of
cattle

+ ni, swallow down; devour


an
V

go

lose their special reference

and

eclipse), 76

16

see

Vgras.
intens.
1. intens.

3gr

(nor. ajigar [867]; [1006]; caws, jagarayati).

jagarti be

take a more general mg. [cf. /3ovs, stem ' ' a beef, ox, cow Lat. 6os, stem bov, OF,
;

'ox, cow';

AS.
a.

cu,

Eng. cow.]
;

awake; wake, intrans.; jagrhi [1011], be thou watchful, have a care for, w. dat., 89 n wake up, intrans., 30 16 2. caws,
;
;

go-ghna,
slaycr.

kine-killing

as

m.

co.w-

g6tama,
gotra,
n.

m. Gotama, a Vedic seer of the


1.

wake,

trans.,

30 5
:

word, see 1020


2, cf. tyflpca,

[for the history of the for 1, cf t-yp-f)-yop-a, ' am


.

tribe of Angiras.

cow-stall, cattle-pen;

2.

awake,' e-yp-ero, 'awoke' (intrans.); for

perhaps, pen of cattle,


in general (see 5.
;

and

so

3.

group
16
;

'wake'

(trans.).]

gftsa,
V

a.

clever; wise.
;

grdh

(gfdhyati; jagardha
;

agrdhat

4. esp. family, 19 go4) 19 see naman2. family name, 103 [from go mgs 2 and 3 are not authenti, :

1. grddha; grddhva). gardhisyati 2. be eager or greedy take long strides


;

cated by the literature.] gotra-ja, a. born in the family; as m. a


relative,

for.

[for

*ghrdh
1. a.

cf.

Eng. greedy.]
2. m. vulture.

gfdhra,

greedy;

go-pa,
keeper

m.

1.

cow-keeper, cow-herd;

2.

[\/grdh, 1188a: the Ger. offers an exact

in general (see

go 4).

[2 pa.]

gopati]

[152]
m.
1.

g6-pati,
V

lord of kine;
[acct, 1267a.]

2. lord

hold on

(loc.),
;

in general (see

go 4).

by the hair

14 grhita ke^esu, seized used of a rabbit taking, i.e.


;

18

gopaya
keep,

(gopayati, -te).

be

keeper,

[gopa, 1055.]
2. cow-keeper; 16 go 4), 85 ; protec-

2. take leading with him a lion, 33*; 22 5 3. possession of, take, 46 get, 44
; ;

go -pa
tor,

1. [351], m. keeper in general (see

10 1 4. of fluids, receive, accept, 20 , 56 ; take in the ladle, 94 1 ; 5. of names, take

69 15

[2 pa.]

upon the
be keeper;
n.

lips,

13 mention, 64
i.e.

103 19

6.
;

gopaya
keep, 91
12
.

(gopayati, -te).

fig.,

as in Eng., grasp,
get, learn;

perceive,

know

gomaya,
dung,
-

[gopa, 1055.] 1. a. bovine; as


;

7.
2.

caus.

cause to learn.

cow-

[see

under garbha: connection w. Eng.


exceedingly doubtful.]

dung in general (see w. anaduha, dung of a steer, go 4) 105 3 20 [see maya.] go - y u k t a a. yoked with cattle w cakra, wagon drawn by cattle. [Vyuj.]
3.
;
.

103 22

gripe, Ger. greifen,

1. hold on both sides; and so + pari, 2. become master of master, overcome,


;

surpass.

+ prati, take hold

of,

59 23

accept.
;

go-raksaka, m. cattle-keeper, cow-herd. g6-sakhi [343a], a. having cattle as comgo-stha,


panions, rich in cattle, [sakhi, 186.] m. cow-stall, byre, [stha, 186.]
f.
-I,

+ vi,

1.

hold asunder; separate

make

a division; and so 2. quarrel; + s am, hold together, clasp.

fight.

+ upa-sam,
V

clasp with the hands.


;

gaunika,
1222e2.]

a.

standing in relation to

gras
isyate

(grasate
;

jagrase
;

agrasit; gras;

the three guna's, see

guna

3.

[guna,

grasta

gautama,
1208f.]
V

m. patronymic from Gotama; Gautama, name of various men. [g6tama,


or

grasayati). 2. of the
i.e.

1.

grasitva grasyate ; 10 swallow; devour, 10 ;


swallows,

demon Rahu, who

eclipses sun and moon, 23 *. akin w. V 2 gr, ' swallow.']


V

[perhaps

grath

granth (grathnati; granthi1.

syati; grathita; -grathya).


together, connect;
2.

string
i.e.

grah, graha,

see

grabh.
i.e.),

m. seizure (with a claw,


n.

bite.

put together,

[Vgrah.]

corn-pose (a literary work), [for mgs, cf. ' Lat. com-ponere, ' put together, compose also serere, 'connect, entwine/ w. sermo,
;

grab, an a, [Vgrah 6,

the grasping,
subst.

i.e.

acquisition.

7.] a.

grabh a,
1

grasping,

grasper.

'

discourse.']

[v

grabh.]
m.
1.
16

granth a,

m. 1. (a string of words, i.e.) verse or couplet, 53 6, etc ; 2. a corn-posi8 tion, book, work, 17 [V granth for mgs, see under grath, and for 1, cf. Lat. serere
.

grama,

village, see 98

inhabited place, hamlet, N. ; 2. the inhabitants,

community,

grama-kama,
village,

w.

series,

'row, string.']
a. subst.

a. having desire for the fond of abiding in the village.

granthfn,
V

having books, bookish,

gravan,
,

m. stone; esp. stone for pressing

book-reader,

[grantha.]
:

the Soma.
.

g r a h a a. subst grasping, grasper, in cpds. Rigveda; later, grah. [Vgrah.] grabh grbhnati, grbhnite jagrabha, jagrbh6; agrabhlt, agrabblsta grahya, grdv. to be grasped; perceivable.

grabh,

in

from

[900]; grbhita; grbhltva; -gfbhya.

[do.]

from grah: grhnati; jagrahajagrhe; griva, /. nape of the neck; neck, [for e cf. Aeolic Seppa, #5epFa, Epic #ga rva agrahit, agrahista [900]; grahisyati, -te;
:

grhlt&
1.

grahitum
;

grhitva

-gfhya

Sfipil,

'throat, neck.']

grhyate
take
;

grasp
w.

grahayati, -te. seize with the hand


;

gnsnia,
;

m. summer.

hold

hastam

or

panim, take the hand


;

g h a form of ghan,
,

i.e.

han,

in cpds.

[1143c,

5 (of the bride at the v.-edding), 89

take

333.]

[153]

[caksus

ghat a,

m. a jar.

2. slaughter; 1. slayer; g liana, m. 4. cloud. 3. a compacted mass, lump


;

three parts, 13

connected, ca occurs: with the last only (e.g. 2 44 17 2 , 31 71 8 , 72 10 , ,


,
;

83 15

106 5
5
,

[\(

ghan,

i.e.

g bar ma,
6ipfjLo-s,

cf <p6vo-s, m. warmth, heat.


:
.

ban

'

slaughter.']

parts, 2
,

/our parts, 2 21 5 25 3 ) with


; , ; ;

2
,

17

7
,

28 10

Jive
6- 7
,

the last

two (7

[\/2ghr:

cf.

22 5 37 15 45 7
,

77

12
) ;

sometimes after each,

for

#(j)opij.6s,

li&t.formus, 'warm.']
; ;

gnus
noise.

(gh6sati, -te
;

-ghusya
V

jugh6sa sound ghosayati).

ghusta
;

make

*); very rarely after the jirst of a scries 6 21 22 ); various irregulcf combinations (26 on page 67 passim ; see a/so 21 20 N.

(29

S>

2.

Ighi
see s.v.

(jigharti; ghrta; gharayati).

be-

13 21

variously combined : w. 9 16 , II 9 , 14 15 ; 5 9 , 12 5 , 14
),

eva
2 8 20
-

(e.g.

15

16
,

sprinkle;

be-drop; drip (trans.); ghrta,


cans, sprinkle over re-

25

4
;

30 u
;

and

w. api (see examples under

api)

+ praty-abhi,
peatedly.
V

wise

and
(e.g.

likeca, tatha, ca, both , 8 9 ; and, 10 ca, a, both , 85 5 ; sa ca, often at beg. of clause
'

+ vy-a, sprinkle here and there. 2ghr, glow, be warm, in a-ghrni,


ing,'

24 23
ca,

so

34

1S
;

41

);

-3. anyac

ca,

'glow-

api
erbs

kim
like

ca, tatha
drift,

ca, joining two provlike-

and gharma,
H.

tj.v.

of
;

moreover, further,
5.
16
,

ghrta,

1. butter,

clarified

and then

wise

for culinary

hardened, Anglo-Indian ghee, much used and religious (cf. (cf. 68 *)


:

4.

otiose,

69

connecting
,

things
;

contrasted: but, 8
yet, I
12
,

17

20

18

'-

:1

19 2

and
i.e.)

88 ") purposes melted state


' ;

ajya, 'butter in a 2. butter or fat in general,


cf.

3 20

6.
;

(even, concessively,
(like

though, 26
see

12

7.

Eng. and

or

an,
if

also as

dance.

symbol [Vlghr,

of fruitfulness and abun'drip,'

and Icelandic
ced
;

encla,
iv.

'moreover,'

'if')

1176a: for mg,


falls in

cf.

8.

interrogatives, rendering

Eng. dripping, 'fat which

drops

them indef., see ka, kim.


[cf. re,

from meat
of ghee.

in roasting.']

ghrta-pagu,
ghrta-gciit,
fatness.

m.

sacrificial

beast

made
i.e.)

and Ger.

'and'; Lat. que, 'and'; Goth, -h -ch in ni-h and no-ch, the exact

a.

dripping with (ghee,

equivalents of Lat. ne-que, 'and not, nor': for ca8, cf. -re and -Ka in TTO-TE and Doric
'

TTO-KU,

at

any time
1.

'

Lat. quis-nue,

'

any,

ghor&,

a.

awful; dreadful; horrid.


a.
a. having an evil eye. having an awful form,

each.']

ghor a- caksus,
ghorakrti,
[akrtij

cakra,
wheel; cakra.
fr.

n.

wheel; chariot-wheel, wagon-

2. by synecdoche,

wagon,

in

pitha-

gh6sa, m. noise. ghna, a. killing;


[\f

[Vghus.]
destroying; removing.
see
21(3. 9.]

[prob. reduplicated form, ca-kra, \/*kr or *kl, 'roll,' cf. KU\LW, 'roll': w.
cf.

ca-kra,
hwedl,
V

KV-K\OS, #KF6-/cAos,
wheel. ]

AS.

hweohl,

ghan,

i.e.

han

Eng.

ghnya, grdv. to be slain, in aghnya. [do.] V ghra (jighrati [749a]; jaghraii; ghrata;
-ghraya; ghrayate; ghrapayati [1042d]).
smell
;

caks
behold;

(caste [628];
1.

cacakse; castum;
2.

-caksya).
3.

appear;

look upon,
i.e.)

(cause to appear,

an-

snuff at.

nounce, tell, [reduplicated form of v'ka, see 675 and lOSg 1 end.]
1 a.
is

ca

end. con/, and, also, re, que


'

found,

esp. in the older literature, with both


'

5 7 97 7 11 so parts to be connected (e.g. 71 3 12 5 19 10 , 38 7 9 2 ); or only ivith 13 , 16 , 17 the latter, as is oftenest the case in the later
, ; , ,

1. look on; 2. show, tell, 63 + a, + vi, appear far and wide, shine. + sam, look upon, consider. 1. perhaps adj. beholding, caksas,

l
.

see

1296 3 end; -2.

n.

look; eye.

[Vcaks.]

1 7 3 8 8 8 82 8 84 16 98 16 ) language (e.g. 2 1 b. in case of three or more parts to be


-

caksuh-plda, f. eye-ache. cdksusmant, a. possessing eyes. cdksus, n. eye. [Vcaks. 1154.1

[1235.]

cancala]
cancala,
:

[154]
a.

fro; trembling, [v/cal, 1148.4, w. in tens, reduplication, cf. ' ' Lat. cf 1002b Kiy-Ka\-os, wag-tail
.

moving to and

or at all, 8

19
;

see esp. 1
[cf.

ka 2c,
'

also

kada, and kim.

Lat. -quam

katham, and -can'


;

'

quer-quer-us,

shaking with fever


bill.

chills.']

in quisquam, quicunque, -hun in ni hvas-hun, ' not

ancu

f.

beak,

canaka, m. chick-pea. canda, a. impetuous; wrathful. candala, m. a Chandala or man

candra, a. moon the moon-god,


;

Goth. any one any one.'] shining, shimmering; as m. the


[for c_candra, q.v.]

candramas,
of the

m. the

[orig. a descriptive

moon; the moon-god, cpd, stem candra-mas

most despised class of society (born of C, udra father and Brahman mother), [cf.
canda.]
V

(383d 6), nom. candra-mas, and so with long a throughout, but transferred to the
as-declension
(cf.

418).]

cat
off
;

(catant; catta; caus. catayati). hide caus. drive away.


;

get

candra-varna, a. of V cam, sip, only with a.


+ a (acamati
[745d];

shining hue.

catasr,

fern, to catur.

acacama; acanta
sip (water),

catur

[482d], num. four.

[w. catvaras, cf.

rerrapes, Lat. quattuor, Goth, fidvor,

AS.

[955a] ; acamya ; acamayati). i.e. rinse the mouth.

feower, ~Eng.four.~]

camasa,
square,
1197.]

m. beaker; cup,

made

catur-aksa, a. caturtha, /. -i,


fourth time,

four-eyed,
5

[see 1300b.] a. fourth; -am, adv. the

and with handle.

of wood, [Vcam, cf

[catur, 487 .] catur-yuga, n. the four ages. [1312.] catur-varga, m. group of four.

campaka,

m. Michelia Champaka, a tree with strong-smelling yellow blossom.


a.

campakavant,
paka
V

abounding

in

catur-vidha,a.

of four kinds; four-fold,

trees

as f. Champakavati,

Chamname of

catustaya,

[vidha, 1302c5.] a. of four; as n. a collection of four, a quaternion, [catur, 178 1245a.]


:

a forest.

[1233.]
-te;
;

car

(carati,

acarit, acarista

carisyati

cacara, cerus, cere; carita ; car;


;

catus-patha,
1312.]

m.

n.

place

where

four
:

ways meet, quadrivium.

[catur, 178, 187


n. s.

yati, -te).

cat us-pad,
tively,

a.

quadruped; as

collec:

the four-footed beasts,

[catur, 178

1300.]

catus-pada,
steps.

f.

-I,

a.

having (taken) four

itum; caritva; -carya; caryate cara1. move, 77 12 ; go; wander; wander about used of men, beasts, waters, 2. (like Eng. proceed heavenly bodies; cf. Lat. pro-cedere, go on ') act w. ppl. [1075b], go on, i.e. keep on (doing a thing), 96 u 3. (like Eng. go about, i.e.) under; ' ; ;

take, set about;

bhaiksam
;

car, go beg;

catvara, m. n. quadrivium. [catiir.] catvar, strong form of catur, q.v. V can (acanit). be glad in gladden, [col;

12 ging, beg; undergo (troubles), 88

per;

lateral

form of Vkan:

cf.

v'kan,

kama,
the

form (a vow, duty) observe (silence) commit (offense or injustice), 80 9 63 7 16 carita, sasyam car, feed on corn, 34
,

caru.]

see s.v.

'

[cf. vfpi-Te\-\o/LLfv<ai/ tviavriav,


Trfpi--ir\-o/^fi/uv

as

can a,

immediately following 1. not even; svapna phasized word. * 2. w. precana, not even sleep, 79
;

adv.,

em-

years go round,' and


'

eVzv-

as years went round,' with T before a palatal and ir before a non-palatal also

TUV,

ceding negation,

even

na devanam
jivati, not

ati

vratam, gatatma cana,

beyond

the decree of the gods, (not) even if hundred-lived, does one live, 88 *; hence, the
feeling for the negation in locations becoming faint,

see turning sphere also car + ud, and the younger collateral form cal, and under cancala akin is also
ird\-os,
:

Milton's

'

'

Vkal.]
-f

cana
3.

in such colall,

even, at

w. interrogatives, emphasizing their indefinite sense ; na kim cana, not any thing even

a n u move along after, follow. + a p a go off, be absent. + abhi, go against, trespass against;
,

esp

be unfaithful (of a wife).

[155]

[Vcit
n.

a,

1.

move

3 unto, approach, 86

2.

caturmasya,

a sacrifice to be

made

go to (an undertaking), set about; and so, 6 64 ", 66 u practice (virtue); perdo, 10
,
;

every four months, i.e. at the beginning of each of the three seasons, [catur +

form (vow); follow


conduct one's

(rule);
'

3.

proceed,

masa, 1211.]

acara, conduct.' 14 of the ucl-a, rise up out of (abl.), 77


self, cf.
,

candrayana,
the

n.

with or without vrata,

moon.
do; perpetrate. the sun; cans, cause to go out, evacuate, cf. uccara, evacuation.' [cf. suryam uc-carantam w. tf\iov
'

+ sam-a, proceed; + ud, go up, rise, of

observance or lunar 6 penance, 65 N. [lit. 'connected o?- according with the moon's course,' candra

Chandrayana

+ ay ana.]

carana,

m.

wanderer;

csp.

wandering
one's

player or singer,
self with.
a.
[J

[carana.]

ava-Tf'\\ovra,

'

the rising sun.']


2.

car in, a. moving; observing; busying


to, esp.

+ upa,
in order to

1.

come to; serve, and so,


3.

come

car.]
fair.

attend, wait

upon caru,

gladsome; dear; pleasant;


q.v.,

politely; + para,

proceed with, undertake. move away from, 86 3


.

[Vcan,
V

1192:
a.

cf.

Lat. cd-rus, 'dear.']


[787]; acet
;

caru-hasin,
lei
cesyati, -te
;

sweetly laughing.
;

+ vi, move

in different directions, spread

(cin6ti, cinute

cikye'
;

over; of waters, overwhelm ; wander about; caws, cause to go hither and thither in

cita

cetum citva

-citya

thought, balance, ponder. + s am, go, walk, wander.

1. arrange in order; pile up; ciyate). build ; construct, esp. the sacrificial altar
;

active, if the priest builds for others,- middle,

car a,

moving; as
1.

subst.

animal (as

dis-

tinguished from plant).

car ana,
dering.

carita,

foot; [V car : for 1, cf nayana.] 2. as n. 1. ppl. done;


.

m.

n.

[Vcar.] 2. as n. a wan-

2. sacrijicer builds for himself; gather together, collect get possession

if the

of.

sing.

+ ud, heap up, + sam, gather


late. V

collect.

together, collect; accumu-

[1176a], (like Ger.

Wandel and
a.

Enrj.

walk)

behavior; proceedings; deeds.

[Vcar.]

2ci

carita-vrata,
care a,
word

having his (marital)

duty performed. f. a going over, repetition (of a


in a school-boy's Veda-recitation) a troubling one's self about, [perhaps fr.
;

1. hate; 2. avenge, (cayati, -te). take vengeance on, punish, [cf. Arcadian airv-reita, Attic O.TTO-TLVUI, pay off,' cnrorivo'

'

/nai,

get paid to myself, take vengeance,


-iroiv-fi,

punish,'
V

'penalty.']

3ci

(ciketi; cikaya, cikyiis [~$~]; acet;

V car.]

cesyati;
n.

cetum; -citya;
2.

ciyate).

carman,

skin; pelt.

notice,

observe;

look,

investigate,

carya, grdv.io be accomplished; f. -a, (like Eng. walk) way of life; a performV

[cf. Vcit.]

busying one's self with. [V car.] carv (carvita, curna; carvitum). chew, crush with the teeth.
ing,
a.

+ nis, (search out, i.e.) ascertain; determine consider as certain or settled. + vi-nis, (look out this way and that,
;

i.e.)

19 ponder, consider, 13

carsani,
V

active,

busy;

as f. pi. busy

+ pari,
cikitii,
1178c.]

investigate thoroughly, find out.


f.

mortals, men, folk.

[Vcar, 1159b end.]


celiis
;

prob.

understanding.

[Vcit,

cal

(calati
;

cacala,

calisyati
start

calitA

calitum).

move
q.v.
:

off.

cikitvit,
V

adv. with understanding,

[ci-

[younger form of Vcar,


Lat.
cal-lis,

cf. Kf\-eu6os,

kitii, 1109.]

'path.']

cit
citta

(cetati, -te
;

ciketa, cikite;
1.

acait
notice

cal a,

a.

moving.

[Veal.]

candala,
catana,
a.

m. a Chandala.

[see

candala

cetayati, -te). consider observe


;

look

at,

2.

be intent upon,
perfect,

and 1208f.]
driving away.
[Vcat, caus.]

intend;

3.

understand, know;

ciketa, has understood,

knows

cikitvans,

cit]
wise
caus.

[156]
;

make

to

know,

instruct,

cinta-para,
[1302b.]

a.

having sad thought as

[extension of
in

V3ci: the Vcit shows an

one's chief thing, sunk in sad thought.

intrans. aspect, 'be noticeable or bright,'

ketu cf V cint.] + pr a know.


:
.

cintavisa-ghna,a.
son of sorrow.

destroying the poi-

cit,

vbl.

knowing.

[V cit, 383a.]

cintitopasthita,
[lit.

a.

citi,/pile. [VI ci.] citta, n. notice; thought;


'noticed,' Vcit, see 1176a.]

as soon as thought of.

which approached [lit. thought of


'

mind.

and

(immediately)

at

hand,'

cintita

upasthita, 1257.]
disturbing

citta-pramathin,
mind.

a.

the

cintya,

grdv. to be thought of, comprehensible. [V cint.]


a.

citti,

f.

understanding; wisdom.
1.

[Vcit.]

cir,

long, of time; -am, -at, as adverbs

citra,

2. noticeable, excellent; clear; bright; bright-colored; of sounds,


a.

[llllc, 1114c], long, for a long time. cira-mitra, n. an old friend.

clear,

i.e.

loud

3.

variegated,

10 8

clt-kara,

m. the sound cit,

i.e.

the bray-

varied ;

4. as n.

a bright-colored thing,

a picture.

[V cit, 1188.]
a.

ing of an ass. [cit, onomatopoetic.] cira, n. strip of bark or cloth; rag.


V

citra-gravas,
whose fame
is

whose praise
being
in

is

loud or

cud
-te).

(c6dati,

-te

acodit

codayati,
the

excellent.
a,

drive on; speed; excite; caus.

citra-stha,
painted.

picture

same.

citranga,
['

m. Dapple-coat,
or

name

of a deer.
'
:

having a variegated
end. pel.
1.

mottled body

+ pra, caus. drive on; cur (corayati). steal. cur a,/ theft. [Vcur.]
f. tuft of

further; inspire.

anga.]

cud a,
emphasizes, sometimes

hair left on the crown

cid,

very gently, the preceding 78W.15. j ust> 74 2 ? 794.

word

even,

of a child's head after the ceremony of tonsure.

16 2. genvery ones, 70 ; at least, 79 eralizes a pron. : y6 cid tang cid, whatsoever unto all those, 91 10 ; so far ,
;

ygM cid,

what

cuda-karman,
59 19
.

n.

ceremony of tonsure,
[v'carv: for

curna,
mg,
V fine V
cf.

m.

n.

meal, powder,
(curnayati).

pista.]

Vedic ;
w.

3. in classical Skt., very

common
cid,

curnaya
;

powder, crush

an

interr.,

rendering

it

indef.

kag

crush

smash,

a certain; na ka cid, not any; see ka, kad, kada, karhi, kva. [ace. s. n. of pron. root ka, ki (505), w. palatalization:
lllla.]
V

crt (crtati; fasten together.


a.

[curna, 1055.] cacarta ; crtta ; -cftya).

+ pra, cetana,
c6tas,
[Vcit.]

loosen, untie.

cint

(cintayati, -te ; cintayam asa ; cintayisyati ; cintita cintayitva -cint1. think, reflect, have a certain ya).
; ;

noticing; cetana, f. consciousness; mind. [Vcit.]


n.

consciousness;

mind;

heart.

2. set one's thoughts upon, thought; think upon or of, consider, turn one's at-

ced

adv.

never at beg. of sentence,


if
;

claiise,

or half-verse,

apodosis,

tention to

3. call attention to
.

make

an observation, 35 9 [younger form of Vcit: cf. 255 and 240.]

+ vi,
+
s

reflect.
,

, -na, if 9 8 negative (18 ); na ced, if not, 52 ; no ced, forms a shortened but complete clause, and if

marked by tad (37 4 ), marked (32 21 etc.), or marked by

follows, tatas (52 5 ), or not


if

it

think to one's
n.

self.

not, 27 ".

[ca

+ id,
-te

1133 5
;

see ca 7.]
;

cintana,
cint a,
-3.
f.
ft.epip.va),

a thinking upon.
1.

[Vcint.]

cest

(cestati,

cic&sta

cestita

2. esp. (like thought; anxious or sad thought; sorrow;


.

move the cestitva). bestir one's self ; be active ; act.


cestitum;
cest

limbs;

s plans, 43

[Vcint.]

f. activity

performance.

[V cest.]

[157]

[Vjan
Eng.
'

cestita,
deeds.

ppl.

performed; as

n. s.

[1176a],

water-sAec?,

the divide between two

[V cest.]
n.

valleys.']

c6dana,
[Vend.]

an impelling; order; precept.


[cuda.]

+ ud,
be cut

1.

cutout;

off, fail,

2. destroy be lacking.

pass.

cauda, n. ceremony of tonsure, caura, m. thief, [cura.] V cyu (cyavati, -te cucyuve;
;

+ vi,
;

chidra,
acyosta

cut asunder; sever. n. hole ; defect

weak

spot.

[v'chid.]

cyosyate; cyuta; cyavitum; cyavayati). 2. go off, 1. move, bestir one's self; 12 3. come to nought, 68 disappear
; ;

chucchundari,
cheda,
[\lchid.]

m. musk-rat,

m. cut; cutting off; failure, dearth

4. fall (from, all.), 51


.

9
;

5. set

agoing,

3 undertake, moliri, 74 are f-trcreva, impelled/


' '

[akin, perhaps,

and

Sopv-acroos,

lance-brandishing.']

ja, i'bl. born; born from; occasioned or produced by; only in cpds. [vjan, 333:
cf. ja,

+ pra,

cans,

move

or lead

onward.

the older form, 354.]


[450d], a.

jagat
V

movable; as

n.

all
cf.

that

moves,

men and beasts,


m.
n.

[v'gam:

383b 3

Ichad (channa; chadayati; chadayam cakre; chadita; chadayitva -chadya). cover cover over. + a cover over conceal, 25 10 + pari, envelope, cover over.
;

end.]

jaghana,
tocks,

the hinder parts, the but-

jaghanya,
or worst,

a.

hindermost

last;

lowest
that

[jaghana, 1212d -4.]


a.

+ pra, cover;
(instr.).

clothe

one's

self

with

jangama,
moves,
1148.4,
j
,

movable; as

subst.

all

equiv. to the ancient jagat.


cf.

[Vgam,

2 chad or chand (chantti; cacchanda


]
;

1002b.]
leg,
fr.

acchan [890 2 chadayati [mgs 1, 2]; chandayam asa chandayati [mg 31 1. appear, seem; 2. seem chandita).
;

a n g h a f. lower half of the knee to ankle shin. [prob.


;

from
v'

ha,

good
ace.,

to,

please;

with a thing,

son, ace., a thing,


\[

'move/ 1148.4, cf. 1002b.] 3. (please a person, j at a, f. matted hair tangled locks. n. belly; womb. instr., i.e.) offer a per- jathara, [akin are instr. Goth. ~kil\>ei, 'womb/ AS. did, Eng. [prob. ident. w.
;

gcand.]
m. pleasure; will. [V 2 chad.] m. n. (perhaps cover, i.e.) guise,
;

child.-]

chand a,
chala,
disguise

jan
-te
;

(jayate [772]; jajana, jajne[794d];


;

ajanista

janisyati, -te
see

pretence, deceit,

[perhaps

fr.

ajljanat).

; jata janayati, 761b end, and 772.


;

VI chad.]

1. transitive,

janayati and
;

active forms

chaga,
scedp,

m. goat. [for *skaga: cf. Germanic skepo-, for #skeqo-, Ger. Schaf, AS.

Eng.
f.
'

sheep.~]

generate or produce 2. intransitive, jayate and middle forms : be born be produced come into being

beget

bring forth

chaya,
ffKid,

shade

shadow
a.

image,

[cf.

be born again, 18 1
est,

be,

86 2

shadow.']

ortus est
s.v.

jajnanas,

jajne, natus children for


; ;

chaya-dvitiya,
[1302b.]
C

having one's shadow as second, accompanied by one's shadow.

jata, see
ero,
'

[cf. ye-yov-ws,

'born/ e-yev-

chid

(chinatti;
;

ciccheda;
;

acchaitsit
;

'became'; Lat. genui, 'begat'; AS. ' AS. cy/m, beget, bring forth ' AS. c//n-iny, Eng. kin, race, family
cennan,
; ' ;

chetsyati

chinnA

chettum

chittva

-chidya

down

1. cut off; chidyate). sever cut in two nibble


; ;
;

hew
2.

for Eng. king, 'the man of (noble) kin' mg, cf. kulina w. kula2: cf. also jana and jani.]

divide.

[cf.

o-x''^!

Vo-xiS,

'split';

Lat.

scindo, scidi, 'cut';

AS. sceddan,

'divide,'

+ abhi, pass, be born unto, be destined unto from birth.

janaj

[158]
V

a, caus. cause to be born for some one,

jas

w. dot.

(jasyati; jajasa jasayati). be exhausted or tired to death caus. exhaust


; ; ;

be born, arise. quench. be born; ca us. procreate. jasra, a. dying out. [Vjas.] be produced; samjata, hav- ja [352], vbl. born, at end ofcpds. ja cf. ja, later form of ja.] ing arisen. jana, m. creature; man; person; in pi. V j a g r , same as \ 3 gr, see 1020.
:

+ upa, mid. + pra, mid. + 8 am, mid.

[Vjan or

(e.g.

40 16 ), and

collectively

in

sing.

(e.g.

ata

ppl.

born

77 u ), folks; a people or race or tribe; daivya jana, heavenly race, the gods.

grown

come
;

into being,

present ; at beg. of cpds : arisen, existing, manifest produced, aroused as n. a liv;

[Vjan
'

cf.

ytvos,

Lat. genus, Eng. kin,


i.e.

ing being

birth.
n.

[Vjan, 955b.]

race.']

jata-karman,
m.
(

jana-pada,
community.

tribe-place,

district

jata-rupa,
splendid
;

a.
n.

having
gold.
a.

birth-ceremony. native beauty;

-pa,

jani

[343c], f.

woman;

wife.

[Vjan:

cf.

jata-vivasa,

having arisen

confi-

yw-fi,

Eng. quean, 'woman': for mg,


n. origin. n.
n.

cf.

jaya.]

dence, inspired with confidence. jata-vedas, m. Jatavedas, epithet

of

janitra, janitva,

[Vjan, 1185d.] wifehood. [jani.] production, creation.


[Vjan,

Agni.

[perhaps, 'having knowledge of all beings, i.e. of gods and men,' or, better,

janiman,
1168.2a.]

'having
session.']

all

beings or things as his posa.

jani,^
j

anus,
tion.

jantu,
72
V
.

same as jani. origin ; ingenium, nature 2 [Vjan, 1154 .] m. creature; man. [Vjan.]
n. n.

jata-samkalpa,
;

having a purpose or
anger
aroused,

crea-

desire arisen, feeling a passion for another.

jatamarsa,
vexed,

a.

having

[amarsa.]
a.

janman,
jap

birth; production; creature,

jatavamana,
filled

having arisen contempt,

[Vjan.]
(japati; jajapa; ajapit; japisyati
;

with self-contempt,
birth;

[avamana.]
[Vjan,

jati,

f.

position or rank.

japita, japta; japitum ; japitva, japtva). say in under-tone ; mutter.

1157 '.]

jati-matra,
and 1302c3.]
j

M.

mere rank,

[see

matra2,

jamad-agni,

Jamadagni, a Rishi, friend of Vi9vamitra, and foe of Vasish4 tha. [jamant, unclear see 1309 .]
m.
:

atu,

adv. at all, ever; na jatu, not at all. [Vjan, lllld: development of mg unclear.]
a.

jambuka,
j

m. jackal.
old, aging. [V jr.]
a.

jatersya,
jealous,

having jealousy aroused,


[cf.

ara

a.

growing

[irsya.]

jarad-asti,
1299b end.]

long-lived,

[jarant, see

janu,
knee,

n.

knee.

y6w, Lat. genu, Eng.


as subst.

whence

kneel. ~\
a.

jarad-gava,
ture,

m. Old-bull,

name
or

of a vul-

jamadagnya,

of Jamadagni

[jarant.] j*ar ad-das a, m.

old

slave

[jarant.]

[Jamadagni, 1211.] servant, jaya,^ wife. [Vjan: for mg, cf. jani.] jar a, m. paramour.

descendant of J.

jarant, ppl. aging


'

; old. [V jr : cf ytpovr-a, old man.'] a r a s , f. the growing old ; old age. [Vjr : cf "fftpas, ' old age.']
. .

jala,
V Iji

n.

net.

(jayati> -te;

jigaya, jigy6
;

ajaisit, ajesta; jayisyati, -te

[787]; jesyati, -te


;

jita;

jaritf, m. invoker; singer. jala, n. water, [see V gal.]

j6tum; jitva; -jitya). overpower; conquer; win (battles); win by conquest


[cf.
t'o,
'

'force,' &iaw, 'to force'; Lat. rir.


'
:

jala-dhara,
holder.']
j
,

m. rain-cloud,

[lit.

'water-

*gvis,
,

force

cf V jya.]
.

a 1 a 9 a y a ?. water-abode ; lake. [ac,aya.]

+ u d conquer be victorious. + para, jxzss. be conquered.


;

[159]

[Vjna
a.

+ vi,
quests)
;

mid,

be

victor;

conquer (con- jlvin,


V

living.

[Vjiv.]

subdue.

jus

(jusate, -ti; juj6sa, jujus6; ajosista;

V2ji

(jin6ti).

enliven;
[for *gvi:

quicken; hence
cf. &ios, 'life':

justa).

[716], v'jinv.

see also Vjiv.]


j ij

taste, esp. with pleasure; relish; take pleasure in or accept graciously, [cf. taste'; Lat. gits-tits, 'taste'; AS. yevo/*a.i,
'
t

nasa
fr.

out/

[' f. investigation. desid. of Vjna, 1149 4 .]

effort to find
j

ceosan,

Eng.
a.

choose.]

list a,

jitapsaras,
conquered,
[apsaras.]

a.

having

the

Apsarases
Apsarases.

acceptable. [ppl. of Vjus, w. accent altered as in dhurta.]


[356], f. sacrificial ladle for
fire,

surpassing
a.

the

juhu

pouring
cf. sriic.

the melted butter into the

jitendriya,
quered,
V

having

having the senses conthe passions subdued.


jin;

[Vhu, 1147b-.]
V

ju

(junati [728]; jujava [786

];

jutd).

[indriya.]

speed, intrans.
;

and

trans.; incite, inspire;


[cf. V2ji.]
;

jinv
vita).

(jinvati; jijinva; jinvisyati

further, assist to.

be lively, hasten; trans, quicken speed onward, [secondary root fr. V2ji,
see 716.]

Vjr

F. jarati
;

later, jiryati, -te

jajara

jivri,

a.

old.

2 [for jirvi, Vjr, 1193 .]

jirna [957b]). decay; grow frail or worn out or old. [cf jarant, old/ and ytpovr-a, 'old man'; jaraa and yrjpas,
ajarit
'
.

jihva,

f.

tongue.
n.

'old age.']

jihvagra, jimuta, in.


jlra,
a.

tip of the tongue,

[agra.]

J6gii

[352],

thunder-cloud.
[\f2ji,

[fr. intens.

a. loudly singing; praising, of Vgu, 1147b a 1002a.]


,

quick,
a.

1188:

cf.

Vjya.]

jira-danu,
dripping,
i.e.

having swift drops, swift


jijlva, jijiv6
;
;

J6sas, n. pleasure. [Vjus.] jna, vbl. knowing, at end of


333.]
V

cpds.

[Vjfia,

well watered.
-te;
; ;

Vjiv

(jivati,

ajivit

jna

(janati,

jamte
;

[730]; jajnau, jajne

jivisyati, -te

jivita

-jivya

jivayati).

jivitum jivitva live; be alive; caus.


'

ajnasit

[911],

ajnasta;

jnasyati,
;

-te

make
'

alive,
;

[see V2ji: cf. Lat. viv-ere,


cwicu,

jnatA yate

jnatum
2

jnatva
-te,

-jfiaya

jna-te

jiiapayati,
];

jnapayati,

live

'

AS.

alive/

Eng.

quick,

[1042d

jnapta).

know; have knowl;

'

alive, lively.']

+ anu,
upon.

live after,

be dependent on, live


life,

edge of a person or thing recognize become aware of learn notice, [cf 6-7^01,
; ;
;
.

Lat. co-gnovit, 'knew';

AS. cann, 'have


able/ Eng. can;
in

jiva,

a. living;

as m. the principle of
.

learned,

i.e.

know,
Eng.

am

the individual soul, 66 4


vlvus, 'alive.']

[Vjiv:

cf.

Lat.

AS.

ge-cndican,

know."]
;

+ sam-anu, wholly acquiesce


prove
i.e.
;

ap-

jivana, n. existence. [Vjiv.] jivana-hetu, m. cause of existence,


means of
subsistence.
or

give leave

dismiss.

+ abhi, recognize; know.

jiva-pati

-patni, a. f. having one's


alive,
a.

husband yet

jiva-praja,
alive,

having one's children yet

jiva-loka,
86 18 23".
,

[praja.] m. the world of the living (as distinguished from that of the Manes),
ppl. alive; as n. [1176a], life. [Vjiv.]

+ + + + +

praty-abhi, recognize. ava, look down upon despise.


;

a, attend to, notice; caus.

command.
find out.

p a r i carefully observe pra, know; esp. know


,

one's

way

or

bearings or how to go to work; prajnata, clearly to be known, well known.

+ prati
affirm.

recognize,

allow

promise

jivita,

jivitavya,
see 999.

grdv.

vivendum as
;

n. impers.,

[Vjiv.]

jivita^a,/.
one's
life,

the wish for


[aga.]

life,

hope

to save

+ vi, distinguish; understand; know; recognize; consider as; observe; find out; pass, vijnayate, in stating a dogma, is
well

known

or

recognized (by good author-

jnati]
ities)
;

[160]
caus.
;

derstand
rialize

a request
;

make any one know or un- jhalla, m. a scended from make a representation to, with or question or proposal memo;

cudgel-fighting athlete outcast Kshatriyas).

(de-

jnati,

interrogate. m. kinsman; relative.


'

[Vjan:
esp.

cf.

thio, a Prakrit form for

sthito.

Kaffi-ymriTos,

brother-born.']

jnana,

n.

knowledge; wisdom;

knowl-

dhauk
+ upa
a

edge of the higher truths of religion and

jnanin,
j

[Vjna, 1150.] philosophy. a. wise; possessing jnana ; under15 standing (what one reads), 68 [jnana.]
.

itd; dhaukayati). near.


,

(dhaukate; dudhaukS dhaukapproach; caws, bring


; ;

bring to

provide.

neya

grdv. to be
or jl

known

or considered as.
t

[jfia-]

jya

or ji

(jinati;
jita).

jijyau [785];

[495], pron. he, she, it, they both subst. and adj., I 15 , 3 8
-

that, those
;

1. correl.

ajyasit;

jyasyati;
[cf. 1

<;
and

overVlji,

power,
'

jya,

'power/
ftia. ;

14 of ya, which usually precedes [512], 3 , 9 18, 10 5, 22 5 29 15, 32 10 70 16 77 13 but sa


, , , ;

overpower.']
1

ya, 17
;

22
,

33 16, 73 9

otiose,

18 M

20 u

jya,/. superior power


cf
'
.

force. [ V jya :

j8/a,

force.']

jya,/.

bow-string,
a.
'

jyayans,

[cf. &i6s, 'bow.'] stronger or superior; older.

a pron. of the 1st or 2d Imahe, thee, who pers. : e.g. tarn tva art such a one (as aforesaid), we beseech,
2. in connection w.

being strong or superior,' thevblof Vjya, 470 2 3 .]


-

[comp. of jya,

jyut

(jytttsAi;

-jydtya).
a.

light,

[fr.

therefore we beseech thee, 76 13 cf. 82 9 ; tebhyo nas bruhi, to us, who are these (unsuccessful ones just described), tell thou, i.e. do thou tell us then, 96 13 ;
i.e.
;

Vdyut.]
j

similarly, w.
,

a verb
is

in the 1st or

principal ; first; oldest, [superl. of jya, the vbl of V jya, 470 3 see jyayans.] jyestha-prathama, a. having the old-

yestha

later

jyestha,

best

whose subject

not

expressed, 69

2d pers., n 73 2 ,
,

95 13, 99*, 100*; -3. w. other 6 pronouns: tasya etasya, of this, 95 ; tad, what (was) that yat tad that,
-

76 12

17

83

est as the

first.

57
light-making.
full

7
; '

ya

ta,

jyotis-kft,
187.]

a.

[jyotis:

ya

ta ta,

whoever, anybody, 18*; ya whoever that, 13 12 cf. 45 13 ;


;

4. attenuated in
a.

mg

(like the

Greek

6) to

jy6tismant,
[jyotis: 184b.]

of

light;

light.

simple article:

te devas, the gods, 92


15
.

a u;

jy6tis,

n.

light (of sun, dawn, etc.); as pi.


;

sa bhimas, Bhima, 1 cf. 6, 7], TO, Goth, sa,


^cet,

[w. sa, sa, tad,

so, />ata,

AS.

se, seo,

the heavenly bodies

stars.

[V jynt.]
cf.

'he, she,

it,'

Eng. that;

cf.

also Lat.

jy6tsna,/.
j

moonlight,

[jyotis:

1195.]
V

is-tud, 'that.']

ray a s,

n.

stretch; expanse.

[Vjri.]

taks
make

(taksati; tataksa, tatakse; ataka-

Vjri
V

(jrayati). perhaps, go, stride; only w. upa, stretch out to.


(jvalati,
;

used

It; tasta; -taksya).

(of

hew; work (wood); wood or other material) fashion.


; '

jval

-te

jajvala
-jvalya
;

ajvalit

[cf

taks-an and TCKT-WV,

'

carpenter

jvalisyati
kindle,

jvalita

jvalayati,
caus.

f-TfK-ov,
cf.

jvalayati, -te).

burn bright; flame;

'produced'; Lat. tignum, 'log': Vtvaks and toka.]


n.
;

make

to fiame.

taj-jivana,
V

his subsistence,

[tad.]

+ pra,

caus. kindle.

tad

(tadayati

tadayam asa;
pelt,
[cf.

tadita

-tadya). beat. + p a r i , strike

jhat-iti,

adv. with a jhat, as quick as one


[jhat, onomatopoetic
:

tata,

m.

father.

Terra,

Lat. tata,

could say " boo."

seell02a 2 mid.]

'papa': Eng. dad, though of similar make, has of course no direct connection.]

[161]

[tadvacana
3. so,

tatas,

adv.

1.

(as abl. of pron. root ta

in like

8 manner, 19

or,

simply
13
,

[1098], and synonymous w. tasmat) out of 36 13 -2. from that (place), from it,
;

conjunctive, also, likewise, 10

8
,

12

etc.;

tatha^eva, just so

15 there, 103

thence

there

itas tatas,

here and there, hither and thither, 25 n ,


2915,17.

f rom t h at (time), thereupon, 11 u 17 then, very often, e.g. II , 20 , 56 ; 13 w. yada, 37 9 ; w. ced, correl. w. yad, 92
22
; ;

_3

Middle Eng. al so, 11 7 10 tatha ca, 18 20 i.e.), likewise, also, I see ca 3 4. tatha^api, so even, even under those circumstances, nevertheless,
(cf.
,

21

t&tha-vidha,
condition,

[pron. root ta, 497, 1101.] a. of such sort, in such

52
52

5
;

tatah prabhrti, from then on, 4 7


4.

[tatha ( 1306 )
s.

32 ";
'

therefore;

5.

otiose,

47 n

+ vidha, 1302c 5.]


ta
;

tad,

1.

as nom. ace.

n. to ta, see

used
2.

11
,

II

16
;

1 8 then, w. otiose tada, 3 , 4

also in cpds

and
;

derivatives, see

497

[pron. root ta, 497, 1098.] tat-ksana, m. that moment; -am, adv. in that moment, straightway, [tad.]

as adv. there

103 18

ced
37
12
;

tad, where there, -3. then, in that case, 27", 36 5 ; 5 tad, if then, 37 ; so yadi tad,

yatra

tat-tira,

n. its

bank,

[tad.]

tad

yad, then

2 when, 71 ; sim-

tattva,

(that-ness, i.e.) essence, real condition or state of a thing, [tad.]


n.

ply continuative : tat 19 so 24 2 is V., 97


;

ko

vrtras,

who then
way,
i.e.
-

4. in this

tattva -jna,
tat-para,
ject
;

a.

knowing the essence

or

the truth or what's what.


a.

8 13 22 27 u, therefore, accordingly, 18 , 19 , 6 etc.; yad tad, since therefore, 17 ;

having that as highest obto, intent

so

yatas

tad, 37

7
.

[cf 495.]
.

given over

upon,
[tad.]

[tad.]
that.

tat-pargva, n. tat-prahrsta,
[tad.]

his side,
a.

tad-anga, n. his tad-anantara,


;

person.
a.

immediately adjoin-

pleased

with

ing that; -am, adv. [1311], immediately after that thereupon.

1. (as synonymous w. loc. of tzitra, adv. tad in all numbers and genders) in or among or on this or these or them, 13 7 , 21 8 , 38 n , 2 57 '"; in this matter, 37 8 herein, 98
; ;

tad-abhimukha,
him; -am, adv.

a.

turned

towards

[1311], towards him. tad-abhivadin, a. signifying that.

tad-ardhika,
half of that.

a.

amounting

to or lasting

-2.
II
14
,

there, often,
etc.; correl.

2 8, 5 6 ; thither, 6 6 w. yatra, 24 4 3. on
e.g.
, ;

tada,
case
;

that occasion, in that case, then, 4 1 , 14 22 , 40 1 [pron. root ta, 497, 1099.]
.

adv. at that time; then, 2 20 ; in that 7 often otiose in Epos, 3 ; so after

tatas, 3

tatra-stha,
[tad.]

a.

abiding there.
n.

26 n
presence,

4 9 yada tada, when then, tada tada, whensoyada yada


1

tat-samnidhana,

his

ever

then, 31

u
;

yadi

tada,

if

then,

tat-sapatni,/. her co-wife, tat-samipe, adv. near him.


samlpa.]

[tad.]

[pron. root ta, 497, 1103.] tad-akrti, a. having the appearance of


.

25

[tad: see

them
mand.

(i.e.

of Picachas).
his

tad-ajna,y!
a.

(the moon-god's)

com-

tat-sahacarin,
[tad.]

accompanying him.
thus, II
4
,

tadahara-vartman,
adv.
;

n.

the

way

of that

tatha,
this

1.

so,

24 16

in

food,

[tad-ahara.]
of

20 way, 99

w. yatha,

yatha

regularly
,

1B tatha: as preceding: yatha so, 21 16 7 61 6, 77"; in order that thus, 30 , 37

tad-ipsita, a. desired by those two. tadlya, a. pertaining to him, her, it,


them; such,

but

tatha
to

yatha yatha
degree

yatha, so tatha
that

as,

22 13 43 20
,

tad-upadea,
tad-bhasa,/
tad-rasa,

[tad, 497.] m. his advice.

tatha, to what degree, the more


in

tad-grha, n. his house. tad-bhaya, m. fear of it

or

them.

the more, 48 14 ; or another, 62 9

yatha tatha,
;

one way
52
16
;

2. particle
,
;

of assent, so
is so,

that language. m. the essence of it.


n.

be

it,

yes,4

2
,

8 6 48 12 94 5
,

that

tad-vacana,

his words.

11

tadvat]

[162]
adv.
in this way, so;
likewise,

tad -vat,
tad-vid,

tantu,
the

m. thread, 89 *;
i.e.

[tad: 1107.]
a. knowing that; as m. connoisseur or judge. tad-vrksa, m. that tree.

thread,

course,

metaphorically, of of a sacrifice.

[VI tan.]

tantra,

n. thread; warp of a web; Jig. fundamental doctrine division of a work.


;

tad-vrddhi,/.
V

the interest of them.

[VI tan.]

tatana, tene V tand (tandate). relax, grow weary. tata tantum tandra,/ fatigue. [Vtand, 1188c.] 1. tandrita, a. wearied, tatva ; -tatya tayate [772]). only w. a-, [tandra, 1176b.] stretch, trans, and intrans. ; extend, reach 13 2. continue, endure, 79 tannimittam, -ena, see nimitta. [tad.] spread over 3. stretch (a weft or a line); continue tanyatii, m. thunder. [v2tan.]

Itan

(tan6ti,
;

tanute

[794e]

atanit

tansyate
;

4. metaphorically, (the line of a family) of sacrifice and supplication (which are compared with a weft), perform, make,
; ' ' stretch ; Lat. tenere, hold,' [cf rdvufuu, ' ' tendere, stretch ; AS. \>enian, Ger. dehnen,
.

tap

(tapati,
;

-te

tatapa, tepe [794e]


;

atapsit

tapsyati ; tapta

taptum

tap-

'

tva; -tapya; tapyate, tapyate [7Glb^). 1. be warm 2. heat burn, intrans. ;


;

make glowing;
Vuc),

burn, trans.;
;

3. Jig. (like

'

stretch

'
:

see also tanu.]

spread over; overspread (esp. with light), beshine; stretch (a bow). + pari, stretch around; surround; envelope.

+ a,

4. pass, suffer; distress, pain suffer voluntarily, castigate one's self, do

penance,
warm.']

[cf.

Lat. tepere,

AS.

'

\>ejian,

be

+ upa,
stretch

heat;

become
pain.

sick; sicken, used


s
.

spread out, cover vitata, stretched, hung, dependent, 92". + s am, hold together, intrans.; bind to,

+ vi

out

impers., w. ace.

of the person, 101

- sam, heat
tion.

tapah-prabhava,
tapas,
n.

m. efficacy of devo-

gether
V 2
'

make continuous

samtata, (just

like Lat.

con-tinens) uninterrupted. resound. [cf. r6i>os, (tanyati). ' ' tone ; Lat. tonare, ' thunder ; AS. noun

1. heat,

fire;

2.

voluntary
asceti-

tan

suffering

(see

tap
21
),

3, 4),

self-castigation,

self-torture

(64

mortification,

'

\>unor,

thunder/

\ninrian,

whence denom. verb cism, devotion. Eng. thunder; AS. \>unres dceg, tapasvant, a.
[1233a.]

[Vtap.] full of devotion;

pious.

Eng. Thurs-day, 'day sacred to the Old Germanic god of the thunder-storm, >onar
or

Thor

'
:

see tanyatd,
2
]

'

thunder.']
a.

tapasvin, a. tapo-ja, a.
V

the

same.

[1232.]

tanu,
as

f. [344

tanu, tanu, tanvi,

thin,

tenuis, slender;
subst. f.

tanu
,

or

tanu
;

[decl. 356],

ment is tarn (tamyati,


at; tant the eye
;

asceticism-born, asceticism, [tapas.]


-te [763];

whose

ele-

own

3 18 body, 56 89 used like person, self,

person ; one's
[514] as

[955a]).

tatama; atambecome darkened, of

atman

reflexive pron.,

73 12

78 12
.

outward form

stupefied,
prob.,
'

or manifestation, 84 u out, thin/

[prop, 'stretched

become powerless, deadened, or inactive, [orig. mg, 'be dark/ see tamas: cf. tamisra,
numb,
'

VI tan:
;

cf.

raw-, 'extended,

long/ in cpds
dtinn, 'thin.']

Lat. tenuis, Eng. thin, Ger.

darkness/ Lat. tenebrae, ttemsrue, dark' Old ness/ Old High Ger. dinstar, dark
' ; '

tanu-trana,
dle,
i.e.

n.

tanu-madhya,
tanu-tyaj,
ing
life,

body-cover, 34 a. having a slender mid.

1T

High Ger. demar, 'dusk/ Ger. ddmmern, become twilight/ but not Eng. dim.']

tamas,
'

slender-waisted.
a.

abandoning the body,

risk-

n. 2. spiritual 1. darkness; 3. darkness as darkness, infatuation ; one of the three pervading qualities of all

brave.

existence, see

gunaS.
a.

[Vtam.]

tanti,
ropes

f. cord; esp. a long line to

which

tamo-nistha,
darkness.

resting or founded on

calves are tethered


;

by means
[V 1 tan.]

of short

tanti, the same.

[163]

[tiryaktva
a.

tamo-nuda,
ness,
'

a. a.

darkness-dispelling.

tadfg,
:

such,

[see 518: for declension,

tamo-bhiita,
[lit.

dark, enveloped in darkdarkness,'

see dfg.]
t

become

tamas

a elf 5 a,

a.

such,

[see 518.]

tayii, m. thief, [cf. stayii.] tar a,/, star, [form of transition to the which goes crossing the water a-declension (399) from tf, see under taram, grd of V tr, 995, cf 1250a.] tarani, a. pressing onward. [Vtr, 1159b.] stf.] taru, m. tree. [prob. a modern form of t a v a c - c h a t a f. -I, a. having 07- embrac'
'

1273c.] tar a, m. crossing, passage. [Vtr.] taram-ga, m. wave; wave as subdivision " 13 ' of a work entitled ocean," 56 , cf. 45 x.
[lit.

tap asa,

m. ascetic,
a.

[tapas.]

tamaaa,

dark; pertaining to darkness or the guna called tamas. [tamas.]

daru, q.v.]

ing so
r

many

hundreds,
a dr.

[tavant (1249a)
so

taru-kotara, n. tree-hollow. taruna, a. young; tender; -ka,


'

ata.]

n.

sprout,

tavat-krtvas,
[tavant, 1249a.]

many

times,

[cf

Tspriv,

tender, fine.']

taru-tale, under
V

the tree, see tala.


2

tavant
so
;

[457],

1. adj. so
;

great; so
far,

much;
101
9
;

tark
;

(tarkayati
;

[1041

tarkayam
think over,
of.

* many, 105

extending so
;

asa tarkayisyati tarkita ; tarkayitum

lasting

so
;

9 long, 58

correl.

w.

yavant,

tarkayitva; -tarkya).
13
16
;

1.

101

9
,

105 4
;

2.

tavat, as adv. so

much;

reflect, 13

13
;

-2. form an idea

so far

to such an extent, 95
18
;

[orig.

mg,
: .

'turn,'

and so
'

(like Lat. volvere


'

animo),

'turn over or revolve in one's


cf tarku,
'

for a while, 19 l ; yavat as so long, 15 6 , 32 , 40


:i

so long ; tavat : as long


;

when

then,

mind
'

'

spindle
'

rpeTr-co,

Lat.

torqueo,

turn

'
;

Old High Ger.


turn.']

drahsil,

turner,' Ger. drechseln,


,

7 44 15 just as tavat then, 22 yavat, 2 42 3 so long 3. at once; now, as, 19 24 20 34 6 53 17 ; -3a. w. 1st per s. pres. ind.,
;

+ p r a form a conception of. tar hi, adv. at that time; then; yadi
tarhi,
if

first,

before doing any thing else, at once,

20 18

23 8

38";
;

- 3b.

w.

imperative:

at

then.

[pron. root ta, 497, 1103c.]

23 once, 24

tala,

m. n. 1. surface; -tale, at end of 17 n 2. the cpd, eouiv. simply to on, 6 , 46


;

tatas or pagcat, first then or afterwards, 27 18 38 4 4. con, ;

tavat

surface or place under an object,


tree
;

e.g.

a
to

-tale, at
,

end of cpd, equiv. simply


;

iha samaye, tavat, in this case, one must admit, 41 10 5. emphasizing, like eva, what precedes, 30 4 25 T [pron.
cessively,
;

l under, 34

43 8

3.

sometimes otiose in
i.e.

root ta, 517.]

cpds,

e.g.

nabhas-tala, sky-surface,
for

sky.

tigma,
V

a.

sharp.

[Vtij, 216.5.]
;

talpa,
1201
*

m. couch; bed.

end

mg,

[for *star-pa, Vstr, see under str.]

tij (tejayati;

tejayam asa
;

tejita).
'

be

sharp,
'

[orig.

talpa-givan,/
[1169.2*.]

-vari, a. lying on beds.

ffrly-fta.,

*stig : cf. arifa, prick/ ' ' Lat. in-stlgdre, prick on ; prick
'

tavisa,
t

a.

taskara,

powerful. m. robber.

[Vtu, 1197b.]
this

Eng. stick, 'to pierce.'] tithi, m.f. a lunar day (of which there are
15 in a half-lunation).
1. prep,

asm at,
therefore
fore.

adv.
;

from

yad

(cause), tasmat, since

hence; tiras,
there-

through; across;

2. as

tat a,
[cf.

[pr6n. root ta, 1114a.] used in voc. s., to a father, but generally to a junior or an inferior, my dear.
m.

aside; w. kr 3 [171 , 1078*], put aside, treat disrespect' ' cf Lat. trans, fully, scold. [V tr, cross

adv.

crossways, sideways;

'

across.']

tata.]
,

tiras-kara,
[perhaps
instr.
(
'

a scolding.
condition

[V kr

+ tiras

aditna

rtV then,

11

12d

171

:i

.]

of *taditna,
time,'

and

this f r. *tadi-tna,

of that

tiryaktva,
1239.]

n.

of

beast,

and

this fr. *tadi (1245e), correl. of

[tiryak, middle stem of tiryanc, 1249a:

yadi.]

11*

tiryanc]

[164]
[409d],
1. a.

tiryanc

directed across;

horizontal;

2. as subst.

m.

n.

beast (going

1. raise up; 2. esp. tolita; -t61ya). raise up a thing so as to find its weight;

horizontally, as opposed to
;

man, who walks


:

weigh
[orig.

3.
'

3. ace. s. n. tiryak, upright urdhva) as adv. across, [tiras or tir, w. ane, 409d
tir, like tiras, is

mg, bear,

counterpoise ' i.e. hold up


; '

4.
:

equal,

in the cog'
:

nates, the
cf.

mg

bear,
'

i.e.

akin w. Vtr.]

Lat.
'

tul-i,

endured
'

endure appears Goth. \>u/-an,


' ;

til a, m.

I.

the sesame plant,


2.
its

Sesamum
is

indicum;

seed,

which

eaten,

Eng. thole, 'endure'; Ger. Ge-dul-d, 'endurance also e-rA.Tj-j', bore,' iroAu-rAd-s,
;

and furnishes good oil. tisr, fern, to tri, see 482c. tir a, n. shore or bank. [prop, 'place of
crossing or going into the water,' Vtr.]
V

'

much enduring
borne.']

'

Lat.

Idtus,

*tla-tus,

'

t u 1 a , f.
cf.

balance

Anglo-Indian
:
.

weight; equality. [Vtul: tola, about 180 grains


'

tu

(taviti [633];
;

tutava
[orig.

[786*]).
'

have
'
:

troy

cf rd\avrov,

balance, weight.']
;

power

grow tulya, a. keeping the balance with equal cf. rv-\i], to; like, 'swelling, lump,' Corcyraean [tula, 1212d4 end.] mound AS. \>uma, the big tulyakrti, a. having like appearance; rv-/j.o-s,
swell,
'

be strong,
' '

(finger),'
'

Eng. thumb;
'
;

further, tiim-ra,
'

alike,
a.

[akrti.]
in

fat,

strong

Lat.

tum-ulus,

mound,' tuvl,
1.

cpds.

mighty; much; many.


distressing

tum-or, 'swelling.'] never at beg. td., pel.

[Vtu, 1155.]

of

sentence.

w.
3.

tuvi-badha,

a.

many

(ene-

imperative, pray;
13 12 but, 8 , 26 , 34
;

2. in sooth,

78 10 ;

mies) or besetting (them) sore.

10 etc. ; on the other hand, tdvismant, a. mighty, , [tuvis.] on the one hand on the tuvis, n. in derivs. might. [Vtu, 1153.] 16 " 3 so % na tv V tus (tiisyati, -te; tut6sa; tusta; t6s; tu, other, 2 tu, 60 eva tu, but by no means, 63 10 64 3 ; katum; -tiisya; tosayati). become quiet; mam tu na tu, see kamam kirn tu, be satisfied or pleased ; cans, satisfy

20 *

tu

tu,

'

5 nevertheless, 39

equiv. to ca,

58 l
9
,

used loosely: as often as a mere expletive


;

4.

gratify.

+ sam,
tusti.y^

caus. satisfy.

[1122a], e.^.4

64 13b

tu, pron.

root

of2ndpers
[cf.

see

tvad.

tusnim,
fr.

tuc,
V

progeny,
(tudati;
.

toka.]
strike;
'
;

an

[Vtus.] adv. silently, in silence, [prob. obsolete *tusna, 'silent,' Vtus,

satisfaction.

tud

tut6da; tunna).
' '

HIM.]
V

push, [cf Lat. tundo,

TiiSfvs,
tu-tud-i,

The Hammer, Martel


strike, struck
'

tr (tarati, -te;
[794e]
;

tirati, -te; tatara, teriis

'
;

Goth.

atarit
;

tarisyati, -te

tirna

tar-

stautan, Ger. stossen,

strike.']

+
V

a, strike at, pick at.

tur

(turati, -te). press onward swiftly [subsidiary form of Vtr (242) and allied w. Vtvar.]
a. 1. swift, esp.

1. cross -tirya ; tarayati). over (a water, the sky); 2. get across or to the end get through, escape ; survive,
;
;

tum

tirtva

[cf.

rtpfjiuv,

see Vtra

and tiras

Lat. terminus, ' boundary for treatment of root: :

'

turd,

of horses; -am,
;

vowel, see 242.]

as adv. swiftly, in turaihga

2. quick,

ready, willing, 78".

[Vtur.]
9 mighty, 78
.

tur a,
1188.]

a.

strong,

[Vtu,

turamga,
turam +
khaga.]

m. ga,

horse.

see

tura

['swiftly : for

going,'

mg,
:

cf.

-fava, descend, esp. from heaven to come down, esp. of divine beings who become incarnate as men alight betake one's self to caus. take down or off. + u d come up out of the water. + abhy-ud, come out of the water unto,
earth
;
;

cross the water unto, 89*.


a.

turiya,
V

fourth,

[for *ktur-ia

catiir,

+ pra, take
-t-vi, cross

to the water; start on.


;

487 5, 1215.]

through

traverse.

tul

(tolayati; tola yam asa

tolayisyati;

tr, m.

star, see sir.

[165]
trc

[trikala
a.

d m.
,

n.

strophe of three stanzas,

[tri

+ tyaktajivita-yodhin,
ing.
\f

bravely

fight-

're, 243, 1315c.]

[1279.]
(tyajati, -te
;

trna

n.
'
;

herbs

grass, [of. (6p6va = ) rp6va, 'flowers, ' Eng. thorn ; Ger. Dorn, thorn.']
a. third,
4
:

tyaj

tatyaja,

tatyaj6

atyaksit; tyaksyati, -te;

tyakt; tyak-

trtiya,
thir-d,

[fr. tri,

through
ter-tius,

trita,

tum; tyaktva; -tyajya; tyajyate;


;

243, 487
V trd

cf.

rpi-ros,
'

Lat.

Eng.

Ger.

dri-tte,

third.']
;

tyaj1. withdraw from ; leave in the ayati). lurch ; abandon (dove, goat, tree) 2. re;

(trnatti,

trntt6

tatarda, tatrde'

nounce (passions, use of a language)


relinquish (exertion)
;
;

trnna; -tfdya). split; bore; open. + anu, bore after (waters), release, make
flow.

lay aside (a certain

form, an earthly body) set aside, i.e. risk (life), [cf. <re&onai, 'shrink back from in

Itrp
be

(tfpyati, -te [761a]; tatarpa; atrp-

at; trapsyati; trpta; -tfpya; tarpayati).


satisfied;
;

become content;
nourish,
[cf repTrw,
.

cans, sat'

awe, revere.'] + pari, leave to one's fate (a jackal); abandon; leave (one's party); relinquish
or give

isfy, please

satisfy,

up
.

(play,

food,

affairs)
i.e.)

pari-

please,' rpe'^w, 'nourish.'] + a become content or glad.


,

tyakta, (abandoned 3 from, 66

by,

separated

2trp,
'

steal,

not actually

occurring in vbl

tyaj,

vbl.

abandoning, w. tanu-.
grdv. to be abandoned.

[Vtyaj.]

forms, but rendered probable by the deriv. trpu, thief,' the cpds asu- and pagu-trp, and by the Avestan Vtrf, 'steal.'
V

tyajya,
963c.]

[Vtyaj,
n. triad,

tray a,
V

a. triple, threefold,
[tri,

57

13
;

as

trs (tfsyati; tatarsa


tarsayati).
dry, scorches
'

atrsat;
[cf.

trsita;

triplet, rpias.

489 *.]

be thirsty.
torret,
'

repa-opai,

tras
[794e

'become dry'; Lat.


;

*tors-et,

'grows
Ger.

(trasati; tatrasa, tatrasiis, tresiia atrasit ; trasisyati ; trasta). ] ;


'

dorr-et,

Eng. noun ' grows dry also Lat.


;

thirs-t ;

terra, *ters-a,

tremble fear, [cf rpew, TpeV-tre, tremble, trembled '; Lat. terreo, affright '; a-trastas
;
.

'

'the dry (land).']

and

'

&-rpe<TTos,

unterrified.']

trsa,/. thirst, [v'trs.] tfsna,/. thirst. [Vtrs, 1177a.] 1. sharpness, edge; tejas, n.
flame or ray
3.
;

trasadasyu,
2. tip of
6
;

m. Trasadasyu, a generous prince, the favorite of the gods, and descended from Purukutsa. [perhaps for

fire gleaming splendor, 1 10 (splendor, i.e.) beauty of person, 8 ff.;


i.e.)

trasad-dasyu, affrighting the evil beings,' see 1309 4 v'tras.]


v'

'

4. (like Eng. fire, 5.

energy, vigor,power;
;

tra
tatr6

(trati, trate
;

[628]; trayate [761c]

moral or magic power, 11 23 influence, 8 6 4 dignity, 95 majesty, I 2 [Vtij: obhas mgs 1 and 4.] serve that a.K/j.-f)
;
.

atrasta

trasyate
protect;

trat&

tra-

tum;

tratva). from, w. abl.


('get through

rescue; rescue

t&na,
18 7
,

adv. in that way, 47


etc.;

1T
;

so; therefore,

[collateral form of Vtr or across'), w. a caus. mg,

tena, 8 6 for the reason that , therefore, 30 , 57 , 64 9 root ta, 1112a of like deriva[pron.
.

yatas

or

yad

or

yena

'bring through or across (trouble).'] tratr, m. protector, saviour. [Vtra.]

trasa,

m. terror.
12
.

tion

and
n.

mg

is r<p.]

trasadasyava,
[tila,

[Vtras.] m. descendant of Trasa-

tail a,

sesame

oil.

1208fi end.]
[cf.

dasyu, 87

[trasadasyu, 1208c.]
[cf. rpris, rpia,

toka,

n.

creation, progeny,

Vtaks and tri

[482c], num. three,

Lat.

Vtvaks, and tiic.] t o r a n a n. arched portal arch.


, ;

tres, tria,

Eng.

three,

Ger. drei,

'

three.']

[' passage,' Vtur, subsidiary form of Vtr, 'cross, pass.'] tya [499a], pron. that; that well-known (like

tringat

[485], /. thirty,

[cf. tri.]

trikadruka,
[cf tri
.

m. pi.

perhaps designation

of certain Soma-vessels, three in number,

Lat.

ille).

and kadru.]
n.

tyakta-jivita,
risking one's
life,

a.

having

life set aside,

tri-kala,
and

the three times, present, past


[kala, masc.
:

brave.

future,

1312.]

trikalajna]

[166]
a.

trikala-jna,
and future
;

knowing

present, past,
330], m. pi.

tvad
cf.

omniscient,

pron. thou

[491], so-called stem [494] of 2d pers. see tvat. ; [w. the real root tu,
TV, Lat. tu,

tri-daga

[declined like

kama,

Doric
'

AS.

"Sii,

Eng.
[cf.

thou,

the three times ten, the thirty, a name in round numbers for the 33 deities 12 Adit(

Ger. du,
V

thou.']

tvar

(tvarate; tatvare; turna

957b],

yas, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 2 A9vins), i.e. the cf tringat.] [tri + daga, 477c gods,
: .

tvarita; tvarayati).

hasten;
[see

tvarita,
tr.]

having hastened, in haste,


[Vtvar.]
wright,

Wtur,

tridagegvara,
i.e.

m.

pi.

lords of the gods,

the four chief gods, Indra,


[Igvara.] the triple or third
:

tvara,/. haste. 1. Agni, Va- tvastr, m.


2.

6 workman, 75

runa, and Yama.

tri-diva,n.
heaven,

i.e.

highest

Twashtar, the artificer of the gods s (70 ), former of fruit of the womb, giver
of growth

[div, 1315c
a.

1312 3 .]
tri-par-

and long
12
).

life

(86

15
),

father of

tri-dhatu,
tite,

having three parts,


[acct, 1300c.]
a.

Saranyu (85

[V

tvaks, 221.]
[tva, 517.] of Twashtar.

threefold,

tvavant,
tvastr a,
[tvastr.]

a. like thee.

tri-pada,
steps.

/
n.

-I,

having (taken) three

m.

descendant

tri-ratra,
noctium.

space of three nights, tri3 4 cf. the [ratri, 1316b, 1312


-

da
V

vbl giving, in cpds.


or

[V 1 da, 333, 354.]


;

Eng.
[1312

usage in sen-night, fort-night.]


the three sciences,
i.e.

dang
bite.

tri-vidya,y.
3

Vedas.

dag (dagati [746]; dadanga dasta danstva dagisyati -dagya).


;
; ;

.]

[cf.

SaKvca,

'bite';

Goth, tahjan,

tri-vidha,
tri-vft,
a.

a.

of three sorts, threefold.


:

'

[vidha, 1302c 5

acct, 1300c.]

rend, tear.'] danga, m. gad-fly.

threefold, tri-partite. ing thrice, with three turns.']


in

['turn-

danatra,

m.

large

[Vdang.] tooth; tusk;

fang.

tri-veda,
Vedas.

cpds and derivs.


3

the three

[Vdang, 1185b.] danstrin, a. having tusks or large teeth,


[danstra.]
V

[1312

.]

tri-aavana,

a.
;

Soma-pressings

pertaining to the three -am, adv. at morning,

daks
yate).

(dakaati, -te ; dadakae; dakaiaact. suit; mid. be able or dexterous


[cf.

noon, and evening, [savana.] tris, adv. thrice, [see tri: cf. rpis, I^nt.ter, thrice *ters, Eng. thrice is a gen. form,
' '
:

or strong,

daksa and daksina.]


strong; as m.

daksa,

a.

able, dexterous,

cognate in root only.]

traividya,
[trividya.]

n.

study of the three Vedas.


a.

traivedika,
Vedas.

relating
a.

to

the

three

power; esp. spiritual power, will; daksa and kratu, will and understanding (as faculties of the manas, soul '). [V daks cf Sei6s, clever, right,' and daksina.]
ability, faculty, strength,
' '

[triveda, 1222e2.]

dakaina,
2.

a.

1.

clever,

able;

and

so

try-adhiathana,
festations.

having three mani-

(as opp. to

of the hand, hasta,

awkward, gauche), so 102 n


e.g.
; ;

right,

pani,
;

tva,
V

pron. stem qf2dpers., see tvad.

60 5

tvaks,
ident.

work, principally w. taka.

in derivs.,

and
is
sc.

3.

12 5 side, pargva, 102 pada, 60 southern (because in prayer the face

foot,

tvac, t v a j - j a r a m. thy paramour, tvat, abl. of tva, and used in


,

/. skin.

[tvad, 494.] place of tva

8 cf. uttara3), 105 southern fire, 102 3 N. 4. as f., agni, daksina, sc. go, the able, i.e. fruitful cow, milch cow; milch cow as the customary

turned eastward:

in

cpds

by

Hindus

written

tvad,

q.v.

[494.]

tvat-krte,
1130
:

for the sake of thee.

[1314f,

reward for conducting a sacrifice then, 5. in general, any reward or present for the sacrificing priest, see 106 5 so 95 2> 3 ;
; ;

tvat represents the stem tva, and

see
,

also

adv.

daksina.
'

[Vdaka:
'
;

cf.

in gen. relation.]

Lat. dexter,

clever, right

Goth.

[167]
taihsva,

[Vday
[396],

mg

3,

from daksina in right hand comes Deccan, name of the country


'
:

'

dant

m.

tooth.

[cf.

bUvra,

Lat

south of Hindustan,

lit.

'

the South.']
V

dentem, Goth. tun\>us, AS. toft, Eng. tooth, Old High Ger. zand, Ger. Zahn, 'tooth.']

daksina-pacjcima,

a.

southwesterly.

dant a,

m. tooth,
or

[dant, 399.]

daksina-purva
daksina,
south,

[525*], a. southeasterly.
;

dabh

dambh

(dabhati
;

dadabha,
; ;
;

adv.

southerly

toward

the
'

[daksina: acct, 1112e.] 2 daksinagni, m. the southern fire, 103


cf.

dadambha, debhus adabhat dabdha dabdhum). harm with guile hurt deceive.
;

dabh a,

m. deception.

102 2 N.
2

Vdam
;

[Vdabh.]
;

(damyati
;

[763]
;

danta

[955a]

daksinapara

[525

],

a.

southwesterly,

[daksina + apara.]

1. be damitva; -damya damayati). tame 2. tame conquer become mas;

daksina-pravana,
south,

a.

sloping to

the

ter
'

control.
' ;

[cf

8a/j.d(a,

Lat.
'

domdre,
see

[daksina, adv.]

tame

Eng. tame, Ger. zahm, tame.']


house.
[cf.

daksinabhimukha,a. facing southerly, dam,


[daksina (adv.) + abhimukha.]

n.

8, 'house':
[cf. S6fj.os,
is

under dama.]
(of

daksinayana,

n.

south-course

the
to

da ma,
domus,

m.
'

n.

house, home.

Lat.

sun), or the half-year

from the summer


[daksina
-f

house,

home

'
:

it

not certain
so

the winter solstice,

ayana.]

whether

dama comes from Vdam and

daksinaranya,
(a

the southern forest

means

forest in

the Deccan).
a.

[daksina +
gifts to

aranya.]

'the place where one is master, one's Gebiet,' or whether it is to be connected w. Sf/j.<a, 'build': in the latter
lit.

daksinavant,

abounding in

the priests, i.e. (from the point of view of the priests) pious, [daksina: see dak-

would mean lit., like Ger. Ban, a building,' and should be connected w. AS.
case,
it
'

timber, *tem-ra, 'building-material, a building,'

sina 5.]

dagdha,
tured
;

a.

1.

burned;

2. pained, tor-

Eng. timber, 'building-material,' Ger. Zimmer, 'building-material, a building, a


1.

3.

wretched, good-for-nothing,
[ppl. of V dah
:

room.']
a.

cursed, damned,
cf.

for

mg 2, dama,
as m.
belly,

conquering, at end ofcpds;

Vcuc.]
n.

dagdhodara,
danda,

one's

cursed

son of

Dama, i.e. Victor, name of a 3. self-control. Bhima; [Vdam:


2.

m. stick; staff (of Brahman), 59 M 97 8 ; rod as symbol of dominion mace,


;

[dagdha + udara.]

cf. 'l-7nr6-Sa/j.os,

'Horse-tamer,' etc.]

da man a,

and punishment,

'

[cf SevSpoy,
.

tree.']

a. conquering, at end of 2. as m. Damaua, i.e. Vincent, name cpds ; of a priestly sage, and of a son of Bhima.
1.

danda-bhaya, and in, a. bearing


<l

m. fear of the rod.

[Vdam:

cf.

Lat. dominus, 'master.']


f.

a staff; as m. warder,

damayanti,
name
(men),'fr.

Damayanti,
1043.5.]

i.e.

Victoria,

[danda.]

of Bhima's daughter.

['

conquering
as

datta,
mon

a. given; as m. (a son) given (by comhis parents to others for adoption)


;

Vdam,

dam-pati,
dual,
pair,

m. master of the house;

at end of proper names, esp. of Vaiqyas.

master and mistress,


[acct, 1267a.]

man and

wife;

[ppl. of

dadrh,
firmly.

a. firm;

Vlda, 955c.] dadhfk,


[Vdrh.]

ace.

s. n.,

as adv.

dambha, m. deception. V day (day ate day am


;
;

[Vdabh.] asa ; dayita).

dadhan
,

[431], n. sour
'

milk; curds,
to

[orig.,

perhaps,

milk,' f r. V 2 dha.]

d a d h i supplementary stem

dadhan.

1. part; allot; 2. take part in; symhave tender feeling for pathize with love dayita, loved, dear ; as f., -ta,
;

dadhi-karna,
cat.

['having curd-ears,
see

m. Curd-ear, name of a i.e. ears as white

wife.

[for

1,

cf.

Kpta

Saiero,

'parted,

carved the meat'; for


'heart
is

2, cf. Salerat faop,


i.e

as curds.']

divided or takes part in (?),

dadhfk,

dadrh.

sympathizes.']

daya]

[168]
sympathy
, ;

daya,/
daya1u

compassion.

[V day .] .
3
.

dagdhva
with
fire;

a.

compassionate,

[daya, 1227

1. burn -dahya; dahyate). 2. pass.: be burned; burn;

dayavant.a.

compassionate,

[daya.]

day it a,

see

Vday.

s.v.

be pained or tortured; 3. dagdha, see [for *dhagh cf Goth, dags, AS. dceg,
:
.

dara, m. cleft, hole. [VI dr.] daridra, a. wandering about; mendicant;


[fr. intens. of poor as m. poor man. 2 for mg, cf. Vldra, 'run about,' 1147b
;
:

Eng. day, Old High Ger. + a in adahana.


,

'

tak,

day.']

+ vi, injure by burning, 84 + sam, consume.


V

17
.

Eng. tramp, in its American sense of vagrant beggar.'] d a r p a m. vvildness wantonness impu'
,
.

Ida (dadati, dadati [668]; dadau, dad6; adat, ddita [884] ; dasyati, -te ; datta [955c], -tta [1087e] ; datum ; dattva
;

dence; pride.

[Vdrp.]

darbha,
ficial

m. grass-tuft; grass used at sacriesp.

diyate [770b] ; ditsati [1030] dapayati). give ; bestow grant impart

-daya

ceremonies,

Ku9a-grass,

Poa

w. ace. of thing
loc.,

and
,

dat. or gen., later also


,

cynosuroides. [Vdrbh.] darga, m. sight; the moon

coming

visible

the

when new moon


;

just be-

the day

n 23 20 21 n varam da, of person, 1 a wish; gapaih da, (give, i.e.) progrant nounce a curse saubhagyam da, (give,
; ;

or festival of

new moon.
1.

[Vdrg.]
2. (fr. caus.)

dargaka,

a.

seeing;

showing, making clear. [drg.] dargata, a. to be seen; visible.


1176e.]

wish conjugal felicity; da, (give, i.e.) 4 uttaram da, sell, w. instr. of price, 47 make answer graddham da, perform a
i.e.)
; ;

[Vdrg,

3 n punar da, give back graddha, 44 104 desid. desire or be ready to give. [cf.
, ;

dare, an a,
sight;

a. seeing; as n. the beholding, the becoming visible, 103 20 ; ap10 pearance, 4 [V drg.]
.

darga-purna-masa,
full

dual

in.

new and

Lat. da-re, 'give.'] (like Ger. nach-geben, 'yield,' and so) grant, admit; ppl. anutta [1087e], admitted.
Si'SoiyUj,

+ anu,

moon

the days and the festivals of

a, take (opp. of give), 28

n
;

6 grasp, 70 ;

new and

full

moon.
ten.

d a g a [483 4 ], num.
Eng.

[cf

Goth, taihun, Eng.

ten,

Se'/ca, Lat. decem, Ger. zehn, 'ten';


.

adaya, having taken, equiv. to with. + u p a_a, receive, appropriate. deliver over commit; entrust. -f p a r i
,

-teen in six-teen, etc.]


sc. tithi,

+ pra,
ppl. f.

give;

grant; impart (sciences);

dagama,

f. -i, a. tenth; dagaml, tenth day of a lunar half-month. 487 .]


n.

pratta [1087e], given in marriage,

[daga,

married.
V 2

daga-gata,

ten hundred

a thousand.
i.e.

[884]

da (dyati [761d3]; dad6; adat, adita dina [957a], -tta [1087e] -daya
; ;

dagagakha,
fingers,

a.

having ten branches,


:

dlyate).

cut.

[cf.

[daga + gakha

acct, 1300a.]

+ ava,
ficial

cut
;

off,

daga,

f. the threads projecting at the


;

of a weft, fringe ; lamp-wick fig. time of life. life, course of life


;

end wick of

cake that which

ppl.

Vday, daya.] esp. a part of the avatta [1087e], as


off.

sacrisubst.

is

cut

dagaha,
V

m. space of ten days,

[daga +
;

-f-sam-ava, cut in pieces and collect them ppl. samavatta, as subst. gathered
;

2 aha, 1312 4 .]

pieces.
;

das
also

(dasyati; dadasa
suffer lack,

adasat
.

dasta

da
vbl.

(dyati[761d3]; dita[954c]; -daya;


bind.
[cf. Sew,
Si'Srjyui,

Hasayati).
8eo>,

[cf V das,

dasyu

diyate).

'bind.']

'lack.']

da,

giving, in cpds.

[VI da.]

+ vi, become exhausted.

datavya, grdv.
datr,
48*.

dandus.

[Vlda.]
4
,

dasyu,
[cf.

m. demon, foe of gods and men.

m. giver; as a. [375 3 ], generous, 21

Vdas, dasa.]
(dahati, -te
;

[Vlda.]
n.

dah
sit
;

dadaha, dehe; adhak

dan a,
;

dhaksyati

dagdha

dagdhum

1150:

cf.

giving, imparting; gift. Lat. donum, 'gift.']

[Vlda,

[169]

dana-dharma,

m. the virtuous practice

etymology as sura from

asura.

[see
desid.

of alms-giving. danava, m. child of Danu, a Danava, one of a class of demons, foes of the gods
;

aditi and daitya.] didfksu, a. desirous to see.

[fr.

of Vdrg, 1178f: acct!]

Titan.
1

[Idanu, 1208c.]
18
.

didyu,

HI.

missile,

[see

Vldivordyu, and

danu, /. Danu, name of a demon, 70 2 danu, n. dripping fluid, drop, dew. danta, a. tamed, mild; subdued (as
one's passions)
1
;

1147b 2 .]

didhisu,a.
to

as subst. Danta,
v

name

of

desirous to win; as m. suitor; husband; esp. second husband, [fr. desid. of Vldha, 1178f, 1028d.]
1.

a son of Bhlma. [ppl. of daman, n. a giving, gift.


bond.
a.

dam, 955a.]
[\/lda, 1168.]

din a,

perhaps adj. clear,

2. as n. day.

in su-dina; [perhaps ppl. of Vdi or

daman, n. dambhika,
2

[V3da, 1168.]
deceitful,

di, 'shine,' w. shifted acct.]

subst.

deceiver.

dina-traya,n.

day-triad, triduum, space

[dambha.]
1

day a, day a,
cf. Scis,

a. giving.

[VI da.] m. portion, inheritance.


'portion, meal.']
a. giving.
2
],

of three days. V div: there is no verbal root div in Sanskrit:

[V2da:

cf.

noun div and

W 1 and 2

div or

diii.
'

div

dayaka

[1

daya.]

m. pi. wife. dara[264 daridrya, n. poverty, [daridra.] daru, n. wood; log or billet of wood;
[see the equiv. drii ' ' wood, beam, shaft

1. sky, heaven, e.g. 72 [361d], 7/1. la. Heaven, personified as Father, e.g. KV.vi. 51.5; Ib. duhita divas, of the
;

stick.
56pv,

Dawn, daughter of the sky or of Heaven, 75 16 -2. day, e.g. 70 8 79 13 -3. observe
;
,

and taru
' ; ' ;

cf.

that

div

is

sometimes fern, in Veda, so 92


7.

1>s
,

Spvs,

tree,
'

oak

' ;

RV. x.

125.

Goth,

'

triu,

wood, tree
'

Eng.

tree,

wood

'

(so Wyclif), a large woody plant' (usual mg), 'a wooden bar' (in whiffle-free).] da r una, a. hard; dreadful.
V

*AtF-6s,

[w. gen. div-as, cf. the genitives Ai6s, Lat. JSv-is, and AS. Tiw-cs in
:

dag

grant, offer

(dagati; dadaga, dagvans [790b]). ; esp. serve or honor a god


;

Tiwes dozg, Eng. Tues-day (Tiiv corresponds to the old Germanic Tin, no longer a god of the sky or bright day, but rather
a god of battle or fighting, the chief occupation of our early forefathers:) w. nom.
dyaiis,
cf.
cf.
'
:

with offerings dagvans, as subst. a pious servant of a god, 69 u [w. dadaga, cf. ' e-Sco/c-a is an imSfSwKa, granted, gave
.

'

pitar,

Zev

perfect indicative without thematic vowel,

Father

w. voc. dyaus Lat Ju-piter, Heaven w. duhitar divas, cf Ovyartp


Zeus, *Aj-r)vs
Trdrtp,
:

'

but both corresponding to #a-dag-am Greek forms became connected in the


;

Aids, &fj.&por' 'A.6dva,

also 87os,
1

'

heavenly

Oedipus Rex 159 cf. Lat. nom. Diovi-s,


:

'

popular mind with


V

5i'5ayu, 'give.']

das

(only
;

with abhi, abhidasati).

bear

'god of heaven,' Jdv-em, 'Jove'; sub dio, ' ' under the sky Eng. Tewes-ley, Tiw's
;

ill-will to

try to harm,
1.

[cf V das, dasyu,


.

lea,'

a place in Surrey.]
n.

das a,
evil
.the

dasa.] m.

diva,
foe; esp. supernatural foe, 2. (in opp. to arya) foe of
;

heaven; day,

in

dive-dive, day by

day.

demon;
3.
2
;

diva,

[div, 1209a.] adv. by day. [f r. the instr. div-a, w.

gods, infidel

used

like

Caffre and

Giaour;
slave, 79
cf. \Jdas,

(subdued foe, i.e.) servant, dasi,/. female slave. [V das


:

divaukas,
heaven

shifted acct, 1112e.] m. caelicola, god.


'
:

['having

dasyu.]
a.f. having the

diva + okas.] as a dwelling d ivy a, a. heavenly divine, [div.]


;

dasa-patni,
their master,

demon

for

dig
[883]

(digati
;

[acct, 1251b, 1295.]

didega ; deksyati ; dista


;

adiksat,
; ;

adista
;

ddstum -digya
; ;

diti,

of a deity without definite character, a mere pendant to aditi as


f. Diti,

name

sura to asura, and formed by popular

digyate; degayati). point direct show, [cf. Se'iKWfj.1, 'show'; Lat. dico, 'show, tell'; AS. tdh, Ger. zieh, 'pointed out (as

dig]
guilty), accused'; Ger. zeigen, also AS. tdh-te, ti&h-te, Eng. taught,

[170]
'show'; showed,

dirgha,

a.

long, in space
;
;

and

in

time;

'

-am, as adv.
draghistha.
cat.

comp. draghiyans, superl.


[v

instructed
-f

'
;

AS.

tdcn,

Eng.

token.']

dragh

cf SoAixo's,
.

'

long.']

apa, show; make a false show of. + vy-apa, make a false show of. + a point out to, give a direction
,

dirgha-karna,
to,

m. Long-ear,

name

of a

dirgha-rava,
name

m. Long-yell or Far-howl,
is

direct.

+ sam-a,
,

point

out

to,

direct;

com-

mand. + u d point out


tr.

(Their howling long-continued and far-reaching.) dirgha-var na, m. a long vowel,

of a jackal.

both

aim towards

uddicjya,
to

dirghavarnanta,
vowel as
V
final,

a.

having

long

the

with an aiming towards, equiv. 22 prep, at, 26


ace.,
.

[anta.]
;

Idiv

3 (dlvyati; dideva [240 ]; adevit


;

+ upa, show + pra,


dig,
f.

to,

teach, instruct; give ad-

devisyati
orig.,

dyutd

devitum
cf.

-divya).
2
:

vice to, advise.

dice; play.

1 [prop, diu, see 765 and

point out, designate; direct. just like Eng. point, i.e. cardinal

perhaps, 'throw,'
in

didyu.]

+a
V

adevana.
(devati
3

point, quarter of the


;

heaven

(N., E., S.,

2div

[240

dyunA

[957a]

W.) astau digas, eight regions (N., E., S., W., and NE., SB., SW., NW.), 57
.

devitum; devayati, -te). lament, l 2 diu, see 765 and .]

[prop.

[Vdic,, 'to point.'] V

+ pari, moan, bemoan


;

caus. the same.


n.

dih (degdhi
1. stroke,

didihe

digdha
;

-dihya).
;

duhkha,

a.

miserable; as

misery, pain,

2. smear touch lightly sorrow, [cf. sukha.] 3. besmear, pollute, [for *dhigh: cf. duhkhita, a. pained, [duhkha, 1176b.] ' Lat. Jingo, form, fash- ducchiina, f. calamity; harm, [dus + ZOiyov, touched ' 3 ion, esp. with the hand in soft material Quna, 'mis-fortune, ill-luck,' 168 .] Goth, daigs, moulded mass of clay or V ducchunaya (ducchunayate). seek to harm, [ducchuna, 1058.] bread-paste'; Old Eng. dag, Eng. dough.] + s am, pass, (be plastered together, be dur-, the form taken by dus before sonants.
' ' ; ; '

and so) be uncertain, doubtful. 3 di (dideti [676] didaya [786 ], didiindistinct,


;

dur-atikrama,
['

a. hard to overcome. having a hard conquest,' cf 1304b.]


.

vans).
V

shine, glance, gleam.

dur-atman,
dur-ga,
a.
;

a.

evil-minded; bad.
is

diks
ista
;

(diksate; didiksa, didikse ; adiksdiksita diksitva ; diksisyate


;

whose going
;

hard, hard to
n. diffi-

go through
cult place

or to, impassable; as

-diksya).

consecrate one's
'

self, esp.

for

danger.
;

performing the Soma-sacrifice. [perhaps desid. of V daks, make one's self suitable
or
'

ready
,

108g.]

dur-gata, a. ill-conditioned unfortunate. dur-jana, m. evil person; scoundrel. dur-danta, a. overcome with difficulty;
as m. Hard-to-tame (AUO-M'KTJTOJ),

d11i

glance, flame, actually occurring only in su-diti. [vdi, 1157. la.]


f.

name of
;

lion.

dldivi, a. shining. [Vdi, 1193.] dur-nivara,a. whose warding-off is hard hard to get rid of. din a, a. scanty; cast down, sad; wretched, dinata, f. scantiness; smallness. [dina.] dur-bala,a. of (poor, i.e.) little strength; dinar a, m. denarius, name of a certain feeble,
gold coin, [borrowed fr. Lat. denarius, a silver coin worth ten asses."]
J

durbuddhi,
foolish.

a.

of (bad,

i.e.)

small wit;
ill-favored;

dip (dipyate
; ;

didipe

dipta

-dipya

dur-bhaga,
-a, f.

a. ill-portioned,

blaze; flame; dedipti dipayati, -te). caws, kindle intens. blaze brightly fig. be
;

ugly woman,

[acct, 1304b.]

dur-bhiksa,

radiant,

[cf. Vdi.]
;

+ ud,

blaze up

caws, cause to blaze up.

a. (time) having its almsgetting hard, i.e. in which alms-getting is hard ; as n. famine, [bhiksa.]

[171]

[Vdrc
1

dur-mangala,
bad luck.

a.

of bad luck, bringing

dur-mati,/. dur-mada,a.
[acct, 1304b.]

ill-will.

badly intoxicated
a.

drunken,

form of^l da, in diivas, Wstha and ga w. their equiv. collateral forms sthu and gu.] 2 du, go to a distance, in duta and dura, [cf $fvo/j.ai, am at a distance from some,

du

subsidiary
[cf.

duvasya.

'

dur-vijneya, dur-vipaka, m.
tiny).

hard to distinguish.
evil issue (of one's des-

thing, fall short of.']

dudabha,
deceiving

a.
is

hard to deceive, hard


'
:

['whose
i.e.

for

duzdabha,

dur-vrtta, a. V dul (dolayati


swing,

of evil
;

life,

wicked.
;

dus + dabha, 199b 3 .]

dolita).

heave upwards

duta,

m. messenger

ambassador, envoy,
case-

[cf. Vtul.]
n.

diivas,
[V 1 du.j

gift

oblation

worship.
see

[V2dii, 1176a.] dura, a. far; as


-e, in

n.

the distance;
at or

forms as adverbs: -am, to a distance, far


perhaps same as dtivas, but
(duvasyati).
or

d vivas,
74 10
V
x.

n.

away

the distance, afar

from

a distance; -at, from afar.

duvasya
gift;

reward with a

duri-kr
send
off.

(durikaroti).

[v2du, 1188.] put far away;

honor

worship (a god) with an

[dura, 1094.]
millet-grass,

offering,

[diivas.]

durva,_/.
V

perhaps bring or entice hither by 10 N. worship, but see 74


a.
V

dulabha,

dus

(diisyati; adosit; dusta; dusayati


2

Panicum Dactylon. same as dudabha, Whitney 54. Idr (drnati dadara, dadre adarsit dirna; -dirya; diryate; dardarti [1002b]
; ;

[1042a

]).

spoil,

[see dus.]

darayati, darayati).
intrans.
;

burst,
intens.:
'

trans,

and
tear,

a. whose performance is hard, hard to be performed, [dus.] dus-krta, n. evil deed sin. [dus.]

dus-kara,

cans,
.

and

split;
'
;

w. gen.

[cf Sepca, Sfipw,

flay

AS.

teran,

Eng.
V

tear,

Ger. zerren,
;

'

tear, rend,']
;

dust a,
dus,

a.

spoiled;

bad, morally;

cross,

2dr

(driyate
'

adrta
'

drta
[cf.

-drtya).

[ppl. of V dus.]

used only w. a, see 773.


;

inseparable prefix, characterizing a thing


;

as evil, bad, hard forming w. action-nouns cpds w. the same mg as if compounded w. a


future pass, ppl.,
e.g.

Si\\o>, glance at upon, attend to, esp. the earth, i.e. till (the soil),' Eng. till; Ger. zielen, 'aim at'; AS.
'

V5eA in SfvAS. tilian, be intent


'

doing hard,
\

i.e.

difficult to

dus-kara, having its be done.' [cf.


its

'

eorlS-tilia,

earth-tiller.']
at,
i.e.]

a, (look
i.e.

regard; pass, be re-

dus: also

Svs-,

'mis-', see 225 2 .]

garded,

dus-tara,
V

a.

having

crossing hard,

drdha,

respected. see Vdrh and 224a.

hard to cross.

(d6gdhi, dugdhe dud6ha, dudub.6; adhuksat, -ata [918] dhoksyate dug;

duh

dha
1.

d6gdhum
milk;
5.

dugdhva;

drti, m. bag of leather; bellows, [v'ldr: for mg, cf Sfp/j.a, skin bag or bottle.'] V drp (drpyati; adrpat; darpisyati, drapbe crazed, drpta darpayati). dohayati). syati
'
.

then, generalized

2. get the 4. give


V

wild, proud, insolent, or arrogant.

goodoutof a thing;
milk
;

3. extract;

drbh
tufts.

(drbhati

drbdhd).

make

into

in

general, give or yield


;

any
V

16 good thing, 80

cans., like simple, milk,


2,

drg (dadirga, dadrge;


draksyati, -te
;

extract.

[for

mg

cf.

a^f\yeaQal nva,

adraksit, adrsta; drsta ; drastum drstva


;

'milk a person dry.'] + nis milk out of; extract from.


,

duh, rbl. duhitf


tar,

yielding, in
3

kama-duh.

[v'duh.]

[373

],

f.

daughter,
cf. Ouydrrip,

[derivation

-dfgya; drgyate; didrksate; dargayati). see behold pass, be seen be or become caus. cause (a person, visible; appear; 6 3 35 7 ace., 33 ) to see (a thing, ace., 33
; ; ; ,

uncertain, 1182d:

Goth, dauh'

36 7 );

show

(w. gen.
4
).

Eng. daughter, Ger. Tochter,

daugh-

show

one's self,

63 2 ); w. atmanam, appear, pretend to be (e.g.


[present forms supplied

ter.']

frightened, 41

[172]

by
'

\f

1
'
:

pa,
.

q.v.

w. dadarga, cf
'

so used of a lion {32


21

15
)

or even of a jackal
fr.

saw

cf Goth, ga-tarh-jan,

make a show

(36

);

queen,
cf.

[perhaps

the

noun
al-

of.']

div (1209i):

Lat. deus, 'god': the

pass, appear over against one or before one's eyes.

+ prati,
,

leged root div, 'shine,' has no existence.] deva-kama, a. having love for the gods,
or
both

v i pass, be seen far and wide. [acct, 1293 *, 1295.] + s am, behold; caws, show; w. atmanam, devata, f. godhead
-f

divinity,
;

as

show

one's self, appear, pretend to be


3

(e.g.

abstract

and as

concrete

devata,

instr.,

dead).

df

[218

drk,

dram, drgbhyam],

1. vbl.
;

with divinity (collective), 73 [1237.]

i.e.

among

deities,

2. as f. the seeing seeing, looking ; as inf. [970a], for beholding ; 3. in drgfi,

drga,

[Vdr.] cpds [518], look, appearance. m. the seeing; in cpds [518], look,
appearance,
[do.]
drc_aye, as inf. [970f],

devat va, n. divinity, abstract only. [1239.] deva-duta,m. messenger of the gods. deva-daivatya, a. having the gods as
divinity,

(of

hymns) addressed

to

the

gods.

drgi.y. the seeing;


for beholding,

deva-pati,

[do.]
to

deva-pana,
drinking,

m. lord of the gods, i.e. Indra. a. serving the gods for


'

dfgya,

grdv.

be seen; worthy to be
[Vdrg, 963d.]
esp.

seen, splendid. d r s a d , f. stone

god-drenching, trankend': acct, 1271, 1251c.]


[lit.

i.e.

gott-

nether mill-stone,

deva-yana,

n.

path of the gods, on which

drsad-upala,
upper

dual f. the nether and the


[1253a, 1258.]
q.v.

mill-stone.
ppl.

the intercourse between gods and takes place, [acct, 1271, 1251c.]

men

drsta,

o/Vdrg,
a.

devara,
1209a.]

m.

husband's

brother,

[devf,
Indra.

drsta-purva,

seen previously, [equiv.


1291.]

to purvam drsta, see df sti, /. 1. seeing;


3. glance,
'

deva -raj a,

m. king of the gods,

i.e.

8e'p|is,

look; sense of sight.']

sense of sight; 4. view. [Vdrg: cf.


2.

[rajan, 1315a.]

deva-linga,
a man.

n.

god-characteristic,

mark
from

by which a god may be


758]
; ;

distinguished

Vdrh
-te

(dfnhati, -te

[mg
;

1, cf.

dfhyati,

[mg2,

see 767]

adrnhit

drnhayati).
or

1. act.
;

make
;

enduring

establish

[224a] ; firm or steady mid. be firm


;

drdha

deva-garman,
joy,

m.

name

of a certain

Deva9arman Brahman,

or God's-

[of like

mg is

f6-xapis.~\

drdha
caus.

make

[1176a], firm; -2. be firm; -3. stable, [cf Old Lat. forc-tis,
.

deva-samnidhi,
deva-huti,
[acct, 1274.]
f.

m. presence of the gods. invocation of the gods,

~La.t.fortis, 'strong.']

drib. a, same as drdha, Vdrh, Whitney 54.

devi,

see

deva.
of a

deya

grdv. to be given or granted.


1. a.

[V da,
18
,

963a.]

devi-krta, a. made by Durga. devi-kotta, m. Goddess-fort, name


town.

deva,/.
92 T ;

devi,

14> heavenly, 74

16>

as subst. 2. god, goddess; 2a. pi. the gods (in later times reckoned as 33, cf. tridaca 2b. vfgve devas, all the gods
)

devi-vinirmita,
[v'lma.]

a. laid

out by Durga.

devf
Sa-np,

also all-gods (a

term comprehending into


cf.

[369 Lat.
TO.

],

m. husband's brother,
'

[cf.
18
;

levir,

husband's brother.']
i.e.)

a class

all

the separate gods,


;

All-saints,

dea,

1.

(point,

place,
;

41

and
at

see

vigvadeva)

2c. devi,

The Godas god,

2. country,

24 5

see

98 16

N.

3.

place,

dess,

i.e.

(Diva's wife,

Durga
3. m.

2d. -deva,

end of Brahman-names, having

pregnantly, as in Eng., i.e. proper place, 22 5 ; 4. as in Eng., place or region of

so, e.g.,

gunadeva

god among men,


similarly,

i.e.

manusya-deva, x Brahman, see 95

the body, see muska-, skandha-.


'

point.']

-4. m.

12 4 7 king, 19 , 50 , 51*- -";

dialect of the country.

[173]

[drugdha

destr,

m. pointer, guide, instructor; /. 9 ddstri, Instructress, as a deity, 90 [Vdi, 1182: cf. +SfiKTrip in SeiKr-fipios, 'pertain.

dautya, n. message, [duta, 1211.] dyava-prthivi, dual f. heaven and


earth,
2 [div + prthivi, 1255 and a .]

one who shows.'] deha, m.n. body; mentioned w. manas and 9 vac, 65 [v'dih, 'stroke lightly so as to
ing to
.

dyu,
V

same as div, 361d.


(dy6tate
; ;

dyut
lighten
cf.

didyut6
;

adyutat

dyotisyati
;

dyutta

mould

or

form/ and

'

so,

prob.

the figure,
'

shine,

gleam; -dyiitya). [akin w. noun div, q.v.

form, shape,' like the Lat. figura, shape, form,' from the cognate ^Jig, Jingo : see
v/dih.]

also V jyut.]
lighten,
/.

+ vi, dyuti,

sheen,
a.

19 7

lustre;

dignity.

dehin,

a.

connected with the body, 65 n

[Vdyut.]

daitya,

as m. a living being, man. [deha, 1230.] m. descendant of Diti, q.v. ; a

dyumant,
[fyd.]

heavenly, bright, splendid.

Daitya or demon, [diti, 1211.] dyuta, n. gambling. [VI div, 1176a.] d a i t y a - danava-mardana, m. Daitya-and- dy6, sa/e as div, 361d. Danava-crusher, epithet of Indra. dravina, n. movable property (as opp. to house and field), wealth. [Vdru, 1177b.] daiva, a. of the gods, 57 21 coming from
;

the gods

divine

as
,

n.

divine appoint-

dravya,

n.

1.
;

property;
3.
esp.

2. in general,

[deva, 1208f.] daivata, a. pertaining to a divinity; as n. 1. a divinity or, collectively, the divinifate,
ties, esp.

ment,

i.e.

18 1Z

etc.

thing, object

worthy object.
seen.

[Vdru: see dravina.]


[Vdrg.] adrasit; intens.
;

that or those celebrated in


idol,

drastavya, grdv. to be any V Idra (drati; dadraii

Vedic hymn; -2.


1208e.]

62 18

[devata,

daivatya,
1211.]

end of cpds, having as 63 5 divinity, addressed to [devata,


at
,
.

2 run intens. [1002c, 1024 ] daridrati). run about, run hither and thither, [cf. run see Vdru.] Si-Spd-ffK<a, + a p a , run off. [cf cwro-Spaj/at, run
'

'

'

off.']

daivika,
1222e.]

a.

of the gods; divine, of the gods; divine,

[deva, [deva,

V 2

dra
'

(drati

dray ate
'

dadraii

adrasit

drasyati; drana).
a.
'

sleep,
sleep.']

[cf.

tSpaBov,

daivya,
1211.]

slept

Lat. dormlre,

+ ni, go
V

to sleep; sleep.
only in derivs. drag,
;

dola, m.

a swinging; f. dola, a dooly (Anglo-Indian term), a little bamboo chair slung on four men's shoulders, [V dul.]
(dolayate).
[dola.]

dragh,
out
(cf.
;

draw; draw

lengthen, [poss. for #dhragh Vdhraj), and akin w. Eng. drag: but
a. longer,

extend

dolaya
waver,

swing like a dooly

see dirgha.]

draghiyans,
having a wavering
V
[V

as comp.

to

dirgha.

dolayamana- mati, a.
mind.
1

dragh, 467.]
;
;

[V

dolaya.]
1.
;

dosa,
II
8
,

m.
5

fault,

defect;

bad conincur a

dition, 55

2. sin, transgression, fault,

dosam avap, 4 3. harm; transgression, 68 dosena, dosat, by or sequence


,

18 n

65 21

evil con-

dudrava, dudruv6 (dravati, -te adudruvat [868] drosyati druta dr<5tum drutva -driitya). hasten; run run away, flee, 94 7 [ident. w. Vdram, cf eSpd/ie and run,' and w. V 1 dra, q.v.
; ;

dru

'

as a bad
.

fSpd, 'ran.']

consequence
[Vdus.]

of,

21 2 by, faute de, 23 , 35

ati, run past or by


,

escape.
attack, charge,

+ a run
m. evening, dark
;

unto,

make an

dosa,
dark.

f. dosa, evening,

94 5,6.

+ u p a run
,

unto.

dosa-vastr,

m. illuminer of the
[cf.

darkin

+ sam-upa, run
drii, m.n. wood,

unto, rush

at,

12
.

ness; or, as adj. the dark.

375 3 ], lighting up

[see daru.]

drugdha,

see V

druh.

druta]
druta,
2

[174]
dvi-jati,
a.

ppl. having hastened [952 ]; -am, as adv. hastily, rapidly; quickly; imme-

ana* as m.

man

man
59 19
.

of one

of the

same as dvijanthree upper

diately.

[Vdru.]
tree,
(

castes,
Spvfj.6s,
.

drum a, m.
V

[drti: cf.

[dvija + uttama.] dvita, a. second, [dvi.] [drama, 1058, 1059b.] druh (dnihyati ; dudr6ha ; adruhat dvita, adv. just so so also; equally. 4 dhroksyati drugdha dr6gdhum -druh- dvitiya, a. second, [dvita, 487 1215d.] hurt (by deceit, wile, magic); strive dvidha, adv. in two parts,in twain. [1104.] ya). to harm ; ppl. drugdha : as m. one who dvi-pad [391], a. having two feet; as m.
born,
i.e.
;
;

d r u m a y a drumayate)

'a wood.'] pass for a tree.

dvijottama,

m. the highest of the twice-

a Brahman,

has striven to harm, hurtful foe


misdeed,
[if

as

n.

for *dhrugh, cf. Old High ' Ger. triukan, Ger. be-trugen, deceive so as

the two-footed one, man, 16 2 as n. sing. that which is two-footed, collectively, men,
;

90 1

3
,

92 3

[cf.

SiTroSa,

Lat. bipedem, 'bi-

to harm.']

ped.']

abhi,

offend against.
[cf. Svo,

dvi-pada,
Lat. duo,
steps.

f.

-i,

a.

having (taken) two


in f.
.

dvd

[482b], num. two.


two.~\

Eng.
is

dvi-pravrajin,
n.

f. -ni, a.

going

dvamdva,
1252 *.]

pair; quarrel,

the repeated
a.

nom.

s.

n.

[dvam-dvam of dva cf
:
.

after two (men), unchaste, 98 14


V

dvaya,

twofold;

of two sorts; as
cf 8oi6s,
.

n.

(dvesti, dviste; didv^sa; adviksat, -ata; dvista hate; show dvestum). ' be hostile, hatred [cf o-Sva-avro, be; ;
.

dvis

couple, pair,

[dva
:

'

dvadaga
ilaca.
'

[483*], cardinal,

double.'] twelve, [dva

came wroth,' w. dvis, vbl. hating,


dvis,
adv. twice,
'

prothetic
in

o.]

cpds; asf. hate; as m.


[Vdvis.]
[see dvi,
'
:

476 3

cf. SudtSeica.,

Lat. duodecim,

concrete, hater, foe.

twelve.']

dva:

cf.

Si's,

dvadaga,

twelfth, dvadagi (sc. tithi), twelfth day of a lunar 7 half month, 59 9 [dvadaga, 487 .]
/.
-i,

ordinal,

Lat.

bis, *dvis,

twice

the radically cog-

dvipa,

nate Eng. twice is a gen. form.] m. island.


n.

dvadaga-ratra,
nights,

n.

space

of

twelve
-

dvipi-carman,
dvipin,
spots
V
;

tiger-skin,

[dvipin.]

3 [dvadaga + ratri, 1315b, 1312

*.]

a.

having islands
;

or island-like

dvadaga-sahasra,
thousand. thousand,
[481.]

cardinal, n.

twelve

as m. leopard

tiger,

[dvipa.]

dvr,

cover, close, in derivs.

dvadagasahasra,. consisting of twelve dvedha,


dvar
ure,'

[see dvar.] adv. in two, in two kinds, [for


fr.
2 dvaya, 1104 .]

[dvadaga-sahasra, 1204c.] [perhaps 'the clos[388c], /. door, ' cf 6vpa, f r. V dvr, close,' for #dhvr
:
.

*dvayadha,

dvesa, dvesas,

m. hatred.
n.

[Vdvis.]
;

hatred

concrete,

hater,

foe.

'door'; lot. for is, nom.


door.~\

s.,

'door'; Eng.

[Vdvis.]

dvar a, n. door, d vara-paksa,


dvi, form o/dva
tion.

[dvar, q.v. 399.] m. side of the door.


.

dha,
derivaV

vbl.

bestowing, granting,

in

vasu-dha

[Vldha,333.]

in composition

and

dhan

(dadhanti).
n.

set in motion,

[cf

[475
a.

.]

V dhanv.]

dvi-ja,

twice-born;

as m.

member

of

dhana,

1.

one of the three upper castes, re-born by virtue of investiture (see Vni + upa), 60 2 68 2, 59 *, 62 7 in a narrower sense, a Brah,

not only the reward but also the booty

the prize of the contest; put up for the victor.

taken from the foe

man, 21

", 43*, 55
a.

64 16

Vedic; so w. Vji, win booty by conquest, 81 2 then, 2. in general, wealth, riches,


;

dvi-janman,

having double birth as m. same as dvija ; man of one of the three l upper castes, 59 [acct, 1300c.]
;
.

property, money.
'

[V

dha,

'

'

put

cf fo^o,
.

thing put up as a prize,' and for the also Ger. Ein-satz, 'stakes.']

mg

[175]

[V 1

dha

dhanu,

m. bow.

[fr.

dhanus, a transfer

mana, according
of
things,
in
.

to the established order

to the u-declension.j

way

that accords with

dhanus-kanda,
[dhanus
:

n.

bow and

arrow,

8 nature, 84

[Vdhr, 1168. Ic: see under


n.

see 1253b.]

dharma.]

dhanus, dhanya,
\f

n.

a.

[Vdhan, 1154.] wealthy; fortunate, [dhana.]


;

bow.

dharma-mula,
of the law.

the root or foundation

dhanv
vit).

set

(dhanvati; dadhanve adhanin motion run. [secondary


;

dharma-vid
usage, 61
10
.

[391], a. knowing the law or one's duty, 1 15 acquainted with good


;

form of v'dhan.]

dhanvan, dhanvin,
man,
V

n.

bow.
subst.

a.

[Vdhan, 1169. la.] having a bow, bow-

dharma-gastra,
nonical

n.

authoritative or ca-

compend
a.
;

of

dharma, 58 18

law-

[dhanvan, 1230b.]
;
;

book; law-shaster.
having virtue
or right

dh amor dhma(dhamati [750] ;dadhmau; dharmatman,


dhamisyati dhamita, dhmata; -dhmaya). blow, breathe out; blow

adhmaslt

as one's nature
v'

just,

dhav
and

(dhavate).
a.

[atman.] run. [see under Vdhu,


[V 2

(pipe, shell, bag-pipe, bellows),

[see 108g

cf. dew, \10eF, 'run.']

and 750.] + a blow up


,

dhavala,
;

dazzlingly white.

dhav,

adhmata,

fig.

puffed up.

'rinse,' 1189, 1188.]


\/

dhara,

a.

holding;
[Vdhr.] m. 1.

bearing;

keeping;
usage,

Idha
dadhe;

(dadhati,

dhatt6 [668];

dadhaii,

wearing.

adhat, adhita [884];

dhasyati,

d harm a, 99 u
;
,

18 custom, 98
;

-te; r. -dhita, later hita[954cl;

dhatum;

6 right; duty, 28
;

7 virtue, 21 ,

10,
,

dhitva

15 17 29 1

(virtue,

i.e.)

5 good works, 29

63 n

correct

course

of

conduct,

II

3
;

-dhaya dfdhisati, dhiyate dhitsati; dhapayati 1042dl). -1. put, 86 10 set; lay, 39 u -2. put
; ;
;
'

u dharme, in a question of right, 21 la. dharmena, adv. : as was right, 14 17


5
;
'

in a place, bring to, u\ tatra, 85

19
;

w.

loc.,

89 s

95 5

w.
;

dat.,83

2. law; prescription, dutifully, 16 5 16 19 rule; the law (as a system), 28 , 58 ; -3. personified, Virtue, 67 n , 48*.

rect towards

-3. put upon, didharme dha manas, set the


1
; ;

heart on virtue, 66 7 4. put something for a person (dat.), i.e. bestow upon him,
1 RV.x. 125.2; 5. put in grant him, 84 a position, i.e. appoint, constitute, w. double 12 6. make, cause, produce ace., 88
,
;

[a post-Vedic word, taking the place of

V. dharman: dharma is fr. v'dhr (1166b), perhaps in mg 6, and thus designating ancient custom or right as 'that which holds its own, which persists or endures
'
;

7.

6 hold, keep, 86

'

9
;

8. mid. take to
;

one's self, receive, obtain, win

but

may come fr. Vdhr in mg 1, so that dharma is 'that which is established or


it

bham
92
12
;

esp. gardha, conceive fruit in the womb, 19 7 maintain 9. mid. assume,


; ;

settled'; in the latter


'

case, cf., for


'

the

10. hita, see

s.v.

11. desid. act. desire

mg, 0(/j.is, that which is established as custom or law,' w. riOrifu, set, establish/ and Ger. Ge-setz, law,' w. setzen, set.']
' '

to grant; mid. desire to win.

a. knowing the law or one's duty or what is right. dharma-j naiia, n. knowledge of the

dharma-j iia,

[The original meaning of the root is 'put'; but, from the proethnic period, a secondary development in the line ('set,'
'

establish,'

and

so) 'make,'

'

do,' is clear.

The secondary mg has even won


.

the

more
'

law.

dharmatas,
usage,

adv. in a
i.e.

way which
16
.

starts

from dharma,
59 19
.]
;

in accordance with
rights, 61

by

good [dharma,

prominent place in Germanic and Slavic. For the primary mg, cf rieri/j.i, put (the parallelism of its mgs is remarkable
dfo-av KiOov,
v!6v,
'
' ;

'

1098c

OfaOai they set a stone 'conceive a son,' etc., etc.) Lat. ab;

dharman,

n.

fast decree

(e.g.

established ordinance; steadof a god), 80 10 ; dhar-

'put off or away,' and con-de-re, 'put ' together, construct, establish ; Eng. do,
de-re,

Vidha]
'put,' in the contract

[176]
forms
doff, don,

dup ;

+ pra

set forward,

[cf

pradhana, praout,

Ger. weg-thun, ' do away or put away.' For the secondary mg, cf 9tivai TWO. &a.

dhana.] + vi,

1.

'make one a king'; AS. don hine Lat. flo, to cyninge, make him a king ' am made Eng. do, deed ; Ger. thun,
trjAe'o,
' ' ;

- 2.

part,

mete

distribute;

spread abroad, RV. x. 125. 3 ;

- 3. (like

'

Lat. dis-pdnere) arrange, determine; pre7 4 4. lay scribe, 59 ; vihita, ordained, 14 ;


out,

'

do '

Slavic
' '

'

de-/o,
is

deed

'
:

observe that
'

ff-eri,
i-re

become,'

(V/a),

go/

to f&-c-ere, is to ja-c-ere,

make,' as
'

complish,

5. acmake, build; prepare, 54 18 56 12 make, do (in a great


;
;

make

to

variety of applications)

vadham

go, throw.']

do slaughter,
or

slay, 32

u
;
;

vidha,

pujam vidha, do

+ antar, 1. put into the interior of a thing and so 2. hide, conceal. + a pi, put close upon; cover (a jar with
;

show honor, 28 13
;

pravrttim vidha,

its lid);

apihita, closed up.

[cf. ewiriOrifu,

make an advance into, w. loc., expose one's self to, 20 12 upayam vidha, employ an 2 kim vidheyam, what's to expedient, 39
;

'put upon.']
-f abhi, put on; put a name upon, desig10 20 nate; address; speak to, 43 say, 42
;
;

be done, 31 6 tatha vidhiyatam, so let 4 it be done, II tan maya viyatha I must take such a course, that dheyam,
; ; , ,

abhihitam,

(it

13 was) said, 38

37 6
(trans.)

cf.

38 22
see

4-ava, put down

in; esp.

duck

+ grad,

grad.
in,

into the water; avahita, fallen into the water ; cans, cause to be laid in.

-t-sam, put together, unite; embroil


w.loc., 73 ".
V

+a

1.
,

77 \ 79 12

put or lay or set in or on, w. loc., 88 15 90 5, 102 ; -2. put on


,

2dha(dhayati[761d2]; dadhaii adhat ;


;

dhasyati

dhita

dhatum
1
.

15 3. mid. set for (wood on the fire), 82 one's self on (the hearth a sacred fire), 95 12 _ 4. mid. put on one's self, take on,
;
;

tva). suck; drink, 63 ' ' also 0-fiffaTo, sucked


'
' ;

-dhiya dhi[cf. dadhi, dhenu: milkya\a-0rji'6s,


;
; '

sucking
1

0ri-\-ti,

breast

'
;

Lat. fe-lare,

74 6

_5.

take,

i.e.

take away, 87 10

-t-vy-a, pass, be separated; be fortable or sick.

uncom-

'suck'; Goth, dadd-jan, 'give suck.'] dha, in cpds. as vbl. bestowing, granting
;

as subst.

place.

[V 1 dha,

'

place,

put upon ; w. manas, concengrant.'] trate the mind upon one thing samahita, 2 dha, in cpds. as
, ;

+ sam-a

subst.

drink.

[V2dha,

intent, eager, 1

13
.

'drink.']
set together
fire),

-fupa-sam-a,
.

(an already burning 100 16, 105 10


,

(wood) unto put (fuel) on,

dhatu,
whole.

m. layer, as part of a composite


[V 1 dha,
'

put, lay.']

+ u p a put on (esp. a brick or stone on the sacred fire-altar or enclosure),


96"
ff.

clhatf, m. establisher; creator; Dhatar, as name of a deity, 90 9 N. [VI dha.]

dhana,
1150.]

a.

holding, containing,
i.e.

[v/ldha,

+ ni,
fire),
(loc.),

8 lay down, 87 ; set down (sacred 85 6 w. kriyam, put labor upon take pains with, 19 u ; nihita, put
;
.

dhana, f. pi. dhanya, a. dharana,


a.

corns,

grain.

cereal

(adj.);

as

n.

cereal

(noun), grain,

[dhana.]
holding; as
n.

19 down, lying low, 70

a holding,

together; put be near together samniMta, near, impending, 25 15 + pari, put around; esp. put (part of a sacrificial fence) around (an altar), 105 13 put around one's self, put on, (garments) 103 19 (shoes) 45 u clothe. lay

+ sam-ni,
;

down

to-

gether

pass,

keeping wearing, 14 ordinance rule, 62 ".


; ;

u
;

-a, f. established

[Vdhr.]

dhara,
pour.']

stream,
m. pi.

jet.

[v/ldhav,

'run,

dharasara,
dharin,

stream-pourings, viore-

lent pourings,

[asara.]

4-puras,

see s.v.

23 a. holding; possessing, 22 ; 68 u taining, [vdhr.]


.

[177]

[Vdhr
poss 2

dharmik a, a. righteous;
ma.]
V

virtuous, [dhar-

Idhav

(dhavati, -te; adhavit; dhavis-

passion, spirit': 0i5a>, 'sacrifice,' is akin w. V dhu as a generalization of closely akin w. V dhu is V 1 dhav,

mg
'

run,'

yati; dhavita; dhavitva; -dhavya). run

and also Vdhav, 'run'


see also under

(cf. 0eo>,

V0F, 'run'):
off

pour; run (of animate beings), [see under Vdhu.] + anu, run after. + upa, run unto, 13 -f sam-upa, run on unto, 3
(of fluids), stream,
.

dhuma.] + ava, shake down; mid. shake


m.
'

from
Lat.

one's self.

dhuma,

smoke; vapor.
'
:

[cf.

+ pra, run
V

forth, flow; run.

" fumus, smoke smoke has no such swift eddying motion" as to make it easy to

2dhav
ista;
vbl.

(dhavati, -te; dadhave; adhavrinse.

connect these names for


w.

it

w. \ldhu, q.v.

dhauta; dhautva; -dhavya).


containing,

but on this connection their identification


6v/j.6s

dhi,

granting,

in

cpds.

should seem to depend

more
as
'

[Vldha, 1155. 2e.]

prob.
3

is

the explanation of
or blackening,'
fr.

dhumi
fr.

the

dhik, V dhi

excl. fie! w. ace.

enveloping
[786
] ;

s/ldhvan,

(didheti [676] ; didhaya think, [see v/dhya.] dhitd). + anu, think over.
[351], /.

as

vama

Vvan.]

dhumaka,

m. smoke, at end of cpds [1307] -ika [1222d], the same. for dhuma;

dhi

-1. thought; dhiya-dhiya, dhurta,


rogue,
(cf.

a.

subst.

with each thought, every time it occurs to 2. (like Ger. An-dacht, lit. 'thinkone;
ing upon,' and
that mati,

[ppl. of

shrewd, sly, cunning; Vdhvr, 'harm by deceit'

then 'devotion') religious


19
, ,

13 74 thought, devotion, 69

82 "

observe

manas, manisa, mantra, and


show
this
;

957b 2 ): according to the grammarians, dhurta, w. acct altered as in jiista: for a somewhat analogous development of mg, cf. Middle Eng. schrewen, curse,'
'

manman
sight,

same specialization of
3.

whence

schrew-ed,

'cursed,

bad,'

Eng.
of

15 mgi prayer, 74
l mind, 89
;

intelligence, inskill.

shrewd, 'bad, artful.']

understanding,
draught,
see

dhurta-traya,
swindlers.

n.

rogue-triad,

trio

[VdhL] dhiti,
[V2dha,

f.

perhaps

82 7

x.

dhusara,
cf.
v'

a.

dusted

over,

dusty,

dust-

'drink,' 1157. la.]


2. devotion; 1. thought; [Vdhi: for 2, cf. dhi 2.] a. gifted with understanding,

colored, gray.

[Vdhvans, dhvas, 1188d:


[786],

dhiti, / -3. skill.


wise,

181a.]

dhr (dadhara
tva
;

dadhre
;

dhimant,
1

dharisyati, -te ; dhrtd

dhartum
;

adhrta ; dhr;

[dhi.]
a. wise,
a.

dhira, dhira,
.

78 3

10
.

[Vdhi, 1188a.]
.

firm;

2 resolute, 48

[Jdhr

dharayati adidharat). 2 rngs of cans, forms ident. [1041 ] w. those of simple forms; hold, in its various mgs,
;

-dhftya

cf Lat. Jir-mus, ' firm.'] 1. a very clever or skilful dhlvara, m.

trans,

and
-

intrans.
1.

trans.

hold, bear,
,

support,

33 n ,

man; -2. a
dhiini,
terous,
a.

fisher,

[dhi, 1171.]

39 3 , 75 s

7
,

87 9
;

92

J;

make

shaking, stormily moved, bois[f r.

carry, 62

12

wear; -2.

10 ; firm, 92 hold fast, 22 10,

wild.
sfdhii.]

quasi-root

dhun

of

33 :
8 12
;

dhun6ti,
V

hold in check, bear, withstand, 2 20, -3. keep (a cat), 31 9 -4. set or
;

dhu
-nut6

(dhun6ti,
[see

-nut6;
;

later,

dhun6ti,

711]
;

dudhava,
;

dudhuve

12 41 21 lay or place in or on, w. loc., 33 5. hold or make sure or ordain for some
,

adhusta [887a] dhavisyati dhuta, later 1. move dhuta; dhutva; -dhuya). 2. fan quickly hither and thither shake 3. shake off. (a fire)
; ;

one

(dat.)

(dat.),

mid. be ordained for some one 3 belong of right to, 75


;

intrans.

6. mid. hold,

i.e.

remain, con.

5 tinue; w. this mg, even in the active, 15

'

[orig.

move

'

violently, agitate

cf 6vu,
.

[cf.

6p&-vos,

'support,
'sit';

seat,'

6pa-vos,
fre-tus,

6vvw, 'rush on'; Ovpos, 'agitation, anger,

'bench,'

dp-fi-a-aa-Oai,

Lat.

12

Vdhrs]
'held or

[178]
supported
1. set

by

(hence

iv.

abl.),

dhvans

or

relying on,' fre-num, 'holder, bridle.']

dhvansa, dadhvase

dhvas (dhvansati, -te; daadhvasat dhvasta


; ;

u Eng. hold) assume as certain, 44 dhrs (dhrsn6ti; dadharsa; adhrsat


.

+ ava,cas.

down,

fix;

2. (like

1. fall to dust, perish ; -dhvasya). 2. dhvasta, exhausted, hurt, impaired; 3. only in ppl. dhvasta, vanish, be off;

dhrsta; -dhfsya; dharsayati). be bold or courageous; dare; venture, caus. venture on some one or 74 2 ;
dhrsita,

bestrewn, covered over, esp. with dust,


[cf.

Eng.
'
'

dits-t ;

prob. also

AS. dw&s and

dysig,
tuslc,

foolish,' foolish.']

Eng. dizzy, Old High Ger.


destruction.

something; offend; overpower; dharsita, Lat. fasovercome, [cf Opcur-vs, ' bold
'
.

dhvansa,
v'

m. the perishing;

tus,

'pride'; Goth, ga-dars, AS. dearr, Eng. he dare (all 3d persons sing, of a
;

[V dhvans.]

Idhvan
ayati).

(adhvamt; dhvanta; dhvan1.

preterito-present)
durs-t.~\

AS.

dors-te,

Eng.

cover one's

self;

dhvanta,
;

dark
1.

2.

become extinguished

caus.

+ a venture against. + prati, hold out


,

against,

withstand,

2. blacken, envelope, cover over; [perhaps akin w. V dhvans: see dhuma:

82 5
78

cf
a.

AS. dunn, Eng. dun,


;

'

dark, brownish-

dhrsnii,
?;'

daring; courageous, doughty,


[v/dhrs, 1162.]

bold, 84".
f.

black.'] V 2 d h v a n (dhvanati
[955a]).

dadhvana dhvantd
;

dhenii,

milch

cow; cow.

[v'2dha,

sound, resound,

[cf.

Old Eng.

'suck,' 1162.]

dheya,
'

n,

the giving.
'
:

[v'ldha,

mg

4,

dune, Eng. din.~\ dhvani, m. sound.


V

bestow, give
n.

1213c.]

dhvr
cause

[v'2dhvan.] (dhvarati). bend or make crooked


to
fall;

dhairya,
bearing.
V

firmness; earnest or resolute

harm by
:

deceit.

[see

[2dMra, 1211.]
s

dhurta
'

and dhruti

cf.

AS.

dwellan,

dhma. see dham. dhya (dhyati, dhyayati


dhyaii
;

[761dl];
;

da;

lead astray, cause to delay,' Eng. dwell, ' ' intrans., delay, linger, abide Eng. dwaul,
;

adhyasit
; ;

[911]

dhyasyati
.

dhyatd dhyatva -dhyaya) think upon meditate, [see Vdhi and 108g.] + abhi, set the mind on something;
;

'wander, rave,' dwale, 'stupefying potion'; Goth. Dutch dwaal-licht, ignis f atuus
'

'

dvals,
'

'foolish';

Eng.

dull,

dol-t ;

Ger.

toll,

mad.']

sink one's self in thought, 57

l
.

dhyana, n. meditation. [Vdhya, 1150.] dhyana-para, a. having meditation as na


highest
tion.

[491], end. pron.

root
'us,'

of
cf.

1st person, see

object,

absorbed in contempla-

aham.

[w. nas,

v&,

'we

two,'

[1302b.]

(dhrajati; adhrajit). draw onward, advance, intrans. [see v'dragh, of which this is poss. a collateral form.]

dhraj

Lat. nos, 'us.'] 1. not na, adv.


connected
sentences
,

[1122b], 3 or clauses
;
,

-la.
:

in

repeated
;

dhru, dhruti,

collateral form

of s'dhvr.
;

8 octies simply: 97 63 13 14 , 71 4 ter; 4 13


-

62 u>15,
17
18
,

quinquies

/.

a
1.

deceiving

infatuation .

with ca

[Vdhru.]

na
a.

na na ca
:

na na
21

dhruva,
i.e.

remaining
pole-star,

holding or continuing, fixed in place as m.


;

api2; with
2 12
,

u,

u
;

74 J , 80 ", bis; 62 16 ca, na ca J with api see % 63


, ; ; :

Ib. not

repeated,
(see these),

but replaced by

api ca or va^api
16

the

100 8
18
.

2.

of

abodes
6: see

63*;

Ic. combinations:
7
, ;

na
,

ca, 8
,

16
;

certain, safe, 79

[Vdhr in
ladle,

mg

1190.]

dhruva,
sriic.

/
[lit.

sacrificial

102 13

see
:

na ca, 13 na vai, 92 15 na tv eva tu,


in

10 23 19 96 10 ; 62 naiva, 22 na va, 96 12 na tu, 64 13


;

see

tu
;

na

'holder,' vfdhr in

mg

see

not exactly, 93 5
negative

ha, 95 na_iva, Id. tantamount to a;

1T

1190.]

cpds [1122b

],

as nacira, na-

[179]
le. at beg. of tidura, nadhita, etc. ; adversative clause: with adversative con/., 34 10 ; without, 22 20, 41 13 , 92 16 ; -If. in em-

[Vnam
a.

na-cira,
soon.

not long; -at, adv. [1114c],


4 .]

[1122b

nata,

m. dancer, mime, actor (these form


[Vnrt.]

phatic

litotes,

21;

be supplied,

32 5 (asti);

Ig. substantive verb to Ih. na precedes

nada
2
V

a very despised caste), or nala, m. reed.

[Whitney 54:

cf.

ced, if

it

belongs to the protasis,

63 9

if

it

nada and

nala.]

the apodosis,
tive, see

immediately follows ced, it must be joined to 18 9 li. for prohibitive nega;

nad
1

(nadati

-nadya).

nanada, nede; nadita; sound roar bellow. [see


; ;

ma;
in
,

Ij.

na, 'not,' coalesces met1

nada and

rically
e.g.

Veda
71
4
,

w. following initial vowel,

70

12

83 9

2
in this sense

nada, nada,

nadf.] m. the bellower,

i.e.

bull.

[Vnad.]
cf.

m. reed, rush.
;

[cf.

nada.]

2. like [see

1122d and d 2 ],
'

Vedic only, 70 15 18 , 71 7 9 , etc.; na, 'like,' does not coalesce metrically in Veda w. fol'

nadi,f. roaring stream river. [Vnad: Ne'Sa, Ne'Scoi/, names of streams.]


2
],

lowing
[cf.

initial vowel.
vr\-,

nanandr [3G9 f. husband's sister. V nand (nandati, -te; nananda; nandisyate; nandita; -nandya). be glad, abhi, be glad in; greet joyfully.
-i-

Lat.

n&-,

negative
nff-fas,

i/T)-/cep8es,

'gain-less,'

prefix in 'not right,

wrong'; AS. and Old Eng.

ne, 'not';

AS.
'

nandana,
m. son, 21

a.

gladdening; causing joy


as
n.

as

na (ne +d), 'not ever, never, no,' Eng. no; Eng. na- in nathless, AS. na \>e Zees, not
the less
'
;

Nandana, or Elysium, the pleasure ground of the gods, esp. of


;

Eng.

n- in n-ever, n-aught, etc.]


1.

nakis,
73 M?.
ae?y.

indecl. subst. pron.

no one, 78 1

_.

nothing, 73 '"I;

-3.

et-en

as

18 Indra, 49 [caus. of Vnand.] m. The Gladsome One, euphemisnandi, tic epithet of the dreadful god, Qiva.

[see

1117], never, 75

[na +

kis,

Rudra.

[Vnand:

see 504 2 end.] nakula, m. Viverra ichneumon, an animal


like the polecat, often domesticated,

nandi-deva,
Brahman,

cf. giva.] m. Xandideva, name of a ['having (yiva as his god.']

and

nap at,

naptr

[370], m.

a bitter foe of serpents and mice.

scendant
in

in general;

1. in Veda, de18 son; grandson, 87


;
.

nakta,
[cf.

n.

vvl-,

[llllb], by night, stem VVKT, Lat. nox, stem nocti,

night;

-am

2. in Skt.,

9 grandson, 63

[declension:

Eng.
V

night.']

bhis, etc.
w.

naks
attain

(naksati, -te; nanaksa, nanakse).

Veda, napat, napatam, naptra, naptrin Skt., napta, naptaram, naptra, naptrbhis, etc. see 1182d cf vt-rroSfs,
;
: :
.

unto;

dyam, mount up
form
of

to

heaven.
'

[collateral

V2na,

attain.']

naksatra,
in
, ;

n. 1. sidus, heavenly body, Veda, of sun as well as of stars star, 13 3 71 12 sing, collectively, 78 n constel; ;

'young ones'; Lat. nepotem, 'grandson'; AS. nefa, son's son or brother's son supplanted by Old French neveu (Eng. nephew], which in Old Eng. meant 'son's
' '

napti
V

son' as well as 'brother's son.'] 6 daughter, 72 [356], /.


daughter.
[/. to

grand-

lation;

59 10

asterism of the lunar zodiac, [perhaps the stars are they that
2.

napat

acct, 355b.]

nabh
phere,

'mount up' dyam.]

to

heaven,

cf.

Vnaks

w.

nabhas,

(nabhate). burst; tear. n. 1. mist, clouds;

2.
'

atmos-

nakha,
'

m.

n.

nail
[cf.

claw; talon,
unguis,
nail,
a.

(on fingers or toes); uvv, stem o-wx, Lat.


;

cloud, sky. [cf. vefyos, ve(j>f\T), mist'; Lat. nubes, 'cloud,' nebula, 'mist'; ' AS. nifol, misty, gloomy ; Ger. Nebel,
'

claw

'

AS.

ntEgel,

Eng.

nail.~\

'mist': for

mg2,
n.

cf.

Ger. Wolken and AS.

nakhin,
claws,

having claws; as m. beast with


-ri,f.
n.

wolcnu, 'clouds,' w. Eng. welkin, 'sky.']

[nakha.]
town,
city.

nabhas-tala,
tala.
V

sky-surface,

i.e.

sky, see

nagara, n., and nagaropanta,


town,

neighborhood of the

nam (namati, -te;

nanama, neme

[794e];

[upanta.]

anansit; nansyati; nata [954d]; nami-

12*

namas]
turn,

[180]
;

nantum

natva

-namya

nama- naradhipa,
prince,

m.

lord

of men,

i.e.

king
king,

yati). bow (intrans.), bend one's self; aim 15 at a person (gen.) with (instr.), 73 ; nata,

[adhipa.]
m.

naregvara,
prince.

lord of

men,

i.e.

bowed down, bending


6 dued, 31
.

over, 68

19

K.

cans.
is

[Igvara.]
a. subst.

cause to bow, subdue; namyate,


.

sub-

narottama,
tama.]

best of men.

[ut-

+ ava, bow down, 34 17 a bow down to. + u d raise one's self up, arise. + s a m - u d rise. + nis, bend out; contort one's self. + pra, make obeisance before (ace.).

narmada,

a.

granting or causing fun;

making gladness; f. -da, Xarmada (called also Reva), the modern Nerbudda river. [narman + da.]

narman,
na1a
,

n.

fun.
;

m. reed

Nala,

name

of a prince of
I
1
.

namas,
like

n.

bow, obeisance; adoration (by

Nishadha.

[cf.

nada, Vedic nala.]


n.

gesture or word); reverence; used also the Lat. gloria in the Gloria patri.
[V nam.]

nalopakhyana,
1

Nala-episode,

[upakhyana.] nava, a. new; of an earthen


i.e.)

dish, (fresh,
:

namas-kara,
adoration.

m. a
3
.]

making

of

namas;
.

[171
(see

namas -kr
[171
V
3
,

Vlkr).
.

do homage, 9 U

[prob. fr. mi, 'now/ q.v. cf. vfos, Lat. novus, Ger. neu, Eng. new."]
2

unburned.

nava

1092a.]
)

[483 *], num. nine. [cf. tvvta, Lat. novem, Ger. neun, Eng. nine.']
[485], f. ninety.
n.

namasya( namasy ati


foe of Indra, 81 16, 97 6

pay reverence. n a v a t i
'

[2 nava.]

[namas, 1063, 1058.] namuci, m. Namuchi, name of a demon,


.

nava-nlta,
ter,
i.e.

fresh

butter.
'

[perhaps
but-

fresh-brought/ as

make
a.

it

we say bring the come/ in churning.]


fr.
:

nay ana,
nara, man
m.
or

n. eye. ['leader, organ of sense for mg, cf. that leads/ sfni, 1150. la
:

navedas,
zant of

perhaps well-knowing, cogni-

(gen.),

[apparently

anana, gatra, car ana, netra.]


21 man, 3
,

tive particle na-,

and vedas

an affirmasee 1296 3

etc.; at

57 5, the primal
fr.

end.]
V

spirit.

[transition-stem

nr,

1209a.]

nara-nari,y. man and woman. [1253a.] nara-pati, m. lord of men king. nara-vahana, a. subst. having men as
;

Inag (nagyati nanaga, negus; anagat nanksyati [936]; nasta; nagayati). be vanish missing get lost perish, be ruined, dead Lat. nex, [cf ven-pos,
; ; ; ; ;
'

'

'

death

' ;

'

nocere,

harm.']

his

name

epithet and of Kuvera, god of wealth; name of a king, successor of Qalivahana.


m. Naravahanadat-

team, drawn by men;

+ vi, get lost; perish; caus. cause to dis20 appear; bring to nought, 81 2nag (nagati, -te; nanaga; anat [833]).
.

naravahana-datta,
ta,

attain

reach,

come up
u
. '

to,

74 J
'

name

of a son of king Udayana.


n.

draw

hither, 76

[see V 1 ag,

w. accha, ' reach cf


: .

naravahanadatta-carita,
tures of X.

advena.
:

Lat. nac-tus sum,

am

AS.
f.
-i,

nedh,

comp.

near,
'

having reached superl. nedhst, Eng.

'

naravahanadattacaritamaya,
containing the adventures of N.
see

nigh, near

(as comp.,

Macbeth
e-nough.~\

ii.

3.

146),
it

[1225

next ;

AS.

ge-neah,

it

reaches, es reicht,
8 upon, 78

maya.]
m. man-tiger,
.

suffices'; ge-noh,
i.e.
:

Eng.

nara-vyaghra,
and noble man.

brave

[cf

naragardula
man-tiger,

nara-gardula,
among men.
[cf.

m.

1280b.] i.e. best 1280b.]

+ pra, reach to, hit; fall nas [397], /. nose. [nom.


'

dual, nasa: cf.


;

Lat. nas-turcium, ' nose-teaser, nasturtium '


ndr-es,

naravyaghra

nostrils

'
;

AS.

nosu,

Eng. nose ;
[cf.

nara-grestha, a. subst. best nara-sunu, /. daughter of man or spirit.

of men.

nos-tril, 'nose-thrill,

nose-hole.']

the primal

nas
v(>,

[491], end. pron.


'

form of
'

\st pers.

we two

'
;

Lat. nos,

us.']

[181]
nasa, for nas in cpds [1315c].
V

[Vnind

nah

and returns to heaven with reports from men. n a r a y a n a m. Narayana, son of the primal man. [simply a patronymic of nara, poss. false formation), and Avestan nazda see 1219.] Morphologische Untersuchungen, iii. 144),
(nahyati [761c]; naddha [223 ]; -nahya). bind; join, [despite naddha (a
8
, (

probably
'bind.']

for

*nagh

cf.

Lat.

nec-t-ere,

nava,/.
fr.

ship,

[transfer-form (1209,399)
destruction,

nau, nav.]
m.
loss;
[v/nag,

+ u p a tie on, lace. nahi, adv. not, to be


,

nag a,
sure; nahf
.

'be

me

asti,

missing.']

to

be sure, I have no
:

[na

+ hi,

1122a

nasa,

dual f. the two nostrils,


fr.

the nose,

and b 4

nahusa,

acct of verb, 595d.] m. Nahusha, name of an ancient

[transfer-form (399)

nasika,/.
the nose,

nas, strong nas.] nostril; dual, the two nostrils;

king, [perhaps 'neighbor,' from nahus, and in that case a transfer-form (1209b).]

[nasa, 1222c
a. subst.

1.]

nastika,
lieving

atheist, infidel, not be[fr.

nahus,

m. neighbor.

[Vnah.]

the
'

Vedas and Puranas.


is not,'

n iika, m. vault of heaven, firmament.

na +
ati-

asti,

there

natidura,
V

not very far.

[na +

nahusa,

m.

1314b.] descendant of Xahusha, pa-

4 dura, 1122b .]

nath

-nathya).

nathita (nathate turn with supplication


;
;

tronymic of Yayati. [nahusa, 1208 and f .] nathitum; ni, prep, down; in, into. [cf. tvi, 'in';
to.

Eng.

ne-ther, be-nea-th.']
a.

nath a,
lord,

n.

refuge;

as m. protector;

nikata,
presence.

near;
[1245g.]

as

n.

neighborhood;

[v/nath.j nadhita, a. un-learned.


v'i:

[na + adhita, nikhila,


nih-khila,

a.
'

1122b 4 .]
f.
1.

entire; all. [perhaps for without a gap,' nis + khila


:

nabhi,

nave or hub. 1305 - end.] Lat. umb-ilicus, AS. naf-ela, nija, a. own; belonging to our party, 24 6 [cf. ofj.cj>-a\6s, 15 Eng. navel ; also AS. naf-u, Eng. nave.'] nijo ripus, foe in one's own camp, 37
navel;
2.
n.

nabhi-vardhana,
navel (-string).

the cutting of the

often used as reflexive possessive pron.,

my
etc.

own, his own, our own,


n.

etc.,
12
,

or rather,

nama-dheya,
9 ing, 59 ;

the name-giving, nam,

my

(47

17
),

his

(50

u
,

53

56 4

'

6
),

9 22 name, 17 GO
,

[naman.]
,

[perhaps 'in-born,'

Hainan,
istic;
;

n.

1.

distinguishing character, ,

ninya,
.

a.

ni +ja.] 20 inner; hidden, 70 ; as


fr.

n.

secret,

8 60 21b 78 9 78 3 form; -2. name, 13 [ni.] 16 61 9 nama grah, (take i.e.) mention the nitya,a. 1. own (Vedic), 79 2. con7 64 13 name (e.g. devaadv. constantly, name, stant; eternal, 57 personal -am, 16 64 19 datta), as distinguished from the gotra always, 17 [in mg 1, fr. ni, 'in,' or family name (e.g. kagyapa, descen1245b, and so signifying 'inward, not at end of dant of Ka9yapa'), 103 19 N. alien.']
;

'

'

'

so 11 nitya-kala, m. uninterrupted time -am, name, named u 3. nama, adv. [llllb], adv. always, under all circumstances, 60 6 times, e.g. 19 so 19 times, e.g. I 3 60 2U 94 16 by name, nitya-snayin, a. constantly making also munna, 56 5 w. interrogatives, pray, sacred ablutions. [1279.] 54 16 [origin unknown: cf. o-po/xa, Lat. V nid or nind (nindati; nininda anindlt; blame nindita nomen, Eng. name.] reproach, -nindya).

cpds, having

as

nara,

1.

a.

narl, /.
[nr, 1208b
:

human; woman, I 9
for

2. as
,

m.

man;
wife,

'

[cf. ovfiSos,

86 18

etc.;

nidra
f r. V

/. sleep.
ra.

reproach.'] [V 2 dra,
n.
'

'

sleep,'
.

ni.]

mg

2, cf .

manava.]

nidhana,
'

19 end; death, 5

nara da,
devarsi

m. Narada,
(see note to 1

name of an ancient u who often ), appears


news from the gods,
v

on the earth

to bring

dha + ni, put down make an end of.'] nind, see nid.
way,'

[perhaps or out of the

nindaka]

[182]

nindaka, a. subst. scoffer. [Vnid, nind.] nibandhana, n. a binding, ligation, 59 3


that
rests

nir-laksya,
;

a.

not

to

be

perceived,

avoiding notice,

[see nis 3.]

on which a thing
or
ni.]

is

fastened or
.

nir-vanga,
the world.

a.

without family; alone in


sheltered.
distinction; undis-

7 depends, condition, means, 46

[Vbandh +

nibhrta,

a.

(borne down, lowered,

i.e.)

nir-vata, a. windless; nir-vigesa,a. without


tinguished; alike; like.

hidden; -am, adv. secretly.

[Vbhr

+ ni.]
;

nimajjana,

[Vmajj +ni.] nimitta, n. mark (for shooting at) sign, token; occasion or cause; -am, -ena, adverbially, because of; tannimittam, -ena,
bathing.

n.

nirvigesakrti,

a.

having like appear-

ance, looking just alike, [akrti.] nivara, m. the warding off. [Vlvr,
'cover,'

+ ni.]
ppl.

because of

this,

on account of

this.

nivita,
ings,

nimesa,
[Vmis

m. closing or winking of the eyes.


m.

esp.

hung, i.e. draped, with hangwith the sacred cord ; as n.


itself.

-t-ni.]
,

[1176a], the wearing the sacred cord about

niyoga
and
'

a fastening on
cf. alicui

injunction,
.

the neck ; the sacred cord


ni.]

[V vya

+
of

so,

commission ; business, 30 6

[V

yuj

+ ni:

for

mg,

injungere labor em,

nivrtta,

ppl.

1.
is

fasten or impose a task on a person.'] nir , for nis before sonants [174] ; see nis.

an action which
ject), free

turned away; turned away,

esp.
i.e.

not

nir-antara,

a.

without interval or free


10
;

directed (to any ulterior purpose or obfrom hope of reward in this

space ; completely filled, 53 12 uninterrupted, 56


.

continuous

nir-apaya,
nir-apeksa,
tation
;

a.

without failure or danger;

world or the next, disinterested, opp. of 2. having turned away pravrtta, q.v.; 3 from, and so abstaining from, 29 [Vvrt
.

infallible or safe.
a.

20 regardless, 52

without regard or expecnot expecting


;

niv6gana,
to rest
;

n.

a going in and settling


;

down

anything from another, independent, 31 2 [apeksa, 334 .]

105 8
cf.

resting-place 6 dwelling, 8
.

sleeping-place, bed, Vvig + ni: for mg,

bhavana.]
[397], /. night,
,

nir-amisagin,
nis 3.]

a.

not meat-eating,

[see

nig

[cf.
.

nakta.]

niga
a.

f. night,

[cf nig, nakta.]

nir-ahara,
from food.

without food, abstaining

nigcaya,
tion,
i.e.)

nir-ukta,
os
n.

a.

spoken out; loud; clear;


;

m. (ascertainment, determinaa fixed opinion or a firm resolve. [poss. fr. v!3ci, 'notice, look,' + nis; but

explanation etymological interpretation of a word ; esp. Nirukta, title of a commentary to the nighantavas or Vedic
[Vr

better,
'

perhaps,
i.e.

fr.

V 1 ci

+ nis, and

so,

an un-piling,
a.

discrimination, determi-

nation.']

Glossary. [V vac + nis. ] n i r - r t i ,/. dissolution ; destruction.


nis, 1157. Id.]

nigcala,
+
nis 3.]

not moving,

[nis

cala

see

nigcita,
without a string, 18 5
;

ppl.

determined, decided; -am,


[see under nig-

nir-guna,

a.

void

adv. decidedly, surely,

of good qualities, 18 5 worthless, bad. nir-nama, m. contortion, sinuosity.


[V

caya.]

nihgreyasa,
best; as
n.

a.

without a superior,
[nis

i.e.

nam + nis.]

final beatitude,

grey-

asa: acct, 1305 3 .] nir-dhana, a. without money. nir-buddhi, a. without wit, stupid. nihgvasa, m. breathing out, expiration; 1. without measure, nir-bhara, a. sigh. [V gvas + nis. ] much -am, adv. very -am prasupta, nihgvasa-parama, a. having sighs as fast asleep 2. full of. chief thing, much addicted to sighing.
;

nir-niala,
clear.

a.

without impurity;

pure;

[1302b.]

nisadha,

m. pi. the Nishadhans,

name

of

[183]
a people 1 7 N., 4 3
;

[mlavarna

Nishadha,

name

of a country,

pra,l.

bring forward
to

2. as litur-

gical terminus technicus,

nisadhadhipa,
Nishadhans.

m. .ruler or king of the


finisher
its

ficial fire

and water

convey the sacritheir places on and

[adhjpa.]
m.
(in

nisudana,
sense),

colloquial
of,

one who makes an end


[V

de-

near the altar; pranitas (sc. apas), holy 3. bring forward (one's feelings), water; i.e. come out with or manifest one's affec.

15 sud + ni.] tion, 9 + vi, lead; guide; niseka, m. an injecting, esp. of semen, impregnation; the ceremony performed ni [352], vbl. bringing,

stroyer.

train; discipline.
in

vaani.
;

[Vni.]

upon impregnation.

[V sic

ni.]

nica,

nisevin,

devoting one's self to; co22 habiting with, 67 [Vsev + ni.]


a.
.

low, socially low.

a.

not

high

morally

and

[inorganic

transfer-form

niskramana,
the
first

n.

the stepping out;

esp.

nica,
fr.

(1209a) fr. nic-a, q.v.] adv. down, low.


instr.

going out with a child.


a.

[Vkram
ni,

cented

[adverbially acinstead of nic-a, 1112e

+ nis.] nistha,
333.]

ny-anc.]
[418], a.

resting upon.
a.

[Vstha +
vain,

nica-vayas

whose strength
1.

is

nisphala,
[nis

fruitless,

63 10

68 ".
2.

low; exhausted. [1306.] nida, Vedic nila, m. n.


settling

(place

for

+ phala.]
adv. prep.
2

down,
V

i.e.)

resting-place;

2. esp.

nis,

1.

out,

forth;

in

bird's nest,

away, withcpds [1305 end], having out 3. in cpds, not, e.g. nirantara
, ;

198b 3

sad + ni

[for ni-zd-a, i.e. ni-s(a)d-a cf Lat. nidus,


:
.

Ger. Nest, Eng. nest: for


54.]

1,

see

Whitney

e.g.

nigcala.
;

(nayati, -te ninaya [800b], ninye ; anaisit, anesta [882]; nesyati, -te; nita;

nida-garbha,
niti,/.

m. nest-interior.

netum
;

-niya ; niyate naydyati 15 lead, 24 ; guide; conduct, [1042b]). 85 20 carry, 39 19 etc.; carry off, 36 15
;

nitva

and sagacious conduct; the knowledge of all that governs virtuous and discreet and states1. co'nduct, esp. right

man-like behavior; political


ethics
;

and
to

social

43 17

vyaghratam

ni,
;

bring to tiger-ness,
ni,

2. leading.
a.

'

[V ni,

conduct.']

change into a tiger


one's power.

vagam

bring into

niti-jna,

knowing how
f.

conduct
niti
it

one's self discreetly.

+ anu, (draw along toward one, i.e.) try to win or conciliate by friendly words. -f abhi, bring hither to.
+a
,

niti-vidya,
political

knowledge

of

or

and

social ethics, esp. as

con-

bring

to,

29 u

cerns princes.

bring, 31

(one liquid) into (another, loc.), caus. cause to be fetched, 50 5


.

bring u mix, 101


;
;

niti-Qastra,
political

n.

doctrine or science of

and

social ethics.
n.

nitha,
so,

m. a leading; nitha,

(way, and
air,

+ ud

man

rescue (as a drowning bring up from the water), 90 10


,

like the

German Weise) a musical

song.

+ upa

take

unto

one's

self,

of

the

teacher

receives a youth of one of the three free castes as pupil, and at the

who

nira, n. nirasa,

[Vni, 1163a.] water.


a.

sapless,

dried up;

tasteless;

insipid, 54 ".

[nis

rasa, 174, 179.]


.

s a. without disease; healthy, 22 mental cord, thus conferring spiritual re[nis+riij, 174, 179.] birth, and making him a full member of nila, a. dark-colored, esp. dark blue; as n. his caste see upanayana ; upanita, inindigo nfli, / indigo, [hence, through vested with the sacramental cord. the Arabic an-nil, for al-nil, 'the indigo+ pari, lead around (a cow, steer), 91 u plant,' come Eng. anil and aniline.'] 105 M esp. lead a bride around the fire nila-pata, m. dark garment.

same time invests him with the sacra- niruj,

(as

wedding ceremony), page

99.

nlla-varna,

a.

blue-colored.

nilasarhdhanabhanda]
nilasamdhana-bhanda,
mixing,
i.e.

[184]
vat for the

n.

nrmna,
strength,
vir.~\

n.

virtus,
[fr.

manliness,

courage,
virtus
fr.

preparing of indigo,
m.
indigo-vat-pro-

nr (1224c), as

nillbhanda-svamin,
prietor.

nivara,
nil a,
>

m. wild rice; sing, the plant; pi.

the grains,
see

nr-Qansa, a. man-cursing; malicious. netavya, grdv. to be carried. [Vni.] netra, n. eye. ['leader,' Vni, 1185a:
,

for

mda.

nn

-mitya).

(navate; nunava: anusta; cry aloud; shout; exult; praise.


esp.

mg, cf. nayana.] nuta; n 6 d adv. lest, in order that


verb (595d)

not, w. accented

in the subjunctive (581c),

84 ".

+ pra, murmur; hum;


nu,

utter

the

sacred syllable om. adv. la. now, at once, temporal ;

Ib.

n e d y a grdv. to be blamed. n e mi, / felly, rim. [nam,


,

[V nid, 963d.]

8 now, confirmative ; adha nu, so now, 79 ; * Id. so Ic. now, introductory, 70 ;

nairukta,

1155.] a. pertaining to the Nirukta;


a.

as m. an etymologist,

then, in encouraging or summoning;

le.
,

naisadha.

now, pray,
78 12
that
;

in questions,
:

5 21 , 7

18
,

51

20

74 8,

[nirukta, 1208f .] pertaining to Nishadha ; as m. prince of the Jsishadhans, i.e. Xala.

2. asseverative

nakir nu, surely


;

no one

or nothing, 73

20

ma
;

i.e. yat nau, see 491. V. often nau [361a], /. boat; ship. [cf. vavs, Lat. ' ' ' nu: cf. vv, vvv, Lat. nun-c, Ger. nu, nun, navis, ship perhaps AS. naca, skiff AS. nu, nu, Eng. now: see also nava, perhaps 'the swimmer,' Vsnu, cf. Vsna.] nutana, nunam.] nyag-r6dha, m. Ficus indica, banyan V nud (nudati, -te downwards - growing ' nun6da, nunud6 ; tree. [ nyanc anutta [881]; notsyati, -te; nutta, nun(1249a) + rodha.]

ya

10 surely not, 86 ; 74 2 nu, whatsoever,

nu, in order 3. w. relatives : nu,

u n6, adv. and not, 21 see ced. [na + tu]

[nisadha, 1208f.]

no

ced,

and

if

not,

yan
.

nu, as long soever

as,

79 13

[in

'

'

na; -nddya).

push; thrust.

nyanc
its

[409b], a. directed

downwards,

[ni

--par a,
place. + pra,

thrust away;

move from

+ anc, 407.]

nyayd,
push forward
cares,
like
cf.
;

m.

1.

(that

to

which

a thing

set in motion.

4-vi, drive asunder or


esp.

away
the

turn away,
di-vert;

2. (that in goes back, i.e.) rule, norm; 3. esp. which a thing goes, i.e.) way;

from

Eng.

the

right

way,

propriety.

[Vi

ni,

amuse.
s-port.~\

[for

mg,

also

dis-port

and

1148.2.]

nuda

a.

dispelling, in cpds.
a.

[V

nud.]

nutana,
1245e.]

of

now

recent ; young,

a. regular, normal, right; -am, adv. rightly; properly, [nyaya, 1211.] [nu, nyasa, m. a putting down, commitment.

nyayya,

[V 2
-

as +

'

ni,

throw down.']

niinam, adv. now. nf [370, 371 5 9 10 ],


also of
.

[nu, 1109.] m. man; hero;

used
.

18 gods: of the Maruts, 74*, 77 ' ' Old Lat. nero, 1 pa, [cf arfip, stem avtp, man stem neron, 'manly, strong'; Lat. Nero.~\ 2 pa,
;

vbl.

vbl.

drinking, in cpds. [VI pa, 333.] keeping, keeper, in cpds. [V2pa,

nr-caksas, a. V nrt (nftyati,

men-beholding.
-te
;
;

[1296

3
.]
;

333.]
;

57 cf. krsna-. esp. of a lunar month, 27 18 4. side, i.e. party, 37 nrti, /. dance. [Vnrt, 1155. 1.] gukla-; nr - p a m. protector of men, i.e. prince, king, paksa-bala, n. strength of wing. 19 as m. bird, 2 M nr-pati, m. lord of men, i.e. prince, king. paksin, a. winged, 92
,
, .

nrttd nartisyati ; dance. itva).

2 nanarta anartit 2. paksa, m. 1. wing, 93 nartitum ; nartdoor or of the hair of the head
1

side,
;

of a

3. half,

19

[acct, 1267a.]

[paksa.]

[185]

[pati
(panati, -te; panita).
2. bet,
.

paksimrgata,
of
beast.
[fr.

f.

condition of bird or
:

pan
buy;

1.

bargain;
[prob.
'

paksin + mrga
m.

1237,

wage, stake, play.


ir<a\f(a,

1252.]

paksi-c,avaka,
birdling.

young

of

a bird;

for *paln : cf irfpinj/^L and Ger.feil, 'for sale, venal.']


'

sell

' ;

pa iika, n. mud, panktf, f. set


row
in general,

[paksin.] mire.
or series or

row of

five;

+ a, in apana, market.' + vi, sell. pana, m. 1. bargain, stipulation,


2.

45 u ;

pankti-krama,
V

[panca, 1157.4.] m. order of a

wage, gage, prize;


16
.

3.

a certain

M -ena, in a row, 39 .

row;

coin, 47

[Vpan.]
1.

pani,

m.

bargainer,

who

gives nought

pac
tva).

(pacati, -te; papaca, pec6 [794e];

apaksit; paksyati, -te; paktum; pakcook, by baking or boiling or


'
;

without return ; chafferer, haggler, and so 2. niggard; esp. one who is stingy to-

roasting
vfv-wv,

ripen.

[cf

irfffcrw,

cook

'
;

wards the gods, an impious person malicious demon. [Vpan.]

3.

'ripe';

Lat. coquo, 'cook'; bor-

pandita,

a.

learned; as m. learned man,

rowed AS. noun coc, Eng. cook.'] + v i cook thoroughly pass, be brought to maturity; ripen (of an action), i.e.
, ;

Anglo-Indian pandit.

pandita-sabha, /. assembly of pandits. panya, grdv. to be bargained for or bartered


V
;

come

to its
3

consequences

or issue.

as

n. article

of trade.

[Vpan, 963.]
[794e];
;

panca
Eng.

[cf. ireVre, Aeolic [483 ], num. five. Lat. quinque, Goth, fimf, AS. flf, ire'yuire,
Jive.']

pat

(patati,
;

-te; papata, petus


;

apaptat
patitva
;

patisyati
;

patita

patitum
1. fly

panca-tantra,

n.

Panchatantra,

name
five

-patya patayati, move swiftly through the


scend,
self at,
let

-te). air;
;

2. de-

of a collection of fables,
divisions or books.']

['having

one's

self

down

cast one's

26 8 ;
-

3. fall

down, tumble down,

panca-tapas,
ascetic

having five fires, of an between four fires, one at each cardinal point, and with the burning sun above.
a.

34 8, 40 2

5
;

fall (morally), fall

from

one's

who

sits

4. fall upon, (dead); be directed to, 13 6 5. fall or get into, 22 s 9 ; cans, cause to fly; hurl (a curse),
;
-

caste; fall

down

pancatva,
of the

n.

fiveness

esp.

dissolution

49".

[cf.
'

vfTOfuu,
fall

'fly';

vl-vru, 'fall';
for,

body

into the five elements (earth,

Lat. peto,

upon,

make

seek

'
:

see

water, fire, air, ether, see


i.e.

bhuta and 66 5 N.),


[panca, 1239.]
five

also pattra.]

death; w. gam,

die.

panca-pada,/
steps,

-I, a.

having (taken)

[acct, 1300.]
a. fifth,
6 [panca, 487 .]

+ a n u fly after, + ud, fly up. + sam-ud, fly


,

pursue.
or

spring up together,
8

pancama, f. -i, panca-yama,


[acct, 1300.]

3 6 8".
,

a.

having

five

courses,

+ ni, fly down; light, 3 ; tumble into, 36 1S ; caws, cause to fall; kill, 32 n , 33 17
.

panca-girsa,
1315a.]
V

a.

five-headed.

[girsan,

+ sam-ni
.

fall

together,

99 20

come

pat (patayati, etc.). split, slit. + ud, open out. pat a, m. woven stuff cloth; garment. patala, n. veil; cover, [cf. pata.]
;

together; cans, bring together or convene, 9 19

+ para, fly off, 93 patatra, n. wing. [Vpat, 1185d.] patatrin,a. winged; as m. bird, [pata.

patu
V

a.

1.

sharp

and

so

2. Jig.

tra.]

(nearly like Eng. sharp), clever.

pa tana,
pati
, ;

n. fall.

[Vpat.]
1.

path
22 u

(pathati; papatha; pathita; path23 55 9 itva; pathayati). read aloud, 54 17 11 repeat to one's self, study, recite,
;
;

[343b],

m.
;

master,

possessor;

2 lord; ruler, 4

2. then (like
,

Eng.
[cf.
irn-pot,

lord),

cans, teach to talk, 19

15
.

7 5 86 19 , 64 ". husband, 9 , 89 'husband'; Lat. impos, stem

w6 ff is,
'not

patighni]
master of; Goth.fafrs in
groom.']
bru}>-fa\>-s,

[186]
'bride-

pati-ghni,
mally a
[patL]

a. f.

husband-slaying,

[for-

fern, to
n.

patitva,

pati-han, 402.] condition of spouse; wedlock.


m. husband's place, abode of
life.

be produced utpannam annam, food (not cooked for the occasion, l but) already on hand, 104 utpanne karye, when the emergency has arisen,
existence
;
;

38

caws,
.

8 engender, 23

produce

get,

42 17

pati-loka,

the husband in the future

pati-sthana, n. pat isthaniya,


the

husband's place.
a.

husband's

place

belonging to or in as m. husband's
;

-t-praty-ud, in ppl. pratyutpanna, ready or on hand to meet an emergency. + upa, fall upon; happen, take place, 100 10 ; come to, get at, reach upapanna,
;

(having gotten at [952


sion of,

2
],

i.e.)

in posses18
;

representative,

pattra,

n.

[patisthana, 1215.] 1. feather; wing;

endowed
1.

with, 1

*,

3.

2.

+ prati,

step to; enter upon, 66

(plumage of a tree, i.e.) leaf for mg, cf. 3. a leaf for writing on ; a parna ;
written leaf, 54 19 [V pat : cf irrep6v, 'wing'; Lat. penna and Old Lat. pesna
.

2. get into (a condition),

49

15
;

acquire, attain, 98 3. go to meet,

n
;

get

at,

and

17 get back again, 60 ; so (like the Lat.

ac-cedere), accede, yield; say yes to; consent,

(for *petna),
feath-er.~\

'wing';
n.

Ger. Fed-er, Eng.

48 12

+ vi,

fall

9 asunder, 93 ;

come

to nought,

pattra-aka,
patni,
(like

leaf-vegetable, a vegetable consisting chiefly of leaves.

get into trouble.

sam,
prosper;

1.

turn

out

well,
, ;

succeed,
3. fall

/
'

1.

mistress,

lady;

2.

then

2.

12 47 18 become, 45

Eng. lady), wife.


lady/
is

[fern, to pati, just

together, be united with;

sampanna,
:
.

en-

as

Trd-rvia.,

to ir<J<m.]
feet.

dowed

10 with, 2

patsutah-gi [352], a. lying at the patsutas, adv. at the feet. [fr.


loc. pi. of

pad

[391], m. foot.

[V

pad
,

cf W5-o, Lat.

patsii,

pffd-em, Eng.ybof.]

pad, 1098b.]

pada,
step;

n.

-1.

step, 17

21

99 s23

-2.

foot-

path [433], same as panthan. patha, for path in cpds [1315c]. path! [433], same as panthan.
pathi-raksi,
a.
:

3. foot,

86 6 ;

4. standing-place,
;

stead, place;

home, 56 4
cf.

station, position,

41
paths,

guarding
acct, 1276.]

the

WSov, 'ground'; Lat. op-pedum, op-pidum, 'town, (on or over the


.

[Vpad:

[panthan, 1249a

field)'; peda, 'footprint';

pathya,

(pertaining to the way, course, or progress of a thing, and so) suitable,


a.
;

going,

journey,'

AS. fozt, 'step, whence fetian, 'go for,'

wholesome
1212d
V
1.]

pathya,

f.

pathway,

[path,

Eng. fetch.] p a d m a m. n.
,

lotus,

Nelumbium speciosum

(not the plant, but the flower, which closes


at evening).

pad

(padyate; papada, ped6 [794e]; apatta [882] panna patsyate, -ti pat turn ; -padya padayati). [957d]
;

padma-garbha,
Lotus-filled,
2-]
a.

a.

containing lotuses;
[see

name

of a lake,

garbha

1.

go, step, tread,


in

only w. prepositions
2.
fall,

and

derivatives;

sink

down padma-raga,
lotus
;

having the color of a

(from fatigue), perish, [connection between 1 and 2 not clear: uncompounded


verb

very

rare

see

under

pdd and

as m. ruby. [1296.] panthan [433], m. road, path, way. [cf. ' ' ' TTOTOS, path ; Lat. pont-em, path, bridge ':

pada.] + a, come unto; get into (a condition);


esp. get in trouble.
-I-

Eng. path and Ger. Pfad, if they belong here at all, must be regarded as very early borrowings, fr. the Greek irdros, or poss.

vy-a

fall

away, perish
or out

cans, destroy

from the Scythian.]

kill.

+ ud,

go forth

of;

come

into

pant ha [433 5 same pay as, n. milk.


],

as panthan.

[187]

[paridhi
syntactical forms sometimes correspond to the logical relation of the two parts so,
e.g.,

payo-mukha,
face or surface,

a.

having milk on the

[payas, 1303.]
1. far, distant,
off,

para

[525 ], a. tant, further


;

more

dis-

in

86 4

-2.
;

following,

the one the other

parasparam nindanti, they scold, but have come to


'

'

later, future

ing,

summus
;

being beyond, surpass7 10 ut; best, 36 chief, 68


; ;

3.

be stereotyped and used often where the


logical relation

would require other case-

17 u 13 most, 1 highest, 103 greatest, 44 as chief at end of cpds [1302b], having devoted to , thing, given over to
;

anyonya.] parasparadin.a. devouring one another,


:

forms

cf.

para, the one the other, 53 19 another, 30 22 10 6 foe, 29 strange, hostile stranger, 24 cf Wpd, 2 pr, across 37 19 bring [V
; ;
;

4. a.

and

subst. other,

64 13

eka

para,

[adin.] adv. to a distance, away, forth, [cf. irapd, w. gen., 'away from, from beside 'j
Lat. per- in per-lre and Ger. ver-in
ver-ijehen,,

;
'

'

'pass away, perish

';

Eng. for-

in for-bear,,

'

i.e.

Lat. peren-die, beyond day after to-morrow


; '

'

'

the day after/


;

'hold off from.']

'

Eng. far and

parakrama,

m.

s.

and
a.

/ore.]

courage; strength,
m. pi. another's wife,

par a -d a r a,

paran-mukha,
paranc
after,

pi. bold advance; [v'kram + para.] having the face

para-dravya, n. pi. another's property. para-pakaa, m. party of the foe.


para-patni,/. wife of a stranger. par am, adv. beyond; w. abl. [1128],
60 2 \
last

averted; turning the back upon, avoiding.

[paranc, 1249a, 217, 161.]


[409a], f. paraci, a. directed away ; averted; turning the back, [para + anc,

[para, llllc.]
[525
3
],

407.]
1. farthest,
13
;

pa ram a
;

a.

of heaven, highest, 83 2. chief est, 29 l ; supreme;

extreme, so 85 3
;

parartha,
-e,

m.

the sake of others;

-am,

adv. for others,

[artha, 1302c4.]

most

excel-

paravat,/.

the distance,

[para, 383d
abl.:

1,

end of cpds [1302b], having 12451] as supreme object, devoted to 3. pari, adv. around; prep. w. 8 15 around, 87 from, 75 advly in cpds, before an adj. [1279], highly,
lent,
;

15 1T

at

from
.

[cf

irepl,

'

exceedingly,
tiful.

[para, 474.]
a.

around.']

parama-gobhana,
paramangana,/.
[angana.]

exceedingly beau-

parigha,
'

most excellent woman,


supreme
lord.

[Vhan + pari, 1143c, 333: for mg, Schlag, coach-door/ and schlagen,
force of prep, unclear.]

m. iron bar for locking a gate. cf. Ger.


'

strike

'
:

paramegvara,
vara.]

m.

[15-

parighopama,
334 2 .]

a. like

iron bars,

fupama,
folk,

parame-athin,
est place
pati.
;

a. standing in the highsupreme, as epithet of Praja-

pari -j ana,
TrepiVoAoi
,

m.

the

surrounding

retinue.
a.

[1289a.]

[parame (1250c)
m. the

i-sthin, 186.]

p a r i - j a t a,

para-loka,
world.

other

or

future

parineya,
+
pari.]

completely grown. [1289a/J grdv. to be led around. [Vni


m.

paras,
here,

adv. far; in the distance; beyond; w. advly used instr. [1127] ena, beyond
i.e.

parityaga,

relinquishment.

[v'tyaj

beyond,
adv.

RV.

x. 125. 8.

[see

para.]

parastat,
the end.

beyond; afterwards, at

+ pari.] paridevita, n. lament. [V2div, 'lament,' + pari, 1176a.] paridhi, m. (a put-around, i.e.) enclosure,
10 in the language fence, protection, 86 of the sacrifice, the three green sticks laid
;

[pards, HOOb.]

paras-para, one another; parasparam and parasparatas, adv. with one another
;

mutually,

[an agglomeration (1314c) of


s.

it

about the altar fire and supposed to hold 13 3 together, 105 [\fldha, put,' +
-

'

paras (nom.

m. of para) and para: the

pari, 1155. 2e.]

paripanthin]

[188]
a.

paripanthin,
m.

besetting the path; as

parvan,
'fill,'

waylayer.
c end.]

[pari

+ panthan, 1310a
around, encom- V

n. knot, joint, ['fullness,' Vlpr, 1169. la: cf. parus. J

and

paribhu
passing.

[352], a.

being

pargu,/ rib; sickle. palay (palay ate; palay am


layista
;

cakre
;

apa;

[Vbhu +

pari, 323.]

palayisyati,

-te

palayita

pari-vatsard, parivartin, a.
pari.]

m. a full year.

[1289.]

turning round, circling, constantly returning into itself. [V vrt +


m. that which surrounds,
'

palayitum; palayya). flee; depart, cease, 40 19 i, [quasi-root f r. go,' + para, 2 away,' see 1087c and c quite different
' .

v'

'

is
i.e.

V palaya,

'

protect.']

parivara,
retinue.

[V 1 vr,
f.

cover,'

+ pari.]
i.e.)

palay ana, n. flight. [V palay.] pavana, n. instrument for purifying;


winnowing-fan.
V [v'pu, 1150.]

pari grit,
little

(encloser,

one of the

by which the sacrificial altar is surrounded. [Vgri + pari, 'enclose': 383b.]


stones

Ipag,

orig.
;

parisamkhya,
meration ; sum.

f.

complete tale or enu-

[V khya

+ pari-sam.]
[parus,

par us a,
1209b.]

a.

knotty, rough, harsh,


joint, of
'

paspage 2. perceive; 1. see; dadarga, etc.). 7 behold; -3. look; -4. look on, 39 13 7 ; 5. (see, i.e.) experience, 20 1G gaze, 35 !; -6. look upon, 21 40 15 consider
; ; ;
,

spag (p4gyati, -te; in Veda: dspasta [834c] spasta later :

parus,
body,
cf.

n.

knot ;

a plant or of the
' '

as;
seers

7.

see with

the
.

[perhaps
a.
;

fullness,' V 1 pr,

fill

and
'

9 poets), 94

parvan.]

see the perfect and

(as [for the initial s, vi-spasta: cf. <rKr' ;

spiritual eye

par6ksa,
invisible

beyond the
adv.

-e,

eye, out of sight, [1116], behind one's


i.e.

r-ofuu,

look about
'

'
;

Lat. specid, ' behold

back,

[for

paro 'ksa,
m.

paras + aksa,
thing,

'eye': 1310a.]

spy,' Old High Ger. spehon, whence, through Old French espier, the Eng. espy, and shortened spy.']

Ger. spoken,

paroksartha,
invisible,

invisible

the

[artha.]
f.

parkati,

waved-leaved
1.

fig-tree,

Ficus

anu, look along or spy out (e.g. a path for some one, i.e.), disclose or show, 83 7
.

infectoria.

-f

i,

see in places apart, distinguish, see


;

parna,

n.

wing; plume, feather;


cf.

clearly
V

vispasta, clear.
fasten,
[cf
.

2. leaf

for mg,

pattra.

[v'*spr

2pag,
paga.

bind,

in derivs, see pagii,


'

(1177a), see under Vsphur: cf. Lithuanian ' ' spdrna, wing ; Ger. Farn, Eng. fern, so called
(like
irrepis,

'

irdffffa\os,

#ira.K-ja\os,

peg

Lat. pac-iscor, 'bind myself, agree'; pax,

'fern,'

cf.

irrepSv,

'agreement, peace'; pang-ere, 'make fast/


pac-tum, 'agreed upon'; Goth, fah-an, AS. ' ' fasten on, take hold of ; Jon, tjoh-an,
seize,' noun yam?, seizingconnection of fing-er ('grasper, holder'?), doubtful: cf. also Goth, fagrs,
' '

'feather,')

from

its n.

feathery fronds.]

paryalocana,
consilium.

[Vloc
1. a.

deliberation; -&,f. plan, + pary-a, 1150. 2a 2 .]

Eng. verbyan^,
tooth';

consisting of knots or parvata, ragged masses, used of a mountain, giri ; as m. 2. mountain, 27 6 , 92 19 ; hill;
2 4. rock or cloud-mountain, 70 n 5. Parvata, name of a bowlder, 86 9 Rishi, companion of Narada (q.v.), 5 [fr.

'fitting,'

AS.fcegr, Eng./azV; AS.ge-feyan,


'
'

3.

Eng. /ay, Ger.fuyen, fit together,' trans., and Eng. fudge, fit together or agree/
intrans.]
2 a single head or a pagti, m. cattle, 90 domestic animal (opp. to mrga, herd;

parvan,

cf.

1245c:
'

cf. Tlappaffia (ttrapfarta),

sc. ir6\is, i.e.

Hil-ton.']

parvata-kandara, n. mountain-cave, parvata-gikhara, m. n. hill-top, parvatopatyaka,/. mountain-lowland,


lowland by a mountain range,
[upat-

'wild beast'), 67 2 ; esp. beast for sacrifice, 101 6 [prop, 'tethered (beasts)/ V2pac,
.

'fasten':

cf. Lat./jec-u,

Ger. Vieh, cattle/

'

AS.
orig.

yaka.]

property/ 'property/ then 'payment.']


feoh,
'cattle,

Eng.

fee..

[189]

[pana

pagu-ghna,
cattle-slayer.

a.

slaying

cattle;

as

m.

pagu-tfp,
V2trp.j

a.

cattle-stealing.

[vbl

of

Sone (gona) and Ganges, the Ila\t&oOpct of Ptolemy, 17 9 N. patava, n. sharpness; cleverness, [patu,
q.v.: 1208c.]

pagu-bandha,?n. animal sacrifice,


ing of beast' to sacrificial post.]

['bind-

pani

m.
'
:

hand.
Lat.

[prob.

for *palni
'

cf

TrctAci/uTj,

pagumant,
1235 and
b.]

a.

rich

in

cattle.

[pagu,

hand

palma, radically akin

AS. folm, palm, is AS. fel-an, Eng.

fed^

pacu-roman, n. a hair of an animal. pani-graha, m. hand-grasper, i.e. (see 89 5 N.) husband. pagu-vadha, m. slaughter of animals. page a, a. hinder; later; west; pagcat, pandava, m. descendant of Pandu. [panas adv. [1114c]
:

-1. behind
, ,
;

after,
;

39 23

du, 1208c.]

-2.

later,

13 upon, 36 ,

17 38 4 thereafterwards, 29 39 17 40 12 pagcat, as prep. w.

panditya,
ditk.]

n.

learning, erudition,

[pan-

gen. [1130]:

-3.

2 after, 51
.

-4.
[pacca
fr.

to the
is

pandu,
name

west

of,

11 98", 100 ", 105

an

inorganic transfer-stem (1209a)


q.v.]

pagca,

a. whitish, pale; as m. Pandu, of a prince of the Lunar Race. pandu-nandana, m. son of Pandu.

pandu-varna,
pata,
m.
fall.

a.

pale-colored.

pagca,
i.e.

adv. behind; later; west, [adverinstead of pagc-a, bially accented instr.


fr. pas-(a)c-a, 1112e *pas-anc (407) with pas cf Lat. pos-terus, ' later,' etc.]
.
:

[Vpat.]

pataka,
patra,
n.

a.

causing
1.

one to
[fr.

fall

(from

caste); as n. crime,

caus. of v/pat.] instrument of drinking,

pagcat,
cf.

see

pagcima,
V

pagca. a. last, 52 16

westerly,

[pagca:

1224a and b.]

2. in general, utensil (cf. cup; vessel; n -3. bhanda), 102 Jig., as in Eng. (cf. sthana5), a fit vessel or worthy person,
;

(pibati, -te [671, 749]; papaii, pape; apat pasyati, -te ; pita [954c] patum drink, pitva ; -paya, -pfya). [cf. W' have drunk The Burn, TTU-KO., TlT-ffa, The Fountain ' Lat. po-tus, drunk '
; ; ; ' '
;

lp a

22

5
;

patri

[364],

/.

sacrificial
2
.]

vessel.

[\/lpa, 'drink,' 1185a: cf. 362b 1. foot; leg, 26 10 ; pada, m.

2.

limb

of a quadruped,

'

'

bibo, *pi-b-o,

drink.']
;

quarter (as, conversely, in Eng., quarter means fourth part of a quadruped, including a leg') then quarter
'

i.e.

V 2

pa
;
.

(pati

apasit;
so-called
'

patum).
cans.,

protect;

(of

anything);

3.

esp.

quarter

of

keep
[cf
'

for

see

palaya.
'
;

irf-ira.-p.cu,
;

have kept, possess


'

tru>-v,
'
;

herd '

Lat. pa-sc-o,

keep, pasture

see

(four-versed) stanza, verse; then verse 12 (even of a three-versed stanza), 60 4. (foot of a heavenly body, i.e.) ray,
;

go-pa.]
1

beam
,

see

2 kara.

[transition-stem (399)
if
it

+ p a r i protect around. pa, vbl. drinking, in cpds. pa, vbl. keeping, keeper, in
pi. dust.
1.
'

fr.

pad, ace. pad-am, to which, as


is

[\/lpa.]
cpds.

were pada-m,
etc.]

formed the nom. pada-s,


[lit.

[V2pa.]
2. sim-

pansu, m. paka, a.
ple,
[lit.

pada-pa,
young;
'

m. plant, esp. tree.

'drink-

of a calf,

ing with

its foot, i.e. root.']

sucking,' V 1 pa,
f.
:

drink.']

paka-durva,
[paka + durva

young
1280 2 .]
;

millet-grass.

pa da -raj as, n. foot-dust. padika, a. amounting to


fourth (of a time), paduka, f. shoe
' ;

or lasting

one

acct,

[pada.]
slipper.
[cf.

patala,
pata1i
,

a.

pale

red

as

m.

Bignonia

pad,

suaveolens.
f.

foot.']

Bignonia suaveolens or trumpet[cf.

pana,
drink);
ing,

1. n.

flower,

patala.]
n. Pataliputra, capital of the old confluence of the

2.

the drinking (esp. of strong perhaps as vbl adj. drench[V 1 pa,


'

patali-putra,
Magadha,
at

i.e.

trankend.

drink,'

1150.]

paniya]
paniya,
as
n.

[190]

grdv. to be drunk, for drinking ; drink; water. [VI pa, 'drink/ 965:
fr.

pfnda,

m.
8

1.

lump;

ball;

lump
or
3.

(of

prop.

pana, 1215b.]
m.
water-rain,

2. esp. lump earth), 98 ; meal offered to the Manes;


ful,

cake of

mouth-

paniya- varsa,
pour of water,

down-

pindi, f. meal-cake. pitamaha, m. father's father,


;

65 5

pantha,
papa,
27 2
.

m. wayfarer; viator,

[panthan,

father

1208a 2 end.] pitr) + 19 a. bad; evil; as m. bad fellow, 46 pitf [373], m. -1. father; -2. pi. father and his brothers (cf. French parent, relaevil (deed), as n. trouble; harm, 26 8
; ' ;

grandgreat father, [pita (nom. s. of maha, 1314c and d.]

tive'), 61
a.

3. pi. the

fathers, spirits
16
,

papa-karman,
villain,

of evil deeds; as m.
evil as one's nature,

of the forefathers, the Manes, 67


etc.

83 13
:

papa-gila,
prone to
466.]

a.

having

irar-ftp,

[origin unknown, see 1182d Lat. pater, Eng. father.]


,

cf.

evil,
a.

pitrtas
worse; very bad.
.

adv. on the father's side,

[pitr,

papiyans,

[papa,

1098b.]

papman,
para,
'
.

m. evil; sin, 93 11 [cf. papa.] n the further bank or bound. [V 2 pr,


a.

pitr-mitra, pitr-yajna,
[yajna.]

n. father's friend.

m.

sacrifice to the

Manes,
patruus.

bring across.']

pitrvya,
of the supreme lord
[pitr,
'

m.
:

father's
.

brother,

paramegvara,
(Qiva).

1228c

[paramegvara.]
n.

fsedera,

cf irdrptas, Lat. patruus, father's brother.']

AS.

parusya,
[parusa.]

harshness, esp. of

speech.

pi try a,
to the

a.

of
;

18 fathers, 78

one's father; of (our) of or belonging to or sacred


[pitf,

parthiva,
as m. king,

a.

of or belonging to the earth

Manes,
'

1212b

cf.

irdrpios,

[prthivi, 1208d.]
/. king's

Lat. patrius,
v'

of one's father.']
;

parthiva-suta, parthivendra,
kings,

daughter,

pin v
716.]

(pinvati

pipinva pinvita). cause


;

m.

most excellent of

to swell or stream.

[V pi or pi

749, 749b,

[indra.]

pargva,

n. 2. as in 1. side; ana* so [pargu, Eng., immediate neighborhood. ' ' so French c6te~, side or rib/ 1208c
:

pipasa,

f. desire

to

drink,

thirst,

[fr.

desid. (1026) of VI pa, 'drink': 1149 4 .] pipila, m. ant. [perhaps for *piplda,
'

ribbed part/ Medieval Lat. costatum, Lat. costa, 'rib.']

fr.

pressed in or constricted in the middle/


-te
'

Vpid.]
V

pal a,
1189.]
V

m.

protector.

[V2pa, 'protect/

pig
'

(pingati,

[758]; pipega,
[cf.
irojKt'Aos,
'

pipig6;

pistd).

adorn,
;

AS. fah,

pal ay a
tect;

(palayati).
is

keep.

be protector; pro[pala, 1042f: acct, 1067:


Vpalay, 'go away.']
[Vpu,
sin.

many-colored
a.

Lat. pic-tor,

painter.']

piganga,

reddish brown.

[Vpig.]

quite different

p i g a c 4 m. one

+ pari,

protect around,
a.
:

pavaka,
pavana,
paga,
'

pure; clear; bright.


cf
.

of a class of demons (perhaps , personifications of the ignis fatuus); goblin. piguna, a. backbiting, slanderous, [cf.
iriKpos, 'bitter.']

1181b and a
a.

gvapada.]
V

purifying; freeing from


trap.

pis

(pinasti;

pipe>a,

pipisd;

apisat

[Vpu, 1150b.]
m.

bond; snare;
pi.

[V2pag,

fasten.']

peksyati; pista; pestum; pistva; -pis5 mill. ya). crush; grind, 47 [cf. Lat. pinsere, pisere, 'crush': of doubtful kin;

V pi,

same as

ship

is mia-ffd},

'

pound, husk.']
for

ping a, a. pin gal a,


1227.]

reddish brown.
a.

reddish

brown.

+ sam, crush together or to pieces. [pinga, pista, ppl. milled; as n. meal. [Vpis:
the mgs,
cf. pis,

pista,

and

molere,

mola,

pinjula,

n.

tuft of stalks

grass.

with

mill, meal.']

[191]

[pura
punar,
equiv.
to

pista-pagu,
beast
V

m.

effigy

of

sacrificial

punah punar,
further, 29

13
;

3.

made
],

of meal.

confirmative,

pi
[786

or
s

pya

(pyayate

[761dl]; pipaya
pita,

8 over, 16 ,

moreagain, 57 21 ; besides or in turn, 10 10 ;


;

swell;
fat.']

pipyiis; overflow,

apyasit;

pina).
iri-onv,

[hence pi-van,
2.

kim punas much more,

tu,

but what besides,


;

how
; .

1. seat; pit ha, n. image of a god).

pedestal (of an

a fortiori, 17 15 longer, 84 s on the other hand, 20 17 4. but, 46 2 10 [cf. the similarly connected notions of
-

pitha-cakra,
a seat.
\

n.

seat-wagon; wagon with


2

and opposition shown by Trd\iv, Eng. again and against, Ger. wieder and
iteration
wider.']
a. f.

piid

(pidayati

[1041

];

pidayam asa; punar-garbhavati,


nant.

again preg-

pidita; pidayitum;
press;

pidayitva; -pidya).
[for *pizd, *pisd,

oppress, pain,
:

198b 8

cf.

Vpis.]
20 .
3 [Vpid, 1149 .]

punar- janman, n. re-birth. punah-sara, a. coming back

(as a

ghost

+ a, pida,

press out, 103 f. pain, ache.


a.

from the other world exactly like the French revenant), and so ghostly, uncanny,
ppl.

pin

a,

thick,

brawny.
[Vpi:
cf.

['swollen,'

[punar, 178.]

of Vpi, 957a.]

pumans
irlap,
i.e. -itt-fap,

[394], m.
e.g.

pivas,
'fat.']

n.

fat.

o/stri,
1

104 9

man; a male, 59 7 opp. pumansah putras, male


;

2 children, 98 \

pums,
puta,
ket),

same as pumans.
m.
n.

pur,/,

fullness,

[vf

Ipr,
'

'fill.']

fold; cavity; nose (of a bas:

pur
fied

[392], /.

stronghold;
.

castle;

forti-

[for #plta cf. -ir\affios, *ir\rjos, in St-TrXafftos or Si-ira\TOs, Eng. two-fold.]


a.

town,
n.

[cf ir6\is,

city.']

pura,

stronghold; fortified town; city.


1.
;

ptinya,
good good
;

prosperous; happy; 13 59 1>10 faustus, auspicious, 12


,

lucky,
;

[2 pur, 399.]

right,

puramdhi,

a.

courageous,
3.

high-

as

n.

good work
28 n
;

sing, collectively,

spirited, exalted

2. as m.
;

perhaps as
asf. exal-

works,

merit
v'pus.]

(from

good

name of a god, Purandhi


tation.

works),
smell.

[perhaps

fr.

piinya-gandha,

a.

of good or pleasant

pur as,
first,

adv. in front, forward, before; at


;

54 18
:

compounded [1078

6
]

esp.

tv.

kr
.

punya-papa,
[1253a.]

n. pi.

good and bad deeds.

and dha
priestly
'

w. kr, put in front, appoint ; w dha, put in front or in charge, esp. of the
duties.

punya-loka,
puttika,
insect
'
:

a. of good fame; as m. Punya9loka, epithet of Nala.

[see

pra:

cf.

-rrdpos,

before.']

f.

white ant.

['the

doll-like

puras-karya,

grdv. to be appointed or
[see

putra,

for putrika.] m. -1. son;

child,

98 20

-2.

commissioned, praeficiendus. + kr: also963b and 171 3 .]

puras

3. shortened form for Putraka whelp; as proper name. 1. little son (as term of putraka, /.

purastat,
85 18
;

adv.

1.

before; in the front,


'

-2.

6 previously, afore, 98 ,101


i.e.

13
;

3. before,

(see

pranc)

eastward;
the

endearment), boy;
wise Putra,

2.

Putraka,

other-

4. prep. w. gen.

[1130],

before, in

name
;

of the founder of Patali-

presence

of,

20 l

2 putra-pura, 45

-putrika,

/.

[1222d],

purah-sara,

a.

[puras, HOOb.] going before; as m. fore-

daughter; doll (of wood or lac), [putra.] putra-dara, n. son and wife. [1253b.] 1. back; home; tv. a-gam, piinar, adv. 3 18 so a_i, 83 14 w. vac, go back, 4 41
, ; ;

runner; at end of cpds [1302c2], having


as forerunner, i.e. accompanied by or after -purahsaram, adv. with
;
.

pura,

19 reply, 19

-2.

8 again, 8

40 21

anew;
2
17
;

punah

punar,

again

and

again,

adv. formerly, 46 2 79 14 once upon a time, 38 9 48 20 prep. w. all. [1128], 17 104 19 before, 95 [see pra.]
,
; ,

purana]
purana,
times
;

[192]
a.

former,
n.

belonging
of

to
;

old
tale

pustanga,
pusti,
[V pus.]

a.

fat-limbed,

[anga.]
;

as

things

the

past

f.

thrifty

growth
flower.
2

prosperity.

of old times, \6yos and pvGos.

[pura,
to

1245d.] pur is a,

p lisp a,
n.

n.

bloom
:

[poss.

for

crumbling earth, as opp.

*puska,
tooth,

q.v.

cf.

1201

end.]

['fillings fluids; rubble; loose earth, ' fill, heaps,' fr. V 1 pr, in the sense

or
i.e.

puspa-danta,m. Pushpadanta or Flowername


of an attendant of C,iva, see

heap': 1197b.]

53 3
q.v.
:

N.

puru,

a.

cf. iro\v,

much, many. [Vlpr, 'fill,' AS.fela, 'much, many.']


adv.
in

puspamoda,
,

m.

fragrance of

flowers,

purutra,
1099.]

many
man;

places,

[amoda.] [puru, p u s t a k a m.
V

n.

pu

(punati, punite

manuscript book. ; pavate; pupava;


;

purusa,
man,
i.e.)

m.

1.

servant;

3.

life-giving principle

2. (as in Eng., the personal and in man and other

apavit; puta; -puya).


or bright
2.
;

1.
;

make
[cf
.

clear
;

purify

KaQaipfiv

puta, pure
w. puta,

mid. clear
fire
'

itself,

flow clear,

irv-p,

4. personified beings, soul, spirit ; then as The Supreme Spirit, Soul of the Uni8 verse, 57
.

Eng.

(rb irvp Ka.6a.ipfi):


'

cf.

Lat. putus,

clear,' purus,

pure.']

purusa-kara,

m. deed of a man,

effort, as opp. to claiva, 'fate.'

sam, purify, clean. human pu, vbl. purifying, in cpds. puga, m. betel-palm, Areca Catechu;
n.

as

purusa-sinha,m.
man.

man-lion, stout-hearted
V

betel nut.

puj

(pujayati, -te; pujayisyati; pujita;

puruci

many, abundant long, [for-pujya). honor. + abhi, do honor to. mally fern, to a stem *puru-ac, 'directed cf piijaniya, grdv. to be honored. or reaching in many ways, abundant
,

a.f.

'

[Vpuj,

407.]
a. going before; as m. leader; at end of cpds [1302c2], having as leader, accompanied by [puras.] puro-gava, m. fore-bull, and so, general-

965.]

puro-gama,

p uj a

f. honor.

pujya,
963d.]

grdv.

to

be

honored.

[Vpuj,

purna,
957b:

ppl.
cf.

ized (see g64), leader; purogavi,/. leader,

filled; full. [Vlpr, Goth, fulls, Eng. full.']

'fill,'

[puras.]

purna-masa,
ppl. set before or in

m. full

moon and

the full-

pur6-hita,

charge

(esp. of priestly service) ; as m. priest, house-priest of a prince, [see puras with

moon sacrifice. purta, ppl. filled;


n.

bestowed, fulfilled; as

[1176a],
'fill,'

fulfilment;
242.]

reward;

merit.

dha.]

[Vlpr,
m. one of

pulkasa,
caste.

a despised mixed

purva
time:

[525*], a. being before in


1. east
13
;

place or
2. prior;

(cf.

prafic)

pus

(pusyati, -te

pusta).
78*.

1. thrive;
;

pup6sa bloom;
;

apusat

2. trans.

uttara, former preceding, 86 purva 8 6 latter, 21 ; ancient, 57 ; of old time,

cause to thrive
!

develop

unfold, display,

69 8, 83 10
ppl.

first

2 spoken, 60

w. past pass,

puska,

bloom, a word assumed as probable


'bloom,' piiskara,

[1291]: drsta-purva, seen before; 9 purvam, adv. before; beforehand, 60 ;

on account of puspa, 'lotus blossom,' and

previously, already, 7
times, 48 1
;

21
,

25 n
;

in

former
103 6
104 12
;

puskala.

[Vpus,

3 long ago, 46

first,

1186 2 .]

purvam
a.

uttaram,

first

last,

puskala,
fr.

abundant,

[prob. 'blooming,'
fat.

3. at

end of cpds, (having


i.e.)
,

as preced-

*puska, 1227.]
ppl.

ing
;

thing,

accompanied
.

by

or

pusta,

having thrived

strong

simply with

8 21

[connected w. puras

2 [Vpus, 955 .]

and pra.]

[193]

[paicunya
collateral form

purvaka,

f. [1222d] -ika, a. 2. used like purva ing ; 1222c and 1307.]


n.

1.
3.

preced-

[purva,
pre-

prth, prtha,
V

of prath,

in derivs.
irAon-eio.

m. the flat of the hand,

[V prath, 241.]

purva -janman,
purvaksara,o.
[aksara.]

former

birth,

prthak,
65 4
;

vious state of existence.

adv. separately, 105 1G severally, for one's self, 64 8 [perhaps 'di;


.

with the preceding

letter,

rected widely (apart)':

cf.

prth and see

mid.]
ancient,

purvya,

a.

pusan

[426a], m. keeper of flocks

[purva, 1212c.] prthivi, f. the earth as the wide and broad, [fern, to prthu, 344 2 and standing Pushan, a Vedic divinity, and herds, and bringer of for prthvi, as the metre shows it is to be
,

prosperity.
\f

[Vpus, 1160c.]

10 pronounced at 92

for

mg, cf mah-i,
.

Ipr
pass,

(prnati;

puryate;

purna [957b];
;

s.v.

mah.]
a.

puryate; purayati, -te; etc.). fill; prthivi-ksit, sate bestow abundantly prince. puryate, be;

earth-ruling;

as

m.

comes sated

make

[see 761b]; cans. [1041 -}, fill; a thing (ace.) full of (gen.}, 102 18 [for treatment of root-vowel, see 242 cf ' Lat. plere, fill -jri'-7rA.7j-jut, po-pul-us,
. :

prthivi-pati, prthivi-pala,
king.

m. lord of the earth, king. m. keeper of the earth,

'

prthii,
241:

f. prthvi, a. wide, broad,


cf.

'folk';

Eng.

fol-k

(doubtful):

see also

Tr\arvs,

'wide':

[v prath, akin are Old

purna and Vpra.] + pra, intrans. prapuryate,


sated.

Eng._/?aJ?e,

becomes

+ sam,
full
;

intrans.

sampuryate,
full.

becomes
pass,

Ger.Fladen, 'broad, thin cake,' Old High Ger. ace. s. fladon, sacrificial cake,' whence, through French flan, flat cake,' comes the Eng. Jtawn, flat custard
' '
'

sampurna,

or pie': V

prath has no connection w. AS.

2pr
over,

(piparti; parayati, -te; etc.).

brad, Eng. broad.]

trans.;

bring across,
cross
' ; ' '

[cf.

Trepctco,
i.e.
'
;

'pass
ford,

pfgni,

Tropos,
;

passage,
'

ferry,

bridge
'

Lat. por-ta,
;

gate
'

fare,

get on
'

'

ferry,

for-d ;

Eng. Avestan

a. speckled; dapple, esp. of kine; as f. Pri^ni, mother of the Maruts. [cf. irepKvds, 'dark colored'; Old High Ger.
'

farhana, whence Ger. Forelle,

trout.']

peretu,

bridge,'

and

E.v-<ppdrr]s,

the well-

prsad-ajya,
pfsant, prstha,
a.
n.

n.

speckled

butter,

ghee

bridged
Ox-ford.']

(stream)';

also

B6<T-iropos

and

clotted with curds,

[pfsant.]
[450c.]

speckled.
1.

vl

+ a t i bring across. 3pr (prn6ti; prta;


,

priyate; parayati).

be busy; only w.

a, see 773.

2. back, of an animal; 3. top, of a hill the upper side, surface or palace, [cf. Ger. First, 'ridge of a
;

+
V

a, in
-

aprta, busied.
,

house
is

'
;

AS.

'

'

first-hrof,

ridge-pole

ob-

+ vy a

in

vyapriyate,

busied.
;

prc
sit,

(prnakti, prnkte; paparca aprakaprkta [882] prkta; prcyate). fill;


; ;

serve that VWTOS has mgs 1, 2, and 3, that Lat. tergum has mgs 1 and 2, and that

Eng. ridge has mgs

and

3.]

mix

put in connection with, connected w. V 1 pr, fill.']


'

[perhaps

prsthatas,
with the [1098c
in
3
.]

adv. a tergo, from behind; 17 back, with averted face, 30


n.

+ up a, put

one's self close to, be near.

pft,/. fight, battle. p ft an a, f. battle, [cf. ptt.] V prta nay a (prtanayati). fight;
ppl. fighting; as subst.

prstha-mansa,
double
sense,

bite

back-flesh; w. khad, the back-flesh and

present

back-bite.

enemy,
fight;

[prtana,
attack;

peya,

n.

drinking.
a.

[VI pa,

'drink,'

1060.]
V

1213c.]

prtanya
present ppl.

(prtanyati).
fighting
;

paiQaca,
1208f.]

f.

-I,

of the goblins,

[picacd,

as

subst.

enemy,

[prtana, 1059d.]

paigunya,

n.

slander,

[piguna, 1208f.]

13

posa]
p6sa,
in.

thriving, development;

welfare.

am,

mid.

consult with,

converse

or

[Vpus.]

talk with.
,

paumsya

n.

manliness
manliness

manly

deed,

praja,^
children,

2 [pums, 1211 .]

1. procreation; descendants
;

2. offspring,

3.

creatures,

paurusa,
V

n.

manly

deed,

57

1
;

esp.

4. folk, subjects, of a prince,


-f

[purusa, 1208f.]

16 5
[a collateral

[Vjan or ja
m.
-f-

pya

(pyayate [761dl]; apyasit [882];


swell; overflow.
q-v.] full of or rich in.

praja-kama,
[praja
i.e.

pra, 1147.] desire for


:

offspring,

pyata).

kama, 1264

acct, 1267.]

form of Vpi, + a, become

praja-kama,
1295.]

a. possessing prajakama, desirous of offspring, 93 c , I 1 -. [1296,

pra,
[cf.
'

prep,
irp6,
' ;

forward, onward, forth, fore,


'before';
Lat.
later pro, see also the followprff,

praja-pati,
2.

Eng. fore : ing articles, and puras, pura, and purva.]

before

89 19
or

m. 1. lord of creatures; genius presiding over procreation, 3. lord of creatures, i.e. creator

prakarana,

n.

treatment

discussion

Prajapati,

60 10

see

note.

[acct,

subject of discussion, what's being talked ' about. [V 1 kr, do, put,' + pra.] prakarsa, m. (preference, advantage,
'

1267a.]

prajarthe,

adv. for the sake of offspring,

[artha, 1116, 1302c4.]

i.e.)

superiority.
cf.
'

for mg,
Vor-zug,

draw,' + pra: prajfia, f. understanding. [Vjna-pra.] Eng. preference; also Ger. prajnata, ppl. well-known. [Vjna ~ preference, advantage,' with pra.]

[Vkrs,

'

vor-ziehen,

draw forward,
a.

prefer.']

pranaya,
open;
fection.

m.
[V ni

manifestation of one's

af-

prakaga,
prakrti,
form
set,'

sliining

out,

clear;

+ pra
n.

for n, see 192a.]


1.

-am, adv. openly, aloud.


f.

[Vkag + pra.] that which one pre-supposes (voraus-setzt), i.e. the original or natural
or condition
;

pranayana,
means

a fetching;
[do.]

2.

for fetching, vessel, pranava, m. the sacred

syllable

om.

nature.

[V 1 kr,

'

do,

prakopa,

pra.] m. a boiling with rage; anger, the morning. a. with loosened


[gikha.]
[Vcit

[Vnu 4^ pra, q.v.] pra n am a, m. bow, reverent


[v'nam
4-

salutation,

pra.]
ppl.
see

[v'kup + pra.] prage, adv. early in pracrtta-gikha,

pranita,

Vni + pra;

-as, f. pi.

holy water.

pranita-pranay ana,

braids or flowing hair,

pracetas,
.

a.

knowing, wise.

n. the fetching of the holy water. [1250e.] prataram, adv. further, longer, [pra,

pra, cf 1151. 2b.]


V

473 2, llllc:

prach
;

(prcchati, -te; papraccha [794c];


;

prati,

cf. Tfp6repov, 'before.'] prep, hi reversed direction, back to,

praksyati prsta ; prastum apraksit prstva -pfcchya). ask; ask after, inquire about; ask some one (ace.) about
; ;

back against, against,


,

in return

1. to,

something
:
.

(ace.),

61

7
.

[true

root-form
orig.
' ;

19 towards, w. ace., 2 reference to, in respect 13 2>) 3. over against,


;

23"; -2. with


to, w. ace.,
i.e.

47

17
,

like

4. in

prag (see 220, 241, *prk cf Qfo-irpoTr-os,

and Vvrgc),
'

cpds [1313a]
see

before

on, w. idea of coni.e.)

asking the gods

stant repetition ; at;

(back-,

reflected;

Lat. prec-es, ' prayers,' proc-us, ' suitor Old High Ger. frdh-en, Ger. frag-en, ' ask

'
;

'
:

'to'; Lat. par- (*port) in por-rigere, 'reach out


[cf. vporl,
to.']

the following words,

is a sk-formation (*prk-sketi), Lat. poscit, *porc-scit, Old High Ger. ' forskot, *forh-skot, asks for,' Ger. forscht,

prcchati
cf.

pr atij na,

f. promise.

prati-dinam,
[1313a, 1310a

[Vjna -f- prati.] adv. on (each) day, daily.


:

'inquires into.'] -fpari, ask.

and d

cf

pratyaham.]
[\fpad

pratipatti,
inquiry.
prati.]

/.

the acquiring.

+ vi,

find out

by

[195]

[pradhana

prati-bimba, n. reflected disk (of sun praty-abhivadana, n. return-salutaor moon in the water) image. tion, Gegen-gruss. [1289b.] pratima, f. match image likeness. praty-aham, adv. on (each) day, daily.
;

[V 1

ma +
'

'

prati,
'
:

make
for

(so

as

to

be

[1313a,

1310a and d:

1315a:

cf.

pra-

mg, cf. Eng. counterimitated/ fr. French contre-fait, feit, whose elements go back to Lat. contra and facere.~] pratimana, n. that which is made or
match) against
put over against, a match, equal.
[V 1

tidinam.]

pratyakhyana,
praty-a.]

n.

refusal.

[Vkhya +
to

pratyutthana,
praty-ud, 233a.]

n.

rising

up

meet
[Vstha

(a

person), respectful reception.

ma

+ prati.] pratistha,/.
(like

pratyutpanna-mati,
stead; standing-place; then
i.e.

a. having wits ready to meet an emergency as m. Ready;

Eng. standing), position, [V stha + prati.]


n.

celebrity.

wit,

name

of a

fish.

[Vpad + praty-ud.]
:

pratyrcam,
(like

adv. at or with each stanza,


1315c.]

pratisthana,

stead;

then

Ger. of
V

[prati

+ re,
;

1313a, 1310a and d


-ti;

Stadt, 'place, town'),

The Town, name

prath
thista
that).
trans.;

(prathate,
;

a town on the Godavari, the Ha.lQa.va of the Greeks. [V stha, + prati, 1150: cf.

H'amp-stead.
one's

,]

prathit& broaden, intrans.; cans, broaden, n spread out, 78 [see under


.

paprathe; apraprathayati ; apapra-

pratihastaka,
pratikara,
[V 1 kr,
'

m. proxy.

['person at

hand/ prati + hasta, 1310a, 1222c.]


m.
counter-action,

prfchu.] + vi, cans, spread out wide, 75 8

remedy.
'

prathamd,
at
first,

a.
'

first;

primal;

-am, adv.

do,

act/

'

-f

prati,

against

[lit.

fore-most/ for *pra-tama,


3
,

1087b.']

superl. of pra, 487


a.

473 2 .]
[1286.]

praticina,
following,

backward

being behind

prathama-ja
prada,
a.

[352], a. first-born.

i.e.

future,

[pratyanc, 1223d.j
con-

giving;

furnishing.
1.
a.

[Vlda +
to

pratlta, ppl. see \fi + prati. pratipd, a. (against the stream,


trary
;

pra, 333.]
i.e.)

pra-daksina,

moving

the

-am,

adv.

contrarily,
cf

frowardly.
.

[prati + ap, 1310a, ISloc, for mgs, cf. Eng. contrary..] pratta, see 1087e.

samlpa

2. -am, adv. to the right, so that right ; the right side is towards an object (a sign of respect), 60 1 , 99 1 ; w. kr, put (an
3. adj. standing object) to the right ; on the right, 62 19 [perhaps the use as adv. (mg 2) is the primary one, lit. 'for.

pratyaksa,
visible
;

-e,

before the eyes, plainly adv. before one's face, [prati


a.

aksa, 1310a.]
.

ward
a seeing be-

to the right.']

pratyaksa-dargana,

fore one's eyes ; the ability to see one (e.g. a god) bodily, 15 13
.

pradana, n. a giving. [Vlda + pra.] any pra dig, f, intermediate region (between
the cardinal
m.
points
see

dig),

[pra

pratyag-daksina, adv.
i.e.)

(west-southerly,

dig, 'fore-point.']

southwesterly,

[pratyanc, 1249a.]
a.

pradega,
[V die

direction;

and

so,

place.

pratyan-mukha,
:

having the face

westward, turned to the west, 1249a, 161 1306.]

+ pra.] [pratyanc, pradosa, m. evening, dark/ pra + doaa.]


-1. pradhana,
cf.
;

nightfall,

['fore-

pratyinc

[408], /.

[410] pratici, a.

(directed back, i.e.) turned backwards ; moving in reverse direction or away, 87 n ; 2. turned westward (see pranc), west-

n. prize of the contest; the contest therefor battle. [V 1 dha + pra :

dhana.]
n.

pradhana,

(that

which

is

put forward)

(being to-ward, face towards, w. ace., 71 18


erly;
.

3.

i.e.)

with the

[prati

+ anc,

the important or chief thing; at end of as chief thing, decpds [1302], having

407

see anc.]

voted to

[VI dha

+ pra.]
13*

prapatha]
pra-patha,
18 way, 85
;

[196]
m.
(forth-path,
i.e.)

onward

pramathin,
[V

journey in the distance or distant journey, 86 2


.

a. stirring; agitating. 3 pra, 1183 .] pramrsta-mani, m. polished or bright

math

-f

prabandha,

m.

uninterrupted connec-

gem.

[Jmrj-f-pra.]
a.

tion; continued series. [Vbandh + pra.] prabhava, m. origin; atendofcpd [1302],

pramr stamani-kundala,
ing bright-gem ear-rings.

possess-

having

as origin, originating with

prayatna,

[Vbhu fpra.]

prabha,
[v

/.

splendor;

radiant

beauty.

TO. effort, pains ; -ena, -at, adv. carefully. [Vyat + pra, 1177a.] prayana, n. a going forth (from home),

bha +pra.]
ppl.

journey.

[Vya
TO.

-f

pra, 1150, 192e.]

prabhata,

begun
[s

to be light; as n.

prayotf,
+ pra.]

remover.

[V2yu, 'keep

off,'

[1176a], day-break,

bha + pra.]

prabhava,
of
ascetics,

m.

superior might, of gods, of asceticism. [Vbhu +

pralaya,
pra lap a,

m. dissolution;
[v II
-f

esp. dissolution

of the universe,

pra.]
or

pra.]

m.

unintelligible

childish
[V

prabhu,

being before or superior to others; as m. ruler; master; lord; husa.


.

or

lamenting

talk

chatter.

lap +

pra.]
[pra, 1170 Lat.

14 band, 52

[later

prabhu

Vbhu + pra.]
n.

form (354) for Vedic pra van a, a. prone; sloping, (cf. 383d 1): cf. irpijvrjs, Doric
[1239.]

irpavos,

prabhutva,
prabhrti,/.
or on,
i.e.

lordship, power.
1.
lit.

pronus, 'inclined forward.']


, ;

a carrying forward p r a v a t f. slope, of a mountain 83 7 continuance; used esp. at end [pra, 383d 1.]
.

height,

of cpds [1296], having continuance from i.e. continuing from 2. then in ,


;

pra-vayas,

a. having (forward, vanced age; aged. [1305 2 .] a.

i.e.)

ad-

such

cpds used

in

ace.

s.

n.
,

adverbially

pravartaka,

causing to roll onward

[1311],

continuing
,

from

with

from

beginning 3. then as an adv.

(as a wheel), setting in motion,

promoting;

as m. promoter, prompter,

[caus. of v'vrt

uncompounded, prabhrti, w. abl., from on tatah prabhrti, from then on.


;

+ pra.]

pravada,
+ pra.]

m. a saying or an on

dit.

[Vvad

[Vbhr + pra, 1157.

Id.]

pramada, m. pleasure. [V mad + pra.] pramada-vana, n. pleasure-grove (of


prince).

pravibhaga,
a
pra-vi.]

m.

division.

[Vbhaj +

pramada-vana,
to the preceding.]

pleasure-grove (of the wives of a prince), [a quasi feminine


n.
;

n.

pravina, a. clever. pravinata, f. cleverness, [pravina.] 1. having turned forpravrtta, ppl.


ward;
directed

forward

pramana,
;

measure,

extent

(57

w ),
;

(to

specific

scale, standard

11 norm, rule of action, 21 a judge, 54 10 *2 authority, 12 , 19 [VI ma, 'measure,'


.
:

something by which to

object), esp. of an act performed with a view to the attainment of some advantage,
i.e.

interested, opp. of nivrtta, q.v.


in.

2.

engaged

[V vrt

+ pra.]
;

>/

+ pra, 192a hence, through the Persian pravrtti,/. a moving forward or taking an active step, 20 15 advance into or exfarmdn, the borrowed Eng. firman, 'an 12 or decree,' esp. of the Sublime authority posure of one's self to (danger, loc.), 20 Porte.] [V vrt + pra.] pramana y a (pramanayati). regard pravrddha, ppl. grown up, great. as an authority; take a person (ace.) as [v'vrdh + pra.]
.

authority in a matter
1058.]

(loc.).

[pramana,

pravega,

Ipravrajin,
m. lack of anything to

pramanabhava,
judge by.

[abhava.]

[Vvig + pra.] going forth or after, in cpd 3 for mg, cf. dvi-. [Vvraj + pra, 1183 lewd woman.'] (71^) irfpiSpopos,
m. entrance.
a.
:

'

[197]

[praptayauvana
the neighboring
also
f)

prais

[392], /.
'

command.
ais.j

[V

gas

+ pra,
['an

Romance tongues)
'

cf.

J 639, 225

2
:

cf.

Kotrf) (sc. StoAe/cTos),

the

Common

praraya,

m. respectful demeanor,
fr.

(dialect),' as opp. to Doric, etc.]

inclining forward,'

Vgri

+ pra.]

prag-griva,

a.

having the neck directed

eastward, moving to the left; -am, [pranc (1249a) + griva.] adv. to the left prag-daksina, adv. east-southerly, cf. pradaksinam. south-easterly, [pranc, 1249a.] prasada, m. grace; favor; prasadam kr, do favor, be gracious. [V sad + pra, prangana, n. fore-court, Vor-hof courtyard, [pra + angana, 1289a, 193.] q.v.] prasiti, f. continuation; extended path p r a n - m u k h a /. -1,0. having the face directed eastward, [pranc, 1249a, 149, 161.] [V sa + pra, 250.] (of life, for example). prasiddhi,/. success; celebrity; a being prajna, a. wise; as m. wise man. [praknown ato me aaiika iti prasiddhis, jna, 1208e.]

pra-savya,

a.

therefore I

am known
[V

as "Q.", 36 8
succeed,'
'

cf.

pranc
wards
2.

[408], /. praci, a.
;

I.

directed for9 onward, 86


;

prasiddha.

2 sidh,
1.
.

'

pra.]

w.

verb of motion,

prastara,
2.

m.

stramentum, straw;
:

east,

rock,
1,

33 10

for

mg

cf.

strew,' + pra [V sir, Eng. straw w. strew: connec-

naming

eastern (since the Hindus, in the cardinal points, began with

the east, as

we do with

tion of

mg

prastava,
[\lstu

2 unclear.] m. beginning,
a.

conceived
introduction.

it

as before them, as

the north, and we do the

+ pra, 1148.2.]
having one's
sac;

north) 101 3
;

3.

praci dig, the eastern quarter, prak, ace. s. n. as adv. before:

prastuta-yajna,
rifice

(in place) before one's face,


, ;

26 8

(in time)

begun of a Brahman.
m.

as m. Prastutayajna,

name

prastha,

n.

[V stu + pra.] table-land on a mountain,

21 51 7 formerly, 20 (in order) before, w. abl. [1128], 59 7 [pra + afic, 407.]


.

pranjali,

a.

having an anjali

(q.v.)

before

from the surone, i.e. in a posture of reverent salutation, rounding country,' fr. Vstha (333) + pra.] [pra + anjali, 1305.] pra-svadas, a. (lit. having advanced prana, m. breath; vital breath, 60 16
['that which stands forth
;

agreeableness,

i.e.)

highly

pleasing.

vital spirit, 63
life;
esp.
in

21
;

then (like

Eng. breath),
15 5 , 2 1
18
,

[1305

2 .]

pi.

pranas,

life,

(on a gong, anprahara, nouncing the lapse of a watch), and so a watch (of about three hours). [Vlhr +
pra.]

m.

a stroke

[Van + pra, 192b.] pranin, a. having life; as m. living being,


.

29 8

[prana, 1230.]

pratar,
to

adv.

1.

early in the morning;

prahartavya, grdv.
one must
heart,
V
strike,

be struck

impers.

then

[do.]
a.

prahrsta-manas,
[v'hrs
4

having a delighted

Ger. morgen and Eng. morrow) on the next morning, on the morrow, to-morrow, [pra, 1109: cf. irpoo-i,
2. (like the

pra.]

Ger. frtih,

'

early.']
6

pra
ta).
'

(prati;
fill.

papraii; apras [889]; pra[Vedic collateral form of 1 pr,


\l

fill,'

q.v.
fill.

cf

ir\-t)-pr)s,

Lat. ple-nus,

'

full.']

to view; w. as [1078 ], visible, appear, reveal one's self. prantara, n. a long and lonely road.

pradiis, adv. forth


be

a,

['

an advanced interval
to

or long distance,'

prak, see pranc. prakrta, a. natural;

pra + antara, 1289.]

usual; common; vulgar; as n. the vulgar (language), language of the vulgus, the Prakrit, [prakrti, 1208d for mg, cf Ger. deutsch, Old
: .

prapaniya,
[caus. of V ap

grdv.

be

brought

to.

+ pra,

965, 192e.]

prapta-kala,
moment.
tained
[\'

m. arrived time, favorable

ap + pra.]
a.

High Ger. diut-isk, '(language) of the people (diot), i.e. German' (as contrasted with the Latin of the Church and with

prapta-yauvana,
adolescence,

possessing

at-

having
[see 1308.]

reached

marriageable age.

praptavya]

[198]
grdv. to be obtained, about

praptavya,
to be got.

must have been 'loving


treated,

[Vap + pra, 964.]


a reaching, arriving
1.
at.

prapti,/. + pra.]
m.

[Vap

shown AS. fredd,


'

or loved, kindly spared' (and so 'free'), as is by the Goth, abstract frija-\>va,


'

going forth or out; pray a, 2. that which sticks out or is prominent the principal part of a thing; the most
;

free,

woman
'

Frla,

'

Ib, cf AS. Old High Ger. The Loving One,' in frld tag, Eng.

love
'
:

'

for

mg

cf

also

Fri-day,

dies Veneris.']

part; at end of cpds [1302], having for its predomithe most part, having

for

priya-vadin, a. saying pleasant things. priyapriya, n. comfort and discomfort,


[apriya: 1253b.]
V

nant characteristic, like


pra, 1148. la.] prayagas, adv.
for

22 16

[V i

prI

(prlnati, prinit6

priyate

pipraya,

the

most

part,

[praya, 1106.]

la. pipriy6; apraisit; prita; pritva). prlnati, gladden, show favor to, propi-

pray as,
50 22
.

noun

adv. for the most part, almost, [prop. ace. s. n. (lllld) of a neuter *prayas, 'that which is predomi-

nant' (see praya), Vi

+ pra,

pravi, a. attentive, 3 [Vav + pra, 1156 355b


,

1151. 1.] heedful, zealous.

have pleasure in be glad or content 2. priyate, be glad or content have pleasure in love, be favorably inclined to ; 3.
tiate
;

Ib.

prinati,

Ic. prinlt6,

end.]
2.

prit dear,

glad,
[cf
.

Goth, frijon,
'

loved, pleased, satisfied ' ' love ; frijonds,


;

pra 5 a n a,
'

n.

1.

the eating;
[in
2,

the
fr.

AS. freond,
friend;
also

loving,

i.e.

friend,'

Eng.

giving of food, feeding,

mg

1,

V2ag,

eat,'

+ pra;
eater.

in

mg

fr.

caus. of

the same.] pragitf, m.


1182a.j

'a sparing or indulgence, favor, grace, peace,' Ger. Friede, 'peace'; Goth. Frtya-reiks, Eng.
freo-\>o,
' '
:

AS.

'

[V2ag,

eat,'

pra,

grace-ruler, gracious prince see also under priya.]

Frede-rick,

pragitra,
eaten
['that

n.

by a Brahman which belongs


n.
['

the portion of ghee to be at a sacrifice,


to

priti,

/.

1.

pleasure; pritya, with pleas2. friendship.


n.

ure, gladly;

[Vpri.]

the

pragitr,'

priti-vacas,
words.

friendship-talk, friendly

1208b.]

pragitra-harana,
ing
the
pragitra.

vessel for hold-

prenkha,

a.

rocking, pitching;

as m.

n.

unsteady boat, skiff. [Vinkh +pra.] 1271.] pr6ta, ppl. gone onward, i.e. departed, 2. ghost. 1. dead man; dead; as m. prasada, m. lofty seat; building on high l foundations, palace, 20 [V sad + pra, [Vi + pra.]
pragitra-holding,'
.

perhaps in the sense


'

'

sit

forward

or in a

pr6tya,

grd. after dying,


to ilia).

i.e.

in the other

conspicuous place

see 1087b.]

world (opp.

[Vi

pra, 992.]
4 [Vpri, 470
:

priya,

a. la. dear, 79 16 ; beloved of, w. gen. (296b), 84 18 ; -Ib. priya,/. the


,

prestha,

a. very pleasant. serves as superl. to priya.]

6 10 beloved, the wife, 32 33 ; 58 <22 pleasant agreeable,


;

-2a.

desired,

presya,
[V 2 is,
'

grdv. to be sent; as m. servant.


send,'

priyam

do a favor, 3 2
meric

2b. as

n.
;

that which

1T desired, one's wish, 89

<]>l\osl

to

which one
86 8
;

is

+ pra.] praisya, n. servitude, [presya, 1208f.] 3. (like Ho- pr6stha, m. bench or couch. attached or prosthe-gaya, a. lying on a couch.
kr,
is
9
;

wonted,

own, 78 wonted; 4a. loving, devoted to; 4b. as m. friend. [Vpri, q.v., 1148.3: cf. irpaos, ' ' Goth, freis, ace. s. m. frijana, gentle
;

76 8 ,

[1250c, 1270.]

plava, name

a.

swimming; as m. swimmer,
[Vplu:
cf.
'

of a kind of duck.

ir\6os, *7rAoFos,

sailing.']

AS. fri, Ger.

fret,
'

Eng. free : although the


'

Vplu

(plavate,
;

-ti;

puplava,
;

pupluve

modem mg

free

is

common

also to the

aplosta

plosyati, -te
float

Goth, and AS. words, yet the orig.

mg

-pluya).

plutA ; -phitya, through water or air:

[199]
1.

[bandha
a.

swim;
;

2.
;

bathe;
fly off
;

3.

sail;

4.
;

phalavant,
results,

fruitful;

yielding

good

hover
6.

fly

5.

hasten away

spring

pluta, floating,
'

and
' ;

so (see

phulla,
ing,

[phala, 1233a.] a. burst open, expanded, bloom-

Whitney
[cf.
'

78), protracted, of a vowel.


*7rA.eFo>,
'
:

[see

ir\fw,

float,

sail

Lat.

phullotpala,
tuses
lake,
;

Vphal and 958.] a. having


n.

blooming

lo-

for rain pluere, Eng. intrans. float,


'

mg
'

of pluere, cf. the swim,' w. trans, float,

as

Blooming-lotus,

name

of a

cover with water,' and the intrans. bathe


:

ph6na,

[utpala.] m. foam.

w. trans, bathe
closely

connected w. Vplu is the extended form plud as seen in Lithuanian


'

banh
make

or

bah

(badhd

[223

s
]
;

cans.

plud-iti,
'

swim,

float

'
:

w.

this,

cf.

AS.

banhayate).
strong,

be thick, firm, strong; caus. [perhaps for *bhagh: see

fleot-an,
fleet,

swim
'

or float about,'

Eng. verb

'float,

sail,

hasten,'

sometimes swim,' but ' further, AS. fleot, raft, ship, fleet,' Eng. ' also AS. flota, ship,' Eng. fleet, ships a thing that swims on the surface float,
' ' ; '

Ger. fliessen, ' ' usually flow ;

bahii and bahu.] baka, m. heron, Ardea nivea.

baka-murkha,
heron.
[1280b.]

m. heron-fool, fool of a
a. conhaving ranged in circles.

baddha-mandala,
structed-circles,
[V bandh.]
v'

of a fluid, e.g. a raft' (verb float is a denom. of this), Ger. Floss, 'raft'; finally

i.e.

Eng.

streamlet or bay,' whence The Fleet, as name of a small affluent of the Thames at London and of a famous prison
'

fleet,

bandh
;

badhnit6 (badhnati, [730] babandha, bedhe bandhisyati, bhantsyati baddha bandhitum, banddhum,
; ; ;

thereon, and Fleet Street, which crossed

baddhum

The +a

Fleet.]
,

bathe, intrans.
1.
;

+ sam-a,
bathe, trans.
,

bathe,
;

Intrans.;
19 .

2.

1. -badhya). bind; fasten; catch; esp. bind (a victim baddha: for the gods, i.e.), sacrifice; 2. bind tobound caught fastened
; ; ;

baddhva

inundate

suffuse, 10

gether, join

and

then
in

(iv.

a specialization

+ u d spring up. + upa, hover unto. + vi, float asunder;


directions
;

of mg
drift
;

like

that seen

the

Eng. joiner),

in

different
;

construct, e.g. a bridge; compose (verses, Lat. serere). [for *bhandh: cf. -rrevOcf.
ep6s,

be dispersed ruined or dishonored.

be lost

be

'connection (by marriage)';


'

ireTo-^a,
'

'

*irfv0/j.a,
'

rope
'
;

Lat. of-fend-ix,
'

knot '

'

fld-es,
V

phal

(phalati

paphala

phalita

league ; Eng. string foed-us, bind, band: for mgs, cf. Eng. connection

phulla [958]).
'

burst, split, intrans.


(i.e.
:

[prob.

and league w. Lat.


'

con-nectere

and

ligdre,

for *spal, of which Vsphat


split,

break,'

is

an extension

*sphalt), cf Ger.
.

bind together.'] 1. bind; fasten; + ni,

2. (bind

down

spalten,

Eng. split.,] 4-ud, burst out or open; utphulla


(phalati).

[958],

together, put down connectedly, i.e.) put into written form, write down, 53 6
.

expanded, wide open.


V

phala

bear

fruit

fruit

connect onward, form an advancing connection, form a continued

+ pr a

bind on

phalitam, impersonally, it is fruited, fruit is borne (by a thing, instr.), 24 2 [denom.


~>.

series.

+ sam, bind
flg.

together,

con-nect

samsame

of phala, 1054.]

baddha, con-nected, co-herent


2. then
(like

(w. the

phala,
fruit),

n.

human
ment,

Eng, the good or evil consequences ol deeds result reward or punishthe ripe and bursting [perhaps
; ;

1. fruit;

as in Eng.}. bandha, m. 1. a binding; esp. a binding

mg

to the sacrificial post (see


rifice;

'

2.

band, string.

bandh 1), sac[V bandh: cf.

fruit,' fr.

Vphal.]

Eng.

band.~]

bandhana]
bandhana,
bonds.
a.

[200]
binding;
as
n.

bond

or

if so,
<t>fpw,

cf ., for the

mg,
,

'

<f>6pos,

tribute,'

baiidhu,
ship;

[-Jbandh.] m. 1. connection or relation2. (concrete, as in


;

'bear, bring.']

Eng.) a connec-

balin, a. mighty, I 3 [bala, 1230a.] balistha, a. most mighty; very strong.


2 [balin, 468 .]

tion, relative

friend

one who belongs

to (a certain caste, for example).

[Vbandh,
;

balonmatta,
power,

a.

frenzied or crazed with

1178.]

barbara,
m.

a.

stammering, balbutiens
foreigners, Aryans to
ana*
ot

1. pi.

SapjSapoj,

as V bah, name bahis-karya,


to
7 put/ 1078 .]

[unmatta, \'mad + ud.] see banh.


grdv.
to be put outside, [bahis and kr, 'do,

applied
(as

by Welsh
to
;

non-Aryan folks Walsch by English and


that

be banished.

Germans
tongue)

folks

2. sing, a

man

speak a strange of lowest origin;


.

bahis-krta,

wretched
'

wight,

10 wretch, 30

[cf.

ppl. put out, expelled. 7 [bahis and kr, 'do, put,' 1078 .] outside the enadv. bahih-paridhi,

&dpf}a.pos,

'foreign, outlandish'; Lat. bal-

bus,
'

stammering,' whence Spanish 6060,


[prop, 'pluckthe no less

bahis,

bar ha,
ings,'

blockhead,' Eng. booby.] m. n. tail-feather.


v'

closure (see paridhi). [1310a.] adv. [lllld], outside; as prep, outside of, w. abl. [1128].

brh,

'

'

pluck

cf

bahii, a. much, many; bahu man, consider as much, think much of, esteem. [Vbanh
or

arbitrary specialization of mg in Eng. pluck, 'that which is plucked out after


killing

bah

cf TT&XVS,
.

'

thick.']

bahudha,
1104.]

adv.

many

times.

[bahu,

a beast,

its

liver,

lights,

heart,'

and,

fig.,

barhina,
stem
fr.

'courage.'] m. peacock, 68 2 m.

bahumana,
.

m. esteem, respect.
adv.

[Vman
with
re-

[transition-

+ bahu.]

barhin, 1223f, 1209c.]

bahumana -pur ahsaram,


i.e.

bar bin,
cock,

(having tail-feathers,
KO.T'

the

spect.

[1302c2, 1311.]
a.

tail-feathered bird

f^o-^v,) the pea-

bahula,
much.

1.

thick;
1,

2.

abundant;

perhaps directly fr. bar hi s, n. grass or straw of Ku9a-grass, Vbah, 1189, and in mg 2, fr. bahu, 1227.] spread over the sacrificial ground to serve bahulausadhika, a. having abundant
[barha.]
[in

mg

as a place for the oblations and as a seat ' for gods and offerers, [prop. that which is torn up, vulsum, pluckings,' v'lbrh,
' '

herbs,
V

[osadhi, 1307.]

badh

(badhate
-te

babadb.6;

abadhista

badhisyati,

badhita

badhitum

tear,

pluck
1.

for

mg,
'cut.']

cf

Eng.

hay,

-badhya).
or

'cuttings,'

from hew,
;

press hard; distress; beset. [see Vvadh: cf. Lat. de-fend-ere, 'press

bala,
(for

n.

might, power, strength, force


4.

ward

off

'
;

'

of-fend-ere,

press

hard

balat, forcibly

2. then, as in Eng., force

upon, hurt.']

making war)
:
.

*vala

5 ; forces, troops, [for cf Lat. valere, ' be strong, well.']

+ ni

press
a.

down

badh a,

distressing

heavily, as
;

m.

distress.

bala -da [352], a. strength-giving. [1269.] [v'badh..] balavant, a. powerful. [1233a.] bandhava, baladhika, a. superior in strength, relationship,
[adhika: 1265.]

m.
i.e.)

(having
a

connection or
;

relative

friend.

balanvita,

a.

connected

with

power

suggestive of power, [anv-ita, Vi.] 1. of-fering, tribute; 2. esp. bali, m. portion of a daily meal or sacrifice offered
as

[bandhu, 1208c.] bala, a. young, not grown; as subst. m. and f. 1. child (distinguished from 12 yuvan, 'young man,' 28 ); boy; girl;
2.

applied
21 .

to

a grown person

(cf.

Eng.

tribute

to

gods,

semi-divine beings,

childish, puerile), child or booby, w. double

men, animals, esp. birds, and even inanimate objects, 65-. [perhaps fr. vbhr:

my, 61

balaka,

a.

young;

as m. child,

[bala.]

[201]

[brh
-te
;

balapatya,

n.

young

offspring, of

men

buddha
;

b6ddhum
be awake;
hence
3.
1

and of animals,

[apatya.]

-budhya).
consciousness

1.

2.

buddhva come to
; ;

baspa, m. tears. baspakula, a. agitated by tears, [akula.] bahu, arm; esp. fore-arm; of beasts,
7/1.

notice
4.

give
i.e.

heed

to,
;

w.

gen.,
so,

76

-;

notice,

perceive

and
;

become acquainted with


rarely,
i.e.)

the fore-leg, csp. the upper part thereof, 101 1D [for *bhaghu: cf. -x?ix'JS > Doric
. '

understand

5.

(like

Eng.

re-

member
to

a person,
or
to.

TTO.XVS, *(j>ax.vs,

fore-arm

' ;

AS.

'

bog,

arm

'

with a thing
notice

(instr.);

present a person cans. 6a. cause


;

and arm of a
'

tree, i.e. branch,' Eng. bough, ' ' of a tree/ Ger. Bug, shoulder, hip also Dutch boeg, Eng. bow, shoulder of a
'

understand
'

6b.

teach

arm

announce
[for

'

*bhudh,

orig.
'

be

awake/
'
:

cf.

'

ship/ bow-sprit,

bow-spar.']
n.

Church Slavonic
commonness,
usual

bud-eti,

be awake

the

bahu-yuddha,
bahulya,
state
n.

arm-fight, wrestling.

abundance;
usual
;

cognate words of the related languages agree closely in form, but show considerable diversity of mgs mg 4 mediates the transition to the idea of the Greek
:

of

being

concretely,

order of things; -at, from or in accordance with the usual order of things, in
all probability,

V IT j0, *<pv6, in

'

irv0ecrda.i,

find out

'
:

mgs
'

24

21 .

[bahula, 1211.]
at

and 6 form the bridge to the principal


end

bahya,
cpds.

a.

being outside, external;


to

Germanic mgs,
cf
.

'

offer

'

and

'

command

of cpds, equiv.

Eng.
cf.

extra- at beg. of

Goth, ana-biud-an, (prob.

'

give notice

bid a la,

[bahls, 1211: m. cat.

1208a 2 end.]

to/
'
'

and

so)

announce,

offer,

'command/ AS. beod-an, command/ Eng. bid,

bimba,
bila,
n.

m.

n.

disk of sun or moon.


fr.

[perhaps or bid, collateral forms of bhid, cleave.'] bija, n. seed, of plants and animals.
'

cleft; hollow.

Vbil

esp. at

announce, offer in words, offer in general, an auction, declare, proclaim, combiet-en,

mand, invite/ Ger.


biddan, Ger.
'

'offer';

(from

an entirely different root


bitten,

is

Eng.

bid,

AS.

buddha,
lightened
tribe,

ppl.
;

awakened; illumine; enesp., as m. The Enlightened


for

'pray/ as in bid beads,


also Eng.

'pray prayers';)

cf.

One, epithet of Gautama of the Cakya

announcement/
'

whence
for

noun bode, denom. verb


observe the
're-

formal

(160), the equivalent of -irvd-ro- in &TTV<TTOS,

[v/budh:

budh-ta

bode,

foretell

'
:

mg

5,

analogy of

Ger.

Jemand

bedenJcen,

'not having learned.']

member
understanding,
wits;
(as in
2.
;

buddhi,
intellect;

f.

1.

insight,

or take notice of a person esp. in one's will, i.e. make a bequest to.']

13 mind, 13

wit,

+ ni,
79
.

attend

to,

58 J

understand, know,

mind
belief

in the sense
;

of opinion

Eng.);

at end of cpds : vyaghra-buddhya, with tiger-belief, (mistakenly) thinking that it was a tiger, 34 15 3. mind in the
;

+ pra, come
sciousness
;

forth (from sleep) to conintrans.

awake,

sense

awake, 76 3 Eng.); buddhim kr, make up one's mind, 58 12 budh. a, a. awake; intelligent; wise buddhim pra-kr, mid., put a plan before wise man. [v'budh.]
intrans.;

+ prati, awake,
.

trans.,

of purpose, resolve (as

in

as m.

one's self, decide, 9 11 [v'budh, 1157: for budh-ti (160), the formal equivalent of TfvffTis, *irjO-Ti-s, ' an inquiring.'] buddhi -jivin, a. living by one's mind,
.

bubhuksa,
desicl.
V
1

f.

desire to eat, hunger,


'

[fr.

of v2bhuj, 'frui/ 1149 4 .]


,

brh

collateral

V 2

brh

form of V vrh, pluck/ q.v. babarha; brdha (brnhati, -te


;

employing one's

intelligence, intelligent.

cans,

buddhimant,
ing; intelligent.
V

a.

possessing understand-

be thick, great, brnhayati, -te). strong, in brhant, q.v.; cans, make great,
strengthen.

budh

(b6dhati, -te
;

biidhyate
[160]
;

bub6dha, brh,

bubudh6

abuddha

bhotsyati,

filling

prayer, conceived as a swelling and of the heart in devotion. [ :?brh.]

brhatkatha]

[202]
/. Great-Story, title of a

brhat-katha,

braliman,
a swelling

1.

Gunadhya (gunadhya), and abridged by Somadeva under the name Kathasaritsagara.


collection of stories ascribed to

and

filling

devotion (conceived as of the soul with

eral,

brhad-aijva,
of the sage

[brhant, 1249a, 1279.] a. possessing great or powerful horses as m. Brihada9va, name


;

adoration for the gods), worship, in genany pious expression in the worship of the gods hymn of praise, praise, 73 6 10 ,
-

744.11.

who

narrates the story of Xala

sacred word, word of God (opp. to the profane), 60 8 3. divine science, 57 13 sacred learning,
prayer,
;

76 15

2.

to Yudhishthira.

1298

cf. *Me7aA.-(7T7ros,

[brhant (1249a) + agva, which is similarly

compounded and

of like meaning.]

4. holy life, i.e. theology, theosophy; 5. the chastity ; (impersonal) spirit that pervades the universe. [v'2brh,

brhant

great; mighty; lofty, ' [present ppl. of V 2 brh, be great.'] m. Brihaspati, name of a bfhas-pati,
[450a],

a.

1168. Ic

brahman

(n.) is to

brahman (m.)
is

as prayer

('supplication')
1.
,

to pray-er

divinity in which the activity of the pious in their relations towards the gods is personified, the mediator between gods and men, and the type of the priest and of the priestly dignity later, god of wisdom and eloquence, ['lord of prayer,' brhfor cpd, see 1250 and d, and as + pati 1267d; for acct, Whitney 94b for eu;

brahman,
shipper
;

('supplicant').] m.

pray-er,

76 18
;

wor-

9 priest, 88

by profession,

2. the impersonal universe-pervading spirit (brdhman 6), personified as a god, i.e. Brahman, the
;

RV. x. Brahman

125. 5

pray-er

Supreme
system,

All-soul, 57

* 8
;

in the theological
17 .

the

Creator of the world, 67

[V2brh, see brahman.]

2 phony, 171 .]

brahmarsi,
see 1 14 N.

baijika,

pertaining to the semen; of [bija, guilt, inherited from one's father, 1222e and e2.]
a.
n.

[brahman (1249a 2 +

m. priest-sage, priestly sage, f si, 127, )

1280b.]

brahmavarcasa,
brahman
2
)

brahma-carya,
Brahman
tity

life

of

holiness

(brahman), walk and conversation of a student (brahman), esp. chas-

n. pre-eminence in sacred learning or holiness, [for brahmavarcas, which occurs only in derivs
:

(1249a

+ varcas,
a.
['

1315c.]

; religious studentship, the first of the four periods of a Brahman's life, see 2 agrama. [brahman (1249a ) or brahman

brahmavarcasvin,
divine knowledge.

eminent

in

possessing

brahmadivine

varcasa,' q.v.

1232.]

(probably both) +carya, equiv. of carya:


acct, 1272, 1213c.]

brahma-vedin,
knowledge,

a. knowing 2 [brahman, 1249a .]

brahma-carin,
with, as m.
i.e.)

a.

studying

(busying one's self sacred knowledge


;

brahma-han
man, 1249a
2
.] -I,
;

[402], a.

Brahman-slaying;

as m. murderer of a

Brahman,

[brah-

Brahman

student,

65 8

u 21 observing chastity, 64 , 100 man, 1249a 2 .]

as adj. esp.
.

[brahattached

brahma,y.

a.

1.

pertaining to brah15
;

man, divine
senses, i.e.:

brahmanyk,
pious
;

a.

pertaining

or

6 holy, 59 ; spiritual, 61 2. pertaining to brahman, in loth

its

to the holy life

and study (brahman), i.e. attached or friendly to Brahmans

2a. of
or

Brahman

(anglicized)
.

[1212dl.] brahma-daya, m. sacred-word heritage, heritage consisting of the sacred word,


2 [brahman, 1249a .]

(brahman).

s3 9 Creator, 57 , 58

2b. of Brahmans; Brahma, the [brahman and brah-

man, 1208a 2 end.]

brahmana, m. (having to do man or prayer and praise


science,
i.e.)

with brahand divine


theologian,

brahmadaya-hara,

a.

receiving

the

priest,
;

84 15

sacred word as a heritage.

Brahman, 57 16

brahma-dvfs,
less,

a.

devotion-hating, god:

2 [brahman, 1249a

acct, 1269.]

f. brahmani, woman of the priestly caste, Brahmanee. [brahman, w. usual shift of acct, 1208a.]

[203]

[Vbhaj
grdv.
to
[V

brahmana,
or

n.

(of a

brahman, of a
;

priest

bhaksya,
as
n.

be

eaten,

eatable;

Brahman,

on

the dictum of a priest matters of faith and cultus esp. a


i.e.)

proper food.
m.
;

bhaks, 963.]

bhaga,

Brahmana,
class

of

designation of one of a Vedic writings which contain


as

dispenser

1. (he who deals out, i.e.) rich or kind master ; lord, fre;

these

dicta.

[brahman,
m.

w. usual shift

so 74 17 quent epithet of Savitar name of an Aditya, esp. Bhaga,

2.

from

of acct, 1208a.]

whom
a

brahmana-vada,
the Briihmanas.
V

statement
the

of

welfare is expected and who brings about love and institutes marriage, 89
3.

[brahmana.]
[632],

portion

lot (w. dur-, su-)

fortune

brii
clause

(bravlti

brute:

second the

esp. (as in Eng.},

good fortune, happy


[Vbhaj, 216.1:

lot;
cf.

of 632

should read

" before

-4.

loveliness.

-1.

initial consonant

of an ending").
ace.
5
,

1. act.
tiling,

say 10 21

w. dot. of person

96 14

iv.

and ace. of of person and


23
,

either

'God'; 807010$ Zcvs $pvyios ; Slavonic bogii, 'God'; for mg, cf. Eng. lord, AS. hldf-ord (Maf-weard?),
l>aga,
'

Old Persian

oratio recta

(12
13
) ;

60 7
iv.

98")

or else ace.

of thing (95 3 14 speak


;

speak

to, w. ace.

of person,
II
18
;

of,

ace.
tell;

of person,
w.

3. for mg, cf loaf-ward, loaf-keeper the relation of /j.6pos, lot, fate,' to e^uop-e, 'gat a share.']
; '

'

say,

i.e.

announce,
18
;

flirelv,

10

vacas, u: punar, answer, 8 3

tiros

bhagavant,a.
a

1.

fortunate, possessing
;

2.

happy

lot,

blessed

then

2.

(like

Eng.

middle, brute (used esp. to introduce oratio recta and without designation of the person
5 18 addressed], says, inquit, 20 , 28 *, 30
-

blessed) heavenly, august, lordly, applied to Indra, Brahma, The Self-existent, the

10 - 12
,

Wood-deity, Sun, Moon, Earth,


esp. in
voc.,

etc.

used,
,

35 18

as a form of address, so 94 8

+ apa, remove
tion of

(the thought or recollec-

26 4

[bhaga.]
a.

a thing or person, ace.,

from a bhagin,
so

fortunate; happy; splendid;


f.

person, abl.) sole a person


or

person
it

try to con(abl.) for the loss of a thing 14 [this locution is (ace.), 92

by speaking,
.

i.e.

bhagini,

sister

(the

happy one
a
brother).

far forth [bhaga.]

as

she

has

apparently like the Eng. colloq. phrase


"I'll talk
(his opinion) out

bhagiratha,

m. Bhagiratha,

name

of an

o/him."]
;

+ pra,
bad and

tell
;

forth,
then

13 proclaim, 75

an-

ancient king, who brought the Ganges down from heaven, [perhaps fr. bhagin

7 nounce, 88

(like

colloquial tell
1; .

Eng. tell of, on), inform against,


to (ace.), answer.

the

ratha,

'

having a splendid
a.

chariot.']

betray, 93

bhagna, see 957c. bhagna-bhanda,


or [1308]

having broken pots


dis-

+ prati, speak back

who broke
a.

the pots.
2

bhagnaga,
V

having broken hopes,

bhaks
situm
vour,
;

(bhaksati, -te; bhaksita; bhak-

appointed. [aa, 334 .] bhanga, m. a breaking, [v'bhafij, 216.


V

1.]

bhaksayati [1041 (partake, enjoy, i.e.) eat; consume;

-bhaksya

2
]).

bhaj

(bhajati, -te; babhaja, bhej6 [794el;


;

de-

abhaksit, abhakta [883]

bhajisyati,-te;

[old desid. of vfbhaj, 108g end: of. ' bhiks, and for mg, V 2 ag, eat.'] m. the enjoying, eating or drinkbhaksa,

bhaktd

ing

food

at

as food, living

bhaksaka,
end.]

end of adj. cpds, having on [V bhaks.] m. eater. [V bhaks: see 1181a


.

; -bhaj y a ; deal out; apportion ; divide ; then (as Eng. share means both 'give a part of and 'have a part of)
;

bhaktum

bhaktva
1.

cans, bhajayati).

2. middle,

have as one's
;

part, receive

have

or take part in
4.

3.

give one's self


i.e.)

up
grdv.
to

to;

(choose as one's part,


;

de-

bhaksitavya,
[V bhaks,

be

eaten.

964 2 .]
a.

clare one's self for, prefer, 15 3 5. betake one's self to turn to go to, 20 10
; ;

bhaksin,

eating.

[V bhaks,

1183 8 .]

6.

belong

to,

be attached to

revere

bhanj]
love, 9 2;

[204]

ace.

caus. cause to have a share, 8 of person and yen. of tiling, 83


.

bhattaraka- vara,
day.

m. lord's day, Sun-

get one's portion, eat/ w. a specialization of mg like those seen in Eng. partake and take as used with the
[cf
.

'

(pay-flv,

bhadra,
;

a. 1. praiseworthy, pleasing; n 2. good, happy, gladsome, 76*, 90 84 3 voc. f., good lady, 9 r) bhadram,
;
;

implied object food or drink, in bhakta,


'

adv., w.
3.

kr

or a-car, do well, 22
;

n 23 19
,

thing
:

bhaks

divided, portion, food,' and in akin are the names of the two

favorable, auspicious, 86 8

as

n.,

food-trees yielding eatable nuts (acorns,

and pi., welfare, prosperity, 20 16 ; w. kr, grant welfare to a person (dat.),


sing,

buck-mast), Qdyds,
'beech,' called

(p-ny6s,

'oak,' ~La,t.fagus,

bless,

69".

[Vbhand, 1188a.]
a.

AS

boc,

Eng.

buck-, 'beech-,' in

bhadra-kft,
ing.
V

granting welfare; blessreceive

buck-mast,

beech-nuts,'

and buck-wheat

(so

[1269.]

beech-nuts),
'

from the likeness of the kernels to AS. bece, Eng. beech: with hoc,
'

bhancl
praise.

(bhandate).
a.

jubilant
or

' beech,' is ident. hoc, book,' orig. runes scratched on branches of a fruit-bearing

bhandistha,
praising.

most loudly

best

such a tree,' see Tacitus, Germania, x. branch was called by a name which became in Old High Ger. puah-stap or buoh-stab, but the and meant orig. beech-staff
; ' '
,

bhaya,
tion

n. 1. fear, anxiety; in composiw. the thing feared, 10 12 , 31 9 , 46 5 ; fear of a thing (abl.), 40 w bhayat, from
;

fear,
in

20", 36*, 41 17

then,

as conversely

word came
thing on

to be used for the significant the branch, ' the rune or letter,'

' Eng., fear (orig. danger,' so Job 39. 22) has come to mean 'anxiety,' 2. danger,

AS
+
a,

boc-stsef, act.,

Ger. Buch-stabe.~\

peril,

25 19

42*4.

[Vbhl,

1148. la:

for

sometimes mid., deal out to, give a person (ace.) a share in a thing (loc.).

mg

2, cf.

samdeha.]
a. 1.

+ vi

part asunder
divide.
1.

divide.

bhayarta, bhara, m.
;

stricken with fear,

[arta.]

+ pra-vi,

+ 8am-vi,
with
a
2. present
(instr.).

divide a thing

(ace.)

a bearing, carrying; 2. burden weight, 50 J 3. mass, quan4. (w. specialization as in Lat. tity;
;

person (instr.) ; give a share; a person (ace.) with a thing

pondus, weight,' then also pound ') a particular quantity or measure, in nir-. [Vbhr: cf. <f>toff-<t>6po-s, Lat. luci-fer(u-s),
' '

'

'

bhanj
sit
;

(bhanakti; babhanja; abhankbhanksyati bhagna [957c] bhank; ;

light-bringing

AS.
'
:

'

horn-bora,

horn.

tva

break. [opinions are -bhajya). divided as to whether Mbhanj, 2bhuj, and bham (see these) orig. began w. bhr- ;
;

for mgs 2-4, cf trumpeter Eng. weigh, orig. 'bear up, lift,' as in

bearing,

weigh anchor, AS.

'

wegan,

carry,
'

bear,'

and

'

weight,

burden,' then

mass,' then

cf

giri-bhraj, 'breaking forth


'
:

from the
stand
for
'break,'

mountains
*bhranj,
nau-frag-a,

if

bhanj
Lat.

does
'

bharata,
tained
;

'definite mass.'] a. to
esp. to

then
'

frangere,

be supported or mainbe kept alive by the care

ship-breaking (tempestas), and Ger brechen, Eng. break are akin.]


m.
lord.
:

Bharata,

of men, as epithet of the god Agni ; as m. name of a patriarchal hero.

bhattara,
(399)
if it s

[a transition-stem

fr

bhartr
s.

strong ace.

corresponding to the form bhartar-am, taken as

bhargas,
'

[Vbhr, 1176e.] n. radiant light glory. [Vbhrj 8 or bhraj cf QXtyos, n., q.v., 216. 1
;
, : .

were bhartara-m, is made the nom. both transition to bhartara-s, etc.


;

flame

' ;

bhartr,

Lat. fulgur, ' lightning.'] m. 2. supporter, 1. bearer;


.

the a-declension, and assimilation of rt to tt are regular in Prakrit.]

21 maintainer; lord; husband, 10 1182b: cf. Lat./ertor, 'bearer.']

[Vbhr,

bhattaraka,

m.

lord,

fi-'.plied

to

gods

bhavd,
[VbhiL]

m.

the

coming

into

existence.

and learned men.

[bhattara, 1222c 1.]

[205]

[bhava
tory
or
'

bhavat-purva,
first or

a.

having bhavant as

prohibitory,'

notice

(of

mar-

way
voc.

preceding; -am, adv. [1311], in a having bhavant first, i.e. with the
of

riage),' etc.: cf. v'vbhas,


;

bhas.]

s. f.

bhavant

at the beginning of

one's begging formula.

+ a, shine upon illumine. + u d shine out, become manifest, + nis, shine forth from (a&/.), Jig.
,

56 20

bhavadaharartham,
food,
['in

adv.

for

your

object,' 1311,

way having your food as 1302c 4 bhavant + ahara


:

-l-pra, shine forth; begin to be (of the night). + v i shine far and wide.
,

light

and artha.]

bhaga,
adv.

m. part:
10
;

1.
;

allotted part, 96 20

bhavaduttaram,

with bhavant

share, 84

lot

esp.

happy
lot),

lot

2. in
;

as last (word of one's begging formula), [ace. s. n. of adj. *bhavad-uttara, 1311.]

post-Vedic,

portion
(cf.

(not

64 22

3.

place,

spot

Eng. parts,
n.

'regions'),

bhavana,
'

n.

dwelling,

abode,
'

house,

[v'bhaj.]

[prop.

an

existing,'

then

place of exist'

bhaga-dheya,

(bestowal or allotment

ing,' v'bhii, 1150. la. so

Eng. dwelling and


a waiting,
'

abode and Lat. man-sio meant

an abiding,' abiding-place, maison cf also mandira and asta.]


then
'
: .

and

of a part, i.e. ) portion, 88 7 ; esp. bestowal of a goodly lot, blessing, 82 4 [1213c.] bhagagas, adv. part by part; gradually,
.

[bhaga, 1106.]

bhavant
spectful

[456],

a.

lordly;
substitute

used in

re-

bhagiratha,
the

address
the

as

pronoun of
latable by
(e.g.

second person,

[514] for and trans-

a. of Bhagiratha; -i, /. stream (nadi) of Bh., the Ganges,

[bhagiratha, 1208f.]

your honor, thou


10
)
;

(e.g.

6
,

12
to

used

in

the pi.

6 23 ), ye of a single

bhagya,

n.

lot;

fate;

esp.

happy

lot;

luck; bhagyena, luckily,

[bhaga, 1211.]
[lit.

person

express

28 4

5
;

used in the

voc.

*2 greater courtesy, 19 , s. m. con(bhavas, as

bhajana, n. vessel, dish. Vbhaj, mg2: 1150. lb.]


n.

'receiver,'

tracted)

bhos,

f.

bhavati,

word of b hand a,
2.
.

1. vessel,
(like

pot;

vat;

dish;
;

address, (lord, master, mister,) sir, lady, [prob. a contraction of bhagavant : cf

generalized

patra),

Utensil

wares or ware.

61

M N.]

bhanda-miilya,
a.

n.

capital consisting of

bhavan-madhy a,
middle (word)
voc.
s. f.
;

having bhavant as
v'

wares

stock in trade.

of

bhavant

-am, adv. [1311], with the as the middle (word

bhanu,

bham
[orig.,

of one's begging formula).

[Vbha, 1162.] be angry, rage, (bhamita). perhaps, 'be agitated,' and so, a
of bhram, under Vbhanj.]
q.v.
:

m. light; beam.

bhavitavya,

grdv. deserving to become,


impers. [999], asti, I must be,
;

Prakritic form
of
r,

for loss

destined to be, about to be

see

maya bhavitavyam,
23 13
;

sc.
it

bham a,

m. rage, fury.

[Vbham.]
;

bhavitavyam,

must

be,

27

14 .

[Vbhu, 964.]
V

bhara, m. bharata,

burden.
a.

[Vbhr.]

bhas
bite
;

(babhasti [678]; bhasita). chew, crush bhasita, devour, consume


;
;

as m. descendant

from Bharata from Bharata, epithet of Yudhishthira, to whom Brihadacva


descended
tells

consumed
'
.

to ashes,
'
:

[cf.

<pa.n-fj.ri, *<f>acr-fj.ii,

the story of Nala.

[bharata, 1208f.]
[bhara.]

barley-groats cf the collateral form psa and


pi.
'

w. the 3d

ba-ps-ati
tyd-/j.a-0os,

bharika, m. carrier, bharya, grdv. to be


tained
;

supported or main-

sand.']

-a,

wife.
n.

bhasman,
V V

n.

ashes,

['consumed': see

bharyatva,
or

[Vbhr, 963b.] condition of being wife

bhas.]
(bhati; babhau; bhasyati; bhata). bright, shine appear. [cf. <^TJ-^,
;

(among animals) mate,


TO.

[bharya.]
;

bha
be

bhava,

ence, 15

18
;

the becoming, 61 2 existbeing; in cpds, used as equiv.


1.

Lat. fa-ri,

'

make

'

appear, reveal, say

Eng. ban, 'public proclamation, manda-

to the suffix 35 21 49 12
,

tva
;

or ta, condition of

being
i.e.)

-2. (way

of being,

con-

bhavin]
dition;
4.
3.

[206]
(way of being,
disposition
18
; ;

i.e.)

nature;

-t-

pra,

split forth or

open.

natural
;

feelings

heart, 30
.

5. feeling ; 6. the existent ;

+ vi,

split

asunder;

break

to

pieces,

destroy.

existent thing, 66 9

bhavin,

a.

[V bhu, 1148. 2.] becoming, coming into exist;

bhiyds, V bhisaj
bhisaj,
1147.]
V

m. fear,

[v'bhi, 1151. 2c.]

9 ence; about to be, destined to be, 18 13 -ini, f. a beautiful woman. future, 38


;

heal. (bhisakti). a. healing; as TO. healer. [V bhisaj,

\f

s [Vbhu, 1183 end.] bhas (bhasate babhase


;

bhi

(V. bhayate; V. and


;

later,

bibheti

abhasista

bibhaya

bhasita; bhasitum; bhasitva; -bhasya). speak; talk; say. [perhaps for *bhask, a sk-formation fr. Vbha: 182a.]

bhetum

bhesyati ; bhitA cas. bhisayate [1042f]). fear;


;

abhaisit

be afraid of

+ abhi, speak
speak, without

unto,

address,

w.

ace.;

(abl.) ; bhita, having feared, frightened ; caws, affright, [w. bi-bhe-ti, cf Old High Ger. bi-be-t, ' trembles,' whose
.

object.

bi- is

+ prati, speak

back, answer.

AS.

beofa^S,

syllable of reduplication, Ger. bebt, ' ' trembles the connection of


:

language, [vfbhas.] bhasita, ppl. spoken; as n. [1176a], what is spoken, the words. [Vbhas.]
/. speech,
V

bh as a,

these words with


flee in fright,'

<t>f-ft-o/j.cu,
'

'am

afeard,

and

tp6&os,

fear,' is still

moot-point.]

bhas
shine,

(bhasati, -te
[cf.

babhas6

bhasita).

+ prati,
bhas,
171
V
3
.]

Vbha.] shine over against,

bhi [351], /. fear. [V bhi, 348.1.] bhita, ppl. feared; as n. [1176a],


a.

fear.

show, appear well.


n. light.

make a bhima, name


1166b.]
:

fearful, terrible; as m.

Bhima,
[Vbhi,
terrible

of

Vidarbhan

king.

bhas-kara,
bhiks

2 [Vbhas: but cf. 1151. lc .] ' m. the sun. [' light-making

bhima-par akr ama,


strength or courage.

m.

[1264, 1267.]
a.
.

(bhiksate; bibhikse; bhiksisye; bhf ksitum bhiksitva). desire to have


;

bhlma-parakrama,
bhima-gasana,
n.

possessing
[1293.]
or

3 bbima-parakrama, 1", 2

a share for one's


the

self,

wish for

then (like

command

sum-

mons of Bhima. Eng. desire, 'express a wish for'), request; beg; esp. go begging for food, bhirii, a. timid.
[old
desid.

[1264, 1267.]

[Vbhi, 1192.]
;

of

Vbhaj,

lOSg

end:

cf.

vf

Ibhuj

(bhujati

bhugna

-bhujya).
[so far as

bhaks.]

bend; turn; make crooked,


1.

bhiksa,/.
ging alms.
1
;

the act of begging, beg-

2. that

which
:

is

4 [Vbhiks, 1149

got by begging, w. the relation of


getting,

the meaning goes, the following words may well be taken as cognate: ipvy-e'iv, ' Lat. fug-ere, turn about, flee ; AS. bug-an,
'

to 2, cf. that of
'

Eng.

'act of

getting,' to getting,
V

that which

is got.']

'bend, turn about' (intrans.), sometimes also 'flee,' Eng. verb bow (as in bow down),
'

bhid
bhid6
;

(bhinatti,

bhintte; bibheda, bi;

bend

'
;

AS.

boga,

Eng. bow,
'

'

arcus,' el-bow,

abhet
[957d]
14

[832]
;

bhetsyati,
;

-te

bhinnA

bhettum

bhittva

-bhidya). twain, 102

cleave, cut asunder; break in


;
;

smite sore (in battle), 81 5 pound, bruise, crush (as a reed), 70 15 pierce. [orig. 'split, crush': cf. Lat.
;

Old Eng. Eng. buxom, but the Gerlithe, lively, vigorous manic g raises phonetic difficulties which
rain-bow ; Ger. bieg-sam,
buh-sum,
'

pliable,'
'

'pliable,

yielding,'
:

are not yet satisfactorily cleared up.]


V

2bhuj
;

(bhunakti, bhunkte
; ;

bubhoja,
-te
;

ftndo, 'cleave,' perfect fidi; Ger. beissen, Eng. bite; also bit, 'morsel,' and bit, 'part

bhoksyati, abhujat bubhuj6 bhukta bh6ktum bhuktva).


;

1. en-

of a bridle
trace of

'
;

bitter,

the

orig.

used of a sword, w. a mg, Beowulf, 2705


; '

joy; in Veda, (have use with, i.e.) have the use of a thing (and so w. instr.) ;
2. in later Skt. (like

caus. bait, in bait a bear,

make dogs
him
eat.']

bite

Ger. geniessen,

cf.

him,'

and

bait

horse, 'let

also

bhoga and bhojana), enjoy

esp. food,

[207]
K;.

[v

bhu
27
14
,-

ace.

3.

without
4.

object,

take

one's

king, 48
so

*
;

tatha bhavatu, so be
i.e.)

it,

meal;

then

enjoy (things that are


;

32

1T
;

pranjalir bhutva,

(having be-

5. reap the fruit not food), w. ace., 10 9 (of sin) at the hands of a person (gen.), 791"; _6. cans, cause to take food, feed,

come

pranjali, 22 posture, 13 ;

assuming suppliant

w. possessive yen., become (the property) of a person; adhipatyam


his,

[if f or

*bhruj (but this


cf.

is

doubtful

see

tasya babhuva, lordship became


attained
lordship,
imperative,
;

he

V/bhanj), then

Lat. frui, *frugvi, 'have

37

:
;

seldom

w.

dat.,

use
'

with'

(a

thing,

hence

instr.-abl.),

96 2l) 30 16

'enjoy';
'

frug-es,
'

'fruit';

AS.

brucan,

good
,

enough
42 2
;

bhavatu: (be it, i.e.) what's the use of talking,


is

enjoy' (food or drink), 'use,' Eng. brook,


use,'

the thing

clear,

23

7
,

31

6
;

orig.

now put up

with.']

tad

+ anu,
deeds).

reap the fruit (of good or evil


1.

bhavatu, bhuta, see


desid.
.

never
s.v. ;

mind
in
,

that,

34 6

self-explaining
, ;

periphrases

+ upa,
eat;
deeds).

enjoy, esp. (enjoy food, i.e.) 2. reap the fruit (of good or evil

bhuj am-gama,

m. serpent. ['going with bending or with crooking': bhujam, grd of V Ibhuj, 995 for mg, cf. khaga.]
:

iv. 49 19 52 n 99 21 ppls, bubhusati [1027], desire to be, 70 14 [w. abhut cf. e<t>v, 'became, grew' cf. Lat. fu-it, 'was' Old Lat. fa-at, 'may be AS. beam, am Eng. be.~]
;
; '

'

'

+ anu,
and
so)

1.

(perhaps
with,
;

be
3.

along

after,
2. ex-

come up

attain;

bhur
[cf
'
.

(bhurati).
'

make

short and quick


stir,
'

perience;
i.e.)

9 enjoy, 24

(experience,

motions, twitch, jerk, kick, struggle,


<t>vpu,
'
;

stir

bubble

Lat. fur-ere,

around, mingle (p\vw, ' be agitated, rage


;

'

acquaintance with, come to understand; perceive; hear, 4 21 + abhi, be against [1077 8 ], oppress,
practical
.

make

de-frustum, 'boiled off';


bro-th, 'bouillon.']

Eng. brew, 'boil';


Encj. stirring,
i.e.)

and

so

overpower.

bhurana,
both
1.

a.

(like

the

+ ud, arise up, make itself perceptible. 1. be around, surround, en+ pari,
compass
around,
;

moving quickly and


(bhuranyati).
1.

2. active,

2.

(like

the

Eng.
better
to,

colloq.

get
3.

busy.
V

[Vbhur, 1150. 2c.] be stirring,

i.e.)
;

get

the

of,

prove
so

bhuranya
busy,
n.

superior to

be superior
.

and

[bhurana, 1059d.]
3.
;

treat with contempt, 37 s

bhu van a,
world
;

with
all

vigva

2. being, existence; : sing., tout le

+ pra,
arise;

monde
2c.]

pi.,

beings.

[v'bhu,

1150.

power
velop
or
;

come forth into being; be before (others), have the have power, be strong.
1.

2.

+ vi, (become
n.

asunder,
;

i.e.)

expand, de-

bhuvana-traya,
bhuva
as
air

world-triad,

i.e.

pervade
;

caus. cause to
;

expand

heaven and atmosphere and earth.


s
,

the

second of the so-called " utter-

open discover found out.

vibhavita, discovered,
together,
in
its

ances"

(see

or

vyahrti), bhuvas!, interpreted atmosphere, on account of its


[prob. than the voc. pi. of bhu,
-te

+ sam,
and
so

1.

(unite

[intrans.]

position between

bhur and svar.

take form, i.e.) be shapen old sense, be created be born, 97 2


; ;

nothing more
' v'

into

being

become
from,
;

ye spaces.']
(bhavati,
;

bhu
abhiit

babhuva
;

[789a]
;

bhuta, sprung 5 39 2 be, 39


;

originate 19 12 2.
;

come samexist,
II V.

sambabhuva, am,
12 happen, 20
;

bhavisyati, -te

bhuta
;

vitum
3n

bhutva

-bhuya
,

caus.
,

bhabhava3
,

x. 125. 8;

3.

occur; pass
to

current, 52";

caus.

1.

(cause
i.e.)
;

be

yati, -te).
;

3 40 21 become, 93

57

67 21

together,

bring
2.
so,

into

come

into being, 92
;
;

17
;

arise,

happen,

accomplish;
together,

form, 12 honor, 30
like

make,
(bring

3.

take place exist very often to be rendered simply by be, 2 15 , 3 18 22, 7 1 purvam abhud raja, once there was a
-

and

Eng. con-jecture)

suppose,
unclear.]

[development of caus.

mg

bhu]
+ abhi-aam,
(e.g.

[208]

become unto, i.e.) (lit. a condition) by a process of 19 change, enter into (e.g. wifehood), 86 born unto (immortality), 97 8 be
attain
;
.

bhumi-stha,
[stha.]

a.

standing on the ground,

bhuyans,a. more;
bhur,

greater, ['becoming in a higher degree, increasing/ Vbhu, 470 2 .]


the first of the three "utterances" (see vyahrti), bhur!, O earth. [crystallized voc. sing, of bhu.]

bhu

at end of cpds, becoming, [351-2], a. 1. a becoming, being, existent; as f. 2. the place (for mg, cf. bhabeing; vana) of being, the world, space ; pi.

bhuri, a. abundant; much. [Vbhu, 1191: 3. the cf. bhuyans.] bhuvas) earth, as distinguished from heaven and bhuri-kala, m. longtime. 4. the bhuri-sthatra, a. atmosphere; bhuvi, on earth; having many staworlds,

spaces

(cf.

land, lands.

bhuta,
real;

ppl.

past; 2. having become, being, used in

[Vbhu, 347.] 1. become, been,

tions,
i.e.

being in

many

places.
so vigilant, jealous

bhurni, a.
(of
V

stirring,

and

composition w. its predicate as a grammatical device to give the predicate an adj. form w. number and gender [1273c], 6 7 , 19*, 29*,

a god). [Vbhur, 1158.2, 245b.] bhu s (bhusati; bhusayati [1041 2 ]). 1. bhusati, be busy for 2. bhusayati,
;

(make ready

for,

i.e.)

adorn.
[v'bhus,

56 15
i.e.)

_3. os

n.

(that

which has become,

bhusana,
1150.]'
V

n.

ornament.

mg
;

2:

a being, divine (90 19 ) or other creature in general, 21


;

human
18>

or
18
,

**,

57

bhr

(bibharti [645]

bharati, -te
;

T*.

63 12

10 created thing, 58 10 world, 91 4. as m. n. uncanny being, ghost, gob; ; ;

lin,

55 19

5.

as

n.

element;

panca

jabhara, jabhr6 [789b] later, babhara abharsit bharisyati bhrta bhartum -bhftya). bear (cf. the various senses of
;

bhutani, five elements (earth, water, fire, air, ether, of which the body is composed

bear
sess;

in

1. hold, and so posEng.): thus, 2. bear (in the womb); abharat,


;

and
so

into
8.

which

it

is
:

66 !

[V bhu

dissolved), 66 , 68 cf $6-r6-v, ' plant,


;
.

she bare, 85 15

3.

endure
i.e.,

convey;
win;
6.

5.

(bear,

4. carry, ; as in Latimer)

creature.']

bhuta-grama,
nity of creatures.

m. sing, and pi.

commu-

69", 82 14
suckle,

bring (as an offering, cf. of-fer), w. udhar, offer the breast,


;

78 8
(like
to,

7.

(bear,

i.e.)

support;

bhuta-bhasa,
lins or Picachas.

f.

language of the gob-

and

so

tenance
so also,

Eng. support), furnish sus22 2 maintain, RV. x. 125. 1


;

bhu-tala,
[cf. tala.]

n.

earth-surface, ground, earth,

bhuti,
cf
.

f. being, esp. well-being.


'

[Vbhu:

(pva-ts,

bhu-pa,

a being, nature.'] m. protector of the earth or land,


lord

8. wear (as Ger. keep (on hire) tragen means 'bear' and 'wear'); w. nakhani. wear the nails, keep them untrimmed, 64 19 [cf. <>>cp<a, Lat. fero, Eng.
;
.

bear,

'bear' in
'

its

various mgs, Ger. ge'


:

king, prince. bhu-pati, m.


prince.

of

the

land,

king,

bhu-bhaga, m. spot of the bhu man, n. earth; world.


Id
:

earth, place. [Vbhu, 1168.

AS. bear-n, Eng. an old ppl., lit. 'that ' cf also $<&p, Lat. which is borne or born ' see also under fur, carrier off, thief the derivs, bhara, bhartr, and bhrti cf
bdren,
bairn,

bring forth
is

'child,'

'

for mg,

cf.

bhu.]
earth,

bhumi,/. -1.
2.

57"; ground, 43 18
23 14 ;

bhara and the following.] + a p a carry off, take away,


,

airo^e'po).

land;

3. place,

esp. fit place,


6 patra), 21 ,
cf.

+ ava,
ward

bear down (an assailing weapon),


to.

proper vessel (cf. sthana, 28 3 [Vbhu, 1167 for mg,


.
:

off.

bhu.]

bhumi-pati,
prince,

m.

lord of the land, king,


m. spot of ground.

+ a, bear unto, bring + upa, bring unto.


+ ni,
lowered,
i.e.)

only in ppl., nibhrta, (borne down,

bhumi-bhaga,

hidden.

[209]

[bhratr
the use of bhos instead of a person's

+ pra, act. mid. bring forward; offer; prabhrta, brought forward, made ready.
[cf.
irpocpepw,

i.e.

real

name.
excl.
!

Lat.

'

profero,

bring forbhrstva).

bhos,

of address,
:

ward.']
vl

halloo
(

often repeated, e.g.

thou, sir !, 6 2;?


.

!,

ho

!,

[for ori-

bhrjj
rpast
;

bhrjj ati

bhrsta

gin, see
tion, see

bhavant
176a
(in

parch, esp. grain, [cf <ppvyw, Lat. frigere, 'roast ': akin w. v'bhraj.] bhrti, /. the supporting, maintenance.
.

2d

for euphonic combinaed., see 174b).]

bhoh-gabda, m. the word bhos. V bhrang or bhrag (bhrangate; bhragyati


[767]; abhragat; bhrasta).
fall.

[Vbhr, 1157. la:


bir-th'.]

cf.

Ger.

Ge-bur-t,

Eng.

+ apa,
m. (one

fall off; see

apabhrasta.
[\fbhranc_.]

bhrtya,
i.e.)

who

is

to be maintained,

bhranga,
V

m. fall; ruin; loss,

servant,
a.

[grdv. of Vbhr, 963b.]


a.

bhram
[763];

(bhramati, -te; bhramyati, -te


; ;

bhrga,

powerful,
(powerfully,
i.e.)

bhrga-duhkhita,

exceedingly pained, bhetavya, grdv. to be feared bhetavyam, impers. [999], timendum est, one should
;

babhrama bhramisyati bhranta bhramitum, bhrantum bhran1. move tva; -bhramya, -bhramya).
[955a]
;

36 12

unsteadily or without aim; wander; roam, 23 5 2. flutter, of insects, etc.; ,


;

fear,

42 3

na bhetavyam, never
split,

fear.

move
fused.

in a circle, rotate
;

3. Jig.

be wan-

[Vbhi, 964.] bheda, m. fissure,


of divisions,

dering (of the mind)

be agitated or conin-

breach; a creating
n.

[v'bhid.]
-i,

[the orig. meanings seem to have

bhesaja,
(subst.).

f.

a.

healing; as

healing

[bhisaj, 1209i.]
n.

cluded irregular and aimless and rotary motion as applied to water, wind, and
fire,

bhaiksa,
a-begging,

begging; bhaiksam car, go


[bhiksa, 1208e.]

and also

to

have been transferred


: .

to

the sound thereof


'

cf the derivs bhfmi,


'

bhaima,
1208f.]

a. descended from Bhima; /. -i, Bhima's daughter, Damayanti. [bhlma,

whirlwind,'
whirlpool,'

'

ftpfH-fiv, a.

bhrama, whirling flame and and bhramara, cf bee 'rage,' 'roar' (of storm and
'

'

'

bhairava,
Terrible,

fearful,

i.e.

awful; as m.
[bhirii,

name
(in

of

a hunter.

wave), Ppopos, 'rage, roar'; Lat. frem-erc Ger. brummen, hum, rumrage, roar
,

'

'

'

1208c.]

bho,

see

176a
m.

2d

ed., see 174b).


esp.

ble'; AS. brim, 'surf, surge,' Eng. brim, Old Eng. place of surf, edge, margin
' ' ;

bh6ga,
food,
1-]

enjoyment; use;

use of

'

brim,

flame,

fire,'

preserved

in

Eng.

i.e.

eating.

[V2bhuj, 'enjoy,' 216.


or

brimstone, 'fire-stone': see also

Vbham.]

bho gin,
esp.

a.

enjoying

having enjoyment;
well-fed.

+ pari, wander around. + sam, be much confused


V

sambhranta,
abhrat

enjoying
fr.

food,

[not

di-

agitated, perplexed, in a flutter.

rectly

account of the

bh6jana,

vf2bhuj, but fr. bhoga, on g, 1230c end.] n. the enjoying, esp. of food;
(like

bhraj

(bhrajate, -ti; babhraja

shine; be [890 or 833?]; bhrajisyate). radiant (with radiant flame Jig. be


; ;

the eating; then

Eng. eating), food.


n.

[V2bhuj, 'enjoy,' 1150. la.] bhojya, grdv. to be eaten; as


supply of food.
963d.]

beauty burn';

or

glory).

[cf.

(p\fy-ia,

tf>\(y-^a,
'

'flame';

'flame, Lat. flam-ma,

food,
eat,'

*flag-ma,

flame '; fulg-ere, 'shine, lighten';

[V2bhuj, 'enjoy,

'shining, splendid' (of fires and flames), then 'white' (of the dead), Eng.

AS.

bide,

bhobhavat-purvaka,
bho-bhava,

a. accompanied bleak, pale + vi, shine. [1302c2] by bhos orbhavant; -am, adv. bhratr [373], [1311], with bhos or bhavant.
;

'

'

'

bleach,

whiten.']

m.

brother.

[origin

un-

becoming bhos; w. namnam, the becoming bhos of names,

m. the

known, cf. 1182d: cf. <f>pa-Ti)p, 'brother, esp. one of a brotherhood or clan,' and

14

bhratrsthana]
'

[210]
Lat. frailer,
a.
;

so,

clansman
brother.'}

' ;

'

brother

'
;

[957c]

Eng.

dip one's self


(having, i.e.) taking as i. representative
intrans.

majjitum; -majya). sink under; dive duck or sub-merge, ;


;

bhratr-sthana,

[perhaps

the brother's place of a brother.

into': cf.
'

madgu,
merg-us,

duck

'
;

get 'duck'; Lat. merg-ere, ' ' diver bird for the
orig.
:

*mazgh,

'

bhruva, for bhru at bhru [351], f. brow.


brow
'
;

end ofcpds, 1315c.


[cf. b-<ppv-s,
' ;

'eye-

phonetic relations, cf. majjan, Avestan mazga, Church Slavonic mozgu, AS.
mearg, Eng. marrow, Ger. Mark, all mean-

AS.

'

bru,

eye-lid

Eng.

brow.~\

ma
V

[491], pron. root, see

aham.

[cf.

/te,

ing marrow/ and, as meaning originally the inmost part or pith/ prob. from this root see rajju.]
'
:

'

Lat. me,

AS. me, Eng.


(ace.)

me.~\

manh
magha

(manhate).

make
to.

great or abund(dot.),

+ ud - ni

e-merge. sink down

ant a thing

for a person
[for
great,'

majjao,

dip one's self, bathe. Prakrit for marjara-s ('cat')


;

grant abundantly
'
:

orig.

be

*magh, cf. and trans,

and for maj-jara-s ('my paramour').

mathara,
mani.
jar.

a.

perhaps persistent; as m.
pearl; jewel;
2. water-

high/ and essentially ident. w. Vmah: see under \ruah: for


or

'make great
cf.

Mathara, name of a man.


m.
1.

mg,
with

Lat.

largus,

'large,

liberal/

w.

larglri,

'give

liberally/

and Eng.

large

manika,

largess."]

manhistha,

a.

granting most abundantly,

mandapa, m. mandapika,

m. large water-jar, [mani.] n. open hall or pavilion.


/.

small
d.]

shed

or

shop,

[Vmanh, 467.] ma-kara, m. the letter m. [Whitney 18.] makha, a. jocund, [cf. Vmah.] magadha, m. pi. Magadhans, name of a people Magadha, name of their country,
;

most generous.

[mandapa, 1222 and

mandala, n. disk, circle, ring. manduka, m. frog; f. manduki


female frog.

[355b],

mat!,/

Southern Behar.

magadha-dega,
V

m. the land of

Magadha.
[V magh,

1. (thinking upon, i.e., like the Ger. An-dacht, see dhii'j devotion; pious hymn or song of praise, 73 10 , 79 6 ; 2.

magh, see manh. magha, n. liberal gift


i.e.

thought
;

bounty.
1.

mind
q.v.
:

; thoughts, 49 ; purpose, 73 ; intention ; 3. opinion ; 4. un-

manh.]
[428],
a.

maghavan

abounding

in

derstanding, 19 ; intelligence. cf Lat. mehs, stem men-ti,


.

[Vman,
'

mind

' ;

liberal gifts, generous; esp., as m., gener-

AS. ge-myn-d, mind/ Eng.


'

mind.']
i.e.

ous (patron), designation of the rich lord who institutes a sacrifice and pays the J priests, 88 cf. suri applied in particular
;

mati-prakarsa,
a fine dodge. mat ay a, m.
v'mad.]
V
fish.

m. wit-superiority,

['the

lively

one/

to

Indra, as Rewarder (of priests and 5 20 6 10 -2. in the ; singers), 70 , 71 , 73 , 75

math

Epos, The Generous One, standing epithet of Indra, 5". [magha, 1234.]

or manth. (mathnati, mathnite manthati; mathati [746]; mamatha, mamathus. mamanthus, methiis amath;

manga la,

2. anywelfare, luck; thing lucky, auspicious, or of good omen ; 3. old or traditional usage, 59 18
n.

1.

It

mathisyati,
;

-te,
;

itd

mathitum
whirl

1. stir or

manthisyati mathmathitva -mathya). w. agnim, produce fire


;
;

mangalya,
omen,

a.

lucky, auspicious, of good

mac-chisya,
[mad +
V

[mangala, 1212d4.] m. pupil of me,

by whirling the piece of wood


tress.

stick of attrition in a dry


;

2.

shake, agitate,

dis-

my
;

pupil,

majj

gisya, 159, 203.] (majjati, -te mamajja


;

+ pra,
amajjit
;

agitate.
;
; ;

mad

manksyati,

-te

majjisyati

magna

mamada madyati amadit madita, matta maditum madfmadati


; ;
;

[211]
ayati,
-te).
1.

[manas
1.

bubble,

undulate,

of
;

madhyam&,
tween;
2. of
n.

midmost, situated

be-

water,

and as a type of joyousness apam urmir madann iva stomas, praise


(joyous) as a bubbling water-wave, 81
10
;

.3.

as m.

middling quality, size, etc.; the middle (of the body),

waist;

4. as n. the

middle (of anything),


3

be (pleasantly 12 excited, i.e.) glad; rejoice; w. instr., 83 be exhilarated or intoxicated with joy
boil,

be agitated;

2. Jig.

3.

esp.,

as

describing the

life

of the
;

gods and the blessed, be in


nate ace., 83 18
;

bliss

w. cog-

[madhya, 474: cf. 525 .] man (manyate; mene [794e] amansta; mansyate, -ti mata mantum matva -manya, -matya desid. mimansate). be minded 1. think, believe, imagine, 34 18
;

4. trans, gladden, rejoice,


;

43

16
;

conjecture
if

yadi nanyatha manif


8
;

75 12
8419.

intoxicate

1. act.

gladden;

cans. matta, drunk 2. mid. take delight,


;

yase,

thou art not otherwise minded,


agreed, 25

thou
52

art

manye,
13

inserted

parenthetically,

[the rather rare physical mg (1) is prob. the orig. one, w. a transfer to fig.
use,

n
;

2.

something
it)

methinks, 51 ; expect, consider something (ace.) as 12 37 7 55 2/) 79 8 (ace.), 13


, , , ;

as

in

Eng.
full,

bubble

over

with joy or

praptakalam amanyata, considered


had come, 13 20 bahu man, consider 3. think fit much, esteem, honor;
;

(sc.

mirth:

cf. /xo8-ao>,

'be moist'; Lat. mad-ere,

an arrived time, thought that the time


as
or

'be soaked,

drunk'; mat-ta-s (mg 4)


'

see the collaand Lat. mat-tu-s, drunk teral form Vlmand, and Vmud.] 4-ud, be out (of one's senses) with ex:

'

right, 10

16
;

on, 3*;
cans.,

5.

think upon, set the heart have in mind or view, 88 6


4.
;

citement; be frantic. + pra, take pleasure.

see

manaya
fix

desid.
[cf.

consider,
fj.f-fj.ov-a,

examine, call in question,


'mind,
i.e.

mad,

mad

of 1st pers. pron., 494. a, m. excitement, inspiration, intoxiso-called stem


4
;

the

thoughts

on,

wish,

cation, 81

pi.

intoxicating drinks, esp.


1J .

strive' (see 4); Lat. me-min-i, 'keep in mind'; AS. prcterito-present man, 'am

man

Soma-draughts, 81 [Vmad.] madly a, a. mine, [mad, 494 3 1215d.] madgii, m. a water-fowl, ['diver,' Vmajj,
,

mindful,'
miKnan,
tend.']

and the indirectly connected Eng. mean, 'have in mind, in(be

q.v.]

+ anu,
a.

minded
in
;

after

another,
assent,

i.e.)

madhu,
drink
:

sweet; as
;

n.

sweet food and


its

follow

another
consent

opinion,

ap-

esp.

Soma milk and


.

products

prove

give leave, w. ace.


.

of
de2.

oftenest

18 honey, 26

[cf.

peOv, 'wine';

person,

49 4

AS medu, Eng. mead.'] madhura, a. sweet; of


[madhu, 1226a.]

+ abhi,
speeches, honeyed,
sire
;

6 permit, 62 1. put one's

mind upon,
;

abhimata, desired, agreeable


intentions

have
:

against

[1077

],

plot

madhya,

1. as n. middle; w. nabhasas, middle of heaven, mid-heaven madhye


;

against.

in the middle, 57

12
;

w. gen.

[1130] or at
,

end of cpd, in the midst of


29
;

in

18 7

+ ava, (mind, i.e. regard downwards, i.e.) regarder de haut en bas, look down upon, like the Lat. de-spicere, despise, treat with
contempt.

(the middle, i.e.) the waist; samu3. as adj., used like Lat. medius
2.

m.

n.

manas,
applied

n. to

mind,
the
:

in

its

widest sense

as

dram madhyam,
fj.<Tffos, */j.f6-jo-s,

in

medium mare.
'

[cf.

powers of conception,
thus,
,

will,
;

Lat. medius, Goth, midjis,


middle.'] situated in the middle

and emotion

1.

the intellect

the

AS. mid, Eng.

mid-,
a.

madhya-ga,
of,

16 10 5 , 66 7 ; understanding, thoughts, 8 82 17 10 16 , 15", 65i 2 -i 3 -2. remind,


; ;

tarrying among.
a.

madhya-carin,
dle

moving
1316 2 ),

in the midi.e.

of

(w.

gen.,

moving

perhaps the thing excogitated, praise, or (like dhi2) devo7 3. wish, inclination towards tion, 73
flection
;

excogitation

among.

4.

desire;

5.

feelings;

disposition;

14*

manisa]
heart,
'

[212]
.

78 7
;

[V

man

cf

'
.

n*vos,
'

mind,
gifted

mantu,
(like

m. counsel,

i.e.

deliberation; then

spirit

Lat. Miner-va, the goddess


1.

Eng. counsel), result of deliberation,

with understanding.']

plan, intent.
;

[Vman, 1161a.]
1. thought; esp. thought as formal address, in prayer or

manisa,/.
instr.

thought

understanding
2.

mantra,

i.

manisa, adv. wisely;

expression

uttered in

wisdom in saw, prayer, and hymn (cf. dhi2). [Vman, 1197b.] 1. having understanding, man! sin, a.
of thought and

(see dhi2), or in pious text; usual designation of the hymns and texts of the Vedas ; 3. later (when

song of praise
2.

wise;
1230a.]

2. prayerful,

devout.

[manisa,
(as
in

these Vedic

texts

came

to

be used as

manu,
Eng.,

m.

1.
like

man;

collectively

and
tear'
;

19 kind, 73

Man
kind

Hebrew adam), man, man-2. (like Hebrew Adam) The f^ox'fi", Manu, father of man;

4. like magic formulas), spell, charm; mantu, deliberation, plan, [v'man, 1185b: for mg 3, cf. Lat. carmen, solemn utter'

ance'

(see

v'gans),
charm.']
a.
i.e.,

then 'magic

spell,'

whence Eng.

praise,

Manu, as originator of prayer, and sacrifice, 89 2 Manu, as type of piety and majesty, 1 10 Manu, sup;

mantra-da,
sacred texts,
V

giving, i.e. imparting the as m., Veda-teacher.

mantraya

posititious author of the law-book of the

1. (mantrayate [10G7]). speak with solemn or formal utterance


;

Goth, manna, Ger. Mann, AS. man, Eng. man : the noun is generalized to a quasi pronoun in AS. man, Ger.
[cf.

Manavas.

2. deliberate.

[denom. of mantra

see its various mgs.]

+ anu,
with

man, like Lat. homo in French on, but retains a distinct form as noun in Ger.

follow with a mantra, accompany sacred text, like Lat. prosequi a spell unto;

vocibus.

Mann

homo does in French homme) : cf. also Mannus, mythical ancestor of the West-Germans (Tacitus, Germania, ii.) perhaps related are Mtw-s and MiVo>s,
(as
:

+ abhi, address
conjure.

charm

or

+ a , speak unto 56.

esp.

bid farewell

to,

mythical Greek forefathers


tion of

the derivais

manu fr. Vman,

'think,'

unobjec-

tionable so far as the form goes (1178b), but the usual explanation of manu as 'the thinker' defies

+ ni, invite, [for mg, cf. (under Vbudh) Eng. bid, 'make formal announcement of,' and then 'invite.']

sam-ni,
texts,

invite together, 4 2D .
a.

common

sense.]

mantravant,

accompanied by sacred
m.
the wording of

manu-ja,

m. man.

[prop, adj.,

'Manu-

[mantra, 1233.]
a

manujendra,
prince, king, 1

born, sprung from m.


5.

Manu/

(prince

1265.] of men,

mantr a-varna,
i.e.)

sacred text.
V

manusya,
see

1. a.

[manuja + indra, 1264.] human; 2. as m. man.


cf.

Imand
it).

(mandati:

mamanda; amand[collateral

gladden, 74*.
or

form of
madati).

[manus, 1212d

manusa

for

mg

2,

V mad.] V

manava.]
n.

2m and
tarry,

mad (mamatti

manusyatva,

condition of being man.


m.

loiter.

[manusya, 1239.]

'remain,'

the

[amplification of *man, congener of p.ev-(iv, Lat.


1.

manusya-devd,
or

[1264],

man-god [1280b] i.e. Brahman, 95 *.

human god [1280 1 ] or god among men

man-ere, 'remain.']

manda

a.

tarrying,

slow

2.
;

(sluggish,

and

so)

weak

insignificant

3. (like Eng. little; manusya-loka, m. world of men. manus, m. man. [cf. manu and 1154.] [V2mand, 'tarry.'] 'heart's manda-bhagya, a. mano-ratha, m. wish. [lit.

colloq.

slow) stupid.
little

having

luck,

joy,'

manas + 2 ratha.]
a.

unlucky.
i.e.)

mano-hara,
tivating.

(heart-taking,

cap-

mandara,
tain.

m.

Mandara, a sacred moun-

[213]

[masi
n. smaragd or emerald, [cf. whence Lat. smaragdus, Old French esmeralde, French e'meraude."]
0-fj.dpa-ySos,

mandadara,
(w.
loc.,

a.

having

little

regard for

marakata,

303a), careless about, m.


n.

[manda +

adara.]

mandara.
indica;

1.

2. m. used,

coral tree, Erythrina perhaps, as name of

marana,
marlci,
f.

n.

death.
1.

[V 1

mr,

'

die.']
air,

mote

or
;

speck in the
2. later,

a man, Mandara.

mandira,
fV 2

n.

dwelling;

house;

palace.

illuminated by the sun of light, [cf. mariit.]

beam

mand,

'tarry,' 1188e: prop,

'a wait-

an abiding,' and then 'abiding-place, mansion': cf. /j.dvS-pa, 'fold, stable,' later
ing,
' for mg, observe that Lat. monastery man-si-onstem man-ere, (fr. mansio, 'tarry'), meant first 'a tarrying,' and
'

marici-mala,/. garland of rays. maricimalin, a. having a garland


rays,

of

mar

li

[maricimala, 1230a.] m. a waste desert, [perhaps


; '
:
.

'

the

then 'a stopping-place, mansion,' French


'

dead and barren' part, whether of land ' or water, V 1 mr, die cf 'A./j.(j>l-jjiapos, son of Poseidon; Lat. mare, 'sea'; AS.
'

maison

'
;

see also

manmatha,
['the

m.

love;

bhavana.] the god of


or

mere,
love,
pool,'

sea, lake,

swamp,' Eng. mere, lake, Winder-mere, mer-maid ; AS. mor,


'

'

agitator, distresser,' intensive forfr.

mation
1002b.]

Vmath
n.

nianth,

1148.4,

mariit, m.
xxxv.,

Eng. moor, marshy waste, heath.'] pi. the Maruts or gods of the storm-wind, Indra's companions, selections
the [perhaps flashing ones,' as gods of the thunderstorm, and connected w. a V*mar seen
xlii.,

manman,
An-dacht,

thought;

esp.

(like

dhi2)
praise.

xlvii.,

Ixvii.

'

devotion,

prayer
flesh,

or

[Vman,

1168.1a.]
n.

man-mahsa,

my
1.
(like

man yd,
mind;

m.
then
2.

mood,

i.e.

[mad, 494.] temper of

in

fj.ap-/j.aip-(i>,

'flash.']

maru-sthall,/.

desert-land, desert.
;

Eng. mood) anger,

martavya,

heat of temper. [Vman, 1165a.j mama, see 491 and ma.

grdv. moriendum imperso' [V 1 mr, die,' 964.] nally, see 999. arty a, m. like Eng. a mortal, i.e. a

may a,
1225,

1.

called a
),

161

but

derivative suffix (see really a nomen actionis

man

as

a.

mortal.

mar dan a,

meaning formation, make, used as final element of a cpd, having as its make,

m. crusher; fig., as in Eng., subduer. [Vmrd, 1150. la.] marma-jna, a. knowing the weak spots.

made
in

of
;

consisting of
2.

containing

[marman.]

itself

nomen

agentis,

maker,

mar man,
weak
spot,

n.
lit.

former; esp. Maya, The Former, name of an Asura, artificer of the Daityas, and
skilled in all magic,

mortal part, vulnerable or and fig. [cf V 1 mr, die.']


'
.

marya,

m. man, esp.
Ger.

young man;

pi. (like

45.

[fr.

mi,

weak

Eng. men,

Mannen), servants,
[Vmrs.]

at-

form

(cf.

arrange,

954c, 250) of VI ma, 'measure, form,' 1148. la and b: so the

tendants, henchmen. marsa, m. patient endurance.

Eng. deriv. suffix -hood, -head, Ger. -heit, was once an independent noun, see under
ketu.]

mala,

n.

moral,
'bad.']

m. smut; impurity, physical and ' dark ' Lat. malu-s, [cf p.4\-av,
.

may as,
V1

n.

gladness, joy.

invigoration, refreshment, cheer, [prop, 'a building up,' fr.

malla,

m.

2. professional

-1.pl. the Mallas, a people boxer and wrestler one


;
;

mi,

'

establish,' or fr. the

weak form mi
and partly
arrange,

who engages
tiast.

in

the irayKpdnov, pancra-

(cf.

954c, 250) of the kindred


V 1

equivalent

ma,

'

measure,

magaka,
gnat.

m.

biting

and stinging
2. ink,

insect,

form, build,' 1151. la.]

mayo-bhu

[352], a.

being for or conduc-

masi,

f.

1.

bone-black;

made
in

ing to mayas, i.e. refreshing, gladdening. mar a, m. death. [\/mr, 'die.']

of lac or of almond-charcoal boiled

cow's urine.

masyabhava]
masy-abhava,
V

m. lack of ink.

maha-dhana,
very rich.

a.

mah

having great wealth,


n.

(mahate; mamahe [786]; mahita; mahitva; cans, mahayati, -te). orig. be 1. mid. be glad, great or high, and so

maha-panka,
mire.

m.

(great,

i.e.)

deep

rejoice; then (trans,

make

great or high,

maha-pandita,
[1279].

a.

exceedingly learned

and

so)
8

2.
;

act.

(mid.), 74

3.

gladden; exalt esteem highly, honor.


elate;

mahaparadha,
-f

m. great crime,

[maha

[for *magh, cf. magha, also v'manh: for orig. mg, cf. participial adj. mahant,
'

aparadha.]
i.e.

'

great
colloq.

for

mgs

and
as

2,

cf

American
in
spirit,

maha-praj na, a. very wise [1279]. maha-bahu, a. great-armed [1294],


stout-armed.

use of high

'high

elated, esp. intoxicated':

maha-bhuta,
mgs 'be
'helpingearth,
air,
fire,

n.

with orig. v'*magh in the


great, mighty,
i.e.

powerful or

able,' trans,

tinguished from

grosser element, i.e. water, or ether (as disa subtile element or rudi-

'make
AS.

able, help,' cf. pox-\6s,

mentary atoms).

bar, lever'; /ir/x-aHj, 'means'; Goth, mag,


mseg,

'am
is

able,'

Eng. may:
cf.

with the collateral form *mag, whose


deaspiration Lat.
'

prob. Indo-European,

maha-manas, a. great-minded. maha-muni, m. great sage. maha-yajna, m. great sacrifice, 59 6 w. maha-yagas, a. having great glory,
famous.

fJLty-as,

mag-nus,
a.

AS.

mic-el,

Eng.
8

mickle,

great.']

maha-raja,
1315a.]

m.

great

prince.

[raj an,

mah,

/.
;

mahi,

strong

great; mighty, 78 ; mahi, as subst. the great, i.e. the


cf.

earth; for mg, see 400 2 .]

prthivi.

[cf.

Vmah:

maha-rava, m. great howl. maha-vikrama, a. having


or
lion.

great might courage ; as m. Great-might, name of a

mah a,

a.

great.

[Vmali.]

mahant
so),

1. a. great [450b], f. mahati, (in space, time, quantity, or quality, and

large, long, mighty, important;

sig-

maha-vira, m. great hero. maha-vrata, n. great vow. [1267.] maha-vrata, a. having a mahavrata,
having undertaken a great vow.
[1295.]

nificant,

6n
;

as m. great or noble

man,

19 21
lect,

36 10 -2. m. (sc. atman), the intel66 9, 67 17 [orig. ppl. of Vmah, q.v.]


.

maharsi, mahas, n.

m. great Rishi.

[maha + rsi.]

maha-sinha, m. great lion. mahi, a. great. [Vmah.] mahitva, n. greatness, might.

greatness; might; glory; gladu ness; mahobhis, adv.: with power, 79 ; 73 13 [Vmah, see its various mgs.] joyfully,
.

mahiman,
425e.

[1239.] m. might; instr. mahina, see [Vmah, 1168. 2b.]


a.

mahisa,
without
[acct,

mighty; mahiso mrgas, the


i.e.

mah a,

used as prior member of a cpd, instead o/mahant, 1249b, 355a. [Vmah.]

powerful beast,

buffalo,

RV.

as m.,

mrga,
2
],

buffalo,

55 3 ;

mahisi, /.

maha-katha, f. great tale. maha-kavi, m. great poet. maha-kula, n. (great, i.e.) noble family. maha-guru, a. exceedingly reverend
[1279]
;

c/!362b
:

nation
first

of a

woman

the powerful one, as desigof high rank of the


;

wife of a king, I 16 ; sometimes of any 1 [Vmah, 1197b.] queen of a king, 50


.

mahi, see under mah. honor. mahi-ksit, m. earth-ruler, king. maha-tapas, a. (having, i.e.) practising mahl-pati, m. earth-lord, king. great austerity; asm. Great-penance, name mahi-pala, m. earth-protector, king.
as m. person worthy of unusual of a sage.
V
a.
;

mahiya
blessed,

mahatman,
atman.]

nature, noble

having a (great, i.e.) noble magn-animus. [maha +

of

mahi

(mahiyate). be glad, happy, [prop, 'be great, high,' denom. (1061), with the modification of
q.v.]

mg

mentioned under Vmah,

[215]

[mada
a.

mah end r a,
+
indra.]

m.

1.

Great-Indra
1

2.

mansa-ruci,

having pleasure
a.

in

meat,

15 great chief, 10 (w.

mg

also),

[maha

greedy for meat.

mansa-lubdha,
n.

desirous

of

meat

mahendratva,
of Great-Indra.

the

name

or dignity

[Vlubh.]

mahegvara,
Yama,
igvara.]

[1239.] m. great lord; esp., as pi., designation of the four lokapalas, Indra,

mangalya,
ant.

a.

bringing happiness, pleas-.


(not long,

[mangala.]
adv.
i.e.)

maciram,

shortly,

Agni,
a.

and Varuna.
having
great

[maha +
strength,

straightway, mathara, m.

4 [ma + ciram, 1122b .] name of a man. Mathara,

mahaujas,
mighty,

[mathara, 1208f.]

[maha, + ojas.] V 1m a (minute [660-3]; mamau,

manava,
mame;
;

w.
cf.

manu,

m. boy, youngster, [not akin ' man ' perhaps for * malnava :
:

mitd [954c] matum mitva 2. measure 1. measure; -maya). 4. ar3. mete out with, compare 2 range, form; build; make, 72 [for 1, ' cf fj.4-rpov, measure Lat. ni-mi-us, not

amasta

Prussian malnyx, 'child.'] manavaka, m. manikin, dwarf, ava, 1222b.]

[manmystic

matarigvan,
name
1227 2
of Agni.

m.

Matari^van,

'

'

to be
fj.d-p-ri

measured, excessive';

for 4,
i.e.

cf.
'

matula,
:

m.

mother's

and Lat.

'

ma-nu-s,

former,

hand

cf. fj.-f)Tpws,

brother. [matr, Doric Carpus, 'mother's

ev-/j.api')s,

'handy, easy': see also the


set up,'

col-

brother.']

lateral

form VI mi, 'build, under matf and mas.]

and
in

matf
(82
9

[373], f.

mother; applied also to the


sticks

earth, the
re-create
).

Dawn, the

of attrition

+ anu,
-f,

(form

after,

i.e.)

imagination, conceive.

[perhaps 'the one who metes out' food to the household, or else 'the

u p a measure
nis, fashion
or

4-

with, compare. make out of (abl.); con-

former'
cf.

of

the

child

in

the

womb,
mater,

VI ma, 'measure
/j.-firrip,

or mete,' 'form,' 1182d:


fj-ar^p,

struct.
4-

Doric

Lat.

AS. moder, Eng. mother ; also pata, vi-nis, lay out (garden). pari, measure around, limit, mother.'] -f pra, measure. matrtas, adv. from the mother, on the mother's side, 4-prati, make (so as to be a match) [matr, 1098b.]
'

-i-

against,

cf. pratima. 4-vi, measure out; then

matrvat,
(like

adv. as one's mother.


1.

Eng. meas-

matr a,
cpds
so

f.

measure;
or

at

ure), pass over, traverse (the sky). or mi (mimati [660-3]; mimaya). V 2

[see

1302c3], having

as
or

end of adj. its measure,


large,
etc.
:

ma

and so long

high
;

bellow,
-f

vi, bellow or cry aloud.


,

ma

adv.
:

and

conj. not, mostly in prohibitions

janu-matra, knee-deep vyama-matra, a fathom broad; 2. the full measure, as i.e. limit at end of adj. cpds, having
;

[1122b]

1. regularly

w. subjunctive,
tense

i.e.

its limit,

not more than


being

and

then, these

augmentless

form of a past
, ;

76 16 , etc.; in order that not, 53 7 2 3. rarely w. 35", 50 4 imperative, 22 79 17 4. w. evam, not so, 38 5 optative,
;

[579-80], 2. w.

(1247 27 , merely, only, mere 50 9 such a cpd as first member of another cpd, 34 8 hence 3. from 37 6
adj. cpds
substantively

used

III 4 ),
;

5. w. u,

mo,

see u.

[cf.

^,

Elian

p.a,

this

frequent
the

use

of matra

at

end

of

'not, that not.']

cpds in
[397], n.

mans
also

2 form matra (334 ),

the quasi-

and mansa
in

meat, flesh
cf.

used
meso,

stern,

matra,
'

n.

measure,

i.e.

height, (43
12
).

pi.

[cf.

Church Slavonic
64 7 N.]
[1239.]

depth, length,
[V 1
'

Prussian mensa, 'flesh':

ma,

breadth, distance cf. measure,' 1185c


:

mansatva,
logical

n.

the being meat, the etymo-

meaning of mansa.

mada,

measure.'] m. revelry,

[v/mad.]

mana]
mana,
m.
n. 1.

[216]
opinion;
esp.

2.

(like the
;

may in,
mar a,
'die.']

a.

wily,

[maya.]
n.

Eng. opinion) estimation,

good esteem

mayobhavya,
[mayobhu,
m.

-3. honor.
2
.

[Vman, 1148.2.]
like

gladness, 1211, cf. 1208c.]


killing,

happiness.

mana,
so

m.

the

Eng. building, and


[V 1

murder.

[Vlmr,

structure,

castle.

ma,

'

make,

bund,' 1150. la.] mana, m. 1.


trotirrfo,

marakata,/!
like the obs.

-I,

a.

smaragdine, emerald

poet;
a.

2.

as

Eng. maker, name of Agas-

tya's father,

Mana.

[do.]

[marakata, 1208f.] mar ana, n. a killing; w. pra^ap, incur killing, get killed, [caus. of V 1 mr, die/
(adj.).
'

man a -da,
V

(giving, i.e.) showing honor (to others); as m. honor-giver, address of a woman to her lover.

1150. lb.]

maratmaka,
nature,
1302.]

a. having murder as one's murderous. [mara + atmaka,

ma nay a
of 1

(manayati).
cf.

honor,

[denom.

manava,

a. of or pertaining to game or deer as m. track of wild animals, slot human; descended from man or Manu (see manu); 2. as m. one then, in general, track, way, path, [mrga, 3. m. of the sons of men, a man; 1208f.] Manava, name of a school of the Yajur- marja, adj. subst. cleaning, a cleaner, in 1 2 veda. cpds. [manu, 1208c: for mgs 1 and 2, [Vmrj, 627 .] observe that Old High Ger. mennisch, mar jar a, TO. cat. ['the cleaner,' so

mana:

1067.]

marga,
;

1. a.

though prop, an adj. fr. man, 'homo,' and meaning 'humanus/ is used also as a subst. meaning man,' and used in its Ger. form Mensch, 'man,' as subst. only: cf.
'

called

from
fr.

its

habit of cleaning itself


:

often

marja

formed

like

karmara,

1226b.]

malava,

m. Malwa,

name

of a country in

also nara,

manusya, manusa.]
n.

west-central India.

manava-dharmagastra,
the

law-book of

malava-visaya,

m. the land of Malwa.

Manavas

or

Manava-school.

ma

f.

a. sprung from the mind; of the [manas, 1208a.] manusa, f. -i, a. pertaining to man, hu-

manasa,
mind,

malin,

crown, wreath, garland, a. crowned, wreathed, [mala.]


n.

malya,

crown, wreath,

[mala, 1210.]

mas

man;

as m.
:

man
cf
.

1208a end

(cf. manava). manusya.]

[manus,
of

1. moon, see candra-mas; [397], m. then (as in Eng.), a moon, i.e. month.

['the
'

measurer/

VI ma, 1151. lc 2
'

cf.

manusa-daivika,
gods.

a.

of

men and

[1257.]
a.
;

descended from Mandara mandarya, as m. descendant of M. [mandara, 1211.] m a n y a a. descended from a poet or from Mana as m. the poet's son or Mana's son.
,

Mena, menstruationis Goth, mena, AS. mono, Eng. moon ; dea AS. monan dseg, 'dies Lunae/ Eng. Monday; also ft,i\v, stem /j.evs, Lat. mens-i-s, month AS. mdnaft, prop. a lunation/
HT}-vT],
'
; ; ' ' ' ;

moon

'

Lat.

Eng.

month."]
TO.

[3

mana,
a.

mama,

1211.] lit. of mine; voc.

mas a,
s.

1.

moon,
n.

see

m., as
ass,

word

month,
months,

[transition-stem

purna-masa; fr. mas, o99.]

2.

of address

of a
1.

dog

to

an

uncle,

masa-traya,

month-triad,

three

[mama

(491), 1208f.]

may a,
power

f.
;

(a
in

working,
Veda,
;

ana"

so)

a
or
;

masa-aatka,
months.
V 1

n.

month-hexade,

six

esp.,

supernatural
i.e.

wonderful power ; wile


illusion.

2. later, trick

[V 1

ma,

'

make,

have

effect,

mahina, a. glad, blithe, [\rnah, 1177b.] mi (min6ti, minute; mimaya; mita;


-mitya). build; establish; setup (a post,
pillar),
'

work,' 1149,

cf.

258.]

maya-kapota, m. illusion-pigeon. mayakapota- vapus [418], a. having


the form of a phantom-pigeon.

[collateral
q.v.
'
:

make, build/
'

cf

form (250a) of VI ma, mit and Lat. me-ta,


.

'

post

mu-n/s,

wall.']

[217]

[Vmih
paired, forming a pair ; pair (consisting of a male pair of children; pair (of
a.

V2mi
to
'

o?1. mi (minati, minati; mimaya, mithuna, 2. m., later n. mimye; amesta; mesyate; mita; -mlya).

minish, lessen

nought.
' ;

[cf.

falsely. [see mithu: acct !] High Ger. comp. minniro, *minv-iro, Middle less High Ger. minre, Ger. minder, mithya, adv. wrongly, falsely, [younger form of mithuya.] Lat. min-or, less less neiwv, *(j.ri-i<av, ruin fr. AS. min comes mithyopacara, m. false service or simuper-mi-t-ie-s,

lessen

AS.

minish, bring low bring Lat. mi-nu-o, fjii-vv-ta, ' Old positive min, small
; ' ; '

and female),
anything).

[Vmith, 1177c.]
adv.

mithuya,

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

perhaps Eng. minnow, very small fish.'] + p r a bring to nought pass, come to
, ;

'

migh,
383b 3
:

nought, perish. see mih.


f. post, pillar, prop.

lated kindness, [mithya + upacara, 1279, mithya being used as a quasi-adj.] mil (milati; mimela; milisyati; militd;

militva; -milya).
[V 1 mi,
'

meet; assemble,

[cf.

mit,

set

up/

Lat.
pi.

mille,

for

mg,
'

cf

Eng.

post, Lat. postis,

mll-ia,

'assemblage, host, thousand,' whence the borrowed Eng.

with ponere,

set up.']

mile,

'a
' ;

thousand
perhaps
'

(paces),
'

mllia

pas-

mitra,

comrade (Vedic 2. Mitra, name of an Aditya; only) ; esp. 3. n. friendship (rare and Vedic only); 4. n. friend (commonest meaning and
1.

m.

friend,

suum
'

mll-it-es,

going in com-

panies or troops
soldiers.']

and

so, like

Eng.

troops,

mig, mix,
and
the
fj.iyw/j.i,
'

in the desid.

mimiks
or

(see 1033), [cf.

gender).

deriv. # P.IK-W-JJ.I,

migra
Lat.

migla.

mitrabandhu-hina,
friends

a.

destitute

of

misceo, *mic-sc-eo,

and

relatives.

mitra-labha,
title

of the first

[1265, 1252.] Friend-acquisition, as book of the Hitopade9a.

mix

' ;

Old

m.

mischen, 'mix';

High Ger. misken, Ger. AS. miscian, *mih-sc-ian,

mitratithi,
man.
else
'

m.

Mitratithi,

name

of
'

a
or

['

having Mitra as his guest


:

guest of M.' the mg of the cpd : and depends on its accent (see 1302 1267 J ), and this is not known: mitra +
atithi.]

whence Eng. mix for misk (like ax, formerly good English for ask); also Eng. mash, 'mixture' esp. of grains, whence verb mash, mix, and esp. make into a confused mass by crushing.']
'

migrA,

a.

mixed.
m.

migribhava,
nom. du. m.

[Vmig, 1188.] the becoming

mixed,

mitra-vdruna,
Varuna.
94a.]

Mitra and

the mingling (intrans.).

[migribhu.]

and Whitney migribhava-karman, n. mingling-action, process of becoming mixed. mith (methati mime'tha mithita migribhu, become mixed, [migra, 1094.] 1. meet together as friends, mithitva). migla, same as migra. [1189.] associate with, pair 2. meet as rivals, V mis (misati; mimosa; amimisat; misita; dispute, wrangle, altercari. [observe that -misya). open the eyes, have the eyes Eng. meet is just such a vox media and open. means both 'harmonize' and 'have a + ni, close the eyes fall asleep; wink.
[see 1255
a,
;
; ; ; ;

and

conflict.']

mih

mit has,
mitliu,
s.

adv.

each other; in turns.


a.

together, mutually, among [V mith, 11 lid.]


only in the

migh (me'hati; amiksat; mek3 syati; midhd [222 ]). make water, [fr. 3 come ppl. meghamana, and migh (223
or
)

wrong; false; used


s.

adv. ace.
f.

n.

mithu

(lllld),

and

instr.

mithuya

[Vmith:
kehren

(1112e), wrongly, falsely. for mg, observe that Ger. ver'

means both
and

to turn the

and
'

'

to associate with,'

wrong way whence Verkehr,


'

'

noun megha, 'cloud': cf. o-mx-fw, Lat. ming-ere, AS. mig-an, 'make water': orig. mg, pour out,' whence on the one hand 'mingere' and on the other 'rain, drip, drop' (cf. noun mih); then, fig. 'drop fatness, bestow richly' (see under mldh'

intercourse,'

verkehrt,

wrong.']

vans).]

mih]

[218]
mist.
' '
.

[Vmih: cf a-pix-hri, mist AS. mist, *mig-st, Eng. mist.] midhvans, a. bestowing richly, bountiful, s [said to be perfect ppl. of Vmih, 222

mih,/

mud
happy,

(mddate
[cf.
s

mumude
;

mudita).

be glad, rejoice

modisyate; mudita, glad,

mad and

Imand.]

a, in

amoda.
1.

790b, 803

2
.]

miini, m.
to be called in question,
54.

mimansya, grdv.
[fr. desid.

7 ward, impetus, 78

pressure, the pressing on2. a man driven on


;

of v/man, 1028e, 963.]


see

by inward pressure
a
(religious)

or impulse,

person in

mllhuse,
curse,

midhvans and Whitney


a.

mukta-gapa,
leaving
n.

having
curse

laid

aside

his

behind
40 M

him.
51
12
;

enthusiast; later 3. any distinguished sage or seer or ascetic, esp. one who has taken a vow of
ecstasy,
silence
(cf.

[Vmuc.]

mauna)
a.
[fr.

9 hermit, 40 , etc.

mukha,
jaws,

-1. mouth, 39 3
;

18 &
3
;

mumursu,
moribund,
1178f.]

wishing to
desid.

die,

about to

die,

face, 13

visage, countenance, snout or face of an animal,

2.

of v'lmr,

1028b,

44 12

at

end
or

of cpds,
denoting

esp.

w.

an adj.

vmus
ita;

(musnati; mumosa;

amosit;
rob; steal,
'

mus[cf.

[1298a], or adv. [1306]

adjectively used prep. [1305],


direction:

musitva; -musya).
'

udan-

mukha, having a northward


northward
towards;
;
;

face, turning

mus, the thief, i.e. mouse mouse,' jj.vs, and from the shape, 'muscle'; Lat. mus,
' ;

abhi-mukha, having the face


3.
(like

'mouse,'
'

whence

diminutive
' '

mus-culus,
'

Eng. face) surface, 25 21 4. (like Eng. head, and like chief from caput) the head, i.e. chief, best,

most excellent, 51 22

nnikhya,
so)

a.

(at the

mouth

or front,

and
cf.

muscle ' ; AS. mus, mouse and muscle,' Eng. mouse; Ger. Maus, 'mouse' (whence denom. mausen, 'steal,' in which we are brought back again to the orig. mg of the primitive), and also 'muscle of the

chief,

most

excellent,

[mukha,

thumb '
' '

further, yumo, */*u<na, Lat. mus-ca,

mg4:
\f

1212a.]
[758];

fly

see also

muska.]
1. testicle;

muc

(muficati, -te

mum6ca. mu-

musk a.

m.

2.

pudenda

amucat; moksyati, -te; mukta; m6ktum; muktva; -mucya; mocayati,


nuice;

2 [from noun mus, i.e. (383a ) mus, 'mouse': for mgs, see under Vmus:

muliebria.

-te[1041
loose, 34

2
]). 14
;

release; free; let go; let lay aside release esp. from
;

cf. piiff-xov

rb av5pe7ov Kal yvvaiKe'iov popiov:


cf.

the bonds of sin (93 13 ) or existence; (let


go,
i.e.

emit

or)

utter, e.g.

sounds; shed

(tears); discharge (phlegm, urine, ordure, smells), [orig. mg, 'to free or clear':
' to clear specialized in Greek and Latin the nose, to snot': cf. airo-fivffffw, *-/AVK-j<a,

also Persian mushk, Eng. musk, 'perfume got from a bag behind the navel of the musk-deer.'] muska-dega, m. region of the testes,
groin.

w. muska,

musti,

m.f.

fist.

Lat.

e-mung-o,

'snot';

pvK-r-fip,

'snout,

nose'; Lat. muc-us, 'snot': for mg, cf. relation of snout to the cognate verbs snot

miisala, m. n. pestle. [181c.] v'muh (muhyati, -te mum6ha, mumuhe amuhat; mohisyati; mugdha, mudha).
;

be
ton,

confused;
foolish,
.

err;

lose

one's

senses;

and

snite.]

mudha,
release from,

and as
'

subst., fool,

simple-

+ nis, let out; release. + pra, let go forth from,


w. dbl.

[cf Lat. mug-er, false player.'] miihus, adv. suddenly; in a moment;

muhur
loosen,
e.g.

muhus,
i.e.

at

one
['

moment

at

+ vi,
79 18
also
;

a bond
;

(ace.)

from

(abl.),

another,

repeatedly.

in a bewilder-

untie

free

arated from, be deprived


w.
instr.

pass, be freed or sepof, w. abl., but


2
).

muhurta,
59 10
.

ing way,' s'muh, lllld.] m. n. 1. moment;


tieth of a day,

2. thir-

(283

[for last

mg,

cf.

an hour (of 48 minutes),

Eng.

loose

with

lose.~]

[muhus.]
see

munja.

m. sedge; esp.

Saccharum Munja.

mudha,

Vmuh.

[219]

[Vmrd
used of " bruisers," Odyssey
18.

mutra,

n.

urine.
a.

31

fj.v\-Tj,

murkha,

stupid, foolish;

as

m. fool.

'mill'; Lat. mol-a, 'mill'; Eng. meal (for

[V march, mg 3.] murkha-gata, n. V

mg,
fool-hundred.
;

cf.

pista)

AS. mg,

mol-de,
cf.

'fine earth'
;

(for

Eng. mol-d, mrd): cf. also


[cf.
fj.ap-

murch
chita,
1.

mur chati

nmmurcha
2 ]).

murrigid:
V

Vmrd.]

murt

[220

become

3mr,
[j.aipcii,
'

exists

perhaps
'

in

marut.
' ;

so

coagulate, acquire consistency; and 3. (be2. take shape, be formed ;


stiff,

*fj.ap-/j.ap-j(,

flash

Lat. mar-mor,

marble.']
1.
(like

come
torpid,

numb,

torpid,

and

so)
3,

become mrga, m.
Eng.
'
:

AS.
2.

stupid,
'

senseless.

[for

mg
'

cf.

beast

of

the
;

forest,

de5r) wild animal, as opp. to pagu,


(w.
the

see miirti

numb,' and then and murkha.]


2

dull, stupid

'cattle,'

67 2

then

same

spe-

cialization

of

murt

mg

as in Eng. deer) animal


[per-

f. firm

body, definite

shape, emin-

of the genus Cervus, deer, gazelle,

[Vmurch, 220 .] murtimant, having bodily form,


bodiment.
carnate,
.

haps 'the ranger, rover,' v'mrj, q.v.: for 2, observe the use of deer in the more
general sense in King Lear, "rats and such small deer."]
V
iii.

[murti, 1235.] murdhan, m. forehead,


oftenest figuratively,

4.

128,

skull

head

highest

part;

mur-

mrj

(marsti [027];
;

mamarja;
;

amarjit,
;

dhni, at the head.

mala,

Eng. root), that from which a thing grows or proceeds,


n.

root; fig.

(like

amarksit marksyate mrst marstum also marjitum, marmrstva -mfjya rub off wipe away jitva, -marjya).
;
;

root, basis

capital.

clean; polish.
;

mulya,

n.

price,

47 3>u

capital,

46 14

[properly, perhaps, adj. 'pertaining to the root, radical, basal,' and then, as ' ' fr. mula, subst., basis of a transaction
:

'move hither and on the one hand, 1. 'range, rove, streifen,' as in Avestan and, on the meregh, and Skt. mrga
[original meaning ' thither over then,
:

q.v.]

mus,
q.v.:

m. f. mouse.

['the

thief,'

Vmus,

'go over with the hand, i.e. rub, wipe, strip (a tree, a cow), milk':
other,
2.

see383a 2 .]
m. thief; mouse, 46 n ; Mousey, of a man, 47 21 [Vmus, q.v.]
.

for

2, cf. o-/j,6py-vvfj.i,

'wipe off';

a-fifpy-ca,

musaka,
as

'strip off, pluck';


'

a-/j.\y-eiv,

Lat. mu/g-

name

ere,
milk.'}

to

milk

'
;

AS. noun

meolc,

Eng.

miisakakhya,
[akhya: 1280b.]

f.

the

name Mousey.
[Vmus,
q.v.]

+ apa, wipe away;


'

also jig.,

of guilt,

miisika,

m. mouse, rat.
a.

[cf

diro/j.6pyvv/j.i,

wipe away.']
[1041 see
2
]).

musika-nirvigesa,
from a mouse.
V

undistinguished
V
;

+ pra, wipe

off, polish.

mrd
54.]

(mrlati,
;

mrlayati
[for
1,

be

(mriyate [773]; mamara amrta; mrta martum marisyati mrtva).


; ; ;

Imr

gracious

forgive,

Whitney
,

die; mrta, dead.


'

*fj.poTos,
'

mortal

'
;

[w. mrta, cf. @po-r6s, cf <p\.b i-fj.ap-a.v-6t],


.

mrlika,
Whitney

n.

grace, mercy.

4 [Vmrd, 1186

54.]

flame died

'

away

; '

Lat.

'

mor-i,
' ;

die

'
;

mrta,
[V 1

ppl.
'

dead
adv.

as

n.

[1176a],

death.

mors, stem mor-ti-,


\>-r,

death

Goth, maur:

mr,

die.']

AS.

morftor,

Eng. murther, murder


i.e.)

mrta vat,
1107.]

as

if

dead.

[mrta,
1165a:

see amrta.]

+ abhi,

(lit.

die against,

affect un-

mrtyii,
V

m.

death.

[Vlmr,

'die,'

by dying; guruna^abhimrta, (affected by a teacher by dying, i.e.) bereaved by the death of a teacher.
pleasantly
V

see 95 16 .]

mrd

2mr

(mrnati; crush; smash.

mrnati [731];
[cf.
fj.dp-va-fj.ai,

murna).
'fight,'

(mrdnati; mardati, -te mamarda; mrditd marditum mardisyate mrditva; -nifdya). press or rub hard,
; ;

squeeze, crush, smash, destroy.

mrd]
[extension of
'

[220] V2mr, 'crush':


:

cf. a-/j.a\S'

' destroy e.g. a wall w. mrdti, soft, weak,' cf. Lat. mollis, *molvis, *moldv-i-s,

vvto,

victim animal under m6das.] medhas, wisdom,


;

sacrifice.

[cf.

mid

su-medhas.

[equiv.

weak,' and &pa$vs, *npaSv-s, 'slow' soft,' w. Eng. (for rag, cf. Ger. weich, weak, and Lat. len-is, 'soft,' w. len-tus,
'

soft,

of medha.]

'

medha, f. wisdom. melaka, m. assembly;

w. kr, assemble.

'slow'):

with
'

v'

mrd

in

hima-mardana,
s

'

melting
f*.f\8ia,

of the snow,'
melt,' lateral

we might compare
smelt

[Vmil, 1181.] modaka, m. small round comfit, sweetmeat, [prop, 'gladdener,' s'mud, 1181:
so Eng. cheer and refreshment are applied
esp. to eatables.]

Eng. melt ; but the

of the col:

form

makes

this doubtful

see also mradas.]

maurija,
-I,

+ vi, destroy. mfd, /! earth; loam;


earth,

sc.

a. made of Munja-grass; f. mekhala, girdle of Munja-grass.

clay;

mound

of

[munja, 1208f.]

62 18

[prop,

'crumbled

earth,'

maunji-nibandhana,
the Munja-girdle.

n.

ligation

of

Vmrd:

similar specializations of
:

mg

are

frequent

thus AS. mol-de,

earth, dust,'

Eng.

mol-d,

come

'crumbling fr. a Vwza/,

mauna, n. silence, [muni, 1208d.] mna, uncertain verbal. minded; assumed


on account of sumna.
V

the cognate of V2mr, 'crush, crumble'; Ger. Grand, 'sand,' is fr. the same root
as Eng. grind;
'

mna
lateral

Ger. Scholle, 'clod,' and


pieces,'

(manati form of
V

zer-schellen,

break to
;

go back
'

to

[see

man

[V mna.] colamnasit; mnatd). man, be minded,' 108g. cf ni-/j.vh-fficoi, keep in


'
v'

'

the same root

logd and

losta,

clod,'
V

mind.']

are derivs of Vruj, 'break.']

myaks
amyak).

mrdu,

a.

soft; weak.
a.

[V mrd, q.v.]

(mydksati be fixed in
n.

mimyaksa
or
.

[785];

on; be present.

mrnmaya,
V

made

of earth; w. grha,

sam, keep

4 together, 73

house of clay, the grave,


see maya.] mrc, (mrgati, -te amrksat mrsta
;

[mfd

-f-

maya

mradas,
V

softness.
q.v.]
;

[Vmrad, collateral

form of Vmrd,
;

mamarca, mamrg mar stum -mfgya).


;

ml a
V1

(mlayati wither. mlana).

mamlaii

amlaslt

1.

hold

touch, mulcere, stroke ; grasp, take 2. take hold of mentally, of;


[cf.
'

mr,

'

die,'

and
a.

[collateral form of ' so perish, decay,

fade.']

consider.
V *npaic,
'

grasp, understand

the Hesychian Bpaice'iv, ' Lat. mulc;

mlana-sraj,
land.
V

having a withered gar-

ere,

stroke.']

mluc
go-

(m!6cati

muml6ca
retire
;

mlukta).
re-

+ abhi,
V

touch.
-ti;

mrs
-1.
mind)

(mfsyate,
;

mamarsa, mamrse;
;

+ apa

go

off,

apamlukta,

amarsista

-mfsya
16
;

forget, 92

marsayati). -2. (like Eng. not


conse-

caus.

tired, hidden.

mleccha.
v'

m. barbarian.

disregard, treat as of no

mlech
is

(mlecchati).

meka
'

quence, bear patiently. a setting up, in su-m6ka.


,

or barbarously,
[V 1 mi,

[Vmlech.] speak unintelligibly [root *mlek mlecchati


:

for *mlek-sketi, like prcchati, q.v., for


: '

establish.']

mekhala.y!

girdle, see

59 8

K.

cf. a.-/ji(^)\aK-e1v, V/uAeuc, 'err, *prksketi ' miss j8A.c^, &\a.K-6s, stupid.']
;

meg ha,
medas,

m. cloud.
n.

[Vmigh, see mih.]


[v'mid or

fat.

med

(761a),

medyati, 'be

fat.'] 1.

medha,

of meat, broth; 2. sap and strength, essential part, esp. of the sacrificial victim; 3. sacrificial
juice

m.

1. who, which; [509], relative pron. sometimes following its -correlative: 7 6 17 18 29 6 , 30 15 33 16 , 52 ", 73 9 78 10 , 79 7 ;
, , ,

evambhuto vidvan, yas

samarthas,

[221]
tarn

[yajiyaris
'
.

doctus
oftener

qui possit, preceding


,

19 4

2.

but

with which cf is,


V

as

' ;

but these com-

muck
32 10
,

its

correlative:
,

12 ta, 77 ,
;

69 7

Sis, 1713, 2 123 (


3
;

22 4 30 n

ya
,

parisons are rejected in toto

by some.]
an
extended
':

yaks

(yaksate).

perhaps

yac ca^ucyate etad alasyavacanam, and (what is


i.e.)
]

yam

esara, 74

said,

as

for

the saying
8-

that

is

form o/*yah (*yagh), 'stir, move quickly and so, on the one hand, pursue, esp. pursue avengingly, avenge, and on the other, dart
swiftly (as a suddenly appearing light), [see the following three words and s'*yah ' kinship of Ger. jag-en, pursue, hunt,' is
:

[fatalists'

sloth-talk, 18

n
;

3. converting

the subject or
:

object

of a

verb into a substantive clause

sometimes,
"',

3 58 6 ; perhaps, merely for metre : 29 , 38 but often for emphasis: 9 18 , 56 19 , 57 7 ; y6

doubted.]

yaks a,

jimuta abhavan, what were wings, those became clouds, for t6 3 paksa abhavan jimutas, 93 ay dm y6 kir u sa yamasya, who this priest h6ta,

paksa asans,

te

n. spirit or sprite or ghost; as /. a Yaksha, one of a class of fabulous genii, attendants of Kubera. [perhaps a restless one,' Vyaks: for connection of mgs of
'

he also that of Yama, 88 10 so even w. words of different gender and yad,


[is],

is

root and deriv., cf. the converse relation of Eng. spirit or. sprite to sprightly, 'brisk,
stirring,'

and

cf. Scott's

"restless sprite."]

number, as, prajapater va etaj jyestham tokam, yat parvatas, of P. that [was] the
first

yaksin, a. avenging. yaks ma, m. disease,


avenging
1166.]
;

[Vyaks.]
[perhaps,
'avenger,'
the
sin-

creation,
; ,

what the mountains


;

are,

Varuna's

Vyaks.

9219

so95 15 97 1

3 -te which, what, as adj. pron. agreeing V yaj (yajati, iyaja, Ij6 [784 ]; w. incorporated antecedent : na^asmai vidist& ayaksit, ayasta yaksyati, -te yiit sisedha, na yam miham akirad yastum istva caws, yajayati). honor

4.

dhradunim

ca, not for

him did

the light-

god

(ace.),

99 12

worship; worship
(instr.)
;

ning avail, not what mist he scattered 21 to 72 2 74 4 abroad, and hail, 71*; so 7 1
, ,

with prayer and oblation


consecrate,

and
;

so
in

hallow, offer

sacrifice

79 9

1,

83 3

88

~;

as subst. pron., the ante, ;

Veda,

active,

when one honors or

sacrifices

cedent not being expressed, 74 1>2 78 18 5. ya in special connections : ya


[511],

ya
;

soever,

whoever, whichever, whatever, who12 45 13 so ya ka ca, 68 10 etc., 13


, ;

as a paid priest) on account of another, (e.g., and middle, when one sacrifices on one's own account; yajamana, as m. one who institutes or performs a sacrifice and pays

ya ka ya ka

cid, cid,

60

^
so
in

68 12

ya ka cana,
18 4
;

9 16

anyone soever, no matter who,

quilibet, 21

n
;

ya
the

ta,

6.
:

two or

the expenses of it; caus. cause or help or teach a person (ace.) to worship with a certain sacrifice (instr.) ; serve a person
as sacrificing priest,
' '

more relatives

same clause

yo

'tti

yasya yada mansam, when (who) someone eats the flesh of (whom) someone, 29 '; so 37 n, 66 i g -7. ya, if anybody,
;

worship, sacred awe, expiatory sacrifice'; afoucu, stand in awe of,' e.g. gods *a.y-jofj.ai,
[cf 07-0$,
.

ay-vos,
'

si

quis

(really

-8. ya, and


illustration, see
;

an anacoluthon) : so 79 16 15 -9. for further he, 74 512, 511 for derivatives,


;

ya,

'worshipped, hallowed', w. yajto be worcolendus,' cf 07-105,


'
.

'

shipped,

holy

different

is

&yos,

see

agas.]

510 for influence on the accent of 595 cf. yad, yasmat, yat, yena.
;

the verb,

(ace.)

get as result of sacrifice a thing for a person (dat.), einem etwas


a.

[orig.
(like

Eng.
8'

and primarily a demonstrative er-opfern. that and Ger. der) cf. 6s, 'he,' yajatra,
:
'

venerable,

holy.

[Vyaj,

in ^

os,

said he

'
;

'

8>s,

so,'

in

oi>5'

Sis,

1185d.]

'not even so';


(like
5;,

secondarily a relative

yajiyans,
1184, 468.]

a.

excellently sacrificing, right


sacrifice.

Eng.

that

for *j8,

and Ger. der}: cf. 8s, a or 'who, which'; hence yat,

cunning in the art of

[Vyaj,

yajurveda]
yajur-ved.4,
texts,

[222]
m. the

Veda

of sacrificial

proverbs
or action,

motivating
e.g.

a preceding statement

Yajurveda.
a.

[see yajus.]

19 7

yajusmant,
nied

by

sacrificial

istaka), certain bricks used in building the sacred fire-pile, and so called because each was
of
its

(possessing, i.e.) accompatexts ; f. -mat! (sc. Yajushmati, name applied to


1

therefore,

30 ";

tena, since yatas 2 so yatas atas, 36


;

yatas

6 tad, 37

cf.

tatas.

[pron. root

ya, 510, 1098.]

laid with the recitation of a special text

yati [519], pron. as many, quot. [pron. root ya, 510, 1157.4.] 2 yati, m. ascetic, man who has restrained
his
see

own.
n.

yajus,

sacrificial

[yajus, 1235.] sacred awe; worship; 2. as distinguished from text,


1.

passions and abandoned the world


3 agrama and 65 N.
['

striver,

one who

takes pains, one

who

castigates himself,'

3. the stanza (re) and chant (saman); collection of such texts, the Yajur-veda.

Vyat, 1155: its towards that of

mg
'

was perhaps shaded

restrainer

[Vyaj, 1154.] yajna, m. worship, devotion (so in Veda); later, esp. act of worship, sacrifice, offering
(these the prevailing mys).

connection
1157 1,
cf.

of

the

by a popular word with \fyam,

'

yatna,
w.

[v'yaj, 1177a,

kr

954d.] m. a striving after ; effort; pains; take pains ; bestow effort upon :

201.]

(loc.),

have a thing
pains

(loc.)

at heart, I

13
;

yajna-kratti,
i.e.

m.

sacrifice-ceremony,

yatne krte,

having been taken.


e.g.

rite.

yajna-cchaga,
ga, 227.]

[1280b.] m. sacrifice-goat,
n.

[cha-

yatra,

[Vyat, 1177.] adv. where,

II
;

10
;

whither;
10
;

-correl. w. tatra, 24*, 85 19


sacrificial utensil.

w. ena, 83

yajna-patra,

yajnartham,
tham, 1302c4.]

adv. for a sacrifice,

[aror
2.

yatra yatra, where soever; catuspathe, yatra va, at a quadrivium, or somewhere


(else),

104 21
rel.
;

yajniya,
sacrifice,

a.

1.

worthy

of

worship
;

yatha,

[pron. root ya, 510, 1099.] 1. in which adv. and con/.


.

reverend, holy, divine active or skillful in sacrifice, pious


offerer,

as m.

way, as tatha

sometimes following

its

correlative

yajfiopavita,
vita.]

[yajna, 1214.] a. the sacrifice-cord, sacred


left shoulder,

14 yatha, 22 , 43 2, 44^; evam 8 2. but much oftener preyatha, 37 ;

ceding

its

correlative:

tesam sam hanmo

cord worn over the

[upa[Vyaj,

yajvan,
V

m. worshipper, sacrificer.

aksani, yatha^idarh harmiam, tatha, of them we close the eyes, as (we close) this house, so, 77 13 so 61 6 27 14 , 21 16 18 ,
-

1169. la.]

etc.;

yat

-te ; yete ; (yatati, yatisyati, -te ; yatita, yatta

ayatista
;

evam, 18 18 95 7 yatha eva (Vedic),8Q l s

9
;

yatha
pra-

yatitum

3.

correlative omitted:

buddhim
;

-yatya). mid. join,

1.

act.

join,

trans.;

2.

intrans.;

w ; 3. mid. order, proceed in rows, 86 4. try to join, strive after; take pains cans, (cause to attain, i.e.) requite with
;

range one's self in

kurusva, yatha^icchasi, decide (so), as thou wishest, 9 n ; 5 2, etc. so with verbs of saying, etc.: tad brohi, yatha
in

upadadhama, which we

this tell us (viz. the

are to put on

96 u ; so

way)

reward

or punishment. [perhaps orig. 'reach out after' and akin w. Vyam.]

88 6- 7;
4. without finite verb, as mere particle
19 of comparison, as, like, e.g. 6 ; so enclitic at end of a pada, 71 12 M, 87 ", 1 6 , 2 31 1,
-

+ a reach to, attain, get a foot-hold. + pra, (reach out, i.e.) make effort, take
,

pains.

43 4
adv.

in

solemn

declarations:
,

yatha
so,

',
.

yat as,
for,

from what (time


1.
;

or place or
2.

tena satyena, as surely as

13

w ff

reason):

14 where, 6

because,
series

28 2s, 38 5

esp.

common as
(only)

introducing

a proverb or

the first

of a

of

5. combinations ya 5); yatha (cf. tatha tatha, according as so, yatha the more, 48 13 yatha tatha, the more
;

[223]
in

[yadi
adv. according to in-

some way or other


9 rate, 62
;

(cf.

ya5

end), at

yathagraddham,
clination, as

any
that

you
a.

will,

[yatha + graddha,
desired

6.
:

in

order that, so that,

ut,

(so)

2 1313b, 334 .]

in Veda, w. subjunctive, 89 5,10,15^ 90 19. iater> w opL> J49.


_

88 14

yathepsita,
Vip.]

as

w ,fut

according to one's wish,

-am, adv. [yatha + Ipsita,


;

3*; w. pres. ind., yatha svami jagarti, tatha maya kartavyam, I must act so, that the master wakes, 30 16 ; so
ind.,

yathokta,
yad,
1.

a.

as (afore-)said

-am, adv.

as aforesaid,

[yatha + ukta.]

37 5

'

7
,

38 22

39 !; -7. that, w. verbs of


7
;

saying, knowing, etc., 30 on accent of verb, see 595.

for influence
[pron. root ya,
to
;

as nom. ace. s. n. to ya, see ya; 2. as cpds and derivs, see 510; that tan na bhadram conjunctive adv.

used

in

510, 1101

cf. article

ya.]
a.

yatha-kartavya,

requiring

be
n.

done under given circumstances the proper course of action, 41 n


.

as

krtam, yad vigvasah krtas, therefore it was not well done (herein), that trust was reposed, 22 n ninya ciketa, prgnir yad udho jabhara, he knoweth the
;

yathakamam,
2 agreeably, 16
14 slowly, 49
.

adv.
;

according to wish,

secret, that P.

offered her udder,

78
,

3
;

in

an easy-going way,

introducing oratio recta,

38 l
,

yad

tad,
;

[yatha + kama, 1313b.]


adv. according to order,

yatha-karya, = yathakartavya.

yathakramam,
in

1 so therein, 36 vai tad abruvan, as for the yad fact that they said that, indeed, 96 23

as for the fact that

94 1G

'

regular

series.

[yatha + krama,
(i.e.

3. in causal connections: like

Eng. that
;

1313b.]

on account of which), 78 16
since

which one came -am, adv. by the way by which one came, [yatha + agata, Vgam, 1313b.] yathangam, adv. limb after limb or limb on limb membratim. [yatha +

yathagata,

a.

on

tad,
since

therefore,

17

5
;

yadyad
15 3
;

tasmat, inasmuch as
(i.e.

therefore,
14

pose:
that,

considering that), 79 in order that, 78 9 72 12 14


'

pur:

result

anga, 1313b.]

yathatatham,
curately,
likes,

adv.

as

it

really

is,

ac-

etadrga dharmajna, yan mam hantum udyatas, so understanding the law, as to undertake to slay me,
-

71 e

[yatha + tatha, 1313b, 1314a.] yathabhimata, a. as desired, that one


[yatha + abhimata, Vman.]
m. desired place,

28 5

4.

temporal

as,
2
;

86 6

tad

yad,

yathabhimata-dega,

place that one likes. [1280 *.] yathayogyam, adv. as is fit, according
to propriety,

tatas, when yad 12 7 so yad then, 92 taditna, 70 correl. often lacking: yad '",', when

then

when, 71
;

(sc.

12 then), 75

so

80 3 81
,

17
;

while, 71

5
;

[yatha + yogya, 1313b.]


a.

yathartha,
fact, true
;

according to the thing or

hence, the temporal use passing insensibly or if we will, 73 17 , (cf. yad vaama, when

as n. the pure truth,

[yatha

and Eng. when


conditional,

w.

Ger.
-

+
fit

artha. ]
a. according to that which is -am, adv. suitably, according to one's

- 5.

if,

80 9

10

'

wenn)
;

into

the

-yad

placed

yatharha,
;

dignity,

[yatha + arha, 1313b.]


adv. according to
le

8 (quoted dependent clause, 78 79 14 2), for influence on acct [pron. root ya, 510, of verb, see 595.

within

the

under

yathavat,
comme
il

comment,

faut, duly, [yatha, 1107.] yathavidhi, adv. according to prescription or rule, [yatha + vidhi,

yada when
84 s,

lllla.] adv. ,
7
.

when
then
;

yada yada

tada

or tatas,

atha,

Vedic,
see

1313b.]

6,

yada yada, quandocunque,

yatha-vrtta,

as happened; -am, w. verb of telling: either the actual occurrence


a.

or circumstances or as
it

(as nom.

or ace.

s.

.),

[pron. root ya, 1103a.] 1. w. pres. ind. in protasis: ya,di, adv. if; 17 12 42 14, apodosis has pres. ind., 20 , 37
;

tada.

really

happened

(as adv., 1313b).

43 7 , 65 23, 99 21 ; has

fut.,

39 20 44*; has im,

yadbhavisya]
perative, 10
, ;

[224]
18 n
,

16
;

has no finite verb,

25 8

his

sister

Yami, constituted
selection
(cf.

the

first

28 9 40 1 2. w. fut. in protasis and apo3 20 3. w. pres. opt. in protasis dosis, 9 , II ; 4. w. no finite and apodosis, 3 17 98 20
,
;

human

pair,

Ixiii.

father of

mankind

also

honored as manu) and as


;

king of the

spirits of the

departed fathers

verb in protasis:

32 17, 48", 84 9 ; 28 12 63 9 alternative conditions :


, ;

apodosis has imperative, has no finite verb, 27 18 ,

(pitaras), see 83 *N. ; in later times, regarded as the 'Restrainer' (Vyam) or


'

va,
,

yadi va
or
(e.g.
,

va,

whether

or

dead

Punisher,' and ruler of death and of the in the under-world, 7 11 ; yaml, f.


sister of

28 12

25 8 ),

apodosis introduced by tada tad (37 12 ), tarhi (32"), or


(e.g.

Yami, twin

Yama.
'

[so Thomas,

Hebrew
king
;

te

om,

means
a.

twin.']

without adv.

17
).

[pron. root ya,

yama-rajan,

having

Yama

as

their

1103d.]

yadbhavisya,

a.

who

says

yad bhavis-

" What will be, yati, (tad) bhavisyati or " will be ; as m. fatalist ; Yadbhavishya or

as m. subject of Yama. [1302a.] yayati, m. Yayati, a patriarch of the olden time, son of Nahusha. [perhaps

'The

Striver,' Vyat, cf. 1155.2c: or

from

Whatwillb',
V

name

of a
-te

fish.

[1314b.]

Vya, 1157.1c.]

yam
yeme"
;

(yacchati,

[747];
;

ayamsit,

yatd
hold

yamtum

ayamsta yamitva

yayama, yava, m. orig. prob. any grain or corn, yamsyati yielding flour; later, barley-corn, barley, ejo, *oF-w(, corn.'] -yamya). [cf
; '
.

hold up, sustain, support hold back, restrain ; hold out, offer, grant,
; ;

yava-madhyama,

a.

having a barley-

furnish
C*?/"'a,

show
out,

(the
i.e.

teeth),

77*.

[cf.

corn middle, i.e. big in the middle and small at the ends, like a crescendo-dimin-

'restraint,

punishment.']
extend, and so
(like

+ a, hold
long.

i.e.

uendo sign; as n. the Yavamadhyama, name of a candrayana or lunar penance.


[1297, 1280b.]

Eng. extend), lengthen; ayata, extended,

yavistha,
1.

+ ud,
35 20
take
;

raise

2.

(like

arms, weapons), Eng. take up, i.e.) under(the


;

a. youngest; esp. of a fire just born of the sticks of attrition or just set on the altar, [superl. to yiivan, q.v., but

about (a thing) 6 having undertaken, w. inf., 28


or
set

udyata,
1.

from the simpler *yu, 468.]

a. = yavistha, but always at end of a pada and as diiambus. 2. set about; samudyata, hav- yaviyans, a. raise; younger. [comp. to 20 ing set about, w. inf., 40 yiivan, q.v., but from the simpler *yu,
.

yavisthya,
the

+ sam-ud,

like

ud-yam

[1077b]:

+ upa

hold on

to,

take hold of ;
.

esp.,

468.]

8 middle, take to wife, marry, 98 -I- n i , hold, restrain niyata, having restricted one's self (to a certain thing), all
;

yagas, yagas,

n.

fame, honor.

[1151. 2a.]

intent

upon one

definite object.

honored, splendid. [1151. 2a.] yasti, f. staff, [perhaps 'a support,' fr. yacch, quasi-root of the present system
V

a.

hold or reach out, offer, give; give in marriage (as a father his daughter),

+ pra,
.

of yam: cf. 220, 1157.] yah, stir, move quickly,


q.v.,

inferred fr. yaks,

98 7

and yahva, 'continually

moving,

+ prati-pra,
2 w.gen., 100 \

offer in turn, pass (food),


V

restless.'

ya

+ vi, hold asunder, stretch out. -t-s am, hold together, co-hibere,
check
;

hold in
2. m.

(yati; yayau; ayasit[911]; yasyati; 1. go, yata; yatum; yatva; -yaya). 39 l yatas, avasitasya, of him that
;

samyata, restrained.
1. a.
i.e.)

yama,
(holder,

holding, restraining
bridle.

yama,
a twin;

1. a. paired, twin,
2.

[Vyam.] geminus; as m. The Twin, Yama, who, with

8 w. journeys (and) of him that rests, 71 u 2. go to, w. ace., astam, 62 , see astam 43 17, 91 6 w. dot. 49"; -3. go to, i.e.
;
;

attain to (a condition) e.g. devatvam ya, attain to godhead, i.e. become divine,
:

[225]
19 21
;

[Vyuj
a.

so

17

22
,

etc.;
.

-4. yatu,
of
Vi,

lot it go,

yavayad-dvesas,
[V2yu, 'keep
V

driving

away

foes.

no matter, 44 8
[collateral

off': see 1309.]

form
'

'go,'

108g:
.

lyu
yute
only;

(yaiiti [626],
;

3rd
;

pi.

yuvanti, mid.

passage, way,' w. which cf Lat. janus, 'passage, archway/ and the god thereof Janus: fr. Vya comes also

hence yana,

forms Vedic fasten, hold fast; -yuya). draw towards one, attract join, unite.
yuvati,
;

-te

Jinite

yuta

ya-ma,
'

'

period or watch of
season,'

the night

'
;

+
V

Hi-pa,

time,

Eng. year, show a


like

i.e.

unite; samyuta, connected with, 14 having reference to, 59


.

am,

development of
q.v.,

mg

that of w.

yama,

2yu

(yuy6ti; yucchati [60S

];

ayauslt;
repel,

but

their

connection

Vya

is

doubtful (see 2 vara).]

+ anu
,

go

after, follow.
or to or on.

yuta; -yuya; keep off or separate, keep off or separate,


word.

cans, yavayati).
trans.
;

sometimes
;

intrans.

Vedic

+ a come hither + s a m - a come


,

hither together

assem-

+ pra, remove; prayucchant, removing


(intrans.),

ble

samayata, come.

moving away, and

so (like

Eng.

+ ud, go forth or out. + up a, go or attain unto. + pra, go forth; set out. yac (yacati, -te yayace
;

absent), heedless.

yu,
;

root

v/j.e7s,

of 2d pers. pronoun, cf. 494. [cf. Lesbian tf/u/ues, 'ye': kinship of

yacisy6

Eng. ye, doubtful.] a yoking, harnessing; 1. yacitva yukti, f. -2. yoke, team. [Vyuj, 1157, 219: cf. -yacya). make a request; ask a person u ask a a yoking.'] eC|iy, *evy-<ri-s, (ace.) for a thing (ace.), 46
ayacista
;

yacita

yacitum

'

21 thing (ace.) of a person (abl.), 55 13 yat, adv. as; temporally, so long as, .79
.

yuga,
.

[abl.

of pron.

root ya, 1114a, 510: see

under ya.]

2. couple, pair; yoke; manusa, a human generation (as that which is united by common 4. and so, in descent), -yei/os avdpwirccv

n.

1.

3. esp. w.

yat ana,
yatr,

f.

requital

esp.

punishment,

pains of hell. [Vyat, 1150.] m. avenger. [' pursuer,' Vya, 1182.] yana, m. way; as n. wagon. [Vya, 1150.]

a temporal sense, an age of the world, see 58 l y. [Vyuj, q.v., 216. 1: cf. yugma.]

yugapat-prapti,/

simultaneous reach-

yama,/.
yama,
in

-I,

a.

of or coming from
5

Yama.

ing or arriving at. [1279 and a.] yugapad, adv. simultaneously.


parently ace.
'

[yama, 1208f.]
in. 1. course or going, 78 2. as 3. watch Eng., course (of a feast); of the night. [Vya, 1166: for mg 2, cf.
;

s.

n.

[apof an adj. *yuga-pad,

pair-footed, even-footed, side by side/ a possessive form (1301) of a descriptive

cpd (1280b) *yuga-pad,

'pair-foot.']

irtpi-oSos,

'way around, circuit, course at for course dinner/ and Ger. Gang,
'

yugma,
couple.
couple,
'fit

a.

'

even; as n. pair, [Vyuj, 1166, 216.5: for mg, cf.


paired,
copula, *co-ap-ula,

mg yavant
3,'

cf.

irfptoSos,

[517],
,

1.
;

'time of circuit.'] a. as great, 101 9


as

Lat.

Vap +

co-,

as
its

or join together.']
;

4 105 4 many, 64

much

preceding

yuj (yunakti, yuakt


;

yuyoja, yuyuj6;
;

correl.

tavant; while tavat


;

2.

yavat, adv. as long,


as,

19 2
as
as

42 3
,

yavat, so long tavat as yavat


:
,

ayukta yoksyati, -te yukta y6ktum yuktva; -yujya; yojayati). -1. yoke;
;

long

harness
of

make ready
(101
1T
)

for draught, used


;

so long, 15 5

32 2
that

40 18
,

as soon

wagon

as well as of steed (72 6 )


2.

15 then, 44 , 22 7 3. yavat, as quasi-prep, w. ace.: during; up to (in space or time); sarpa-

or
;

the

moment

then, generalized,

make
the

ready, set to

work, apply;
stones, 76
18
;

use,

e.g.

Soma-press-

vivaram yavat, as far as 13 hole, 39 adya yavat,


;

the serpent's until to-day,


cf.

busied

yukta, engaged upon (loc.), u 3. unite with, 62 middle,


; ;

unite one's self with (instr.); yujana, in

24 ".

[pron. root ya, 517.

tavant.]

company

with,

73 12

4. passive,

be

15

[226]
serving as a feminine to ydvan. (instr.), i.e. become possessed yuvati, young woman; maiden. yukta: possessed of (instr.), [1157.3 end: at end of cpd, 65 J 1 12 perhaps pres. ppl. of V 1 yu, attract.'] having 5. pass, be joined or made ready, and so yuvan [427], a. young; as subst. young man (distinguished from bala, 'child,' be fitted, suited; yukta, fit, suitable, 19 28 12 ); youth (used even of youthful yuktam, adv. fitly, right, proper, 23

united with
of,

60 15

'

rightly,

etc.,

36 2

-6. yojayati

apply
jung-o,

lay on, 102

[cf

[1041 ], ^eiry-yy/zt, Lat.

gods).

suffix an,

[perhaps fr. v'lyu, 'attract,' not van, 1160 see yaviyans,


:

'yoke, harness, join'; w. yuga, vy6v, Lat. jugum, Ger. Jock, 'yoke,' cf. Eng. yoke : for euphony, see 219.]

yavistha,

yuvati

cf

Lat.

juven-i-s,

+ ud,

mid.

make

one's self ready, set to


self.
to,

'young'; w. juven-cu-s, 'young,' cf. Germanic *yuvunga, ijnnga, Eng. young ; also Old Eng. yung-fye, Spenser's youngth, Eng.
youth.'}

work, exert one's

+ up a,
use.

mid. harness, put


1.

73

13
;

apply,

yusm,
yutha,

see 491.

+ ni,
set,
cf.

mid.

fasten to;

2.

put (a
2
],

task) upon, commission;


lay,
e.g.

snares,

24 n

caus. [1041
.

m. n. herd. [prop, 'a union,' v'lyu, 'unite,' 1163: for mg, cf. also Ger. Bande, 'gang or set of men,' and Eng.
fr.

[for

mg

2,

niyoga; also Eng.


in-jungere.~\

en-join w. its Lat.

band, 'company,' both indirectly root of bind.~\

the

predecessor

yutha-natha,
namaskaram,
samyukta, i.e. endowed
i.e.

m. protector or leader of

w. apply, use; employ, i.e. do adoration.

+ pra,

the herd.

yutha-pa,
herd;
herd.
esp.

+ s am,
at

join together, unite;

m. keeper or protector of the the elephant that leads the

end of cpd: joined with, connected with, reference to, 59 12> u


4 with, 34 ;
.

having
to-

yutha-pati,

m. lord of the herd; the elephant that leads the herd.


see 427. see 491.
;

esp.

yuj

[389,

219,

386b],

-1.

a.

yoked

yunas,

gether; as m. yoke-fellow, and so comrade, 88 s ; 2. a. paired, even. [Vyuj: see

yuyam,
yena,

ayuj and ayuja.]

yujya,
1213e.]

a.

united,

combined.
n.

[Vyuj,

1. wherefore, 6 2 2. yena 9 because 3. tena, therefore, 64 ; that, ut, introducing a result and corre-

adv.

sponding
ppl.

to

'

such

'

or
).

'

yuddha,

fought; as

[1176a], fight,

(21

10
)

or implied (II

[pron.

so' expressed root ya,

battle, contest.

[Vyudh, 1176, 160.]


m. a sort of battle; a

yuddha-varna,

yestha,
going, y6ga,
TO.

pronounced
swiftest.
1.

battle, so to speak.

i.e.)

Vyudh
fight,

(yiidhyate; yuyudh6;

ayuddha
;

yaistha, a. (best 3 [Vya, 470 , 468.] a setting to work use


;

yotsyate; yuddha;
[cf
.

y6ddhum
'

-yiidhya).

appliance (act of applying);

2. appli-

vo-fj.ii'Tj,

*\>9-fjuvri,

battle.']

a, fight against.
fight.

ance (thing applied), and so means; esp. 8 3. (the supernatural means, magic, 56
;

yiidh,/.

[Vyudh.] yudhi-sthira, m. Yudhishthira, son of Pandu and Kunti, to whom Brihadacva


tells

applying one's
pursuit
or

a thing, and so) acquisition (of a thing), cf.


self

to

ksema
at

4. connection, relation

-yogat,
,

the story of Nala

see 1 14 N.

['

firm

yudh-i (1250c) -f sthira.] V yup (yuy6pa; yupita; yopayati[1041 2 ]). set up an obstacle, block or bar the way 10 hinder, thwart, 80 ; obstruct or clog, see 86 OK.
;

in battle,'

end of cpd, from connection with in consequence of [Vyuj, 216.


.

i.e.

1.]
fit,

y6gya,
ting.

a.

of use,

suited for use,

fit-

[y6ga, 1212a.]
m. fighter.
a.

yoddhr, yodhin,

[Vyudh, 1182, 160.]


of cpds,
fighting.

at

end

yuvd,

pron. stem,

2d pers.

dual, 491.

[Vyudh, 1183.]

[227]

[rajas
/. keeper;

y6ni,
2.

1. lap; womb or birth-place m.f. 4 3. place of origin; origin, 93 of abiding i.e. home place birth-place,
;

raksaka,
raks ana,
raksas,
harmer,
disturb

warder; protector.
preservation.
2.

[Vlraks, 1181.]
n.

protection;
1.

place, 86

17
,

89 8

RV. x.125.7; -4.

(like

[Vlraks, 1150.]
n.

Eng. origin
of

or birth) family, race; form existence (as man, Brahman, beast, etc., in the system of transmigrations) as

harm;

concrete,

name

of nocturnal

demons who
pious.

sacrifices

and harm the


watch.
at

this
['

form

is
'

the holder

determined by birth, 67 ~\ of the born or unborn babe,


:

[V 2 raks, 1151.2a.]

raksa,
1149.]

f.

protection;

[Vlraks,
of
cpds.

2 cf. the analogous v'lyu, 'hold,' 1158. 2 metaphors in Lat. con-cipere, 'take, hold,

raksi,

a.

guarding,

end

conceive'; and in volva, 'cover, envelope,' and so womb,' fr. a root cognate with
'

[Vlraks, 1155.] r a k s i t r m. protector watcher.


,
;

[V 1 raks,

1 vr,

'

cover.']

1182a.]

yonitas,
1098b.]

adv.

from

birth,

by blood, [yoni, raghii,


[perV 1

1. a.

running, darting,
2. m.

swift;

as m. runner;

Raghu (The Run-

yosit,
haps

f.
'

young woman, maiden,


attractive
one,'
fr.

ner,

Apo/tevs),

name

of an ancient king.

the

yu,

[Vranh, q.v.: older form of laghii, q.v.]

'attract,' 1200a, 383. 3 (through the intermediate form y6-sa, 1197, of the same

ranga,
of
V

m.

theatre.

1. color; 2. theatre, amphi[Vraj or rafij, 216. 1 connection


:

mg)

cf.

yuvati.]

mg

2 unclear.]

yauvana,
or maid),

n. youth, period between childhood and maturity, adolescence (of man

raj

or ranj (rajyati, -te;

cans,

ranjdyati).

1.

rakta; -rajya; be colored; esp.

[yrivan, 1208a.]

yauvana-daga,/*.
V

time of youth.
1.

be red; rakta: red; dyed; as n. blood; 2. fi(j. be affected with a strong feeling
(cf.

raj

vi)

esp.

be

delighted with,
cans.

ranh
trans.

(ranhati, -te).
;

make
;

to run;
in-

hasten, trans.

2.
:

mid. run
.

hasten,

have pleasure in, be 1. color; redden;

in love with;
2. delight,

please,

[for *rangh cf the forms langh and raghii, and see under laghii.]
ppl. colored; esp.

make happy.
[orig.

rakta,
V

red? as

n.

blood.

rajaka)

'be bright or white' (whence then 'glow, be red": see the


'

[Vranj, 954a.]

Iraks
raksita
;

(raksati, -te; raraksa; araksit;

and

ident. V3rj and its cognates tipyvpos, etc.; cf V f>ey in aor. f>tai, dye/ and
.

raksitum; -raksya). de-fend, ; keep, i.e. both retain and mainprotect tain; take care of (as a sovereign), i.e.
govern
'

peyevs, 'dyer': w. this root

may

be con-

nected

the
2.]
1.
;

root raj

in

its

mgs given
take the

under

save, guard, ward extension of V*rak or ark:


; ;

[a
cf.

desid.

+ anu,
tinge of

be colored
lose

after,

dAe-o!,

2. feel affection
1.

towards.

ward off,' which bears a similar relation VaAK or apK in &\-a\K-f, 'warded off,' apK-fca, 'ward off, protect'; cf. also Lat. ward off,' arx, stronghold of dearc-eo, AS. ealh-stede, defencefence, citadel
to
' '
' ' ;

+ vi,
2,
.

color;
(loc.),

2.

be cold or
.

indifferent towards

[for cf the senses of the simple verb the metaphor may be either not glowing/
:

45 s
'

mg

and

so, as in
'

'

Eng.,

cold/ or else
is

'

color-

'

stead,

strong-hold

'
;

'
:

ealgian,

for the two chief


de-fendere,

mgs

of

protect raks, cf. Lat.

less/ and

so,

indifferent.']

raj aka, m. washerman, who


of
clothes.
['

also a dyer
'

'ward

off,

protect.']
;

whitener

'

or else

dyer/

+ pari, protect around 2 r a k s harm, in raksas.


,

save.

Vraj, 1181.]
n.

[perhaps only rajas,


'

1.

atmosphere,

air,

region of

another aspect of
'beat away.']

raks,

ward

off/

i.e.

clouds,

and gloom, clearly dis2 tinguished from heaven (dyaus, 72 ) or


vapors,

15*

rajju]

[228]
V

the ethereal' spaces of heaven (rocana 8 divas, 81 , or svar), "where the light
dwelleth," these being as the ai&fip is

ran

(ranati pleased; Vedic.


;

rarana

aranit).

be

[ident. w.

Vram.]

just

used loosely in pi., ; sky conceived as divided into an upper and a lower stratum, and so dual, rajasi,

beyond the rajas, rap as, n. bodily injury; disease. beyond the a-f)p; V rabh (rabhate; rebhe; arabdha rapsthe rabdha rabdhum the skies, 71 7 yate -rabhya).
; ;

grasp
these

take hold
cf
'

of.

[prob. a collateral
ident. w. labh, see
'

form of Vgrabh, and


: .

75 5i12
thick
dust,

so

far Vedic;
Greek
d-fip,
;

TO
'

'

\d<p-vpa,
;

spoils,
'

booty

2. post-Vedic: like the


air,
e.g.

the
3.

f"i-\r](t>-a,

took

Lat. lab-or,
'

undertaking,

mist,

gloom, darkness
4. in
(cf.

labor

'
;

14 13

system, darkness

philosophical 2), the second of the

the

+
x.

&,

perhaps ^\<p-ov, gat, earned.'] take hold upon; touch, RV. 125. 8 ; 2. take hold of, i.e. under1.

three qualities (see guna), soul-darkening passion (popularly connected with raga,
8 'passion'), 66
-

6 take, 14 ; w.
i.e.

yatnam, undertake an

effort,

16 .

exert one's self, II 2 ; 3. (like Ger. an-fangen and Lat. in-cipere) begin ;

the orig. mg, as indicated by the cloudy (region), region of usage, is gloom and dark' as distinguished from
[since
'

arabhya
day

simply from
on, 36

w. abl., beginning from or , 39 13 ; w. adya, from to,


19 .

the everlasting light beyond, the word is prob. to be derived f r. V raj in the sense

+ anv-a, take hold


hold on
to.

of

from behind,

'be (colored, i.e.) not clear': cognate are f-pe0os, 'darkness, Erebus,' and Goth. ' ' for connection of darkness riqis, neut.,
:

+ sam-anv-a,
(said

hold on to each other


;

of

several)

sam-anv-arabdha,
(see

touching.

mgs

2 and

3, cf .

Ger. Dunst,

'

vapor,'
' '

and
: .

sam-a,
gether.

undertake

a-rabh)

to-

Eng. dust.'] cf T & j j u f. cord rope. [V *razg, plait Lithuanian rezgis, plaited work, basket
, ; '

sam,

take hold of
etc.),

each

other (for

'

dance, battle,
V

hold together; take

Lat.

restis,

*resctis,

*rezg-ti-s,

'rope': see

hold (of a thing) together.

Vmajj.]
V

ram

ranj,

see raj.

ran a, m. pleasure, gladness. ranva, a. pleasant, lovely.


rati,
f.
1. rest,

[Vran.]

rata ramsyate ramtum; ramtva; -ramya; ramayati).


;
;

-te (ramati, aramsit, aramsta ;

rarama,

reme

[Vran, 1190.]
2.

1. act.

stop, trans.

2.

mid. stop,

in-

quiet;
cf.

comfort,
riches,

trans.

rest

pleasure.

[Vram, 1157,
1.

954d.]

3. mid.

stay gladly with ; (rest, take one's ease or com;

abide

ratna,
(cf.

n.

gift;

blessing,

fort,

and

so) find

pleasure in

rata, w.
in,

loc.,

treasure, as something bestowed or given

or at

end of cpds, taking pleasure


;

de-

ratna-dha); so far Vedic;

2. post-

voted to
'

4. caus.
.

Vedic: precious stone, jewel, pearl; fig., as in Eng., jewel, i.e. the most excellent of its kind. [V Ira, 'bestow.']

7 stay, 73

[cf.
'
;

bring to a stand-still, ii-pfp-a, 'quietly'; Goth.


tpa^ai,
eparai,
i-pa.-r&-s,
:

nmis,

quiet

*m-/j.ai,

ratna-dha
ings
1

[352],

a.

bestowing bless-

*pm-rai, 'love, loves'; formally ident. w. ratd


cf.

'lovely,'

for

mgs
;

2 and

3,

\'2gam.]
mid.
1. stop, intrans.
1.

rath a,
'

m. wagon, esp. the two-wheeled

+ abhi,
pleasure
;

2. find

battle-wagon (lighter and swifter than the car or chariot of gods anas, dray ') 14 u (72*-, 89 ) as well as of men (87 ).
;

please, intrans., 106

+a

act. stop, trans.

[Vr, 'move,' 1163: for


'

mg,

cf.

Lat. currus,

stop; sounds) hushed.

-up a,
+ vi
,

uparata,
;

ceased,

(of

chariot,'

and

'

currere,

run.']

act. stop, intrans.

pause,
pleasant.

ratha,
cf.

m. pleasure, joy.

[Vram, 1163,

ramaniya,

grdv.

enjoyable,

954d.]

[Vram, 965, 1215.]

[229]

[rajm
[orig.,

ramya,
903.]

grdv. enjoyable, pleasant.

[Vram,

rayi,

m.

stowal'

(cf.

wealth, treasure. [prop, 'be70 n ), fr. ri, a weaker form


cf.

perhaps, two distinct roots, longer distinguished in form, and with the two sets of mgs partly coincident: w. raj 1, cf. Vlrj, 'reach out';

but

no

of Vlra, 'bestow,' 1155.1:


rai.]

ratna and

w. raj 2, cf. V3rj, 'be bright,' and Vraj: see under raj an.]

ravi, m. the sun. r a g a n a /. cord


,

+vi
strap
;

1.

become master of, master


ca;/s.

rein,

[cf ragmi.]
.

81 u

(gen.),
17 .

2. shine out;

adorn, 12

raj [nom. rat], m. king. [Vraj.] beam, [so Eng. ray r a j a at end of cpds for rajan, 1249a 2 i.e.) ray, of light; 1. royal family; in pi., involves a metaphor, its Lat. predecessor raj a-kula, ?. 2. (as conversely radius meaning orig. 'staff' and then equivalent to princes; ' in Eng., The Sublime Porte, lit. the high cf ragana and ragi.] spoke la. the sap or juice of plants gate,' is used for the Turkish government) rasa, m. l 18 the royal palace. [1280b.] (36 ), and esp. of fruits fruit-syrup, 68 Ib. fig. the best or finest or strongest raja-dvara, n. king's door, door of the

rag mi,

m.

1. line,

cord;

2. Jig. (line,

'

'

part of a thing,

its

essence or

flos,

44 7

83 3

Ic. sap, generalised, fluid, liquid ; 1T 2a. taste (regarded as the drink, 15 ;
;

rajan,
,

royal palace. m. 1. king, prince, I 8 , etc.; ap12 s 1T plied also to Varuna, 83 , 75 , 76 ,

chief characteristic
taste,
i.e.

of a
6
;

relish for, 97

2b. liquid); 2c. object of

78 19 80 1 84 20.
or
at

to Indra, 71
equiv. to

8
;

to

Yama, 83 12
-

'

8
,

_2.

one's taste, esp. that which pleases one's n taste, e.g. the beauties (of a story), 56
.

man

rajanya, a ksatriya of the military caste, 59 13 22 3.


; ;

rasa,

2. Rasa, a 1. moisture f. mythical stream supposed to flow round the earth and atmosphere, [cf. rasa.]
;

end of cpds : regularly raja sometimes s 84 20 rajan, 6 [Vraj, 1160c: cf. Lat.
,
.

rasika,
1222.]
V

a. tasty;

as m. connoisseur, [rasa,

rah
,

(rahita; rahitum).

leave, give up,

Keltic stem rig-, king ' from the Keltic was borrowed very early the Germanic *rilc-, ruler of this, Goth. so reiki, AS. rice, 'dominion,' are dcrivs also Goth, reiks, AS. rice, powerful,'
'

'

reg-em,

king

'

'

'

'

abandon.

Eng. rich:
in

rice,

'dominion,' lives in Eng.

+ v i abandon, separate from,


r

viraha.

bishop-ric."]

alias,

n.

solitude; lonely place; as adv.

rajanya,

[llllbj, secretly.
V

[Vrah.]

Ira

give, grant, bestow,


V

(rarate; rarau, rare; arasta; rata), [see rai : cf rayi.]


.

a. royal, princely; as m. one of royal race, a noble, oldest designation of a man of the second caste; see ksatriya.

2ra
.

(rayati [761dl]). ' [cf Lat. in-ri-re, growl


a.

bark; bark
at.']

at.

raja-putrd,
1267.]

[rajan, 1212dl.] m. king's son, prince,


a.

[acct,

raksasa,
1208a.] rag a, m.

niacal one,

demoniacal; as ??j. a demoa Rakshas. [raksas, q.v.,


coloring, color;
2.

raja-putra,
-tra, f.

having princes as sons;


princes.

mother of

[1302

acct,

1295.]
1.

affec-

raja-purusa,
a king, royal

m. king's man, servant of

tion, feeling, passion.

raghava,
Rama,
V

m.

[Vraj, 216.1.] descendant of Raghu,

official.

i.e.

raj as a,/.

raj

[raghii, 1208c.] (rajati, -te ; raraja,

reje [794e ];

-I, a. pertaining to the second of the three qualities (see rajas 4), passionate, as terminus technicus. [rajas,

arajit).
1. direct
;

1208a.]
rule
;
;
;

be

first

be master

rajendra,
[raja

m.

best

or

chief

of

kings,

or king of, w. gen.


2.

+
;

indra.]

shine
;

be illustrious

distinguish

r aj

nI

f.

queen,
ruler,

princess,

Anglo-Indian

one's self

caws, cause to shine.

rannee

[rajan, 1156.]

rajya]

[230]
n.

rajya,
rati,
ratra
a.

kingship,

[raj, 1211.]

ric
ta

(rinakti;

ricyate

[761b]

rir6ca,

ready to give or bless; gracious;


[v'lra, 'give.']

ririce; araiksit, arikta;


;

reksyati; rik1.

as f. grace,
,

pass, ricyate
;

caus. recayati).
let

n.

for ratri at end of cpds.


night,

[1315b.]
fr.

leave

2.

let

go,

free

3. very
'
:

ratri,
V

later ratri, /.

[perhaps

s'ram, 'rest.']

rarely (like Eng. colloq. part with), sell. leaves [w. rinakti cf Lat. linquit,
'
.

radh

(radhn6ti;
;

radhyate
;

[761a], -ti
;

cf

' .

t-\iit-e,

left

'

Lat.

'

lic-et,

it is left, i.e.

raradha raddhva
103";
;

aratsit

ratsyati

raddha

permitted'
sion
')
;

(Eng. leave
Icon, <dlh-an,

means
Ger.

1. be -radhya; radhayati). successful prosper, have luck be happy,


;

AS.

leih-en,

'permisleave
'

2.

trans,
;

make

successful
;

or

a thing to a person for a time, einem etwas iiberlassen, i.e. lend'; AS. lain,
'

happy gratify
happy,
satisfy,
1.

cans,

accomplish

make

gift, loan,'

Eng. noun
fr.
Isen

loan,

whence denom.
liSnan,

+ apa,

[akin w. Vrdh.] hit away (from the mark),

verb
loan,'

loan;

comes

'give,

miss (the mark), fail; 2. be at fault, be to blame offend, sin aparaddha, l guilty, to blame, 33 [for 1, cf. the
; ;
.

Old Eng. Jen-en, preterit len-de, whose d has become part of the root in
Eng. lend (though good usage has not sanctioned the precisely similar blunder
in drownd-ed).~]

for

' ' simple verb, succeed,' i.e. make a hit cf. the relation of Eng. fail and 2,
:

'

+ ati,

mid. (through pass, sense be left


;

fault.] + a, caus.

over) surpass

make happy,
.

satisfy. V

to be in surplus

cans, cause predominate ; 12 overdo, 96


;
.

radhas,
'

n.
'
:

gratify
'gift.']

gracious gift, blessing. [V radii, for mg, cf French gratification,

rip
3.

(rirepa

smear,

and

ripta). so 2.

1.

smear; stick;
;

as in Eng., defile

ram a,
epos

a.

dark; as m. Rama, hero of the


;

Ramayana

cf.

raghava.
development,
i.e.

same metaphor as in the Ger. an-schmieren) cheat, impose upon, [the old form of Vlip: see under Vlip.]
(with
the

rayas-posa,
171
2
.]

m.

in:

ripii, m. impostor, cheat


1178b.]

later foe.

[Vrip,

crease of wealth,

[gen.

s.

of rai, 1250d

ripra,
1188c.]
;

n.

defilement;
a.

impurity.

[Vrip,

rava,
,

ra5i akin w. rac.mi, q.v.

m. cry; yell; howl. [Vru, 1148.2.] m. troop, host heap. [perhaps


:

ripra-vaha,
impurity,
V

carrying off or removing


1.

for connection of

[acct, 1270.]

mg,

cf.

Eng.

line

and French cordon, as


[V raj 1
:

ri

applied to soldiers.] r a s t r a n. kingdom sovereignty.


, ;

(rinati, -te; rista). pull or bite off, crop,

pull;

2.

[older

form of
rista

Vlig.]
V

see 219 5 , 1185a.]

ris (resati; riayati,


caws,

-te

[761a];

rastri,

f.

directrix, sovereign,
2
.]

[v'raj 1:

resayati;

aririsat).

be hurt;

re-

see 219 5 , 1182

ceive

harm

caus.

harm.

rastriya,a. belonging to

the sovereignty

V ri, see ri. V

rahu,

as m. sovereign, ruler, [rastra, 1215.] m. The Seizer, Rahu, who is sup-

ru
26 9
'

(rauti [626]; ruvati;


;

mrava;
;

aravit;
;

ruta
.

r6tum).
[cf
.

cry
' ;

;
'

yell

howl
; '

hum,

posed to seize and swallow sun and moon, and thus cause eclipses, [prob. fr. Vrabh, 1178 2 .]
V

w-pu-o/xcu,

screaming, hoarse

howl AS.

'

Lat. raucus,

ryn,

a roarn.

in g-']

rior

ri (rinati; riyate [761c]). cause to run or stream, let loose

1. act.
;

rukma,
V

m. ornament of gold; as

gold.

2. mid.
rl-vus,

[V rue, 1166, 216.5.]

flow;

run;

dissolve,

[cf.

Lat.

rue
1.

(r6cate, -ti; ruruce, rur6ca; arucat,

provincial Eng. run, ' brook,' as in Bull Run ; Ger. rinnen, Eng. run: see also VII + pra.]

'stream,

brook';

arocista

; rocisyate ; rucita; r6citum). 2. shine; be bright or resplendent; 3. appear beautiful appear in splendor ;

[231]
or
twigood, please, [cf. d/j.<f>i-\vK-r), light'; \fvK-ds, 'bright'; Lat. lux, lumen,
*/wc-s,
'

[V

rupaya
obtain,

obtain

desid.

mid.

desire

to

96".

for

*/wc-men, 'light'; ^wna, *luc-na,

'moon';

AS.

/eoVi-,

Eng.

light; cf.

also
V

+ ni, hold; stop; shut up. + vi, hinder or disturb.

Lat. /uc-us (a lucendo, after all!), 'a clearing (Eng. of U.S.) or Lichtung (Ger.) or

2rudh
of V

(r6dhati).
q.v.
:

grow,

[collateral

form
'

glade or grove

'

AS.

'

leak,

Eng.

lea,

field,

meadow'; -ley in Brom-ley, 'broom-field/ and -loo in TFaer-foo.] + prati, appear good unto, please, 74.
riici,/. pleasure.
[V rue, 216.2.]

Lat. rud-is, fern., rod, staff': for mg, cf. w. Vrudh and Ger. wachsen, grow,' the nouns vi-rudh and ' ' Ge-wdchs, a growth, i.e. plant kinship of
cf
.

mh,

'

Eng. rod,

a growing shoot, rod, measure of length,' older rood, measure of length


'

'

rucira,
1298.]
V

a.

splendid; beautiful.
a.

or surface,'

is

improbable on account of

ruciranana,
ruj
2.

fair-faced.

[anana:
v' ;

the o of AS.

rod.']
;

rus
'

(rujati

ruroja
1.

rugna
break

ruktva;
pieces;

(r6sati riisyati ; rusita, rusta). be cross or angry, [cf. AiWr, *\v<r-ja,


rage.']

-riijya).
' ;

break,
'

to

injure, pain.

[cf. \vy-p6s, 'painful,

rus
V

[rut,

rudbhyam],
-te
;

/
;

anger,

[\frus.]

sad

Lat. lug-eo,

grieve.']
[v/ruj: for

ruh

(r6hati,

rur6ha,
;

ruruh<

riij, Ger.

pain, disease,
'

mg,

cf.

aruhat, aruksat

Ge-brechen,

infirmity,'

w.

brechen,

r6dhum

rudhva
later

rudha roksyati, -te -riihya ; riiruksati


; ;

; ;

'break'; also roga.]


r uj a n a
V

rohayati,
cleft,
rift

f. perhaps breach, [Vruj.] (of the clouds).


,

1. ropayati [1042e]). 2. spring up, rise, mount up, climb 3. grow, develop, thrive grow up
; ;

rud

(r6diti [6311, rudanti;


;

isyati

ruditd
1.

rur6da; rodr6ditum ; ruditva

-riidya).

cry,

weep;
rud-ere,

2.
'

weep
'
;

for,

lament.
'

[cf

Lat.

roar

AS.

place upon, [see v'2rudh: for euphony, see 222 3 .] + ad hi, cans, cause (e.g. one's body, ace.) to rise to (e.g. the balance, ace.), i.e.

cans.

1. raise;

2.

reot-an,

rudra,
'cry,'

weep.'] a. connected by Hindus w. Vrud,


so

put (one's 48 1S
.

body) upon

(the

balance),

and

applied to

Agni

howling, roaring, terrible, true and other gods


;

-fa,

mount

one's self

or get upon (a stone); seat upon; climb (tree); ascend to


life,

in as in. la. sing, meaning uncertain; the Veda : Rudra, leader of the Maruts or

(the head, hill-top,

place)

embark
;

Storm-gods, 77
pi.

The RV. x. 125.1


into the

125.6; -Ib. in Rudras, a class of storm-gods,


18
,

RV.

x.

(boat, ship); Jig. get into (danger) cans, cause to get upon (stone, pelt) or into (wagon, boat), w. ace. of person and

upon

2.

sing.

Rudra, received

ace.

Hindu

Trinity in the later mytholthe

or loc. (105 ) of thing; desire to climb up to.


n.

desid.

ogy,

and known by
;

name Qiva,
;

q.v.

rupa,
as

1.

outward look
or

or appearance,

Irudh
rurudhe
ti,

(runaddhi, runddhe
arautsit,
;

rur6dha,
;

well

color as form
,

shape
;

Lat.

aruddha
;

rotsya;

-te

ruddha
1.

r6ddhum
;

ruddhva
suppress

-riidhya).

hold
3.

2.

hold back; keep off hinder


;

obstruct;
;

1T 77 2 96 12 rupam kr, forma; form, 48 a form, 14 8 49 6 (reflected) image, assume 62 17 2. (like Lat. forma, and Eng.
, ,
; ;

shape
24
,

in

shut up

close.

etc.;

shape-ly) good form, i.e. beauty, 3. appearance, characteristic


[cf
.

as pass., or mid. intrans., i.e. as of ya- or ya-cZss, anurudhyate, also -ti, be held to, keep one's self to be devoted
the
;

+ anu,

mark, peculiarity,
varcas.]
V

varpas

see also

rupaya
esp.
in

(rupayati

[cf.

1056, 1067]).
(to
act.

used

to, practice,

10 13
1.

have regard
off;
2.
self,

for.

theatrical

language
of,
i.e.)

have the
[rupa,

+ ava,
apart
for

hold

mid. (hold

look or appearance
1058.]

one's

lay up,

and

so)

rupajitapsaras]
+
ni,
1.
:

[232]
tenta17
;

like

Eng. look into


;

raukma,

a.

golden,

adorned with gold,

tively, i.e.

18 investigate, 20 12 2. look into search, 33 ;

seek, 29

[rukma, 1208f.]

successfully,
;

i.e.:

find out,

44 17

10 discover, 26

-3.

net, see simple verb.

laksa,
a.

n.

1. rarely,

rupa-jitapsaras,
Apsarases in beauty.

surpassing

the

hundred
3.

thousand,

2. mark, token; an Anglo-Indian

lac;
is

(like
at.

Eng. mark) mark which


[Vlag,
1,

rupavant,

a.
;

Lat. f ormosus

Eng. shape-ly and 4 beautiful, handsome, 1


like
.

aimed

'be fastened

to,'

1197a: for

mg

cf.

connection of Eng.

[rupa, 1233.]

verb
/.

tag, 'fasten,'

w.

noun

tag,

'attach-

rupa-sampad,
beauty.

beauty of form,
a.

i.e.

ment, appendage,' and so, esp. as used in modern shops, a mark or label-tag '
' ;

ru pa-samp anna,
beauty, beautiful. re, word of address.
V

endowed
ho.
[cf.

with

[Vpad.]

for 2, cf. the specialization of Eng. marc or mark as 'a weight' (of gold or silver)

O;

are.]
;

and

as

'

money

of account
'

'

also that
'

rej

(rejati, -te).

1. act.
;

shake, trans.
'

of Eng. token as

a coin

'

and as

ten

2. mid. shake, intrans.

tremble,

haps akin w.

V \iy in

-A.e-A.i|e,

[percaused to

quires printed on both sides.']

laksana,
teristic
;

n.

1.

mark, token; charac-

tremble, shook.'] renu, m. dust, [perhaps connected w. Vri, dissolve, go to pieces,' just as Ger. Staub,
'

attribute, 66

u
;

character, 101

12
;

essential

characteristic,
7
,

41

u
;

mark

esp.

'dust,' w. stieben, 'fly asunder': 1162.]

lence, 62

lucky mark, 98 7i 8 mark


;

mark
in 2.
the

special of excelsense of

r e v a , f. Reva,

a river, the same as the

determinant
designation)
kind,

at

S8 23

(like

Narmada, q.v. rai [361b], m., rarely f. possessions; wealth;


ra : prop. beprosperity, [stem stowal,' V 1 ra, see 361b and rayi w. ace. ra-m, cf. Lat. nom. re-s, 'property.']
'

name,
[fr.

57 the

14
;

3.

Eng. form,

65 12

denom. laksaya
fr.

strictly

(1150. 2a),

or

rather

the

simpler

but very rare form of the same denom.


(1054),
V
\'

laksa.]

roka, r6ga,

m. brightness, light. [Vruc.] m. infirmity, disease. [Vruj, 216.1

laksaya
note,
notare

(laksayati
[laksa,
notice
a.

[1056]).

mark,
so

notice.
fr. nota.~]
,

1053

Lat.

for mg, see noun ruj.]

roc ana,

a. shining, light ; as n. light ; the place of the light, ethereal space or 17 4 8 see rajas for further ; spaces, 71 , 81
-

+ u p a mark,

see

pass, appear.
(see

laksasamkhya,
laksmi
2

having lacs laksa) as their number, numbered


[laksa
[363

by

description.

[Vruc, 1150.]
shining, bright; Jig. blooming. or rather perhaps fr. rods,
:

hundred-thousands,
],

+ samkhya.]

rocisnii,
1194c.]

a.

[Vruc, 1194a

-1. mark, sign; -2. bad sign or omen, 3. oftenest something ominous, bad luck;

with or without papi,

rocis,
and

n.

r6dasi,

brightness. [Jruc, 1153.] dual f. the two worlds, i.e. heaven

a good sign, in the older language usually with punya; good luck; prosperity, 18 14 ;
2 wealth, 46

earth.
a.

rodha, r op ay a,

growing. [V2rudh, 'grow.'] see 1042e end.


hair on the

laks
of

19 [fr. (royal) splendor, 51 the quasi-root of lak-sa, (1167), which is a deriv. of V lag : for connection
.

r6man,
beasts

n.

body of men and

mg

w. v'lag,

see laksa:

as for 2

(usually excluding that of the head and beard and that of the mane and
;

and 3, observe that Eng. luck sometimes means bad luck,' but of tener good
' '

tail)

later Ionian, q.v.

luck.']

romanta,
(1249a
2
)

m.

loc. -e,

in hair- vicinity,

i.e.

laksya,

grdv. to be noticed or seen;


as,

to

on the hairy

side (of the hand),

[roman

be looked upon or considered

41

+ anta.]

[derivation like that of laksana.]

[233]
V

[Vlikh

lag

(lagati; lagisyati; lagna [957c] lagitva; -lagya). attach or fasten one's self to lagna, attached to, put upon.
;
;

+ pra,
fool.
'

1.

seize;
2,
cf.
'

[for

2. dupe; take; Eng. colloq. take in,

gull,'

and
,

catch,

ensnare.']
6.

laksa, laksmi, linga.j laguda, m. cudgel.


[cf.

+ vi-pra
V
a. 1.

fool, 37

[see V labh

+ pra.]
;

laghii, younger form of raghii,


swift,
3.

(lambate; lalambe'; lambisyati lambita lambitum ; -lambya). 1.


;

lamb

quick;
(light,
;

2.
i.e.)

light,

i.e.

insignificant

not heavy; small


;
;

hang down;

2.

sink;
to;
lag.

3.

hang upon,
so
4.
(like

hold on to; cling

and

contemptible
cf.

low.

[for derivation, see raghii

and

ranh

-\axv-s, 'small/ ^AOXI^TOS, 'smallest';


'

[younger form ' of V ramb, hang down limp cf Ao/8-<fo, 'lobe or pendent part' (of ear, liver);
Eng. stick) tarry,
'
: .

Lithuanian
*lenhu-i-s 1 ,
'

'

lengvas,
1.

light
2.
'

Lat.

Iffvis,

Lat.

'

Idb-i,
' ;

sink,

fall

'
;

'

limbus,

fringe,

swift,

light, not heavy,


'

border
'

3. insignificant,

w. those of laghu)

Eng. Eng.

lungs,
'

(mgs quite parallel AS. lung-re, 'quickly 'lights': kinship of AS. leok-t,
;
;

small

hanging portion,' Eng. lap (of coat, apron); Eng. limp, hanging loosely, flaccid %>-ears, 'hanging' ears (of a rabbit).]
Iseppa,

AS.

'

loosely
'

light,
:

certain

not heavy,' lights, lungs,' not for connection of mgs 1 and 2,


that
swift

'

observe
slow

and

light,

just

as

1. hang down; + ava, 2. sink; 3. hang upon, hold on to. + vi, lag, loiter, [see lamb 4: for mg,
v'

and heavy, name


:

qualities naturally

cf also Eng. hang, in hang Jire.]


.

associated
v'ruc.]

for

light,

'not

dark,'

see

\1

lal
play
;

(lalati,

-te; in
;

lalita).

sport,

dally,

behave

an

artless

and uncon-

a. having a quick step; strained manner lalita, see s.v. -am, adv. [1311], quickly. lalata, n. forehead. lalita, a. artless, naive; lovely, laghu-cetas, a. small-minded.

laghu-krama,

[prop.

langh
ya).
laghii.]

(langhayati

spring over,

langhitd; -langh[see V ranh, and under


;

unconstrainedly behaved,' ppl. of Vial, 952 2 so Eng. behaved has rather adjec:

'

tival

than verbal coloring.]


n.

lajj (lajjate; lalajje"; lajjita; lajjitum). be ashamed. + vi, be ashamed. lajj a,/, shame. [Vlajj, 1149.] lajjavant, a. having shame; embarrassed.
V

lavana,
V

salt, esp. sea-salt;

as

a.

salt.

las

(lasati;

lalasa;

lasita).

gleam,

glance.
glance,

[orig.

'glance,' but, like

Eng.
(see

with the subsidiary notion

lasa),

'move quickly hither and


means
cf.
'

thither,'

[1233.]
;

and
lapisyati
'

so,

'play' (see the cpds w. preps.):


slow,'

lap

(lapati; lalapa

lapita,

lapta ; laptum; -lapya). lament. [cf o-\o<t>-v-s,


.

chatter; talk; ' a lamenting


;

conversely, Eng. dull then, 'not glancing':

and

Lat. lasc-lvus

(through

*las-cu-s),
1.

'wanton.']
2.

'

6\o<pvpo/j.cu,

lament

'
;

perhaps Lat.

Id-

menta,
,

'

+a + pra,
ingly.

laments.'] talk to, converse with.

glance; 23 overjoyed, 24
.

+ ud,

play; play;
hither

3.

be
be

talk

out heedlessly or lamentunintelligible


or

1. glance; + vi, joyful or wanton.

2.

3.

lasa,
utter

a.

moving

quickly

and
grain,

+ vi

lamenting

tones.

thither; lively. [Vlas.] laja, m. pi. parched or

roasted

+ sam,
V

talk with;

caus. (cause to talk

[perhaps akin w. v'bhrjj.]

witli one, i.e.) address,

26 J

labh,
Iebh6
;

younger form of rabh (labhate

labha, m. the getting, acquisition. [Vlabh.] likhisV likh (likhati; lilekha; alekhit
;

alabdha
;

lapsyate
1.

labdh

labdhva

-labhya).
[see

catch; seize;

yati; likhita ; likhitva; -likhya). scratch furrow slit draw a line


;

- 1.
2.

2. receive; get.

under Vrabh.]

write

write

down

delineate,

[younger

liriya]

[234]
of
v

form
(x.06?a,

rikh

cf

'
.

t-pe'iK-w,

furrow '

lup (lumpati

[758];
;

Iul6pa

lupta

'ground'); t-ptx-Ou, 'tear, rend'; ' for mgs, Lat. rima, *ric-ma, slit, crack observe that Eng. write is fr. the same
'
:

root as Ger. ritzen,

'

scratch.']

1. break; 16ptum; luptva -lupya). 2. attack; pounce upon; 3. harm; rob, plunder, [younger form of rup cf. Lat. rumpere, 'break'; AS. reof-an,
'

linga,

n.

mark (by which one knows

or

'

break

'
;

reaf,

recognizes a thing), Kenn-zeichen, characteristic, [connected w. Vlag in the

armor,

etc., esp.
'

spoil of battle, booty, clothing, garments,' Ger.


'

'

same way as laksa,

q.v.]

linga-dharana,
V

n.

the wearing of one's

characteristic marks.

lip (limpati,

-te

[758]; lilepa;
1.

alipta; lipta; -lipya). rub over a thing (ace.)


(instr.);

besmear

alipat, or

AS. reafian, whence Eng. reave, ppl. and be-reave: fr. Old High Ger. reft, roubon, 'rob,' through Old French rober, 'rob,' comes French oV-rooer, Eng. rob, and fr. Old High Ger. roub, 'robbery,
Raub,
robbery,
rob,'

booty

'despoil,

with a
(ace.)

thing

booty,

esp.

pillaged
robe,

garment,'
'

in

like

2.

smear a thing

over

manner,
robe.]

French

garment,'

Eng.

or

on a thing

(loc.); stick (trans.)

on to;
nig
'
;

pass, stick or stick to, intrans. [younger form of Vrip :


cf smear, stick ' anoint d-A.efy>-&>,
:

orig.
'

lubdhaka, in. hunter, [lubdha, vlubh.j lubh (lubhyati; Iul6bha, lulubhe


\l

'

'

rb

\iiros,

grease
'

'

Lat.

lippus,
'
:

blear-

1. go astray; 2. lubdha; 16bdlium). be lustful have strong desire lubdha,


;
;

'

greasy, shiny further akin are the following words, but with curious divarication of rag
;

eyed

'

\~nrap6s,

longing
'

for.
'

'

'

[cf

r)

AnJ/, *\uf>-s,
' ;

longing
'

\tir-r-o/j.ai,

long for
'

Lat.
' ;

lub-et,

lib-et,

is

desired or agreeable
'
;

libens,
leof,

willing,
'

\lTrapfto,

like

Eng.
Goth,
i.e.)

stick to,
bi-leib-an,

i.e.

'

'

persist

glad

libido,
'

desire

' ; '

AS.
;

dear,'
'

AS.
(lit.

be-lif-an,

Ger.

b-leib-en,

Eng.
also
V

lief,

dear, gladly
love.']

Ger.

lieb,

dear

'

'stick,'
live,

Eng. Eng.
'

'remain'; libban, Ger. leben, 'be remaining or


superstitem
esse
'
;

AS.

Eng.

lul

(161ati;

lulita).

move
;

hither and

surviving,
life
;

AS.

llf,
v'

thither.

finally

AS.

lief-an,

Eng.

leave,

lu (lunati [728]; lulava


(e.g.

luna).
off.

cut
[cf.

cause to remain.']

grass, hair)

cut off
i.e.

gnaw

-f anu, smear over, + vi, besmear.

cover with.
2. writing.

\v-ta,
'

'separate,

loose'; Lat.

so-lu-tus,

loosed.']

lipi,^
V lie,

1.

a rubbing over;

[Vlip, 1155. 1.]

V lilige
;

lekha, m. a writing letter. [Vlikh'.] lok (16kate luloke 16kitum cans.


;

(ligate

aleista

lista).

tear, break, [younger form of Vrig.] liga, tearing, breaking, ana" so cutting, in

ku-lica.

[Vli.]
liyate; Iily6; alesta
1.
;

lokita ; -16kya ; only lokayati [1056] cans, forms are in common use, and these only with ava, a, and vi). get a look at ; 2 behold; -cans. [1041 ] -1. look, look
;

V II (layate;
-liya).
(stay,
sit
i.e.)
;

Una;

2. stick; 3. cling to; of birds and insects, light upon,


4.

2. get a look at, behold. on; [on account of the guttural k, prob. a sec-

ondary root

fr.

roka (Vruc, 216.1): for


cf.

upon

slip into

disappear.
light

connection of mg,

Aewc-o'j,

'bright,'

+ ni,
birds);
-I-

pra, HI a, /. -1. play; -2.


;

(of 3. slip into; disappear; hide. go to dissolution, [cf. Vri.]


(like

1.

cling to;

2.

upon

and
also
look.']

\evff<rw,

*\fvK-jo>,

'see'; Lat. lumen,

'light,'

then
:

'eye*

locana

(see under Vruc); no connection w. Eng.

Eng. child's

play) action that can be done without serious effort without any lilaya,
trouble.
v!

+ ava,
upon
;

caus.
3.

1.

look;

2.

look at or

+
;

a,

behold, see, perceive. caus. 1. look at; 2. see, per-

luth

(luthati; Iul6tha

luthita).

roll.

ceive.

[235]
+ vi,
spect,
cans.
1.

[vaksana
alocitam (impers.,999), the
fishes reflected;

25; -3.

look; behold.

2.

look

at,

in-

loka, perhaps a

younger form of uloka

ity alocya, thus reflecting. ~+pary-a, see loc + a ;


erate.

reflect,

delib-

(which appears regularly in the oldest texts, but divided as u loka, 84 ai ), m. 1. open

space

free

room

place, 83

15
;

2a. the

+ sam-a, see loc + a; reflect. 1. a. enlightening; locana,


eye, usual mg.

2. as

n.

vast space; the world, 103 8 ; any imagin1G ary world or worlds, 15 ; cf. antariksa-,
indra-,
jiva-,
;

[Vloc: for mg, cf. lumen, greed, avarice.

under Vlok.]

svarga-loka
103 5> Ui
1G
;

pati-, para-, manusya-, 2b. used of heaven : svar-

lobha,

m. strong desire;

[Vlubh.]

go lokas, the world


so

situate in the light,

lobha-viraha,
16 man,
beasts
n.

m. freedom

sukrtam ulokas,

the world

hair on the

from avarice. body of men and


that
of

of the righteous, 84 ; later, sukrtasya 8 20 2c. lokas, world of virtue, 89 ; so 5' ;

(usually excluding

the

head and beard and that of mane and


tail),

of earth : loke krtsne, in the whole earth, asmin 5 18 loke, in this world (cf.
;

[prop,
a.
1.

'clippings, shearings,' Vlu,

'cut,' 1168. la: cf.

roman.]
thither,
2.

ilia),

66 12

in

same

sense, loke, 57

8
,

63";

lola,

moving hither and


so

2d. with senses merging imperceptibly into those given under 3, e.g., in the world or

uneasy ; and

anxious

for, desirous

among men, 26 2 36 3 47 21
, ,

-3.
67
,

(like
;

lostd,

of; greedy, m. n.

[v'lul.]

clod

(of earth).

[Vruj,

cf.

Eng. world and French monde) people


pi.

folks; 2 5i
:

men
14
,

or

mankind;
15 .

sing.

21

13
;

222*: for mg, see under mrd.] loh A, a. reddish; coppery; as m.


dish metal, copper,
[cf.

n.

red-

tain

[etymology uncerno connection with Lat. /ocs, Old


'

39 19, 57

16hita, r6hita,

and rudhira,
last, cf.

all

meaning 'red': with the


Lat. ruber, rufus, Eng.

Lat. stlocus,

place.']
a.

e-pvQ-p6s,

loka-kft,
ing.

world-making, world-creat-

ruddy,

red.~]

loka-pald,
four

[1269.] m. pi. world-protectors, either in number (regents of the four

lohayasa,
laulya,
ware,
n.

n.

coppery metal, any metal


[ayasa.]
[lola, 1211.]
n.

alloyed with copper,


greediness,
a.

quarters of the world), or eight (regents of the cardinal points and four points

lauhayasa,

metallic; MS

metallic

[lohayasa, 1208f.]

mid-way between).

loka-pravada, mon saying. lokam-prna, a.


common bricks
fire-pile,

m.

world-saying,

com-

vana,
of the

m.

I.
;

cane or stock
2.
(like

or stem, esp.

world-filling; f. -a (sc. istaka), Lokamprina, name applied to the

bamboo
[rarely],

Eng. stock, and


lineage,

stem

and Ger. Stamm)

used in building the sacred and so called because all laid

family, race.

vana-viguddha,
pure in
V
its or

with the recitation of the one general formula, lokam prna, 'fill thou the
world.'
731.]

a. 1. made of perunblemished bamboo fectly clear or ' 2. of pure lineage, [lit. vanga-pure,
;

[1314b

for

prna,

V 1 pr,

see

his

vana,' 1265
[786, 798a]).

v'gudh.]
roll,

vak

m. clod (of earth). [Vruj, 'break,' 216. 1 for mg, see under mfd.] V loc (locayati; locita; -16cya). used only

loga,

(vavakre w. Vvanc, q.v.]


see

[akin

vaktavya,
999 end.
a.

grdv.
1.

to

be said or spoken;
2.

[s/vac, 964.]

with

a., [derived fr. Vruc; just how, is unclear: see Vlok.] 1. rarely, cause to appear or be + a,

vakra,
like

crooked;

fig.

(nearly

Eng. crooked) disingenuous, ambig[Vvak, 1188.]


f. pi. belly; bellies

uous.

seen;

2.

usually, bring

to

one's
;

own vaksana,

(of cloud-

sight or mind, consider, reflect

matsyair

mountains).

Vvac]
V

[236]
(

vac

vakti; uvaca, ucus [784, 800e]; vaksyati, -te ; [847 end, 854] ukta; vaktum; uktva; -ucya; ucydte; vacayati). say or speak (w. ace. of per-

vacas,
(like

n.

1.

6 speech, 4

etc.;

words;
;

avocat

word; counsel;
Eng.

2.

n language, 54
request,
TTOS,

3.

word)

order;
cf.

53 3

[Vvac, 1151. la:


V

10 22 ; or w. ace. of person and ace. of 19 or tell, 66 19 98 17 ; thing, 7 ); announce


son,
,

vaj

(vajayati).

'word.'] probable root, with

the

name

or call, 58

punar uvaca,

replied,
i.e.

meaning be strong or lively, inferred from ugra, 6jas, vajra, vaja see these words;
;

19 19 ; ity uktva, with saying so, " " the words ," saying so saying, 19 etc.;

with

vajayant,
'

hastening,

75:
'

cf.

Vvajaya.

,"

42

[cf. vy-rhs, 'strong,

awake
'

'

Eng.

healthy'; AS. wac-ol, ' not to sleep ; wake,


'

ukta,
[999
raid.],
;

1.

spoken, said; impers. pass.

perhaps Lat. vig-ere,

be lively

or strong/

kakena^uktam, the crow said, vig-il, awake.'] 24 13 etc. uktam, introducing a proverb, vajra, m. Indra's thunderbolt, 70 8 88 15 9 16 2. spoken 't is said, 19 , 20 etc.; [orig., perhaps, a mere epithet, 'The 5 unto; evam ukta, thus addressed, 3 , Mighty' (Vvaj), like Miolnir, 'The etc. Crusher/ name of Thor's hammer.]
, ,
.

caus.

1. mid.

Brahmans)
(e.g.

to

cause or ask (e.g. the pronounce for one's self


,

vajra-bahu,
on
his

a.

having the thunderbolt


lightning-armed.

arm
a.

(of Indra),

a benediction), 101 2 106 4


i.e.

2.

cause
Lat.
'
:

[1303.]

(a written leaf) to speak,


[cf .
vffc-dre,

20 read, 54 .

vajrin,
Indra).
V

having
;

the thunderbolt

(of

two,
'

'

tFoK-ja,
'
;

voice,

rumor
'

' ;

[vajra, 1230.]

call

Ger. er-wah-nen,

mention

vane
totter;

(vancati

w. vac-as, 'word,' cf. eiros, stem *Feir-<r, ' w. avocam, labialization word,' w.
:

vancayati ; vancit&). go crookedly; caus. (cause to go


[cf.

%a-va-uc-am, cf. ttitrov, *e-Fe-nr-ov, 'said': w. nom. vak, *vak-s, stem vac, 'voice/ cf. Lat. vox, *vdc-s, 'voice/ and <ty, for
*flty, i.e. Ftav-s,
'

astray, i.e.) mislead, deceive; cheat, Lat. vacillare, 'totter, be unsteady';

AS.

woh, 'crooked, wrong/ whence Eng. woo, 'incline to one's self, court.']
-f up a, totter unto. vancaka, m. deceiver, vancayitavya, grdv.

voice.']

+ anu,

1.

prayers, etc.) mid. say after

say (sacrificial for some one (gen.); 2.


(the

repeat or

[\fvafic, caus.]

teacher), i.e. learn, study ; anucana, perf. mid. ppl., who studies, studied, learn-ed. + abhy-anu, say with regard to or

as

n.

to be deceived; a to-be-practised deceit, w. objective

gen. (296b beg.),

26 2

[Vvanc.]
;

vat a,

m. Ficus indica

cf.

nyag-rodha.
son.

vanik-putra,
vat

m.

merchant's

with

describe something [vanij.] (an occurrence) in (metrical and Vedic) vanij, m. merchant.

reference

to

[Vpan, 383.5.]

words.

+ nis, speak 1. + pra,


versely

out or clearly; explain.


tell

(vatati; vatdyati). only with api. understand ; caus. cause to understand or


inspire

forth,
;

proclaim;
so
2.

tell,

know, reveal,
Lat.
vat-es,

(devotion).

[cf.

announce, mention
laudare,

and

(as conto

'praise/

comes

mean vatsa,
tell

'wise seer': see under vata.] m. young; esp. young of a cow,

3. tell of, colloq. 'mention') praise; 18 4. say, 45 9 ; on, i.e. betray, 93


;

calf.

[prop, 'yearling/ from a not quot-

5.

able
F'TOS,
'

watas,
'year/

declare to be

name, 57 5

'year': with watas, cf. Lat. vetus- in vetits-tu-s,


old
i.e.
'
:

+ prati, say in return, + s a m say together.


,

answer.

bejahrt, in years,

akin are Lat.

vit-u-lu-s,
,

vacana,
dictum
edict
;

n.

1.

2. (like Lat.

18 etc.; speech; words, 9 e-dictum and Eng.


;

calf/ and Eng. 'yearling, weth-er : for mg, cf x'M aP ox > ' g at / prop. 'winter-ling' (see hima) : see vatsara.]
.

and word) command


[Vvac, 1150.]

injunction,

vatsara,
vatsa
;

m. year; personified, 67

15 .

[cf.

26 18

also pari-

and sam- vatsara.]

[237]
V

[vapa
a.
;

vad

(vadati, -te; uvada, ude [784]; avadit, avadista ; vadisyati, -te ; udita
;

vadhri,
crushed
V

whose

testicles

have been
of
vrsan.

emasculated,

opp.

uditva vaditum -I. speak, 95 7 9


;
>

-lidya
19
1
)
;

vadayati).
etc.;
2.
;

[Vvadh, 1191.]

say, 20

speak

van
vata).

(van6ti,
1.

vanute; vavana, vavne


hold
19
;

to, w. ace., or w.

loc. (4

communispeak of
16
;
;

dear,

love

desire,
3. win.

cate

announce,
i.e.

R V. x. 125. 5
predict,

seek, beseech, 79
[cf. Lat.

2. get;

udita, stated (authoritatively), 58


tell,

3.

ven-ia,
' ;

foretell,
as,

103 12

-4.
in

Lovely One
self, strive,'
'

designate
the

55 5

name.
salute;
signify,
;

'The AS. winnan, exert one's Eng. win, gain by striving


'favor';
'

Ven-us,
'

'

+ abhi, speak
derivs to
;

to,

abhivadin, abhivada
salute.

cans.

AS. wen, hope, expectation, supposition,' whence wen-an, Eng. ween, suppose see
'

'

speak
return.

\/vanch.]
caus.

+ praty-abhi,
+a
,

mid.

salute

in

vana,

n.

wood;
a.

forest,

vanana,/
;

speak to

vidatham a-vad, give


master
2. de-

vananvant,

orders to (the household), rule (as or mistress).

2 [Vvan, 1150. 2b .] having desire, desiring. [perhaps fr. vanana, 1233, w. irreg. loss of final a: both mg and derivation are

desire.

+ pra

1.

speak forth

say

doubtful.]

clare to be.

vana-prastha,
wooded
take counsel with
face,
-tas,

m.

n.

forest-plateau,

+ vi, mid. contradict. + s am, mid. talk or


one's self.

table-land.

[1280b.]
living in

vana-vasa,
owing to
'
:

m.

the

a wood
of

(his) forest-life.

vadana,
mg,
cf.

n.

1.

mouth;

2.

vanas-pati,

m.

tree,

['lord
:

the

['organ of

speaking/ Vvad, 1150:


grdv.
to

for

nayana.]
be
spoken.
V

wood see 1267 and a and d vanas stands for vanar, a


form of vana,
cf.

perhaps

subsidiary

vaditavya,
[Vvad.]

171

3
.]
; ;

vand

vadya

grdv. to be spoken of, worthy of

vanditum

vandita (vandate ; vavand6 vanditva 1. -vandya).


; ;

(favorable) notice, and so praiseworthy.


8 [Vvad, 963

c.]
;

vadh
-te).

(avadhit, avadhista
1.

strike;

harm;
'

vadhisyati, 2. (just as
'

2. salute reverentially, praise; [orig. ident. w. Vvad, 108g.] + abhi, make reverent salutation unto;

salute.

AS.
'slay,
.

slean
i.e.
'

meant
'

first

strike

and

then

vanditf,
V

m. praiser.

[Vvand.]

kill') slay, kill,

[see

Vbadh:

Ivap
2

(vapati, -te; upta; -upya;

vapa-

cf wd-fw,

push
1.

see vadhar.]

vadh a,

m.

murderer;

2.

weapon
V

shear (hair, beard); trim (nails); yati). caus. cause to be clipped, or simply
[1041
],

of death, esp. Indra's bolt;


slaughter.
[V vadh. ]

3. slaying,

clip.

2vap
-lipya).

(vapati,
1.

-te

uvapa,
scatter,

up6
esj>.

[784,

vadhar,
bolt.

n.

weapon

of death,

i.e.

Indra's

800e]; avapsit; vapsyati; upta; uptva;

[Vvadh.]
only in instr. pi. i.e. Indra's bolts.

strew;

seed,

vadhasna,
of

weapons
[vadha,
[prop. bride-

sow;
i.e.

2.

(like

x^ w ) throw

or

heap up,

death,

dam
,

up.
;

1195.]

vadhu, /.
'

the

2. bride; one fetched home '


1.

woman,
by the

+ a p a cast away fig. destroy. + abhi, bestrew. + a throw upon, strew.


,

groom, Vvah,

q.v.]
n.

+ ni, throw down.


bride's garment. to be struck,
;

vadhu- vastra, vadhya, grdv.


; .

+ nis, throw
i.e.

out, esp.

deal out (from a


;

1.

larger mass) an
offer,

oblation to a god, dat.

21 to be harmed punished, 27 18 3 slain, 27 [V vadh, 963 c.]

2. to

be

vapa,

f. caul,

omentum.

vapus]

[238]
a. 1.

vpus,
fair;

wondrous,

admirabilis

varivas,

n.

breadth;

fig.

freedom from

Eng. admirable) exciting wonder mixed with approbation, esp. wondrous


2. (like

constraint, ease, gladness, w. kr. [belong3 2 ing to uni, 'broad': see 1173 , 467 .]

varlyans,
n.
;

as

1.

a wonder
9

wonderful apto see,

pearance
ance

vapur drgaye, a wonder


; ; ;

a. very broad, wide extended. 2 [Vlvr, 'cover, extend over': see 467 and 11 73 3 .]
'

Oavfjia ISfffOcu,
;

48 s

4.

79 2. beautiful appear8 3. appearance form, beauty, 8 [for 2 and 3, cf. the converse

varuna,

m.

The Encompasser

(of

the

Universe), Varuna, name of an Aditya; orig. the supreme god of the Veda (see
selection

transition of

mg

in rupa, 1, 2.]
[cf.

xxxvii.

and

notes),

and so called
;

vayam,
we.~\

we, see 491.


n.
'

Ger. wi-r, Eng.


2. bird,

12 omniscient king as well as god, 83 judge who punishes sin and sends sick-

vdyas
[see vi,

1. fowl, collective ;

bird.']
n.

ness and death, selections xliii., xliv., xlv. ; 10 later, god of the waters, 7 [a personi.

2 v ay as,

food, meal. [prop, 'enjoyment,' v'lvi, 'enjoy': for analogies, see V 2 bhuj, enjoy,' and V 1 vi.]
'

fication

of the

'

'

Vlvr,
oi>pav6s,

'cover,
'

all-embracing heaven, cf. encompass,' 1177c


:

vayas,
youth;
eralized,

n.

1.

mind; health;

strength, of body and of 2. the time of strength,


3. gen;

heaven,' and Ovpavds, personified as a god.]

'

Heaven,'

varutha,
protection.

n.

cover; and
a.

so,

as in Eng.,

6 marriageable age, 2 ;

[Vlvr, 'cover,' 1163c.]


protecting.

any age

(of life),

or period of life [akin w. vi-ra, q.v.]

years

varuthya,
1212d4.]

[varutha,

v a y a f. 1 vara
,
,

strengthening. m. choice ; wish

varenya,
;

a thing to be

chosen as

gift or reward,

and

so gift, re-

longed 1217 1 2
-

for,
-

grdv. to be desired; and so, excellent. [V2vr, 'choose,'

ward

varam
;

vr, wish a wish,

make

varga,
216. 1
:

1 condition, 94

17 grant a wish, I

ram
'

da, give a choice, prati varam or vaa, according to one's wish. [V2vr,
;

varam

, 966b.] ' m. group. [Vvrj, separate,' for mg, cf. Eng. division, ' a sepa-

rating into parts,' separated, group.']

and then

'the part

choose

'
:

cf

Eng.

well, lit.

'

according to

v arc as,

n.

vitality, vigor;
fire

the illuminatso,

one's wish.']

ing power in

and the sun; and

2 vara,

a. (like

Eng. choice or select) most

splendor ;

fig. glory,

[perhaps akin with

excellent or fair, best, w. gen. or loc., 16 2 , 3 21 ; w. obi., most excellent as distin-

rue

cf

varpas with rupa.]


1.

varna,
ance
2.
;

m.

outside; external appear;

guished from

i.e.
,

better than

68 14 ;

19 6 color, 36 , 37 , etc.

complexion

varam
and not

na ca
,

i.e.

is

the best thing is , 20 better than , 17


.

(color,

and
;

so,

as

in

Eng.) kind,

2 species, sort, 98

3. (sort of

[V2vr, 'choose': for mg, cf. AS. cyst, 'a ' the best,' with ceosan, choice,' and then
'

caste,
;

28 18

4.
;

letter;
.

men, i.e.) sound; vowel,

choose.']

59 16 syllable word, 98 8 [V 1 vr, ' cover,' 1177a: for mg 1, cf. Eng. coating, and
coat

varana, n. a choosing. [V 2 vr, choose.'] vara-varna, m. most fair complexion. varavarnin, a. having a fan- complexion;
-ini, f. fair-faced

'

(of

paint),

and Lat.

color,

prop,

'cover or coating,' cognate w. ' cover over.']


V

oc-cul-ere,

woman, [va-

varnaya
;

ravarna, 1230.]

varangana,
[angana.]

f.

most excellent woman,


fair

1. (varnayati). color, 2. fig. (like Eng. paint), depict paint; describe tell about pass. 12 8 [varna,
;
.

1058.]
a.

vararoha,

having

hips or but-

vartana,
(like

n.

prop,

an existing, and

so

tocks; tca\\iinyos. varaha, m. boar.

[aroha.]

Eng. living), means of subsistence.

[Vvrt,

mgs

3, 5: cf. vrtti.]

[239]

[V3vas
[784]).

vartf,
'cover/

m.

restrainer,

mg 3, v art man, n.
vartmana,
39 14
;

stayer. 'restrain': 1182.]

[\/lvr,

vac. (vasti, uganti [638]; uvaga


1.

will,

73

17
;

2.

desire,

long for;
:

at

wheel-track; end of cpds :

path,

43

9
;

by way
.

of,

or

simply

through
the
air,

mana,

througli
a.

akaga-vart39 a [v'vrt,
back;
[Vlvr,
trans.;
in.

ppls, pres. ugant, perf. vavagana [786] willing or (when qualifying subject of verb) 6 a gladly, 83*, 85 ; longing, 78 ; -3. (like

Eng. will
'order')

in

its

rare

or

obsolete
[cf.

sense
l/c&Jy,

1168. la.]

order,
'

command.
willing.']

vartra,
as
n.

warding

off,

liolding
weir.

stem

*FeK-oj/T,
a.

water-stop,
a.
;

dam,
I.

vaga,
will;

willing,
2.

submissive;

as m.

1.

'cover,' q.v.]

command; and
a.

so controlling

Ivardhana,
as
m.

increasing,
2.

power
power

or influence.
[352],

[Vvag.]

increaser

delighting

vaga-ni
;

bringing

into

one's

[Vlvrdh, 'increase,'

q.v.]

as m. controller.

2vardhana,
'

n.

the cutting.

[\/2vrdh,

vaga,

cut.']

varpas,
form,

n.

assumed appearance; image,


:

[akin with rupa


n.
;

vArman,
protection

envelope;
at
'

cf varcas.] coat of armor;


.

1. cow, esp. farrow cow; 2. f. female elephant, Elephanten-kuh. [perhaps 'the lowing' beast, fr. wag: cf. Lat. vacca, 'cow': usual name for 'cow'
is

g6.]

59 1S N.

end of Kshatriya-names, vagin, a. having command or control; as subst. m. or f. master, mistress, [vaga.] [V 1 vr, envelop/ 1 168. la.]
1.

varsa,
i.e.)
i.e.

n.

rain;

2.
pi.

(rainy-season,
1.

vagi-kr, make
snare,

submissive, enthrall, en'

year;

varsa, f.

the rains,

2. the rainy season; 14 rain-water, 104 [Vvrs :


.

very rarely,
cf.

vagya,
and

[vaga and V 1 kr, make/ 1094.] grdv. to be commanded or ordered,


obedient,
8

e-fpvai,
.

so

submissive,

yielding,

for mg 2 of varsa, cf Eng. rain-drops "man of sixteen summers," "girl of


:

'

[vag, 963 c.] vas, end. pron. you, 491.


'ye, you.']
V

[cf.

Lat. vos,

seventy winters," abda and garad.]

varsa-karman,
ing.

n.

the action of rain-

Ivas
light

(ucchdti [753, 608]; uvasa [784];


[167]
;

varsa-satka,
six years.

n.

year-hexade, period of
the

var smaii,
head,

m. height; top; crown of

; usta). grow bright the breaking day), dawn, ' [for cognates, Lat. us-tu-s, burned,' east, Easter, etc., see the collateral form us,

vatsyati

up

(of

2 [see 1168. lc

and

2b.]

'burn/ and the derivs usas, usra, vaso


1.

vala,
Vala,
the

m.

prop, an encloser,
i.e.)

and

santa, vasu, vasara


'
'

cf.

also

^ap,

*Fe<r-

(enclosure,

name

2. cave; personified, of a demon who shuts up

fj.ap,

day
'

tap,

*Fetr-op,

Lat. rer, we-er,


year-light,
i.e.

*ves-er,

dawn

of

the

heavenly waters to withhold them from man and is slain by Indra, 81 5>7
.

spring';
tain.]

Ves-uv-ius, 'the

burning' moun13 light up, 97


;

[Vlvr, 'enclose.']

+ vi,
Vritra.

shine abroad, 75 15

vala-vrtra,

m.

Vala and
i.e.

valavrtra-nisudana,
Vala and Vritra,

m.

[1252.] destroyer of

V 2

Indra.
a.

[1264.]

avasista (vaste [628]; vavase vasitum vasitva vatsyati ; vasita -vasya). put on (as a garment), clothe
;
; ;

vas

valavrtra-han
and Vritra
Vritra,
i.e.
;

[402],

slaying Vala
of

one's
'
;

self

in.

[cf.

fwv/j.i,

*FO--VV-IM,
sfyuo,
'
;

as m.

slayer

Vala and

'put on';

e-eff-To,

'had on';
' ' ;

'gar-

Indra.

[1269.]

ment
so
1.

Lat.
'

ves-tis,

valmika,
vavri,
m.

m. ant-hill.
cover, and
2.
i.e.

ga-vas-jan,

clothe

Goth. garment AS. wer-ian, Eng.

prop, of hiding or refuge ; ment (of the soul),

place
V

wear.~\

corporeal tegu-

vas
;

(vasati

body.

[Vlvr,

[167]

vatsyati

usita

uvasa [784]; avatsit usitva ; vastum


;
;

'cover/ 1155. 2c.]

-tisya; vasayati).

stay in a place; esp.

4 vas]

[240]

2 8 stay over night, 38 , 100 (with ratrim) ; abide ; lire. dwell, [cf. JUTTV, *F<NT-TU,
'

vasu-gravas,

a.

perhaps
else
i.e.

ing good fame, or

who
like
'

dwelling-place, town ; Lat. ver-na, lives in the house, i.e. slave

'

'

one
or

having wealth-fame,

[1298a] hav[1297 and 1280b] famed for wealth.


treasure-filled.

'

vasu-sampurna,
[Vlpr,
V
'fill.']

a.

'one

who

dwells in the land,


'

i.e.

native,'

not foreign
were.~]

Eng. domestic, servant,' and domestic, ' AS. wes-an, ' be ' ; Eng.
;

vasuya

(vasuyati).
,

crave good,

[de-

was,

take up one's abode in (a 8 occupy; enter upon, 62 + ud, cans, (cause to abide out,
,
.

nom. of vasu, 1058 1 1061.] vasuya, f. desire for good; 6 [V vasuya, 1149 .] place),

longing.

vastr,
i.e.)

TO.

illuminer;

or,

as adj.,

lighting

remove from

its

place, 97

u?

up.
cloth.

[Vivas,

'shine,' 1182,

375 8 .]

vastr a,
2. in

up a,
a
abs-tain,

1. stay

with; wait;
like

(with

specialization

of mg
off,

that

Eng.
or

n. garment, piece of clothing; [V2vas, 'clothe,' 1185a.] vastra-vestita.a. covered with clothes,

'hold

esp.

from food

well dressed.

drink') wait, and so stop (eating), fast. -f ni, dwell (of men and of beasts). + p r a t i , have one's dwelling.
V

vastranta,
[anta.]
V

m.

border

of

garment,

vah

vas

(vasayati; vasita).
'

cut.

[cf Lat.
.

vomis, *vos-mis, vomer,


-f-

plow-share, colter.']
14 1.

ud

cut

away

or off, 97

vasanta,

m. spring. ['the dawning or s lighting-up' year-time, Vivas, 11 72 -*: see 1 vas : cf. <eap, *Fe<r-ap, Lat. ver, *ve-er,
*ves-er, 'spring.']
a.

(vahati, -te; uvaha, uhe; avaksit; vaksyati; udha[222]; vodhum; udhva; u 1. -lihya; uhyate). conduct, 84 1 93 M , 94 *; carry, esp. the oblation, 85 n 81 u or car, 72 *, bring with team, 73
; , , ,

87 w

draw (wagon), guide (horses) 2. intrans. travel; proceed (in a wagon);


; ;

vasistha,
Vasishtha,
to

most

excellent, best;

as m.

3. pass, be borne along carry with itself (of water)


;

4.
;

flow,
(like

5.

name

of

one of
78 19 N.

the

most

Ger.

heimfiihren)

bring

home

to

the
,

famous Vedic
superl.

seers,

[formed as

vasu, fr. Vivas as a verbal (467), the verbal having the same transferred sense as the adj. vasu, q.v.]

6. carry, 43 Ui16 groom's house, wed; 52 9 bear, 26 * carry far and wide, i.e.
; ;

2 spread (a poem, fragrance), 54

[for

*vagh

cf

ox os > *FOX OS >

'

wagon

'
;

vasu,

a.

excellent, good;
11
;

1.

as m. good

(of gods), 76 125. 1

-2. as m.
n.

pi.

The Good
pi.

Ones, the Vasus, a class of gods, RV.x.


;

OXOA"" 'ride'; Lat. veh-ere, 'carry'; vehiculum, 'wagon'; AS. weg-an, 'carry, bear,' whence Eng. weigh, 'lift' (as in weigh
anchor),

3.

as

sing,
'

and

good,

'find
;

weight of by lifting'
ivsegn

(cf.

goods, wealth,

mg

shining, i.e. splen' did,' V 1 vas, shine,' but w. a transfer of like that in the Eng. splendid as used

[prop.

or wxn, Eng. wain, Dutch wagen (whence the borrowed Eng. wagon), 'that which is drawn, i.e. wagon';

bhara)

AS.

by the vulgar
w. r vs,
t

for

'

excellent

'
:

connection
im-

further, Lat. vi-a, ve-a, *veh-ia,


is

'good,' probable, see ayu.]


tvs,

and

*l, 'well,' is

that which be travelled over, way'; AS. weg, ' ' Eng. way, that which carries one to a
'

to

vasu-dha
dha
i.e.)

[352], a. yielding

good; vasu-

place.]
or bring up; 2. esp. lead out (a bride from her father's house),

[364],

the earth

the land.

vasudhadhipa,
king, prince,

m. (lord of the earth,

+ a bring hither + ud, 1. bear


,

or to.

[adhipa.]
a.

vasum-dhara,
treasures
;

holding
earth,

good

or

wed.
1. lead about; 2. esp. lead + pari, about (the bride or the wedding procession), wed.

[vasum + dhara, 1250a: we should expect vasu (ace. s. neuter, or stem), not vasu-m
-a, /.

the

(masculine!), 341.]

+ p r a carry onward.
,

[241]

[V

vajaya
va,

+ vi,

parents' house, get married.


,

lead away, esp. the bride from her and so wed, marry; mid.

va, yadi
va,

va

va, 28
,

12

;,
na,
,

2 va_api, 62

(va omitted),
1
;

va, 61

23
,

Q2

+ s a m carry together carry, vah, vbl. carrying, drawing,


;

finally,
,

in

cpds.

[Vvah.]

nor nor va^api, 63 4 atha va, see atha 6; uta va, see uta 2. va, for eva, 59 10 N. 3. with
ca, neither
,
;

vahatii, m. wedding procession


[Vvah, 1161c.]

wedding.

interrogates: 17 19 so 18 i.
;

vahya,
1213
:

n.

portable bed,

litter.

for

mg,

cf.

Eng.

bier

[Vvah, and verb

vakya,

n.

va, what possibly, [cf Lat. -ve, or.'] 1. 2. as speech, words;


'
.

kim

bear.']

vahye-gaya,a.
1250c
V
:

lying on

litters,

[vahya,

virasenasya sutas/or virasena-sutas. [Vvac.] v a g - d o s a t by or as a bad consequence


,

technical term, periphrasis, e.g.

acct, 1270.]

of

his

voice,

i.e.

because he was fool

Iva

(vati;

vavati;

avasit [882]; vas' '

enough

to let his voice be heard,

[vac

yati; vata; vatum; vapayati [1042d]). blow, blow Goth. [cf aiifj-t, *a-Frj-ytti,
.

see dosa.]

vaghat

va-ian,
aii-pa,

Ger. weh-en, AS. wdwan, 'blow'; ' ' ' breeze ; cb?p, *aFr)p, ' air ; Lat.
(a participial form which has transition to the vowel-declension
'

[like dasat, 444 ], m. the pledging one, i.e. institutor of a sacrifice, not the priest, but the yajamana. [perhaps

vetitu-s

akin are
'

ttf^-oyttcu,

Lat.

vovere,

*vogv-ere,

made a

vow.']

cf. vasanta and 1172 3 wind; AS. we-der, Eng.

4
),

'wind,' Eng.

vanmaya,
utterance.

a.

wea-ther,

'wind
'
:

[vac

consisting : see

of

voice

or

1225 2

and

(e.g. in weather-cock),

condition of the air

maya.]

see

vata and vayii, wind.'] + a, blow hither.


'

vac

go

1. (blow out, intransitively, i.e.) be extinguished; 2. intrans. (blow till one gets one's breath, and so)

+ nis,

1. [391], f. speech, voice, word, utterance, sound ; vacam vy-a-hr, utter l words, 3 , and vacam vad, speak words,

out,

94 9 , verb-phrases, used

like

a simple verb
the ace.

of speaking, and
the person (see
i.e.)

construed w.
;

of

cool
cool

off;

cans.

1.

extinguish;
refresh.

2.

off, transitively, i.e.

274b) sacred text, 91 2


Aoyos.

perhaps (utterance,
2. personified,

The

+ para, blow
,

away.

Word, Vach,

+ p r a blow or move forward, intrans. + vi, blow asunder, i.e. scatter to the
winds.
V

vacam-yama,
vacaka,
a.

[v/vac, q.v.] a. restraining or holding

one's voice, silent.

speaking
verbal,

[1250a, 1270 and b.] as m. speaker. ;


1

(vayati [761d2]; uvaya [784 ]; vayisyati; uta; 6tum; uyate). weave, interweave, both lit., and also (like Lat.
serere), fig., of
[orig.

2va

[Vvac, 1181.]

vacika,

a.

consisting of words,
to

[vac, 1222e.]

hymns and songs;


' '

plait.
'
:

vacya,
v aj a
,

grdv.
to.

1.

be spoken;

2. to

idea perhaps ' wind or root-forms are u, va, and vi :


'

plait
cf.

be spoken

[Vvac, 1213a.]

iVe'o,

*p;T6o,
'

willow

'
;

'

ola-os,
'

osier

'
;

Lat.
'
;

vi-ere,
olvii,
;

'

plait
'

vi-men,
'

vine

' ;

olvos,

wine

plaited work ' Lat. vlnum, ;

'

wine '
'

m. 1. swiftness ; courage, esp. of the 2. race, struggle; 3. prize of horse; race or contest; booty; reward in general; treasure, good. [prob. akin w. Vvaj, q.v.:

'

vi-tis,

twig,'

Eng. withy or withe, pliant Ger. Weide, ' withe, willow.']


vine,'

va,

enclitic particle,

following
17
,

its

word.

1.
-

or;
9718,19.
972.3.16^

va,

;;

29 64 18 % 10 42i. similarly, 35 6, 59, 84 9 4 91 9 va, 20 -further:


'

64 *>, va, 50 6 9 va, 77 , 24 6, 59

96 i 2
,

23
,

strength and liveliness,' that in which strength and courage show themselves,' and then 'the result of quick and brave struggle.']
'
'

orig.

vajaya

(only in ppl., vajayant). treasure; seek good, 74 16 cf. [denom. of vaja, 1058.]
;

crave
Vvaj.

16

Vvafich]
V

[242]
(vanchati; vanchita). wish, [for
orig.
:

vanch
*vansk,

vayasa,
-si, f.

m.

1.

bird;

2.

esp.

crow;

inchoative

(cf.

V 1 is)

to

crow-hen.

[Ivayas,

'bird,' 1208a.]

cf. Ger. Wunsch, 'a, wish'; vayii, m. wind, [v'l va, 'blow,' 1165.] v'van, q.v. AS. wusc, 'a. wish,' whence verb wyscan, var, n. water, [cf. ovp-o-v, orig. 'water,' and so, as hi Eng., urine Lat. urlndri, 'wish,' whence Eng. verb wish, whence noun wish.'] ur-lna, urine Ur-ia, stay under water
'
'

'

'

'

'

vanijya,
vata,
of m.

n.

merchant's business, trade,


1.

[vanij, 1211.]

Water-town,' a port in Apulia akin is AS. wser, 'sea.']

'

prob.

m. tail-hair, esp. of a horse, 2. Vata, god 1 var a, blow acct, [prob. akin w. ovpr], 'tail.'] 1. choice treasure; 2. 1176c cf. Icelandic OS-inn, AS. Wod-en, 2 var a, m. moment chosen or determined for any Old High Ger. Wuot-an, names of the 3. time thing, appointed time, turn; highest Germanic god, Odin: the name still lives in the Eng. Wednes-day, AS. (as used with numerals); varam varam, 4. the time or turn time and again; Wodn-es dseg : some connect Woden w. V vat, inspire, excite.'] (of one of the planets which rule in succession the days of the week), and so, vata-svanas, a. having the roar of the

wind;

air;

the
:

wind.

[V 1 va,

'

'

'

wind,

i.e.

blustering,

exhibiting

noisy

violence, tumultuous.

vataikabhaksa,
food,
i.e.

fasting,

a. having wind as sole [vata - ekabhaksa.]

day of the week, day. [V 2 vr, choose identified by some w. &pa, time, seasqn,' see under Vya.]
:

'

'

'

var ana,
it),

a.

warding

off (those that attack

vada,

m.

speech, expression, statement.


n.

and

[Vvad.]

wild
speech-fight,
i.e.

strong or ungovernable (of [\lvr, beasts); as m. elephant.


so

vada-yuddha,
troversy.

con-

'cover,

ward

off,'

1150. lb.]

varanasi,
a.

f.

Varanasi,

the

modern

vadayuddha-pradhana,
controversy
sialist.]
;

devoted to

Benares.
[see var.] situated in the water, t.e. (of the sun's disk) reflected in the water. vavd, particle, emphasizing the word which
n.

as

m.

eminent controver- vari,


3 [Vvad, 1183 .] a Brahman of

water,

vari-stha,

a.

vadin,

a.

vanaprastha,
third order,

speaking. m.

the the

who has passed through

it

follows.

surely,

just.

[for

double
avi-

stages of student and householder (see 3 agrama) and dwells in the woods, 65 N. ;

acct, see
V

Whitney

94.]
;

vag_

(va^yate

[761c]
;

vavae

hermit.
tpr)/j.lrr)s,

for mg, cf. [vanaprastha Eng. hermit, and iprift-la, 'soli:

tude, desert.']

vagat [861]; vacita vagitva). bleat; low; cry (of birds), [see vaa, Lat. vacca, 'cow,' and vagra.]

vanara,
vapl,
'

HI.

monkey, ape.
lake.
so,

vac_rA,
[V2vap,
perhaps, orig.
1188a.] vasd, m.
2.

a.

lowing

(of

kine).

[Vvac,,

f.

oblong pond;
up,'

heap up, dam

and
*

'a

dam'

(cf.

x^A"1

'dam,'

from

x<ta,

'throw or heap up'), and then, by metonymy, 'the pond made by the dam.']

1. prop, a staying overnight; an abiding, 32 5 3. abiding-place, 23 2 \ [V3vas, 'dwell': for mg, cf. bhavana.]
;

vapi-jala,
first

n.
is

lake-water,

element
'
'

[perhaps the here to be taken in its orig.


'

vasa-bhumi.y. 1. in vasara,
dawn
time
night,
;

dwelling-place. Veda, as adj.


2.
in

of the
Skt.,

sense of
prop.

dam,' so that the whole means


pond-water.']

ritptos

classical

dam-water,' and so
a.

neuter, used as subst., also masculine, (prop.

vain,

see 491.

of

dawn,
so)

as

distinguished
in general,
fr.
'

from

yam a,

lovely, pleasant; as n. & lovely

and
'

day

thing, a joy. I 1 dhvan.]

[Vvan:

cf.

dhuma and

secondary deriv. (1188d)


*vaa-ar,

[prop, a an obsolete
'
;

dawn/

V 1 vas,

dawn

see

[243]
vas and for the form vas-ar, cf eap and i-er, there given, and ah-ar, udh-ar,
1
:
.

[V 1
a.
or,

vid

vicaksana,
conspicuous;

appearing far and wide,


far-seeing.
1.

[\/caks

+ vi.]
2.

430.]

vi-citra,
n.

a.

very variegated;
3.

vasa-veman,
vasas, vasin,
1183 3 .]
n.
a.

chamber for spending


[V2 vas, 'clothe.']
[\/3vas,
'dwell,'
V

differently colored, varied;


ing, beautiful,

(full of

the night, sleeping-room.

garment.
dwelling.
a.

variety and surprises, and so) entertain[in mg 1, vi- has perhaps


;

vast a vy a,
vastu,
m.
n.

belonging to

an abode;

intensive force in 2, perhaps variative.] vij (vijate; vivij6; avikta [834c]; vijisyati; vigna). move with a quick darting

as m. inhabitant,

[vastu, 1212(12.]
[\/3vas, 'dwell,'

motion, aiaaeiv

(like

Eng.
[cf.

start)

move
wlc-an,
soft,

dwelling.

suddenly from
feeble.']
.

fear.

AS.

'give way'; Eng. weak,

'yielding,

vastos-pati,
dwelling, 77
2 N.

m.

lord or Genius of the

(1250d)

[vastos, gen. of vastu pati: acct, 1267a and d.]

+ ud

start

up

be affrighted

udvigna,
Victory,

terrified.

vaha,

vahana,
;

off. [Vvah.] 1. beast carrying off; as n. of burden, 56 s beast for riding; team; vehicle 2. the carrying, 34 13 [\/ vah,

a.

carrying; carrying
a.

vij

ay a,

name

m. victory; personijied, of a rabbit. [Vji + vi.]


[v'ji

vijiti,/. conquest,

vi.]

vijitendriya,
sense subdued,

a.

having the organs of

1150. lb.]
1

vi

[343e],

m.
'

bird.
bird.']

[cf.

olwvos,

*bri-

vijneya,
as.

[vijita + indriya.] grdv. to be known or considered


vi,
n.

cavos,

Lat. avi-s,

[Vjna +
:

963 3

a.]

2 vi, preposition. apart, asunder, away, out denoting intensity in descriptive cpds
;

vin-mutra,
226b, 161

faeces

and

urine,

[vis,

for cpd, 1253b.]


['differing

(1289),

cf.

vicitra,
or

vibudha;
in

denoting
possessive

vitatha,
so,'

a. false,

from the

separation

non-agreement
cf.

vi

+ tatha, 1314a.]
m.
inclination tois false,

cpds (1305),

in the prepositional

vimanas, etc. ; similarly cpd (1310a), vipriya.


[cf.
'

vitathabhinivega,
wards that which

[abhinive^a.]

vingati
Boeotian

[485], f.
FI/COTJ,

twenty. Lat. vlginti,

eftcoo-i,

vitasti,
'

f. a span,
'

about nine inches or

twenty.']

vikata,

a.

1.

exceeding the usual meas2. (like

twelve fingers, [prob. fr. Vtan + vi, and so a stretch from the tip of the thumb
to that of little finger: for

ure; and so

Eng. enormous)
Hideous,

as m. monstrous, hideous; name of a gander, [cf. 1245g.]

mg, cf. Eng. noun span and verb span, 'extend over/ and see vyama.]
m.
2.
n.

vikrama,
esp.

m. a stepping out, appearance bold or courageous advance, courage,


;

vitana,
sion
2,
;

1.

spreading out, exten:

might.

[V kram

+ vi.]
a.

cf.

for [V tan + vi Eng. expanse (of heaven) and

canopy.

mg
ex-

vigata-samkalpa,
purpose,
1299.]

with
[V

vanished
:

pand.^

purposeless.
a.

gam. + vi

vitta,

ppl. gotten; as n. (like Lat. quaestus) gettings, that which is got, property.

vigulpha,
clear.]

abundant.
1.

[origin

un-

[V2vid,

'get.']

Vivid
m.

(v6tti;
-te
;

v6da

[790a]

avedit
;

vigraha,
division;

separation; and so
3.

2.

vedisyati,

vetsyati,
;

-te
;

vidit&
;

and

so

discord,

quarrel,

veditum, v6ttum
dayati). ceive ; ya
1.

war.
V

[V

grab + vi.]

vie

(vinakti; vikta;
esp.

vektum;

separate,

grain from

-vicya). chaff by win-

evam
this

-vidya veknow; understand; perveda, who knoweth thus,


viditva

who hath
in the

nowing

separate, in general.

Brdhmanas,$7
it

knowledge, frequent formula 3 vidyat, one should


;

+ vi,

separate out or apart;

vivikta,

know,
2.

should be
;

isolated, ana* so lonely.

recognize as

known or understood nalam mam viddhi,


16*

2 vid]
recognize

[244]

as N., know that I am N. [vidarbha- does not stand in the relation of a gen. of appellation see 295 a be mindful of, 75 ls bethink .] m. lord or king of 4. believe; assume; vidarbh,a-pati, one's self, 94 6 10 ; Vidarbha. consider a person (ace.) to be (ace.),

me
;

3. notice

43 19
tc

ppl, vidvans, see

s.v.

[whh v6da, vidma,


wat,
wot,

cf. oT5a, fSyuev,


' ; '

we
'

'

witon,
to

know, we know
wit,

vidarbha-raj an, m. king of Vidarbha. AS. vid a sin, a. becoming exhausted, drying 3 up. [V das + vi, 1183 .] Eng.

gerund
:

noun
AS.

wit,

under'

vidya,/
science;

1.

knowledge; a discipline
trayi

or

standing
Lat.

cf

also flSov, tiFtSov,


'

saw
see

' ; '

videre,

see

'
;

'

untan,

vidya, the triple science or knowledge of the holy word, as


esp.

whence
'

wlt-ga, 'seer, soothsayer,


vit-ki,

wizard'

(Icelandic
wicce,

'wizard'), wicca, 'wizard,'


:

v6da

Eng. witch, masc. and fern. an old preterito-present, 'have see seen or perceived,' and so, 'know' V2vid: the forms of the other tensewitch,'
is

sacrificial formula, and chant, or the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Samaveda; 2. esp. the science /car' e&xhv, i.e. magic;

hymn,

a magic formula,
for

spell.

[V 1 vid,

1213d
in

mg
'

2,

observe the equally arbitrary


spell,

specialization in Eng.

which

AS.

systems are comparatively modern.] + anu, know along, i.e. from one end to
the other,

meant a

saying.']

vidya-dhara,

know

+ ni,

caus.

thoroughly. cause to know; do to wit;

announce; communicate.
V 2 vid (vindati, -te [758]; viv6da, vivid6; avidat, avidata ; vetsyati, -te ; vittd. ;

a. keeping or possessed of knowledge or the magic art as m. a, Vidyadhara, one of a class of genii, who are attendants on Qiva, and reputed to be
;

magicians.

vidya-mada,
i.e.

v6ttum
4 12,
l(X)5-9

vittva

etc.;
;

-vidya). 13 obtain ; get, 74


;

1.

find,

(children),
;

m. knowledge-intoxication, infatuated pritle in one's learning. vidyavayo-vrddha, a. grown old in

_2.
:

7 get hold of, 80

-3.

pass.
is,

vidyate
73 2)

is

found ;
ppl.

later, equiv. to

there

knowledge and years, distinguished for learning and age. [vidya + 3vayas,
1252.]

there exists;
;

vidana [619 8 ], found,


Vivid, of which
this is

ppl. vitta, see s.v.

vidyut,
Eng.,
'lighten']

1. a. 2. /.

lightening; and

so,

as in
vi,

[orig. ident. w.

lightning.

[Vdyut +
man.

' only another aspect, namely that of seeing esp. an object looked for, i.e. of

vidvaj-jana,
1249a, 202.]

m. wise

[vidvans,

finding': see Ivid.]

+ .anu,

find.

vidvans
[V 1 vid.]

[461], ppl.

knowing; wise, 17 18

vid, vbl. knowing, at end of cpds. vida, a. knowing, at end of cpds.

etc.; learned;

[do.]

workman

(cf.

tvasta vidvan, a cunning Eng. cunning and Old Eng.


.

vidatra,
1185d.]

a.

noticing, in

cpds.
orders,

[Vivid,
[prop.

6 cunnen, 'know'), 75 803 2 .] 790a,

[Vivid, 'know,'

vidatha,
'

n.

directions,

V 1

vidh

(vidhati).
;

knowledge

given,

i.e.

instructions,'

with
[cf.

(instr.)

worship a god (dat.) honor (ace.) with (instr.).

Vivid, 1163b.]

vedhas.]
(instr.),

vidarhha,

1.

Vidarbha, name
mountains, and

m. pi. the Vidarbhans, of a people, and of their

V 2

vidh

thing
V

(vindhate). lack or be without a viduari; be bereft or alone,

country, which was south of the Vindhya is now called Berar; 2.

[see vidhava.]
at
cf.

m. sing. Vidarbha,

i.e.

a king of

3vidh, see Vvyadh. Vidarbha, vidh, vbl. boring through, wounding,


end of cpds.
785.]
[V 3

42

[for

mg

2, cf.

"Norway, uncle of
f.

vidh or vyadh, 252,


'

young Fortinbras," Hamlet,

vidarbha-nagari,
of

i.2.28.] city or capital

vidhdva,/
1190:
cf.

widow.

Vidarbha,

i.e.

Kundina (kundina).

ii-i6eos,

[V 2 vidh, be bereft,' 'youth without a wife

[245]
bachelor
'
;

[vibhidaka
vip
or

Lat. viduus, vidua,

'

widower,

widow
vridha,
so

'
;

/.

AS. widwe, wuduwe, Eng. widow."] proportion, measure; way; and


;

yati).

avepista; vepa(vepate; vivipe be in trembling agitation; tremble


;

shake

kind, sort
6]
:

esp.

at

end of cpds

[see

vibrdre,
mvip-ru-s,

cans, shake, trans, 'shake, brandish/ from


;

[cf.

Lat.

*vib-ru-s,

1302c

e.g.

tri-vidha, of three kinds,


'

'shaking';
'

AS.

three-fold,

[prop.

dis-position, arrange-

like
that,'

*vip-ru-s),

moving

wsefre (formed this way and


'

vidhatavya,
+ vi, mg vidhatf,
-f

ment, order, method,' see V 1 dha + vi.] grdv. to be shown. [VI dha
5.]

m. dis-poser, arranger.
n.

[VI dha

whence Eng. waver; Eng. frequenveer about, blow in gusts whiffle-tree, so called from its constant jerky motion (-tree means 'wooden bar,'
tative whiffle,
' ;

vi.]

see daru).]

vidhana,

a dis-position, ordering, ordi-

vip ana,
shop.

m.

trading-place,

shop;

-I,

f.

[Vpan + vi, 1156.] lished) ordinance. [VI dha + vi, 1150.] vipatti,/. a coming to nought, destruction. 1. a dis-position, ordinance, vidhi, m. [Vpad + vi, 1157.] 7 2. vipad, / misfortune, trouble. prescription, rule (65 ), method; [Vpad +
nance; vidhanatas, according to (estab(method,
(the
i.e.)

23 way, 3S

procedure;
or ordaining,

3.
i.e.)

vi, 383a.]

supreme disposition
:

vipaka,

fate. destiny, [Vldha + vi, 1155. 2e, ' 345 2 for estab3, cf Lat. destinare,

mg

m. the ripening, esp. of the fruit of good or bad deeds, and so the consequences ; the issue, in general. [Vpac +
vi, 216.1.]
1. a. agitated, inspired; as subst.

lish, ordain,'

and Eng.

destiny."]

vidhivat,
to

adv. according to rule; equiv.


[vidhi, 1107.] lonely (of the

Lat.

rite,

vipra, he who
at
a.

vidhu,

a.

moon

that
;

gives utterance to pious emotion the altar, poet, singer, 74 11 18 ; 2.


-

wanders alone among the star-hosts) as m. moon. [prob. fr. V2vidh, 1178.]

(inspired,

i.e.)

gifted

with
13> 17
;

insight, wise, of a god, 79


,

superior 3. as TO.

vidhura,

a. 2. suf1. alone, bereft; 3. disagreeable fering lack, miserable ; as n. trouble, [prob. fr. V2 vidh, through the intermediate vidhu, 1188f.]
;

a Brahman, 60 15 etc. [Vvip, 1188a: mg 3 is to be taken directly from 1.] vipriya, a. not dear, unpleasant; as n.

something disagreeable, an

offense.

[2 vi

+ priya, see vi and 1310a end.] vidhnra-dargana, n. sight of adversity. vidheya, grdv. to be done, [see VI dha vi-budha, a. very wise (vi- is + vi, mg5: also 963 8 a.] 1289) as m. a god. 1. training, breeding, i.e. vibudhanucara, ?H. attendant vinaya, m.
;

intensive,

of a god.

formation of manners; and


ferred
(like

so

2. trans-

[anucara.]

the

Eng. breeding), manners,


[Vnl + vi.]

vibudhevara,
[igvara.]

m.

a lord of the gods.


or

good breeding, politeness.

vina,

prep, without, w. instr. or ace. [1127,

vibhava,
2.

m.

1.

development
of growth,

growth;

1129.]

(the

result

viniti,
[Vni

f.

(good breeding,

esp.)

modesty.

ana* so lordship, majesty,


3. sing,

power, high position


i.e.)
;

vi: see vinaya.] vino da, m. exactly like Eng. di-version;

and

pi.

(like

Ger.

Vermogen)

property, possessions.

[V bhu

+ vi

cf

amusement,
V

[see V nud

vi.]

vibhu and vibhuti.]

vind,

see

V2vid.
m.

vibhavan,
name
of

f.

vindhya,

Vindhya,

the

wide.

[Vbha +

-vari, a. shining far 1169. Ib and vi,

and
22
,

mountain-range crossing the Indian peninsula and separating Hindustan from the Deccan.

vibhidaka,

vindhyatavl,
[atavL]

/.

the

Vindhya-forest.

m. n. the large tree Terminalia Bellerica; one of the nuts of this tree, which were used for dicing; a die,
dice,

[perhaps 'the destroyer,'

fr.

Vbhid

vibhu]
+ vi
and
tree.]
:

[246]
if

so,

we must suppose

that the

vivaha,

m. fetching

home

of the bride,

name was

first

applied
a. 1.
2

given to the die as die, secondarily to nut and


pervading, far-reaching;
;

wedding, marriage.
ternion,
i.e.

[Vvah + vi.]

vivaha-catustay a,

vibhii,

n. marriage-quathe marrying of four wives. vivahagni, m. wedding-fire, [agni.]

unlimited, 74 of Indra, 6 12

2.
;

powerful, mighty,
cf.

vividha,
334 2
,

a.

having different kinds,


[2 vi

i.e.

15

as subst. lord or ruler.


2,

of different sorts, various. 1305.]


f.

vidha,

[Vbhu + vi, 354: for and 2, and vibhuti.]

vibhava

vivrddhi,
increase.
i.e.)

growth; increase in size;


Id.]
;

vfbhuti,y.
2.

1.

development or growth;

[Vvrdh + vi, 1157.


m.
1.

(the result of growth, esp. of a lord or ruler. [Vbhu


cf.

power, vi, 1157d

viveka,
ment.

a separating apart

2.

discrimination,

vi-manas,

vibhava and vibhu.] a. (having an away-removed mind or heart, i.e.) out of one's senses or
disheartened.
[1305.] m. destruction; (of sleep) dis-

[Vvic

discernment, good judgvi, 216.1: for mg 2, cf.

discrimination w. Lat. discrimindre, ' separate/ fr. discrimen of the same root as
' '

discernere,

separate

cf also discernment
.

vimarda,
turbance.

with
V

discernere..]
;

[Vmrd+vi.]
a.

vi

vimana,
moves
[V 1

traversing, esp. the sky; as m. n. a palatial car of the gods that

(viati, -te; vivea, vivic^ veksyati, -te ; vista vestum


;

aviksat;
-vigya go into,
;

vegayati).
enter,

settle

down; go

in;

ma + vi, vi-mukha,
vimukha
faces,
i.e.)

through the measure/


'

air,

sky-chariot.
:

q.v.

a.

having

1150.] the face away;

[with vea, 'house/ cf. O!KOS, 'house' (analogous to entry from enter);
village/
'

yanti,
a.

they go (with averted


[1305.]

Lat. vlcus, 'settlement, the borrowed AS. wlc,


'

whence
'
;
'

village

Goth.
small

homewards.

'

veihs,

village

Lat.

villa, *vic(u)la,

vi-rajas,
pure.

having dust away, dustless,

settlement, farm':
vec.a.]

see further vfg and

viraha,
from
;

[1305.] m. 1. abandonment, separation


2. absence,

freedom from.

[V

rah

+ a, go into, enter; pervade, KV.x. 125.6; avista : actively, having entered passively,
;

+ vi.]

entered by,
m. stop, end, pause.
a.

filled

with

caus. cause to

virama,

[Vram+vi.]
disturbing.

go

into,

put

into,

communicate.

virodhin, [Vrudh + vi,


vilasa,
that

hindering,

+ upa, + ni,
nest)
;

settle

down upon;

sit

down;

1183 3 .]

upavista, seated.
mid. go in; go
settle

vivara,

m. joy. [V las + vi.] m. n. opening; hole (of creatures live in the ground). [Vlvr + vi,
a.

home
to
;

(to

house or

down

to rest.

+ abhi-ni,
towards,
fig.,

settle

down
;

be inclined

'uncover, open.']

vi-varna,

having
[1305.]

the

color

away,

-fpra,
w.
loc.,

be bent upon, 2 enter, get into; w. ace., 85


as in Eng.
without
in,
;
;

colorless, pale.

18 23

expressed

object

vivarna-vadana,a. pale-faced. [1298a.] vivasvan, a. lighting up; vivasvabhis,


as adv. [1112c], so that
it

enter, 8*;

go

33"; go home, 103 21


caus. cause to enter.

penetrate, pierce
w.

lights

perhaps, flash, spark.


up,' 1169b.]

[V 1

up as n.; vas + vi, light


; '

+ sam-pra, go in;w. grham, go home;

+ sam
lighting up; as m. Vivasof a god of the dawning daya.

niveganam, go
,

to

bed

enter, w.
i.e.

loc.

enter together,

make

their

vivasvant,
vant,

name

appearance together or come hither to16 caus. cause to enter upon, gether, 86
;

light or morning-sun, father of the twins

Yama
8513.H.
1233e.]

and Yami

and of
vi,

put or set upon. the A9vins, viQ (vit, vigam, vidbhis [218 3 ]),
up,'

/ - 1.
;

a
so

[Vlvas +

'light

see

settlement,

i.e.

dwelling-place
i.e.

ana"

house

2.

a settlement,

the

com-

[247]
munity, clan, folk; vigam patis, lord of
peoples,
T&
TTOJ',

[vis
92 12
;

2. sometimes, entire,

whole

simply prince ; tribe or host 18 4 -3. the folk, as (of gods), 71 , 78 distinguished from the Brahmans and
i.e.
;

so 71

17 .

vigva-caksas,
1296 3
:

a.

all-beholding,
or

[see

acct, 1298c.]

vaigya; a

Kshatriyas, the third caste, later called man of the third caste, 59 22
.

vigvatas,
everywhere,
all

adv.

from

on

all

sides,

threecf. Acapiees Tpixd-w-es, [Vvig, q.v. tribed Dorians'; also Keltic vie in Ordo:

'

[vigva, 1098b: acct, 1298c.] vigvato-mukha, a. having a face on


sides,

whose face
[1306.]
a.

is

turned

every-

vlc-es, vlc-es,

people of North Wales, and Lemo-

whither.

people of modern Limoges.]


f.

vigva-dargata,
vi,

to be

seen by

all,

viganka,
1149.]

hesitation.

[Vgank +

all-conspicuous, [acct, 1273, 1298c.] vigva-deva, m. pi. the All-gods

(see

vigakha,
branches, name of
2 1305, 334 .]

a.
i.e.

having spread-asunder forked -e, dual f. Viyakhe,


;

deva2b), EV.

x. 125.1.

[vigva + deva: [vigva [vigva

acct, 1280a, 1298c.]


a.

an asterism.

[2 vi

+ gakha, vigva-bhesaja,
+ bhesaja:

all-healing,

acct, 1280a, 1298c.]


a.

vigakhila,
chant,

m. Vi9akhila, name of a mer[vigakha, 1227 perhaps named after the asterism because various green:

vigva-gcandra,

all-sparkling,

grocer's commodities belonged to

it.]

vigala, a. capacious, spreading, broad. vigistata, f. condition of being distin- vigvayu, assumed
,

+ gcandra: acct, 1280a, 1298c.] vigva-sfj, a. all-creating; as m. pi. Allcreators, name of certain creative beings. v i g v a d a. all-consuming, [vigva + ad.]
as stem

of vigvayos,

guished, distinction, superiority, 1237 see gis + vi.]


:

[vigista,

prop, a form of transition to the udeclension of the stem vigvayus, and mean,

75 1

vigesa,

m.

1.

that which separates or

distinguishes one thing distinction or difference ;

from another, and so 2. (like


excellence
;

ing either friendly to all, all-friendly (if taken with mama, i.e. varunasya), or else all living creatures (if taken with rastram,

Eng. distinction)

eminence,

'lordship over')

see

vigvayus
living

and

2.

vigesena, as adv. [1112b], to an eminent


degree, i.e. very much, especially, like French par excellence. [V gis + vi.] 1. at end of a cpd, vigesatas, adv. 66 28 according to the difference of
, ;

vigvayus,
ing
to to
all

1. a.
life

belonging to or appearcreatures,
i.e.

or

either friendly to all or

gods),
all

or else

all-known (applied dwelling in all (of the


;

Genius of Life), 85 18
i.e.

-2.

as

n.

all-life,

2.

(like

vigesena, see above) especially,


of

living creatures,

men and

beasts,
:

[vigesa, 1098b.] vig-pati, m. master


5 acct, [euphony, 218 Prussian wais-patti-n,
:

the

house.
cf.
'
;

[vigva + ayus, acct, 1280a, 1298c mg 1, see 1294 2 .]

for

1267a:
'

Old vigvasa, m. confidence.

house-mistress

vigvasa-karana,
fidence.

n.

[Vgvas + vi.] reason for con-

Lithuanian

'

vesz-pat-s,

lord.']

vigrabdham, vigrambha, m.
+
vi.]

see

Vgrambh.
confidence.

vigvasa-bhumi,
[Vgrambh
confidence,
trusted.

/.

one
adv.

who

proper vessel for may safely be


for

vigrambhalapa,
vigva
in the

m.

confidence-talk,

vigvaha,
[vigva,
cf.

always,
cf.

evermore,
-

familiar conversation,
[524], pron.
;

[alapa.] la. all, adj.

see

HOOa and

1104 2

8
:

acct,

every;
V

1298c.]

every one

common in Veda, but replaced Brahmana and later by sarva, q.v.;

vis
plish.

(vivesti;

vista; -visya).

viv6sa; veksydti, -te; work, be active, accomexcrement,

Ib. vigve devas : all the gods, 82 l ; or the All-gods (as a class, see deva 2b), 88 G 8 , 90 8 ; -Ic. vigvam, as n. The All,
-

vis

(vit,

visam, vidbhis),

f.

faeces.

visa]
visa,

[248]

n. poison. [prop, 'the potent or overpowering,' Vvis: no less arbitrary is the specialization in Eng. poison, fr. Lat.

visvanc

[408], a. directed in

both ways

or

parted asunder, [visu + anc, 407.] visa rj ana, n. the letting go ; evacuation.
[Vsrj +vi.]

potionem,

'draught':

cf.

Us,

Fjo-or,

Lat.

virus, 'poison.']

visa-kumbha,
visaya,
m.
1.

m. jar of poison.

vispasta, see VI pag + vi. vispastartha, a. having


ligible

clear or intel-

prop, working, and so 2. one's sphere of activity or influence ;

meaning,

[artha.]

department

or line or peculiar province


3.

vismaya, m. astonishment. [Vsmi + vi.] vismayanvita, a. filled with astonishment,


[anvita, V i
a.
1.

and

so,

generalized

province,

field,

anu.]
2.

4. field of domain, empire, country; activity of one of the sense-organs (e.g.,

vi-hasta,
handless
;

having the hands away,


(like

and

so

Eng.

un-

the visaya of the ear), a mere specialization of mg 1 object of sense,


is
;

sound

handy) awkward; and confounded. [1305.]

so

3.

perplexed,

5. object in general. pleasure of sense [Vvis: but the formation of the stem is
;

viharin,
vi, V

a.

wandering about.

[Vlhr +

1183 8 .]

not clear.]

Ivi

visada,
visu,

m. despondency, dejection. [Vsad

1. (veti; vivaya, vivye; vita). seek eagerly; 2. accept gladly; enjoy; 3. strive to get;

4. fall
'

adv. on both sides.


f.

[cf

Lat.
'

vendri,
'
;

hunt,'
wci-ft,

upon. a denom. of
'

visuvat- samkr anti,


(of the sun

equinox-passage
to the

*ve-na,

hunt

AS.
'

hunt

'
;

Old

from one zodiacal sign

High Ger. weida,

1.

the seeking, esp. of

next)

the time of equinox-passage, the

equinox, [visuvant.] -vi suv ant, 1. a. having or taking part on both sides, i.e. keeping or being in the

food, i.e. hunting, fishing, and then 2. place for getting food, pasture, and 3. food, ' fodder ; weida appears w. mg 1 in Ger.

middle;

2.

m.

middle day

(e.g.

of a

3. m. n. long sacrifice); esp. middle day between the solstices, the vernal or autumnal equinox. [visu, 1233c and

Waid-mann, 'hunter' (also as family name, Weidmann, 'Hunter'), and w. mgs 2 and 3 in Weide, pasture, food perhaps 2 vayas, food,' q.v., comes f r. V vi in mg 1, seek for, hunt,' and in this case
'

'

'

'

b end.] vist (vestate;


yati).

hunting, game,' whence Eng. + upa, seek after. around, envelope, wrap vlsnu, m. Vishnu, name of a god, whose V 2 vi, see vya. chief work in the Veda is the measuring v i n a f. lute.
'

vistita; -vSstya; vestawind one's self about; caus. wind up, dress.

the development of mg is like that of weida 3 and like that of Lat. venation-em,
venison."]

of the sky in three paces, and who became one of the Hindu Trinity, and extremely

vita, see Vi + vi; and vya.

also referable to roots

vi

important in the later sectarian devel-

vita-darpa,
vita-raga,
parted,
i.e.

a.

having one's pride de-

opment
giva.

India; cf. brahman 2 and [prob. 'the mighty worker,' Vvis,


of

parted; humbled.
a.

1162.]

[Vi+vi.] having one's passions dehaving conquered one's pas-

visnu-garman
name
of

m.
['

Vishm^arman,
having V. as
his

sions,

a sage.

vira,
hero
to
;

[do.] m. 1.
in pi.

protection' or else 'the delight of V.': the mg of the cpd depends on its accent 1 and 1267 : ), and this is not (see 1302

man; Manner
pi.

esp.
;

man
Eng.

of might,

2. hero,

applied

gods;
'

3.

tainers,

Mannen,
'

(like 86 6 .
: .

men)
AS.

re-

[cognate

with
wer,

known.]

3 vayas,
a.

strength

cf Lat. vir,
'
;

visnugarma-naman,
nuQarman
as

possessing vis-

'

manly

or heroic

man

Eng.

were-wolf,

name, named V.

[1249a

2
.]

'

man-wolf.']

[249]
(virayate [1067]). be a hero, one's self brave, [vira, 1058.] viravant, a. having or rich in men or
V

[vrksopari
(covered with,
i.e.)

viraya
show

filled

with, provided

with, 66

1.

heroic sons,

[vira, 1233a.]
a.

+ s a m - a cover samavrta, surrounded. + ni, keep down, suppress, ward off;


,
;

vira- su

[352],

bringing

forth heroes

cans. [1041 2 ], stop,

98 4

(as sons).

+ nis
a.
;

in

ppl.

nirvrta,
care.

pleased,
'

con-

virasena,

hero-army of Nishadha,
:

possessing a virasena or as subst. m. Virasena, king


like the

tented,

free

from

[prop.
i.e.

uncov'

ered, not covered

over,
'

not dark or
: .

formation and 1297 acct, 1295.]

Greek 'Hp6-crrpaTos in 2 [vlra-sena, 334 , mg.


m.

and so cf clear, bright gloomy,' V 1 VT + vi, which shows a similar metaphor.]

virasena-suta,
[1264.]

Virasena's son,

I 8.

vlra-sena,/. hero-army, army of heroes, 2 [vird + s6na, 1280b acct, 1280 .] 1. n. manliness, courage; virya,
:

2. strength [vira, 1212 d 4.]


;

concrete,

heroic

deed,

+ pari, surround. + p r a cover. + sam-pra, mid. cover completely. + v i uncover, open make open or clear, illume, [cf. vllvr + nis.] 1. cover over; 2. keep to+ s am,
,
,

vihasta,
1087 b.]
V

for

vihasta,

q.v.,

52 12

[see
V

gether or in order, and so put in order, 2 gather up, 26 \

Ivr

(vrn6ti,
;

vrnut6;

vavara,
;

avarft ; vrtd

varitum, vartum
1.

vavre; vrtva ;
enclose,
;

2vr(vrnite; vavre; avrta; varisyate; varitum [254 3 ] varitva vrtd caus.


;
; ;

-vftya; varayati). encompass; surround, 2. offensively, keep


captive
;

cover,

varayati, -te [1042b ]). choose; prefer; choose for one's self, make desire, wish
;

i.e.

in,

2 guard, 11 * hold back or


;

one's portion, 70 5 , 86

u varam
;

vr, wish
;

a wish,
[1041
'

make a
choose.
'

condition,
'

94 1

caus.

vrta, pent up,

75 14
in

3.

de-

2
],
.

fensively, hold back,

keep

check (75 n ),
;

ward
[1041
2

off,
],

hinder,

restrain

cans.

keep back, hinder,


referred to
elfAco,
'

stop.

[cf. f-f\-/j.evos,

'enclosed' and 'held in

Old Eng. wol, wul, ' I wol not whence Ger. Wahl, choice, selection,' wahlen, select,' Chaucerian wail, select
[cf Lat. volo,
still
'

will

will,'

living in

'

won't,

'

'

'

check,' *F \-vta Lat.


vellus,
'

Aeolic

e\\<a,
'
;

Ger. wohl, Eng.

well, 'according to one's

el\ap, *Fe\-ap,

cover, defense

wish
are

'

(see

under

vara)

ver-eri,

'be on one's guard, fear';


i.e.)

f3ov\o/j.ai,

*fio\vofj.ai,

perhaps akin Epic &6\ofj.cu,


better,'

'(cover,

pelt, fleece';

vallum,

'will,'

and
is

f)f\-repos,

'choicer,

defense, palisaded rampart, wall,' whence the borrowed Eng. wall ; Eng. ware, wary,
'

but this

disputed.]
in

on one's guard, cautious


'

'
;

Ger. wehren,
'

+a vfka,
,

choose, desire.
1. a. tearing,

harming,
wolf.

a-vrka;
.

'check, ward off'; Wehre, 'defense'; with vartra, stopping,' and then a dam,'
cf Ger. Wehr,
stop,

2.

m. (the tearer,

i.e.)

AS.

wer,

Eng.

weir, '(water-)

*vrak, simpler form of V vrac *F\VKOS, Church Slavonic vluku, Lat. lupus,

[\/*vrk or cf \VKOS, :

dam

'
:

urna, varuna:

for other cognates, see uru, cf. the derivs vala, vrtra,

Eng.

wolf.]

variitha, varna, etc.] -t-anu, cover over.

vrkka, vrksa,

dual m. the kidneys.


m.

+ apa

uncover, open,
'

[cf

the relation

tree, ['that which is felled,' V*vrk (1197) or *vrak, simpler form of Vvragc: for mg, cf. bar his.]

of Ger.

decken,

cover,'

and auf-decken,

'uncover.'] + abhi, cover.

vrksa-traya, n. tree-triad, vrksatraya-tale, under


rate) trees, see tala.

three trees. three


(sepasee

+a

cover

avrta

2 covered, 33

con-

vrksopari, on
'l314f.]

the tree.

[upari:

cealed;

encompassed,

surrounded,

39

\fvrj]
V

[250]
wo worth the day), Ger. werden, 'become'; for transition of mg in Eng. and Ger., cf.
Eng.
turn,

vrj (vrnakti, vrnkte; vavarja; avark [832]; varksydti, -te; vrkta; -vfjya;
1. turn; twist off; varjayati). 3. (turn aside, turn or set aside;

2.
i.e.)

which also means become


'

'

di-vert or

keep away from some one


;

or alienate

something
aside,

in turn traitor): in go south-ward,

cf.
i.e.
'

(as also Eng. -ward, as turned to the south,1

cans.

[1041

-]

1.

(set

i.e.)

fly up-war d, anc) ; also Ger.

i.e.

'directed up,' etc.


'

(see
'

Wirt-el,
'

spindle-ring
'

3 21 abandon, shun; avoid, 25 , 104 ; -2. (set aside, take out, and so, like ex-cipere)

Church Slavonic
further akin
'

vret-eno,
is,

spindle

prob.,
:

AS. wriZan,

except; varjayitva, with an excepting, with exception of, 54 22 leave out, i.e.
;

Eng. writhe ; AS. wr&ft, 'a twisted band,' Eng. wreath; u-rist,
twist,'

whence come

exclude, separate. [orig. bring out of


'

earlier hand-wrist, *-wri$-st, 'hand-turner':


its

original direction

or position, by bending or diverting or ' keeping in (in this last sense, cf. vrjana,

whence

with vrtta, cf Lat. versus, turned,' ' ' turn much for mgs versdre,
'
. :

3-6 of vrt, cf

Lat. versdri, whose senses

'enclosure/ and l-fpy-w, 'shut in'), and so the opposite of Vlrj, 'stretch or reach
straight out,'
q.v.
:

are quite parallel, and the Eng. phrase " in whom

we

live

and move and have


follow; and
so,

oi:r

'bend, turn'; Eng.

also Lat. vergere, wrick, 'to twist,' and


cf.
' '

being."]

+ anu,
tinue.

roll after;

con-

twist ; wriggle ; prob. cognate is wring, also Eng. wrong, 'twisted, crooked' (as in

wrong-nosed, Wyclif), 'bad,' which shows the same metaphor as vrjina and French-

+ a, 74 n
'

act.
(sc.

turn hither

(trans.),

73 6

so at

ratham vas, 'your


.

car');

mid.

Eng.

tort,

from Lat.

'

torguere,

twist.']

turn (intrans.), roll back, 63 8 + upa_a, turn hither unto, 93 19

vrjana,

n.

enclosure, esp. enclosed settle13


)

ment, and so, either dwelling-place (74 or the dwellers. [Vvrj, q.v.: 1150. 2c.]

+ abhi-pary-a, turn around + vy-a, turn away, intrans.;


from
or part with (instr.), 86
8
,

unto.

separate
22 .

96

vrjina,

a.

'straight, right.'

crooked, wrong, opp. of rju, [Vvrj, 1177b: for the

-sam-a,

turn back to meet; go home,

mg, see Vvrj.]


V

used esp. of a religious preceptor's pupil who has finished his studies.

vrt

(vartate, -ti; vavarta, vavrte [786]; avrtat ; vartisyati, -te ; vartsyati, -te ; vrtta ; vartitum vartayati, -vftya
; ;

+ ud,
fly

turn out (centrifugally),

intrans.,

asunder ; caus. burst asunder or open. 1. turn back; 2. flee; 3. ni,

-te).

1. turn or roll or
in general,

move
or

as does a

turn

away

4. turn from, abstain

ni-

wheel;
(all),

move
(like

come from
take
its

vrtta, see

s.v.

76 14

-2.

Eng.

course) go on, take place; happen; eka-

+ prati-ni, turn back from + nis, roll out, intrans., and


metaphor
like that in the

(all.).

so (with

payena
i.e.

vrt, go with a diminution-by-one,

Eng. e-volve

itself

decrease

by

one,

58 5

3.

(move

and

one's self about in a place,


exist, be,

be present

and murdhni

so) abide,

into being, 92

Ger. sich ent-wickeln) develop, come 1S caus. e-volve from, i.e. ;

vrt, stand
;

create

from

(abl), 57

16 .

at the head, be chief in importance, 22 21 4. be in a certain condition, case, occu-

+ pari, + pra
,

turn around; move in a circle. 1. turn or move forward 2.


;

pation

be concerned with
6.

(loc.),

10 s

set out;

3. begin,

set

about;

4. en-

by (instr.), i.e. live upon, 7. attenproceed, behave uated in mg from sense 3 to that of a simple 4 vrtta, see s.v. copula, be, 51 ;
5. live; live
;

gage in;
in motion.

pra vrtta,

see s.v.;

caus. set

104 2

+ vi,

turn away; part with


unite, intrans.,

(instr.),

88

3
;

caus. whirl about, trans.

[cf

Lat. vert-ere,

'

turn

'
;

AS.

weor'San,

sam,
form

and

so

take shape,

'become,' Eng. worth, 'become, be to' (in

itself,

come

into being.

[251]

[vrsan
vrddha
;

vf t, vbl. turning, in cpds. [\fvrt.j 1. happened (Vvrt2); tad vrtta, ppl.


vrttam, that took place
(vrt 3); as
n.
;

vardhitum
1.

vardhayati,

-te).

act. trans.:

elevate,

make

to grow,

2. existing

make

1.

thing happened,
2.
life,

2. Jig. elegreater, strengthen; vate inwardly, excite pleasantly, cheer,

occurrence (vrt 2);


(vrt 5, 6).

behavior

inspire

(cf. the metaphor in slang Eng. high, 'slightly intoxicated'), used of the effects

vrttanta,
story,

m. occurrence, adventures, [anta: force of anta not clear.] vrtti.,/1 prop, an existing, and so (like

which the homage and sacrifices of men are supposed to have on the gods
;

mid. intrans.

3.

3 grow, 24

thrive,

Eng. living) means of subsistence, support.

69

[Vvrt

3,

5: cf.

vartana.]
n.

vrtti-nibandhana,
port.

means of

sup-

vardhate, he thrives, i.e. it goes well with him, 65 2 grow strong or greater 11 or mighty, 81 2 82 3 60 19 increase, 8
;
'

16

4. Jig.

vrtta uj as, a.
i.e.

possessing existing strength,


[ojas.]

light in

be pleasantly excited, take debe inspired


;

mighty,
1.

caus.

1.

make

to

grow;
8
;

make

vrtra,

n.

that which wards off or


;

strong; bring up (a child), 46


trans.,

increase,

holds in check, i.e. the enemy, 75 14 2. m. coverer, encloser; personified, Vritra,

64 21

2. fig. excite

cheer, inspire;

distinction

pleasantly, between the


to be

demon of drought and darkness, principal personification of the malign power that covers or darkens the sky and encompasses
(70
16
)

physical
so

and jig. mgs

not

always
'

made,

80 19

[cf. B\a.aTi], *F\ad-Ti),


' '

growth, a shoot,'
'

or withholds the

heavenly
;

fi\acndv<a,
'

grow

op66s,
'

*Fop6os,
'
;

upverb-

waters, selections xxxii.


1S by Indra, 73
;

see

and Ixvii. 82 * and 97 19


.

slain

right

Lat. verb-er,

a shoot, rod

[V 1 vr,

ena, '(sacred) twig.']

'cover,' 1185b.J

+ pra, grow
(like
,

on,

grow up; pravrddha,


.

vrtratara,
473
1

).

comparative to vrtra (see the arch-withholder. [acct ira.

2 regular, 471, 1242a .]

vrtra-putra,
-a, /.

having Vritra as son; the mother of V. [1302.]


adv.
i.e.

+ + sam, grow; caus. make up nourish, feed.


;

Lat. altus) exalted. v i grow, increase, 2 19

to

grow; bring
rejoicing.

vrdh,
V

vbl.

being
-te

pleased,

vftha,

pleasure,

pleasure; for not for the sake of the gods.


at
will,

at

'[Vvrdh.]

vrs

(varsati,
;

[V2vr, 'choose,
pleasure
pleasure,

will,'

1101.]
a.

avarsit

varsisyati,

-te

vavarsa, vavrse vrsta ; varsi;


rain;
raining,

vrtha-pagughna,
;

as m. one
i.e.

who

slaying cattle for slays cattle for


[1279.]

tum; vrstva, -vrsya).


[303b], VOVTOS, while
it is

varsati
[orig.,

not for
I.

sacrifice.

vrddha,
grown

ppl.

grown, become great;


1G
;

perhaps, more general, 'to pour down,' esp. either the fructifying water of heaven
(masc.) upon the earth (fern.), or semen of the bull or male animal upon the

2. as adj. up, opp. of young; old, aged; as subst. old man, 28 12 3. (grown great,
;

increased (of wealth), 42

female
'
'

and

so,

like

Lat. altus)
n.

eminent,

distin-

with varsa, rain,' cf. e-fpo-at, with vrsan and vrsabha, rain-drops
:

'

'

guished.
old age.

[Vvrdh, 160.]
condition of

bull,' cf

Lat. verres, *vers-es,

'

boar,' so

vrddhatva,
vrddhi,
/.

being old,

named from
just as

his great generative power,


(see su)

[1239.]
1.

the sow

from her

fe-

2. growth, increase; interest (on money lent), 46 20 3. the (second) increment of a vowel, see 235-6.
;

vrsa,

cundity.] used only at end of cpds [1315a] in Veda, but later independently, instead of

[V vrdh, 1157. la, 160.]

vrsan.
;

vrdh
vrdhe
;

(vardhati,

vavardha, vaavrdhat, avardhista vartsyati


-te
; ;

vrsan

[426b], adj.

or denoting all that

and subst. describing was distinguished for

vrsabha]
its

[252]

1. man, as 2 vedas, n. (like Lot. strength and virility: quaestus) gettings, u 2. opposed to a castrated person, 70 ; property, cf. vitta. [V 2 vid, get.'] of animals stallion bull boar ; 3. of vedadhyayana, n. Veda-study, scrip' :

of Indra, gods manly, mighty, great ture-reading, [adhyayana.] 74 5 ; of the Maruts, 73 5 of the Sun or v 6 d i f. sacrificial bed, i.e. a spot of ground 7 excavated two or three inches and covered Sun-horse, 79 [Vvrs, q.v., 1160c: cf. stem *Fapfftv, male.'] with straw and serving as a kind of altar. apffTjv, vrsabha, essentially the same as vrsan, vedin, a. knowing. [Vivid, 1183 3 .]
:

'

q.v.

esp.

1. bull

with sahasra-grnga,

the thousand-horned steer, i.e. the sun or u 2. bull, as type of (77 ) the moon;

vedi-purisa, vedhas, subst.


gods,

n.

loose earth of the vedi.


1.

adj.

worshipper of the

greatness and might; most mighty one, of Indra, 73 is. [Vvrs, 1199.] vrsala, m. prop, manikin, i.e. little man,

2. worshipping, pious, devoted; generalized, faithful, true, used of Indra,

75

18 .

[Vlvidh, 'worship a god,'

1151.

2b.]

and
esp.

so,

as term of contempt, a low person,


[vrsa, 1227.] (vrsasyati). desire the male,

vela,

a Qudra.

vrsasya
be
lustful,

1. end-point, limit; 2. esp. f. limit of time, point of time, hour. 1. settler; neighbor. 2. (setvega, m.

vrsaya
be

[vrsa, 1059e, 1058.] (vrsayate). act as a vrsa, i.e.: show one's manly strength or courage
;

tlement,
'

i.e.)

O!KOS, 'house,'

dwelling, house. [Vvig: cf. Old Lat. veicus, Lat. vlcus,


'
:

lustful; or simply,

be eager.

[vrsa,

1059b, 1058.]

hence houses, quarter of a town, village the borrowed AS. wlc, town,' as in EoforEber-stadt or vnc, Eng. York, prop.
' ' '

vrsti,/rain.
V

[Vvrs, 1157.]

'Boar-town,'
'

and perhaps

in

Nor-wich,

vrhorbrh
vrdha

(vrhati; vavarha; avrksat;


;

Nor-ton.']

venu, veda,
2.

[224a] -vfhya). pluck, tear. m. reed, esp. bamboo-reed. m. 1. understanding, knowledge;

vegman,
vai,
the

n. (settlement, i.e.) dwelling, house, abode, chamber. [Vvig, 11 68. la.]

postpositive

particle,
e.g.

emphasizing the
,

esp.

down

the sacred knowledge, handed in triple form of re, yajus, and


see
these,

preceding word,

3 17

96 13

rare

in

samhita, 90 2, 103 4
;

(in

a quoted man-

saman,
later,

and

cf.

(trayi)

vidya;

tra)
6
,

excessively

common

in the

brahmana
and Epos
marking

the well-known collections called

(92 H.19,
(7
the

93 6

944,13,18^

956.15)
often

Rigveda,
-

Yajurveda,

and

Samaveda
.

etc.);

in

brahmana

6 6 the holy scriptures, held to be a (63 ), revelation and so called gruti, 58 18

preceding word as the Jlrst of its clause 6 12 (cf. atha, near end of ma 3): so 94 , 95 ,
,

[Vivid.]

96 12 and
used,
[see esp.

veda,

tuft of strong grass (kuga or mufija) tied so as to form a broom, 62 18


.

m.

in the examples just given; often in Epos, as a mere expletive


,

1122a 4 ], so at end of a pada, 3 9, 10 9


.

veda-traya, n. the three Vedas. veda-nindaka, m. one who scoffs


the Veda, infidel,

68 9
at

vaicitrya,
tra, 1211.]

n.

variety, diversity,

[vici-

veda-punya,
veda-bahya,
Veda,
i.e.

n.

Veda-merit,

sanctity

vain a v

f.

-I, a.

of reed, esp. of bamboo,

acquired by Veda-study,
a.

[venu, 1208c.]
of

being outside

the

v a i d a r b h a,

f. -I, a.

belonging to Vidari.e.

extra- Vedic, differing

conflicting with the Veda. being in an abl. relation.]

from or [1265, veda-

bha; as m. the Vidarbhan,


,

king of

V.; asf. the princess of V., i.e. 7 etc. yanti, 8 [vidarbha, 1208f.]

Dama-

veda-vid[391],
1

vedas,
knowing,
cf.

n.
cf.

a. Veda-knowing. [1269.] knowledge; possibly adj., ' na-vedas. [VI vid, know
'
:

vaidika,

a.

formable to the Vedas.

Vedic, prescribed by or con[veda, 1222e 2.]

vaidya,

1. a.

1151.2a,b.]

learned; and so

having to do with science, 2. as m. (with a tran-

[253]
sition like that

[vyaparagata

from Lai. doctor, 'teacher,


to

ate devotion to a thing (whether good or

learned

man,'

Chaucer's

doctour

of

bad,

e.g.

alms-giving,

scripture-study,

phisik) physician, doctor, [vidya, 1211.] vaimanika, a. riding in a sky-traversing car called vimana, q.v. [vimana,

2. an overpowering gambling); hobby; passion, esp. for something bad; vice, 20 4 3. (a throwing one's self away,
;

1222e2.]

i.e.)

8>4 misfortune, adversity, 25

[V2as
vi-

vaivasvata,

a.

descended from Vivasi.e.

+
V

vi.] or

vant; as m. son of V.,

Yama.

[vivas-

vya

vi

(vyayati,

-te

[761d2];
'

van t, 1208 and a and a 2 .]

vyaya

vaigya,
voc,
i.e.

adj. subst. or third caste, 57 1G


quasi-root, see
a.

man
.

of the vig or folk

[785], vivye; vita; -viya). envelope or hide one's self. [orig.

mid.

wind

[vig, 1211.]

around
a

vyansa,

854 and Vvac. having the shoulders apart, as in. broad-shouldered Viansa,
;

as with robe or girdle, and so a doublet of Vvi, i.e. V2va, 'weave,'

'

q.v.]

+ upa, hang
cord over the
right
;

Broad-shoulder,

name

of a demon, slain
1305.]

left

about, esp. wind the sacred shoulder and under the

by Indra.
V

[vi

+ ansa,

vyac

(vivyakti [082]; vivyaca [785]). extend around. embrace, encompass, 2 [cf. 1087f 108g.]
,

arm upavita, see s.v. + ni, wind about, hang


(e.g.

(e.g.
;

garland,
nivita,

cord) about
see s.v.

neck, shoulders)

vyacas, n. compass, extent. v y a t i k a r a m. a mixing, confusing confusion, disaster. [V3kr, scatter,' + vi.]
,

+ pari,
pletely;

act.

mid.

envelope around or comwind something as cover


;
.

'

v'

vyath

vivyath6 [785] (vyathate 1. move to avyathista; vyathita). and fro, rock, reel 2. Jig. (like Eng. be
;
; ;

around one's self, envelope one's self in 1G perhaps in sense of act., 84 vyakarana, n. the putting asunder, and
so

analysis,

grammar.
m.

[V 1 kr,

'

do, put,'

restless) be disturbed in mind, be pained.

vy-a.]
explainer.

vyath. a,
V

f. feeling discomfort, sorrow. or

of

painful

unrest,

vyakhyatr,
vy-a.]

[Vkhya +

vyadh
[785]
;

vidh
;

(vidhyati;

vivyadha

vyaghra,
see
'

vetsyati

viddha

veddhum

m. tiger; like ardula and sinha, as type of noble manliness, in cpds,

viddhva; -vidhya). bore through, pierce, hit (with a weapon), [akin w. Vvadh:
cf Lat. di-vid-ere,
.

nara-vyaghra.

[perhaps
'

besprinkle,'

+ vy-a,

the

fr. V 1 ghr, sprinkled or

vyapadea,
of,

part asunder, divide.'] m. the making a false show

'

spotted one.']

the

an unauthorized referring to or using name of (a person of high position).


asunder
[Vi
or

vyaghra-carman, n. tiger-skin. vyaghrata, f. tigerhood, condition


being a
tiger.

of

[V dig + vy-apa.] vyaya, a. going

vyadha,
to
pieces,

[1237.] m. hunter, [v' vyadh.]

vyadhi,

m.

disease.

[V 1

dha, 'put,'

perishing, w. a-.

vi, 1148. lb.]

vy-a, 1155. 2e.]

vyalkaga,/.

vyavasaya,
[Vsa

Vialkafa, a certain plant. m. determination, resolve.


a.

vyadhita,
117Cb.]

a.

diseased.

[vyadhi, see
[v'pad

+ vy-ava.]
determined,
1.

vyavasayin,
[vyavasaya.]

resolute,

vyapada, m. destruction, vyapadayitavya, grdv.


or killed,

vy-a.]

to be destroyed

vyavahara,
way
others,
i.e.)

m.
;

of acting

procedure, conduct, 2. (way of acting with

vyapara,
tion;
2.
;

[caus. of Vpad + vy-a.] m. 1. business, i.e. occupa(as in Eng.) business,


3. activity, exertion.
i.e.

con-

intercourse,

24 12

[\flhr

4 cern, 30

[V3pr

vy-ava.]

+ vy-a,
n.

'

be busied.']
n.

vyasana,

prop, a throwing one's self


thing),

vyapara-ata,
hundred attempts.

exertion-hundred, a

away (upon a

and

so

1.

passion-

vyamaj
vyama,
m.

[254]
prop, a stretch-out, the dis-

tance covered by the stretched-out arms, a fathom, about six feet, [for vi-yama,
V

present of Mprach and mlech, which see: see 221 2 and cf. 220.]
-f

vi, cut asunder or to pieces.

yam + vi

for mg,
'

cf

the
'

parallel Eng. fathom

w. AS.

precisely ' the fseftm,


V 9 ati s

extended arms
'

opt-yea,

stretch
'

Lat.

tesa,

fathom,' and French toise, Medieval fathom/ from Lat. tensa, ppl.
;

opyvid,

(gansati,
;

-te

gagansa,
;

gaganse

'

of tendere,
as

'

stretch.']
a.

vyama-matra,
its

measure,
1.

see

having a fathom matra. [matra,

gasta ; gastva -gasya). orig. say in a loud and solemn way, and so: 1. recite, esp. a sacred hymn or text to a god by way of praise and
agansit

gansisyati

so

2. generalized, praise; gasta, see s.v.;

3342.]

vyahrti,
one of

2. esp. utterance; the three sacred and mystical f.

3. rarely, make a solemn wish, whether blessing or curse (see gansa), like imprecari ; 4. announce ; communicate, 52 13
.

exclamations, bhur, bhiivas, and svar, which see. [V 1 hr + vy-a. ]

[cf.

Lat. carmen, teas-men, 'an utterance

hi solemn,
i.e.

measured, or melodious way,


'

vyoman,
V

n.

heaven, sky.

vraj
yati
;

(vrajati; vavraja; avrajit; vrajis-

song, oracle, magic charm ; Camena, *casmenja, name of the goddess of song ;
'

vrajita

vrajitum
go unto,

vrajitva

cens-ete,

declare, pass

judgment on

'
;

AS.

-vrajya).

march, proceed, go.


hither,

herian, 'praise.']

a,

come

a,
'

1.

wish, esp. in the noun agas or


2.

-fpraty-a, march or go back. + pari, march round about; wander


around.
-1-pra, march forth; go unto; wander; about as esp. leave one's house to wander

aga, wish,' q.v. ; and so one's trust hi (ace.);

3.

hope in, put pronounce a


.

4 blessing upon, wish good to (ace.), 101 [mg 1 may be a mere specialization of

the
a),

mg
and
1
;

'speak solemnly unto

'

(cf.

Vgas +

an

ascetic,
n.

65

vrata,
inrep

1. will

devanam
decree,

ati

vratam,
cf.

mg

2 a further development of for mg 3, cf. the simple verb,


tell

mg

beyond the
Aibs

will
ctiffav
; ;

of the

2 gods, 88

command
2.

or

mg3.] + pra,

forth;

praise,

2 1G

[cf.

Gebot,

Eng. command is applied to the forces under that over which one one's command)
(as

statute

and

so

simple verb.]

gansa,

m.

1.

solemn utterance;

2. im3.

precatio, blessing or curse;

as adj.

exercises
further,

command, domain, Gebiet


directly

cursing.
3. V

[V gans.]

from

the root
;

again

gak

(A. gakn6ti; gagaka, gekus [794e];


;

choice,

determination

firm

resolution,

14 6

4. esp. resolve (to


;

keep a religious

; gaksyati, -te cakyate, gakita

agakat

gakta;

pass.

or ascetic observance) vow or holy work 28 m, 59 5 , (e.g. of chastity, fasting, etc.), 61 28, 64 8, 65 8 ;
in general.

-B.
caus.

desid. gfksate [1030, lOSg 1 end]; of desid. giksayati ; pass, of desid.

mg

2,

-5. religious duty, duty [V2vr, 'will, choose': for observe that Ger. Gebiet formerly

and of caus. of desid. giksyate, giksita). A. simple verb : 1. be strong be


;

able,

8 19
;

in

pass.

impersonally,

it

is

meant 'command' and now means 'domain.']


V

with infin. [988], be able, by the instrumentality of some person or thing

possible

vragc
pieces,

(vrgcati

vrkn4

[957c]

vrstva

(instr.),

to

become

the

object

of

an

-vfgcya).

hew

off; fell (a tree); cut to

action

maya mtim grahayitum

gak-

[orig. form is vrk, as in vfk-a, vrk-na, vrk-sa, which see: vrgc is prop, only a quasi-root of the present stem

yante, they are able to be caused by

me

to get hold of niti, 19 13 ; 2. rarely (be strong for a person, i.e.) be serviceable or

vrgca,

for

vrk-ska,

formed

like

the

helpful, help, w. dat.;

[255]
B. desiderative :
1.

[cabda

desid. to

A.

1,

(strive to be able, i.e.) practice; learn; caus. cause a person (ace.) to learn a

gat ha, a. false. gat (gatayati; gatita). make to fall off.

cut in pieces;

thing

2 51 23 52 3 pass, of caus.: gat a [485 ], n. hundred; also as expression caused to learn or taught a thing of a large number; for construction, see giksita, 10 486b. without noun, taught, 52 5 ; one-hundred Lat. [cf t-Karov, (ace.), 46

(ace.),

'

'

giksyamana, instructed, 51
to

1T
;

2. desid.

centum,

AS. hund,
a.

neut.,

'hundred'; Eng.
lives,

A. 2, be willing to help; aid; (of 13 gods) bestow blessing upon (dat.), 80


;

hund-red.~\

gatatman,
[gata

having a hundred
acct, 1300a.]
(victor,
i.e.)

grant, give. as [cf. Lat. cac-ula, 'servant' (like help sometimes used in America for 'ser-

+ atman:
m.
;

gatru,
[if

1.

victorious

opponent

2. foe,
1 is
fr.

vant');

w.

gagma, *gak-ma, 'helpful,

mg

friendly,' cf. Lat. comis, *coc-mi-s, 'friend' prob. akin is Ger. be-hag-en, AS. only
:

the word

enemy, in general. the orig. mg, we may take Vgad and as standing for

hag-ian, 'suit, please'

A. 2).] (cf. gak, (bring unto one's self by giving, 76 18 [for mg, see the uni.e.) attract, compounded verb, B. 2.]

*gat-tru, 1185e, 232: if mg 2 is the orig.

mg, we may analyse


;

+ upa,

thus, gat-ru (1192), and compare Church ' Slavonic Icot-ora, Irish cath, ' battle AS.
heaft-o

in

cpds,

as

heafto-weorc,

'battle-

1. m. n. chip; half (of an egg-shell). gakuna, m. bird.

gakala,

piece;

2. n.

work,' Old High Ger. had-u in names, as Hadu-brant, 'Battle-flame,' Hadu-wlch, 'Battle-strife,' Ger. Hedivig ; Ger. Hader,
'

gakti,

f. ability,
a.

power.
practicable, 33
:

strife

' ;

cf.

also the Keltic proper

name

gakya,
common
used

1. possible,

16
;

Catu-rig-es (rig

under rajan), 'The Battlea.

with
2.

the

infinitive

gakya

being

kings.']

impersonally;
the subject, in

or

3. in agreeinf.
.

gatru-nandana,
enemies.

causing joy to one's

ment with
[988]
is

which case the

to be

translated as a passive, 29 la

[Vcak, 1213.]

gatru-samkata, m. danger from the foe. V gad (gacada, gagade [786]). distinguish
one's self; get the upper hand, prevail;

gakra,
One,
i.e.

1. a.

epithet of Indra;

powerful, mighty, standing 2. as m. The Mighty

Vedic only.
'

[cf. KfKaff/^evos,

Doric Kf-KaS-

Indra (just as we use The Almighty as a name for 'God'). [Vgak,


1188a.]
V

/uifvos,

distinguished.']

gank

(gankate
; ;

agankista
1.

gankitum

-gankya).

gankita be anxious

00*1'. quietly; gently; slowly, (1112c) of an unused stem *ganaka, diminutive to *gana, see ganais.] ganais, adv. quietly; gently; slowly;

ganakais,
[instr.

or suspicious

2. hesitate.

gradually.

[instr. (1112c) of
is

an unused

+ vi, hesitate. ganka,/. hesitation.


gaci,
f.
1.

stem *gana, which


or help
8 [Vgafik, 1149 .] of the (esp.

prob. connected w.

\f2gam, 'be quiet.']


g a mt at i,/ benefit,
V

might

[gam, 1238.]
gapis1.

2. Qachi or helping deeds of Indra); Might, as wife of Indra (derived from the

gap
yate;

(gapati, -te; gagapa, gepe;

misunderstood gaci-pati, collateral form of gak.]

q.v.),

27

[Vgac,

n 2. mid. (curse curse, usually act., 93 one's self, i.e.) assert with an oath, swear,
;

gapta;

gapitum; gapitva).

gacl-pdti,
or of
later

m.

help,
(pati,

1. Vedic, lord of might 13 2. epithet of Indra, 80


;

vow, w.

dat.

of person, 97

7
.

gapatha,

gabala, 1. sound; 'husband'), husband of Might or Qachi, gab da, m. name of Indra, 15 14 49 4 dam kr, make a noise, [acct, 1267a
q.v.,

being

misunderstood as

m. curse; oath. a. brinded.

[Vgap, 1163b.]

cry; noise; gabraise one's voice


;

and

d,

Whitney

94b.]

-2. word, 50 9 61
,

1
.

[256]

gabda-gastra,
V

n.

word-theory,

word-

compendium, i.e. grammar. agamista; lg am (gamyati; gagamS gamita). get weary by working, work, [cf KOL/JL-VU, get weary by working.'] 2 <jam (gamyati [763J; gagama, gemiis; agamat; ganta [955aj; gamayati). be
; '
.

[garana presupposes a root *gr or *gl, protect'; w. such a root agree well in form and mg as derivs, garira, garman, and gala, see these
'cover,
:

further agree as cognates Ka\td,

'

hut,

barn'; AS.
'

heal,

Eng.

hall; KoA-u|, 'husk,


'

pod
'

quiet
senses,

or still or content
cf.
;

stop
see

Jbr

these

Ger. Hiille, ' covering ; Eng. hull, ' covering of grain ; AS. hel-m, protec;
'

ram

ganta,

s.v.;

cans.

quiet, still
-f

euphemistically, kill.
;

upa

be quiet

stop.

tor' (used of God and Christ), 'headprotector, helmet,' Ger. Helm, Eng. helm ; Lat. oc-cul-ere, 'cover'; color, 'color' (see

+ pra, come
V

to

rest;

stop;

go

out;

varna)
lid-en,

eel-are,

praganta, extinguished. 3gam (gammte). harm.

later
'

hele,

Ger. hehl-en, ' ' conceal

Chaucer's
;

further,

K a \inr-r-to,
'

cover,'

and the

ident. KPVJT-T-OI,

V 49

am

yati).

(ganta; -gamya; gamayati, gamaused only with ni. observe; per2


],

hide.']

garanagata,
gar ad,
(cf.

a.

come

for refuge, seeking

ceive; hear.

protection with any one.

[agata.]
poetic for

gam
ing.

[384

n.

welfare; happiness; blessat

/.

autumn;
flat

pi.

years

gam a,

word of doubtful mg perhaps tame (cf. s'2gam, caws.)


a
trious
(cf.

71

varsa). gdrava, m. n.

earthen dish.

or indus-

gdrira,

VI gam).
m. slayer.

the body, as distinguished from the vital breath or from the immortal
n.

gamayitr,

[V2gam, caus.]
either

garni, f. a fabaceous plant,

Prosopis

spicigera or Mimosa Suma; a tree from which the sticks of attrition (arani) were taken.

soul (so 96 21 22 , 29 6 ) and from the soft viscera and inward fluid secretions, of which things the body, or the firm red
-

flesh

the

hollow

with the bones, forms as it were cover (67 l ), tegument, or


used
also
in
pi.,

gamimaya,/
wood.
[see

-I,

a. of or

made

of

Qami-

Hiille;

84 9

body

in

maya.]

general ;
.

gami-gakha, f. Qami-branch. gami-sumanas, / Qami-flower.

n gariram, corpse, 63 ; so 84 4 the corporeal tegument ' [prop. of the soul, V*gr, 'cover' (1188e 2 ), see

mrtam

'

gamisumano-mala,
C/aml-flowers.

/.

garland

of

gamya,/. staff, 102 16 gay a, a. lying, sleeping,


.

at

end of cpds.
[Vgi,

under garana: for mg, cf. the cognate Ger. Hiille (under garana) in sterbliche ' mortal envelope, i.e. body cf. Hiille, 16 97 N.]
' :

[Vgi, 1148. la.]

garira -j a,
a
lying,

a.

(born
m.

of,

i.e.)

performed
of
the

gay ana,
1150. la.]

n.

sleeping.

by the body.

garirantakara,
1.
a.

destroyer

gayaniya,
gayya,/.
ing.
1.

serving

for

lying;

bodies,

[anta-kara.]
either

2. n. bed, couch,

bed;

[gayana, 1215.] garu,/. missile, 2. a lying, sleepgara.]

spear or arrow,

[cf.

[Vgi, 1213d, cf.

963 8 b.]
of the
;

garkara,
Saccharum
[ob'

gar a, m.

1. reed, esp.

krit

Sara, used for arrows serve that Lat. arundo


'

2.

arrow,
'

means

reed

and

brown sugar, [fr. the Prasakkara comes on the one hand, through Arabic sokkar and Medieval Lat. zucara, the Eng. sugar, and on
m.

form

arrow.']

the other
1.
7
;

ffdicxapov,
:

Lat. saccharum, all

gar ana,
refuge, 87

a. n.

protecting,

as

affording 2. shed, that gives


;

borrowed words
V

cf.

khanda.]

gardh
Eng.

cover from the rain


protection; refuge, 50

Ka\id,
.

hut

3.

gardha,

(gardhati). be strong or defiant. m. troop, host. [cf. Ger. Herde,

herd.']

[257]

carman,
ter
;

n.
;

1.

cover; protection; shel2.

gastra-vrtti,
one's

a.

having weapons as
subsistence, living

refuge

comfort, joy

3.

means

of

by

common at the end of Brahman-names, military service. [1302a.] 19 n 42 n 69 13 N. [see under garana.] gaka, n. an edible herb vegetable food. garmavant, a. containing (the stem) gakha,/. branch. gatayitr, m. one who cuts in pieces, garman. [1233.] 19 destroyer, 97 [caus. of V gat, 1182c.] garva, m. Qarva, name of an arrow-slaya common name for the ganta, a. quiet; still; stopped, [ppl- of ing god later,
, ,
;
.

god Qiva.

[garu, 1209, cf. 1209g.]


a.

garvara,
night
gabala.]

variegated; f. garvari, the [cf. (as variegated with stars).


a.

ganti,

v'2gam, 'be quiet.'] the f. a ceasing, stopping; esp. absence of the evil results of some word
or thing of evil
cf.

omen.
n.

[V

2 gam,

'

be

quiet,'

having Qiva as his garva- varman, protection ; as m. Qarvavarman, name of


a man.

955a.]

ganti-karman,
gapa, m. gapadi,
as
n.

a ceremony for avert-

ing the results of something ominous.


1.

gala, m.

staff;
[cf. gara.]

2.

prickle (of a

curse.
a.

[Vgap.]
first;

hedge-hog), galya, m. n.

point of
[cf
.

spear or arrow;
gala,

having the curse as its curse and so forth. [1302c 1.]


n.
i.e.

thorn
K?]\OV,

prickle.
'

gara

cf.

gapadi-cestita,
doings,
et cetera.

curse-and-so-forth

missile.']

adventures including the curse

galyaka, gavas, n.
also pi.

m. hedge-hog,

[cf.

superior might;
[Vgu, 1151. la.]
a.

galya.] heroic power;

gap ant a,
during
[anta.]

[1280b.] m. end of the curse or period which the curse has effect,
3

gavistha,
gaga,
m.

most mighty.

[Vgii, 468.]

man

hare; the Hindu sees, not "a in the moon," but rather, a hare
[for *gasa (see

gayin, a. lying, sleeping, [v'gi, 1183 .] garira, a. corporeal, of the body, [garira,
1208f.]

or a gazelle.

Vgus and

gvagura)

cf.

Ger. Hase, Eng.

hare.~\

gagaka, m. hare, rabbit, gaganka, m. the moon.


'having a rabbit as + anka, 1302a.]
its

[gaga, 1222b.]
[prop.,
adj.,
(q.v-)

mark/ gaga

m. tiger; at end of cpds, like vyaghra, the best of gala, f. hut house room stable, [see under garana: cf. the derivs Ka\id and

gardula,

Eng.
[prop., adj., 'having

hall,

there given.]
1.

gagin,

m. the moon,

galin,

a.

the (picture of a) rabbit,' gaga, 1230.] gagvant, a. ever repeating or renewing


itself.

end of cpds, attenuated


nify merely possessing

possessing a house; in mg so as
.

2. at
to

sig-

[gala.]
silk-

galmall,/. Salmalia
cotton tree.

malabarica, the
of an animal,

gas

(gasati; gagasa; gasisyati; gasta; [see -gasya). cut to pieces; slaughter,


gastra.]
a.

gava,
Vgu.]

m. the

young
the

[see

gasta,
lucky;

praised,
to

esteemed as good
happy,
cheerful,

or

equiv.

52

gavaka,
[gava.]

m.

young of an animal,
;

[prop. ppl. of Vgans.]

gagvata,
V

a.

continual

eternal,

[gag-

gastra,

knife; sword; weapon. ['instrument of cutting,' Vgas, 1185: gas-tra is ident. in form and mg w. the Lat. stem
*cas-tro,
trdre,
'

n.

1 vant, 1208a, a .]

gas
[854
3

or

gis

Vedic,

gasti,
;

gaste [639];
;

Vedic and Epic, gasati


]
;

gagasa
gasita,
;

agisat
gasta,
;

which appears prop, 'cut,' and


a.

in the

denom.
Eng.

cascut,

gasisyati,
;

-te

so, like

gista [954e]

gasitum, gastum
1.

gasitva

castrate.']

-gasya, -gisya).

chasten, correct;

gastra-pani,
hand.
[1303.]

having a sword in the

2. instruct, teach; direct; 3. (like Eny. direct) give order to, rule, govern.

17

9asana]
weak form

[258]
:

[perhaps reduplicated form of cans, 675


for the
gis,

Igis

(ginasti;

gigise; agisat;

geksyati,

cf.

639.]
cf.

-te; gista; gistva; -gisya).

leave, leave-

+ a,
V

mid. wish or pray for,


-^

gans

a ; make supplication, 73 u
instruct;
direct;

agis
.

and

remaining. + ud, leave remaining.

+ pra,
5 as an a,

command,

cf.

+ vi,
so, like

(leave apart or
;

by

itself, i.e.)

sepa-

simple verb,
n.

and praxis.
1.

rate, distinguish
rul-

vigista, (separated,

and

government, way of

Eng. distinguished) eminent, exto

ing;

2.
TO.

command.
teacher.
1.

[Vas.]
I

cellent.
V

gasitr, gastra,
theory

n.
;

[Vgas.] instruction;
(of

2gis, subsidiary form


grdv.
[V gas,

2.

rule;
art
or
;

gisya,
V

to be taught;
gis.]

Vgas, q.v. as TO. pupil.

compendium
;

an

weak form

science)
V

scientific or

canonical work

science, 17

18 .

[Vgas.]
2. m. n.

gigye; agayista; gayisyate, -ti; gesyate, -ti; gayita ga;

Igi

(gete [see 628-9];

giks,

see

cikhara,
gikha,
2. f.
(like

1030 and v'gak. 1. o. peaked;


1.

yitum; gayitva; -gayya).


peak, hair;
lie;
'

1. cf.

lie still;

2.
'
:
.

sleep.

[w.
'

ge-te,

Kfl-rat,

[gikha, 1226.]
tuft or

lies

cf also

Koi-r-rj,

bed.']

braid of

Eng. crest)

top

in

general,

peak.

githira,
opp.
fr.

a. loose; flaccid;

2 unsteady, 93

of drdha, 'firm, hard.' [perhaps Vcrath, 1188e: for loss of r, cf.


V
TO.

+ adhi, lie in or on; dwell in. + anu, lie down after another. + a, lie in. + u p a lie by. + sam, be undecided or in doubt,
,

[lit.

'

lie

together ': metaphor unclear.]


q.v.

Vbham.]
gibi,
Qibi,
n.

2gl, simpler form of Vgya,


vbl.

name

of a king.

gi,

lying.

[Vgi.]
n.

giras,
lateral

head.

[cf. >capo,
'

'head'; Lat.
'
:

git a,
g
i

a.

cold; as

cold,

[ppl- of

Vgya
:

cerebrum, *ceres-ru-m,

brain

w. the col-

or 2gi.]
t

form girsan, q.v., cf. Ger. Him, Old High Ger. hirni, *hirsni, 'brain': akin
also icpaviov, ' skull.'] girisa, m. the tree Acacia Sirissa; as n.
is

aka

f.

gitika,
cool,
a.

a.

cool.

[gita

cf .

1222d.]

gitala, a. gltarta,
[arta.]

[gita, 1227.] distressed with

the

cold.

the blossom.

giro-mukha,
gila-bhava,
-am
gill, f. the
hare.

n.

head and

face.

[1253b.]

gitikavant,

a.

cool.

[as

if

from

fern.

gila,y! stone; crag.


TO.

condition of being stone;


door.

of gitaka: 1233, cf. b.] gipala, m. n. Blyxa octandra, a


water-plant,

common

ap, turn into stone.

beam under a
TO.

girsan,

n.

head.
irs-ya
1.

gili-mukha,
giloccaya,
[uccaya.]

Block-snout,

name
craggy

of a

(q.v.),

as

is

[girs-an is to giras to iras-ya, see

these.]
TO.

crag-pile,

i.e.

hill,

gila,
;

n.

giva,

friendly; gracious; 2. m. agreeable, lovely; opp. o/ghora;


;

1. a.

2 kind, 90

being; 58 u

m character, 23
in

natural or acquired way of habit or habits,


;

composition [1302] with that to which one is inclined or accustomed, 21 4 ,


;

The Friendly One, name euphemistically 60 18 2. (character, i.e., as in Eng.) 7 to the horrible god Rudra, who applied good character, 98 under this name (Qiva) becomes the third givan, a. lying. [V Igi, 1169. la.] person of the Hindu Trinity, [for mg 2, guka, TO. parrot, [prop. the bright one,'
.

'

'The Gracious Ones, i.e. the and nandi.] gigu, m. young; child, [see Vgu, and 1147b and b 2.]
cf. Eu/tej/jSej,

on account of
cf.

its

gaudy

colors,

guc

Furies,'

216.1,1

s
.]

guka vat,
1107.]

adv.

like

a parrot.

[guka,

[259]

gukra,
gukla,

a.

clear,

bright,

76 9

[v/guc,

gumbhdti
beautiful,
(fig-)1

gugubhe
appear

1188a, 216.7.]
1. a. clear; bright; white; with paksa, the bright lunar half-month, from 2. as m. (sc. paksa), new to full moon; the bright lunar fortnight, 65 5 [see
.

adorn; mid. adorn one's


to

act. gobhisy&ti). 12 look self, 73 ;

advantage,

shine

giibh, f. a gliding onward, onward progress the sky


;
;

esp.
so,

through
perhaps,
[982],

1189 and

2
.]

78 5
m. fortnight of the waxa.

4 course, 73

dat., infinitivally

gukla-paksa,
ing moon.

so as to glide onward,

79 n
so,

2 giibh,

f.

beauty;
11

[sflgubh.] 5 perhaps, 78

guklapaksadi,

lunar fortnight first, bright lunar fortnight,

having the bright beginning with the


[adi, 1302c 1.]

[V2gubh.]

gubha,

guklambara,
[ambara.]
V

a.

having a white garment,


gug6ca; agocit; gocisgocitva).
;

a. 1. fair, 9 ; beautiful, agreeable to the eyes, 15 13 , 45 18 , 62 13 ; -2. agreeable (to other senses than the eyes) ;

gubhan gandhan, perfumes


able in general, 20
(54.12.

3.

agree12 13 .

guc
yati;
light,

(g6cati, -te;

13
;

4. of

good quality,

g6citum;

1.

flame,

_5_

fortunate,

auspicious,

beam

glow, burn

2. Jig. suffer
(loc.),

[V2gubh, 'adorn.']

burning pain; grieve; grieve at intens. flame brightly, 66 13 [for cf. Vtap, dagdha and Vdah.]
;

mg

2,

gubhanana, a. fair-faced, gubhagubha, a. agreeable

[anana.]

+ apa,

intens.

[1002a],
.

drive

away by

and disagreeable, agreeable or disagreeable good and 19 bad, good or bad, in ethical sense, 65 .
;

8 flaming brightly, 72

[agubha, 1257.]

a blii, burn, trans.


,

gubhagubha-phala,
.

+a
giici,

8 bring hither by flaming, 72

able

a.

1.

flaming,

beaming

Jig.

beam2. Jig.

a. having agreeor disagreeable fruit, resulting in weal or woe.


a.
'

ing (of a smile)


clear,

j-light, bright;
;

gubhrd,

beautiful; clear (of sounds).

5 honorpure; holy (of a god), 80 [V2gubh, adorn,' 1188a.] able (in business), 25 2 pure (in a ritual V gus (giisyati; -gusya). be dry, dry up. 10 sense), 62 [for *sus (see gaga), as shown by Avestan [v/guc, 1155. 2a, 216.2.] ' ' cf av<a, dry V hush, Syracusan dry guci-smita, a. having a beaming smile,
;
.

'

'

bright-smiling.

(Tav-K6s,

'dry';

AS.

sedrian,

'dry up/
see 958.]
,

denom. of sear, Eng. sear.'] guddhd, a. pure. [ppl. of \lgudh, 160.] 2 giiska, a. dry. [Vgus, 1186 guddha-mati, a. pure-minded. 1. whistling, 73 5 or gundh (gundhati, -te; gudhyati; giisma, m. gudh
:

78 7

2.

guddha).
mid.
pure.

1.

gundhati, -te
;

act.

purify;

exhalation,

i.e.

(fragrant) odor (of the

become pure
[orig.,

gudhyati, become to clear,' and perhaps,


2.
'

10 -3. (exhalation, breath, Soma), 73 and so, like Eng. spirit) courage, impetu;

akin w. V gcand, q.v.]

osity, 82*.
;

[Vgvas, 252, 1166.]


;

+ vi

vigudhyati, become entirely pure

gu

viguddha, perfectly clear. guna, a. grown, prosperous, fortunate; as


n.
[cf.

gugava gva or gvi (gvayati swell; [786*]; gund[957a]; gvayitum).


o?'

1176a],
fr.

growth, prosperity; luck,

be greater or superior or victorious. swell,' but with [orig. sense of root,

[perhaps
V

Vgu, 1177a.]

gundh,

see

gudh.
f.

gundhyu,
blemished;
V

-yu

[355c],
[\f

a.

pure;

un-

fair.

gundh, 1165b.]
glide
[per-

Igubh

gumbh (gumbhate). along lightly; move onward, 73.


haps akin w.
'

or

two diverse ramifications be swollen, i.e. hol1. negatively, cf guna, '.vacuum Kv-ap, low, empty hollow Lat. cavus, hole caelum, KOI\OS, *cav-i-lu-m, heaven's hollow vault
:

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

hollow';
2.

-oD</>os,

light, nimble.']

positively,

'be swollen,

i.e.

full,

2gubh

or

gumbh

(g6bhate; gumbhate;

strong';

with special reference:

(a)

to

17*

^udra]
the

[260]
its

womb and
'

fruit;
'

cf.

'
;

gava, young
in-ciens,

KVG>,

be pregnant
(b)

gi-gu and ' Lat. ;

gonita, n. blood; also pi. [g6na, c o b h a n a a. beautiful. [V 2 gubh,


,

1176d.]
'

adorn,'

'pregnant';

to strength

and

1150.2a.]

growth in general; cf. gura, 'man of g6bhistha, a. most swiftly moving onward or most beautiful, 78 5 according as might Kvpos, gavas, gavistha, guna the word is referred to VI might K/IO, swell, billow.'] gubh or to
' ; ; ,

'

'

'

gudra,
Qudra.

m. a

man

of

the fourth caste, a


V

V2

gubh

see these.
(intens. ppl.

[468.]

gcand
'

canigcadat [1002c]).

guna, n. emptiness. gar a, a. mighty, bold

[Vgu, 1177a.] as m. man of might, hero. [Vgu, 1188c: gura is parallel w. ' whence T& Kvp-os, mighty,' *icv-po-s,
;

shine, glance,
'

[for
;

*skandh
'

cf

av0-6s,

gold-yellow
'

xa.9a.p6s,

Doric

KoO-ap6s,
'

clear,

clean,
'

pure
glow.']

KdvS-apos,

coal

'
;

Lat. cand-ere,

'might'

(cf. aiffx-pt-s

T0 aftrx-os)-]

gcandra,
V

gurpa,
grain.
V

n.

a plaited basket for winnowing


agarit;
-girya
;

shining. [Vgcand, 1188a: vigva-gcandra, and candra.]


.

cf.

gcut

(gc6tati
drip.

cugc6ta

acugcutat

Igr (grnati; gagre


-te
;

garisyati,

gcutita).

girna

[957b]

giryate).

gcut,

vbl.

break; tear. [cf. Eng. har-m, which answers to a Skt. *gar-ma.] + vi, pass, be broken to pieces; perish, 60 9
crush;
.

gmagana,
corpses

dripping. [Vgcut.] n. the place for burning the and for burying the bones,

cemetery.
n.

+ s am,
brechen.

break (a bow);

like

gmagru, zusammen- V gya or


gina,

beard.

gi

gyana; giyate).
m.
'

(gyayati, -te [761dl]; glta, freeze; coagulate,

V 2gr, see era, 'boil.'

gyena,
as m. horned beast,
V

eagle;
kite.']

falcon;

hawk.

[cf.

grnga,
gr

n.
,

horn.
;

I-KTIVO-S,

n g 1 n a. horned grta, see Vgra.

grath

(grathnite; gagrathe; agigrathat;

grthitd).

become

loose,
orig.

geva,
gesa,
12
'

a.

kind; dear. [cf. giva.] m. n. rest, remainder, 68 17 1.


Ger.
a.

grad,
;

indecl.

meaning perhaps

heart;

used w.

dha

('grant, give,' see

Vldha4)

gese, like
10
;

im Uebrigen,

for the rest,


.

and

2.

15 remaining, 55

[Vlgis,

dot. of person, thus, grad asmai dhatta, (your) heart to him give ye, i.e.

leave.']

trust offspring,

ye him, have faith


cf.

in him,

RV. ii.

gesas,
'

['those whom one leaves behind him, one's relicts,' V 1 gis,


n.

12.5; ppl. grad-dadhat, trusting, trustful,

26 2 ;

1079 2

leave.']

[cf.

KctpSi'a,

icrip,

*(CTjp5,

g6ka, m. pain, grief. [Vguc, 216. 1.] grief-born; gokajam goka-ja,


.

cord-is,

Lithuanian
further,
'

szirdis,

vari,

heart:

w.
'

Lat. cor, gen. Ger. Herz, Eng. grad-dha, cf. Lat.


'
:

grief-born water, i.e. tears, 10 gokarta, a. sorrow-stricken,

19 .

credgre, *cred-dere,

trust
'

the regular

[arta.] 1297, cf.

Skt.

word for

ocis-kega,
1280b.]

a.

having flame-locks, with


[gocis,
or

not be

hfd, and this can connected w. the above words,

heart

is

locks of flame.

187:

since they require in the Skt. an initial *grd or grad.]

g,

g6cistha,
gocis,
1153.]
n.

a.

most

bright
heat.

flaming.

grad dha,

f.

trust,

faith;

desire,

[see

[Vguc, 468.]

grad: 1147.]

flame;

beam;

[Vguc,

graddhiva,
1228a.]
V

a.

credible.

[graddbjt,

g6na, or Red
[prop.

1. a. red,

2. m. Sone deep-red; River, affluent of the Ganges. ' ' flame-colored cf t-icav-aa,
.
.

gram
mit
take
;

granta
pains
;

(gramyati [763]; gagrama; agrabe weary ; -gramya).


;

esp.

castigate

one's

self,

'burned,'

/caC-/io,

'heat.']

[261]

+a

in

'

-f-pari,

agrama, hermitage.' weary one's self exceedingly;


of,

self,

87

6
;

upagrita, (leaned upon, equiv.

to) laid

parigranta, tired

disgusted with.

gram a, m. weariness. V grambh (grambhate;


; :

[Vgram.]

upon or in, w. loc., 79*. + pari, act. lay about; enclose. + p r a lean forward.
, , ;

1. beautiful grabdha; -grabh- gri [351], ./. appearance; 5 4 88 -2. welfare; -3. beauty, 78 , 2 ya). used only with vi. put confidence 3 in vigrabdha confiding, 26 -am, adv. personified, Qri, goddess of beauty and wel10 4. as honorific prefix to fare, 2 confidently, without distrust or hesitation, proper 9". 54 1 names, the famous or glorious [cf
; ; ,
.

gravana,
3.
cf.

1.

n. fame. gravas and esp. under V gru.] 1. sounds; esp. loud praise, gravas, n. 91 15 -2. glory, 74 6 fame, [v/gru,
:

m. ear; 2. n. hearing; f or mg 3, [V gru, 1150. la

greyans, grestha.]
V

gru

gruv6

(grn6ti, grnut6 [243]; gugrava, gu; agrausit ; grosyati, -te ; grut ;


;

gr6tum
86 5
;

giigrusate;

'hear,'

1151. la:

the
'

K\eos,

stem

K\fF-es,

fame

precise equiv. of ' for mg, see


:

62;

-griitya ; gruyate 1. act. hear, gravayati). know by hearing; w. gen. of person, hear (a listen; give heed to, 25 14
; ;

grutva

V gru.]
V

teacher),

gra
;

or gri or gr or gir (grinati, grinite;

gigriye; grata, grita, grta, girta). boil grid, cooked, done.

cook;

gugruvans, 2. having studied, i.e. learned, 94 18 mid., in Veda, with pass, sense, be heard of
;
;

i.e.

learn,

study

(as subject of talk),

i.e.,

like
;

Lat. cluere,

graddha,

an oblation to the Manes, accompanied by a funeral meal and gifts to Brahmans. [graddha, 1208e
n.
:

be called, be famed as, 75 w 3. pass.: be heard; gruta: heard; heard of, 2 12 impers.: gruyatam, let it
;

according to the Scholiast, 'a thing of trust,' because the gift for the Manes
is

be heard,
thus
it is

i.e.

hear ye

evam

gruyate,
6
;

heard, there

is

this saying, 31

as

matter

of

fact

entrusted

to

grutam maya,
33
9
;

I've heard (your

story),

Brahmans.]

4. cans,

cause

(hearers, ace.)

to

granta,
ness.

ppl.

wearied; as

n.

[1176a], weari-

[Vgram, 955a.] grantagata, a. wearied and arrived,


:

i.e.

arriving wearied, [agata 1257.] gri (grayati, -te; gigraya, gigriye; agigriyat grayisyati, -te grita grayitum ; 1. act. lean, trans. ; grayitva; -gritya). 2. mid. lay against or on rest on, trans.
;

hear (a thing), i.e. proclaim to; recite to, _ 5. desid. be willing to hear, and 54 20 so (cf. Eng. obedient and Lat. ob-oediens with audire), obey, 64 9
.

[with gru-dhi, 'hear thou,'


'

cf.

K\v-6i,
'
;

hear

thou
'

'
;

Lat.

'

clu-ere,

be called
i.e.

cluens, cliens,

'who hears

or obeys,
'

dependent
of,'

lean upon, intrans. ; rest upon, be lying or situated upon, 70 3


;

or,

simply,

cf.

with gru-ta, heard, heard K\v-r6s, 'famed,' Lat. in-clu-tus,


;

3. mid.,

inclitus,

'famed,' Old
'

High Ger.
Ger.

hlu-do in

act.

betake one's self

to,

esp. for

help or
'lean';

Hludo-wlg,
hlu-d,

Loud-battle,'
lou-d
;

lau-t,

AS.

protection,

48 5

[cf.

K\I-VW,

Eng.

Kf-K\i-aTat, 'rest on'; Lat. clindre, 'lean';

AS.

hlinian,

Eng. lean;

K\I-TVS,

'incline,

grus-ti,

with the subsidiary form grus, as in 'a listening to, compliance,' cf.
'
'

slope, hill'; Lat. cli-vus, 'hill';

AS.

hlsew,

hldw, Eng.

-law, -low, 'hill,' in Mood-law,


KA?-yua|,

Lud-low

'ladder'; AS.

hlse-der,

Eng. + a lean upon, intrans. ; seek support and protection with or from; agrita: depending upon (another) as m. a dependent or subordinate, 30 18
, ;
.

ladder,.]

AS. hlos-nian, listen,' hlys-t, the hearing,' whence hli/st-an, Eng. listen : for the mg famed ' of gruta, etc., cf. gravana, gravas, and gloka.]
'

+ prati,
promise to
'

answer,
(gen.),

say yes to;


[prop., like

make

Eng.

hear,

i.e.
'

give a hearing in return to what is said,' 'not turn a deaf ear to/ and so
answer.']

-fupa,

mid.

lean

against; brace

one's

^ruta]

[262]
the anustubh-strophe, the epic gloka, in which, for example, the story 2 of Nala is composed. [Vgru, 1186 .] V gvanc (gvancate). open itself; receive
later, esp.

+ vi, pass, be heard of far and wide, be 3 famous; vigruta, known as, named, 6
.

1. hear; + sam, accede to the request

2. like
of,

make

Eng. hear, a promise

to

(loc.).

gruta,
which which

ppl.
is
is

gru + prati.] heard; heard of; as n. that heard from the teacher, that
[cf.
;

in

open arms

(as a

maid her

lover).
.

+ ud, open

itself out,

4 open, 87

gvdn
AS.
gura

[427], m. dog.

[cf. KVOIV,
'

Lat. can-i-s,

learned

learning.

[V gru.]

hun-d, Eng. hound,

grutavant,
learn-ed.

a.

possessing

learning,
3.

gvagura,
:

m.

dog.'] father-in-law. [for

*sv&-

griiti, /. sound the thing heard 5. utterance hearsay


;
;

[gruta.] 1. a hearing;

cf. tKvpos,

Lat. socer, socerus,


'

Church

2. ear;
;

Slavonic swekrii, AS. sweor, *sweohor, Ger.


for g in place Schwdher, father-in-law of s, cf. gaga and Vgus.]
:

4.
esp.

'

report,

a sacred
a

utterance handed

down by
6.

tradition,

gvagru
AS.
V

[355c], f.
:

mother-in-law,
Lat.
fern,

[gvasocrus,

religious prescription, a sacred text, the

gura, 355c

cf

ficvpd,

Veda, 58 18

N.

correct for gruta.

learning ; prob. [Vgru, 1157. la.]

in-

sweger,

Ger.

Schwieger,

'mother-in

law.']

grutimant,
incorrect

a.

possessing learning ; prob.


q.v.

gvas

(gvdsiti [631]; gvasati; gagvasa


;

for grutavant,

[gruti.]
(of

gvasisyati

gvasita, gvasta ;
2.

gvasitum ;
;

griitya, a. worthy to be heard hymn), goodly. [Vgru, 1213a.]

-gvasya
ter,

whistle,
[cf.

gvasayati). snort
;

1. blow, blus3. breathe

greyasa,
1315c.

for greyas (greyans)


a.

in

cpds,
or

sigh.

AS. hweos,

preterit to thwiesan,

Eng.
fairer;

wheeze."]

greyans,
excellent;

more beautiful
n.
.

4 a,

get one's

breath,

become quiet;

better; as

(the better,

i.e.)

caus. quiet, comfort.

1 welfare, prosperity, 35 [from an unused root gri corresponding to the noun

+ nis

breathe out, sigh.


forth.

+ pra, blow
94 \

gri,

470 4

cf. Kpeiuv,
a.

'superior, ruler.']

+ abhi-pra, blow
end

forth

upon,

ace.,

gr6stha,
best:

fairest;
10
;

most excellent;
loc.,

w. gen., I
9

w.

68 10

at

+ vi, have
gvAs,

confidence, be unsuspecting;

of cpd, 11
(abl.),

best as distinguished from ; u [see equiv. to better than, 68 .


n.

caus. inspire confidence.

greyans.]

gvah gvas [1260


supremacy,
precedence,

adv. to-morrow, on the next day; 2 from day to day. ],


m. a
snorting.

grafsthya,

gvasatha,
1163b.]

[Vgvas,
n.

2 [grestha, 1211 end.] n. ear; hearing, gr6tra,

gr6triya,
tradition)

a.

[Vgru, 1185a.] studied, learned (in sacred


m. &

gv&stana,

a.
.

of the

morrow; as

the

n morrow, 92
be

us

Brahman
:

versed in
.

gvapada,
:

[gvds, 1245e.] m. a beast of prey, 84 u .

[to

sacred lore,

[grotra, 1214c

for mg, cf

pronounced

gvapada

(cf.

pavaka,

Vgru,
1195.J
V

mg

1,

and gruta,
slippery

s.v.]
;

glaksna,

a.

smooth.

[cf.

' 1181a) prop., perhaps, having the feet of a dog,' gvan + pada.]

gvavidh
' ;

[nom. -vit], m. porcupine,

[gvan

glagh
1.

(glaghate; gaglaghe glaghita). have confidence in; 2. talk con;

+ vidh, dog-wounding.']

fidently
praise.

brag, praise
to

one's

self

3.

satka,
grdv.
1.

1. a.

glaghya,
g!6ka,
2.

be

praised,

praise-

a whole consisting of
1222a, 226b.]

2. as n. consisting of six; six, a hexade. [sas,

worthy; honorable.
m.

[V glagh.]
i.e.)

(thing heard,
cf. V

sound; sat-tringat
;

[485],

/.

six

and

thirty.

fame, for mg,

gru ;

3.

strophe

[sas.]

[263]

[sakhigana
;

sat-pada,
steps,

/
'

-I,

a.

having (taken) six

[sas: 1300a.]
prop.
n. semester, six months. that which has six months,'

san-masa,
[sas
:

proceeding with a thing an adorning or 2. a domestic religious adornment, 17 5 rite to be performed upon or observed by
;

see 1312.]

every member of the three upper castes, prop, his preparation or purification ; sac3. imrament, consecration, 59 2 N. pression; an impression produced on the
;

sas
cf.

[483 8], num. six. e, Lat. sex, Eng.


/. sixty,
a.

2 3 [see 182b , 146


siar.J

sastf,

[sas, 1157.4.] [sas, 487


six-ta,
5
:

mind
cf.

or a disposition

formed

in the

mind

sastha,

sixth,

(K-TOS,

by something past
which has ceased
40 *.
[\f

(e.g.

deeds of a former

Lat. sex-tus,

AS.

Eng.

six-th.]

existence, a past conversation, etc.), but


to

work on the mind,


1087d.]

1 kr,

'

do,'

+ sam,
1.

1 sa

pron.

see

ta and 495.

samskrta,
fine,

ppl.
;

prepared; adorned,

2 sa, inseparable prefix denoting similarity, numerous excommunity, or connection

cultivated

as n. the cultivated lan-

amples on the pages following ; esp. common w. an adj. value in possessive cpds [see
1304c],

guage, as opposed to the low vernaculars, 6 Sanskrit, 52 [V 1 kr, do,' + sam, 1087d. ]
'
.

samhita,

with

having an accompanying [1121b prob. ident. ultimately


:

put together; -a, f. a ppl. putting together; a text whose sounds and words are put together according to

w. 3 sa.]

grammatical
in sa-krt,

rules.
a.

3 sa, one,

sa-hasra.
cf.
'

[for
els,

*sm sa-kacchapa,
/

(vocalic m),
'

root *sem:
' ; ' ; '

*<re u-s,
'
;

with

them,
a.
;

i.e.

[V 1 dha + sam, 954c.] having tortoises along along with tortoises.

/j.ia, *(Tyu-ja,
'

one

f-Kar6v,

one-hundred
'

[1304c.]

a-ir\6os,
'

one-fold

Lat. sem-el,
'

once

'
;

sakala,
all,

having
.as n.

having one and the same) bed, spouse (i.e. one o-irarpos, 'having one (i.e. one and the same) father'; d-SeA^xfe, see under garsim-plex,

one-fold

&-\ox<>s,

entire

its parts together, i.e. everything, one's entire


2
.]

'

sakaga,
;

property, 46*. [sa + kala, 1304c, 334 m. presence; tasya

sakagam

bha.]

samyatendriya,
senses,

a.

having restrained
I 9.

gam, go to the presence of him, i.e. go to him -sakage, at end of cpd, in the presence of before 33 [sa + kaga
,

self-controlled,

[samyata
68
6.

(\fyam, 1085a) + indriya, 1298.] sa a ma, m. restraint, control,

perhaps, having visibility, present/ and then presence.']


orig.,
'

'

my

sakft,
once.

adv.
[3 sa
a.

for one time, a single time,

yam + sam.] samvatsara, m.


[V

+ 2krt.]
angry; -am, angrily.
[2sa,

year,

[sam + vatsara, sa-kopa,


1304c.]
sak tu
,

q.v.]

samgaya,
(there is)
[V gi

m.

1.

no doubt;
like

doubt; na samgayas, 2. danger, 20 16


.

m. coarsely ground parched grains,

+ sam.]
/".

sakha,
Lat. consessus, a sitting

samsad,

barley grits. for sakhi at end of cpds [1302], as attendant, accompanied by having
grits, esp.
.

together and those

who

sit

together,

i.e.

[1315b.]
[343a],

assembly.

[V

sad + sam.]
mixture, union; contact.

sakhi
82
1
;

m.
;

attendant, companion,
friend, 23
16
,

samsarga,
[Vsrj

m.

comrade
a

etc.

in con-

+ sam,

samsara,
psychosis
or
;

216.1.] m. the wandering of the soul


to another,
;

nection with

fern.,

75 18

19
,

100*.
soc-ius,

[Vsac:

for

mg,

cf.

lir-T7js

and

under

from one existence

metem-

V sac.]

18 the cycle transmigration, 66 round of existence, 18 l [Vsr + sam.] 1. a working over, a samskara, m.
.

sakhi
(of a

[364], f.

woman),

female companion, friend 2 [sakhi: cf. 362b .]


m.

sakhi-gana,
friends.

(friend-crowd,

i.e.)

preparing or purification

esp.

a technical

sakhijana]

[264]
m.
(friend-persons,
collec-

sakhi-jana,

after,

tively, i.e.) friends.

pany/
'

seek, follow': cf. fV-o/ucu, 'accom' followed Lat. sequ-or, e-oTr-cyUTji/,


'

sakhya, sa-gana,
sagara,
meer;
prince.

n.

friendship,

[sakhi, 1212c.]
(of
at-

follow

'
;

sec-undus,
'

a.

with

(their) troops

also

fir-ertjs,

following, second attendant,' Lat. soc-ius,


;

'

'

tendants). [2sa.] 1. the m.


2. Sagara,

'comrade': further, AS.


atmosphere, Luftof a mythical
2. m.
;

Eng.

name

seon, *seh(w)on, Ger. seh-en, ' (seek, look for, follow with the eyes, i.e.) see.']
see,

saciva,
1. a.

m. attendant, supporter,
i.]
i.e.)

[v'sac,

samkata,
Slender,

name

narrow, strait; of a gander, 37 21


4.
;

1190, with union-vowel

3. n.
like
.

sa-j6sas,
[1304c
3
.]

a.

(of like pleasure,

unani.

narrow passage, a strait; 14 Eng. strait, a difficulty, 52


[cf.

Jig.,

mous, harmonious; kindly disposed, 86 15

4 danger, 25

1245g.]
m. a decision of the mind;

sajja,

a.

1.

as used of a bow, having

its

samkalpa,

string on, strung, ready for use (the string

the will or wish or purpose proceeding from such decision, a definite intention,
[vlklp

being wound around the bow when this is not in use) 2. generalized, ready, as
;

+ sam,

1148.1, 236.]
esp.

sariiketa, m. agreement;
'

a meeting agreed upon with a lover, a rendezvous,


[prop.
of the
co-intention,'

used of persons and things, assimilation as q.v., with


sajj ate

[for sajya,
in

sajyate,

see

v'

sanj

sam + keta.]

sajji-kr
string
(a

(-karoti).

1.

make

samkranti,/. an
sun

entering, esp. entering

bow);

2.

make

strung, 1T ready, 34

upon a new zodiacal sign. [sajja, 1094.] l sajya, a. having its string [Vkram +sam, cf. 1157 w. 955a.] [2sa + 2jya, 'bow-string.'] samkhya,^ the tale or number. [Vkhya

on,

strung.

+ sam.]

samcaya,
a sticking to or hanging 2. Jig. an attachment (of the
1.

sang a,
upon; mind)

m.

lation, esp.
[v'

m. a piling together, accumuof wealth; supply (of food),

1 ci,

'

pile up,'
n.

+ sam. ]
the gathering
[do.]
(of

anything, 2 sange, in case of desire, 64


[\/sanj, 210.1.]

to

desire for a
;

thing;
lusts.

samcayana,

the

pi.

bones of the dead),

samcayavant,

samgama,

m. a coming together, union.


a, f.
a. subst.

[Vgam + sam.]

a. possessing an accumulation (of wealth), rich with arthais, rich with money, i.e. having capital,
;

samgama
assemble,

11

-I,

causing to
of

[samcaya.]
a.

gatherer,

[caus.

Vgam + samcarin,
1183 3 .]

wandering.

[V car

+ sam,

sam.]

saihgara,
4-

m. agreement, promise.
in with.']
(a

[Vlgr samciti,
up,'

f.

a piling; pile,

[,'lci, 'pile

sam,

'

chime
m.

sanigha,
pany,
V

combination,
[V

i.e.)

comcf
.

crowd.

han + sam,
;

333,

+ sam.] sanj or saj (sajati; sasanja; asankslt; sakta; saktum; -sajya; pass, sajyate
sajjate). stick
to,

216.9 and 402.]


sagcus, sagcire 2 [794d ]). -1. be with, be united with; be together, have intercourse together,

or

be

attached to;

sac

(sisakti;

sacate

sakta, attached (of a glance), immovable, [cf. Lat. seg-nis, 'sticking, i.e. slow,
lazy.']

accompany a person a thing (dat.), i.e. help him to


;

79 14
3.

2.

(ace.) to
it,

4-pra, be attached
dicted to.

to;

prasakta, ad-am, as adv.

69 18

be attached to;
;

Jig.

2 mandment), 75

follow up,

follow (a comi.e. attend to,

sat at a,

only in ace.

s.

neut.,

continuously,

constantly,

821'.
[orig.
' accompany,' i.e. 1. go at the or favor,' and 2. with help go
' '

samtata, see
Lrt. con-tinens,

Vtan +
'

always. [for sam: for mg, cf.

con-tinuous.']
6.

side of,

sat-kr,

scs

sant

[265]

[sadasat
(sidati,
-te

satkara,

m. good treatment, esp. kind reception of a guest, hospitality, [satkr.]


a. best,

sad

[748];

sasada,

sediis

[794e]; asadat; satsyati; satta,

sanna;
1.

sattama,
sattva,
ness,

[sant, 471.]

sattum;
sit;

-sadya;
one's

sadayati,
2.
;

-te).

1. n.

condition of being, being-

seat

self;

2. n. being, existence, essent-ia; condition of being good, absolutely good being, goodness, the highest of the three

sink

beneath a burden

down, be overcome
;

settle

get into trouble; be in a desperate pre7 dicament, 18 ; despair; not know what
to
do,
cans.

qualities

(see

8 guna), 66

N.
,

;
.

3.

m.

n.

be
set.

unable
[w.
cf.

to

help

one's

self

a living being, creature, 28

u 48 2 [formed
'

sidami,
'

*si-zd-ami,
*<n-cr S-a>,
'

from sant

just as the artificial being-ness, that on which a thing depends for being what it is,' from essens, a quasi-ppl. of esse.']
(1239),
'

si-s ft d-ami,
sit,'

?o>,

*a-j-c5-ai,

Lat. essent-ia,

Lat. sld-ere, Lat.

settle
sit,

down

cf

also

sed-ere, 'sit';
e'S-oj,

Eng.
seat.']

caus. set; sad-as,


*sed-la,

e5-pa,
'

sella,

AS.

set-l,

satpati, m. strong ruler; master, + pati, 1280, cf. 1267a.]

[sant
in

Eng.

settle,

+ ava,
+ a,
89 :3
;

sink down, get into trouble, be


sit

satya,
reality,

1.

a.
;

real;

true;

existing

in distress.
1.

45 12

truthful,

trusty,

faithful,

upon;
;

2. lie in wait for,

69 9

2. n. the real;

the true;

reality;
,

3. get to,

reach (a place);

asan-

end of line; truthfulness, 21 6 95 6 near mid. of line; faithfulness, 69 12 tena satyena, as by this yatha
truth, 95
;
,

na
at,

approached
reach
find,

caus.

10 near, neighboring, 33 ; 1. set upon; 2. get to, arrive

obtain,

gain, 23

n
,

46 2

truth,

as

truly

as

so

truly,

14

l ff .

3. n. vow, promise, oath; satyam bru, 21 6 swear, 10 , 15 ; satyam cikirsamanas, 12 4. desiring to keep his promise, 8
;

mg as to be equiv. to a mere preposition : nimittam kimcid asadya, (having obtained some


3.

asadya,

often so attenuated in

satyam, adi\
1212c
:

truly, indeed,

49 10

[sant,

but

of

' true/ radically akin w. ereo-s, different formation, since the

cause or other, i.e.) by or in consequence of some cause or other, cf. V dig + ud. 1. sit down; take one's seat, esp. + ni,
act.

Cyprian
*fTeFo-s.]

shows

that

3re6s

stands

for

of the hotr at the sacrifice, 88 6 8 ; -2. and mid. set, install as, trans.!, 82 12 ; caus. act. and mid. set, install as,
-

satya-radhas,
satya-vadin,
ful.

a. having real blessings, bestowing real blessings. [1298.]


a.

88i".

+ pra, be

favorable or gracious; pra1

truth-speaking, truth-

sanna, kindly disposed,


' '

n
;

caws,
.

make

[1275.]
n.

satya-vrat,
satyavrata,
acct 1295.]

vow

of

truthfulness.

6 kindly disposed, propitiate, 36 [behind the mg be gracious lies doubtless the

[1264, acct 1267.]


a.

physical

mg

'

settle

forward, incline

to-

having,

i.e.

keeping a
.

23 satyavrata, always truthful, 6

[1296,

a suppliant.'] + vi, sink, used (like the Eng. be dedepressed) of the spirits, be dejected

wards,

e.g.

satya-samgara,
ing a true promise.

a.

having,
i.e.

i.e.

keepto

spond, 35
dejected.

n
;

come

to grief, 31

1
;

visanna,

agreement,
a.

true

his

satyasamdha,
true agreement,

having,

i.e.

keeping a
[satya +

+ sam, sadadi,
s

sit together. adv. always, 93 3

[cf.

sada.]
like

i.e.

faithful,

a dan a,
seat

n.

seat;

generalized,
7
),

Eng.

samdha.]

and Lat.

sedes, place (75

dwelling.

satvara,
ly,

a.

with haste; -am, adv. quick-

[Vsad.]

[2sa + tvara.] sat-samnidhana, n. a being near to

immediately.
good,

sadas, n. sadasat,

seat.
n.

[Vsad:

cf. e5os, 'seat.']

existence and non-existence.

the

intercourse

with

the

good,

[sant.]

[sat + asat, the subst. used neuter stems of sant and asant, 1252.]

sadasadatmaka]

[266]
a.

sadasad-atmaka,
and non-existence
nature
at the
it is

as

its

having existence nature, whose


to exist

fiav,

' cf [present ppl. of V 1 as, be,' q.v. stem tovT, 'being'; Lat. absens, stem
:

to exist

and also not

ab-sent,

'being off';
' '

sons,

same time,

[sadasat.]

real doer,'

the guilty one

'

stem sont, 'the Danish sane?,


; '

sad a, adv. always, [cf. 1103a 2 .] sad-acara, m. the conduct or practices


of the good,

AS.
for

soft,

true,'
2, cf.

Eng.

sooth,

true, truth

'
:

mg

the
'the

mg

of

satya,

of rbv

sa-dfga,
s

a.

[sant.] of like appearance;

iovra

\6yov,
sooth.~\

true story/

and of

equal,

Eng.

adyas

used (296b) M;. gen. [518.] adv. on the same day


,

samtati,
;

imme.

1. continuation; 2. esp. f. continuation of one's race or family, i.e.

[see 1122f.] adv. equiv. of 1 saha, see 1104 8 sadha-mada, m. co-revelry, <rv/j.ir6(Tiov,
diately,

offspring.

sadha,

samta'pa,
row,

m.

1.

heat;

2. pain, sor-

[vftap

+ sam.]
[1233.]

common

feast;

sadhamadam mad,
[1290.]
(orig.,

revel

in bliss with, w. instr.

samtapavant, a. sorrowful. samdrg, / a beholding; sight.


sam.]

[Vdrg +

sadha-stha,
i.e.

n.

perhaps, co-place,
to the

place of union, but generalized


of) place. a. old. [orig.

samdeha,
.

m.

1.

doubt;
:

-at,

from (by
2. dan-

simple

mg

sana,

long continued':
sen-ex, 'old

'of long standing, cf. eVo-s, 'old'; Lat.


sin-ista, 'oldest';

reason of) uncertainty [291 2 ] ; 15 for ger, 20 [V dih + sam

mg

2,

cf

bhaya.]

man'; Goth,
'

samdha,

f.

1.

AS.

sin-ceald,

perpetually or extremely
'

2. promise.

[V 1 dha,

covenant, agreement; put,' + sam for


'

cold'; AS. and Old Eng. sin-grene, 'evergreen,'


i.e.)

mg

1,

Eng.

sen-green,

(extremely green,
Lat.
sini-

riOiifu,

'covenant,' and vwthe counterpart of samdadhami.]


cf.
ffwO'fiKri,

house-leek':

from a not quotable


Medieval
house-servant,'

samdha n a,
Offfis,

n.

a putting together, avv[V 1 dha,


'

Goth. *sina-skalks,
scalcus,

mixing.

put,'

+ sam

through intermediate Romance forms, comes Eng. seneschal; Ger. Siind-flut, 'sin-flood,' is a popular interpretation of Old High Ger.
'

'oldest

paroxytone, 1150. lc.] samdhi, m. 1. a putting together,


Offfis;

ativ-

2. like

samdha, compact,
7
;

alliance,

41
of

13
;

peace, 17
in

3. the

sin-vluot,

the

long-continued

flood,

the

sounds

word and

putting together sentence (see

d,

Noachian deluge.'] n a adv. of old, always,


,

[instr. of sana,

2 Whitney 109b ), euphonic combination, 50 9 4. junction (of day and night), i.e.
;

1112c, not a.] sanat, adv. from of old, always, forever, [sana, acct 1114d.]

morning or evening twilight. put,' + sam, 1155. 2e.]


'

[V 1

dha,

samdhya,
tion (of

a.

sanatana,
1245e.]

a. everlasting, eternal,

[sana,
nest
or

junction; samdhya,/.
ing twilight
3 yuga), 58

pertaining to samdhi or 1. time of junc-

sa-nila,

a.

having a
always.

common
[1304c.]

origin, affiliated, united.

day and night), morning or evendu. morning and evening 2. morning twilight (of a twilight;
;
.

sane mi,
sana.]

adv.

[perhaps
otiose,

from
see
;

[samdhi,
m.

cf.

1212b.]

sarndhyanqa,
1.

(lit.

twilight-portion)

sant,
\1

ppl.
;

being;
2.
a.

24 16

evening twilight of a yuga.

[anga.]
twilight-time,

as ; existing

real,

genuine
sati,

samdhya-samaya,
evening.

m.

true,

good;
19 8

3.
'

of people, good, noble,


,

excellent,
true,

20

28";

-4.

/.

samnidhana,
so)

n.

(a

putting

down

to-

good, virtuous wife (hence AngloIndian Suttee); 5. n. the existent;


existence
;

gether, juxta-position, approximation,

and

6.

sat-kr,

make

good, treat

well, receive kindly.

neighborhood, sam-ni, 1150:

a being near; contiguity; presence; 40 9 [VI dha, 'put,' +


.

cf.

samnidhi.]

[267]

[samartha
Eng.
tattler
'

samnidhi,
+
V

sam-ni, 1155. 2e

?. presence. for
:

[Vldha, 'put,' mg, cf. samnifollow after;


[identified

gossip,
'
;

sponsor,

familiar

friend,

Ger.

Sipp,

masc.,

'

relative/

dhana.]
(sapati, -te sepiis). be attached or devoted to.

Sippe, fern., 'relationship, kindred.']


;

sap

sabharya,
i.e.

a.

having

his wife with


.

him,

by

some with

V sac.] in cpds.

with his wife, 1304c, 334 2.]

1 1T

[2

sa

+ bharya,

sap,

vbl.

following after,
a.

[Vsap.]

sam,
1

sapatnl,
band
of
;

f.

as subst.

having a common husone of two or more wives


co-wife,

sama
76
;

prep, along, with, together, [cf. 2sa.] 4 every, [525 ], end. pron. any;

the

same man,

fellow-wife,

concubine. [sa + pati, but in the fern, form, since the masc. would not be used 1304c: cf. supatni.]
V

12 cf. samaha. [cf. a^-flei/, 'from some place or other'; ovo-a.fj.6s, 'not any'; AS. sum, ov8-a/j.ios, 'in not any wise'; some one/ Eng. some.'] 2 sama, a. -1. even; -2. like, 63 17
'
;

saparya
worship.
'

(saparyati).

pay devotion
a

to,

10 equal, 48

w. gen. (296b), 3

16
;

-am, adv.

[denom. of
devotion,'
a.

not

quotable

*sapar,
in

from
said

V sap.]

29 6 ,26

equally with, along with, with, w. instr., 5 -3. like or equal (to the usual),
;

sa-pinda,
(q.i'.
)

subst.

having

the

pinda

i.e.

common,

of persons

who

not distinguished, common, mediocre, 19 10 [cf. apa, Doric a/xd, 'at the same
.

have a common ancestor not more than six generations back to whom they offer
a pinda together, persons related in the
sixth generation.

time

'
;

'

o^os,
'

one and the same,


'

common

'
;

6fj.a-\ds,

even,

equal

Lat.

simi-lis,

'like';

AS. same,
f.

'in like

manner'; Eng.
19 10
4
.

[1304c.]
6

same.]
2S
;

sapta

seven, 53 , 99 also, [483*], num. as a favorite sacred number, the expression 3 72 4 6 of an indefinite plurality, e.g. 71
'

samata,
[2 cf

equality;

mediocrity,

sama, 1237.]
f.
fight,
'

samad,
.

[cf.

eirrd,

Lat.

septem,

AS.

seofon,

Eng.

ofj.ao-o-s,

contest, [sam, 383d confused voices of men, din


:

seven.'}

of battle, throng.']
f.

saptakathamaya,
of seven narrations,

consisting [sapta-katha see


-I,
:

a.

sam-adhika,
it
;

a.

having a surplus with

masatrayam

samadhikam,
[1305.]

three

maya.]

months and more.

sam-anantara, a. with a non-interval, sapta-tantu, a. having seven courses. 1. being for -am, adv. imimmediately adjoining sapta-pada, f. -I, a. 2 seven, i.e. many or all, steps (see 1294 ), mediately thereupon. [1305.] 1. (a coming together, i.e., i.e. 2. samaya, m. being at every step, constant
;

having (taken) seven steps;


[1300 a.]

see

100 4 N.
de-

like

sa-pragraya,
sa-phala,

a.

with

respectful

agreement; Eng. juncture) a point of time so time or season, 49 16 occasion;


Eng. con-vention)
(like
;

2.
;

and
3. a

meanor; -am, adv.

respectfully.

con-currence
case
see iha.

(of

circumstances),

i.e.

a. fruitful, fruit-bearing.

sa-bandhu, a. having sa-baspa, a. tearful.

a friend.

samayocita,
-am,
in

[Vi + sam.] a. suitable to the occasion

adv.

as

the

occasion

demands.

sa-brahmacarin, m. fellow-student. sa-bhaya, a. fearful; -am, adv.


terror.

[ucita, Vuc.]

samara na.
so,

n.

battle; Treffen.

coming together/ Vr + sam,


f.

[prop. 'a 1150. la just


:

sabha,

ings, esp.

house or hall for public meet3 gambling-house assembly, 19


;

society,

19 l

[orig.,
'

perhaps, 'family':
'

Eng. verb meet sometimes means come together with hostile purpose/ and Eng. noun encounter is used mostly of a hostile
' '

Goth, sibja, relationship,' AS. sibb, relationship, related ; Old Eng. god-sib, 'related in God,' i.e. ' a sponsor in baptism/
cf
'
.

meeting.']

sam -art ha,

a. (having an agreeing or accordant object [1305], i.e.) suiting its

samalamkrta]
object, w. inf.

[268]
suitable;
a.

and

so

capable; able,
[see

sampad,

sam-alamkrta,
alam
:

well adorned,

1. success; 2. (a falling f. together, co-inciding, and so a fitting of the parts to each other, i.e.) correct pro-

sam

intensive, 1077b end.]


a.

samavatta-dhana,
gathered pieces,
s

containing

sam put a,

portion, beauty. [V pad + sam.] m. hemispherical bowl or dish;

am ah a,
[Isama:
meeting;
course.

accentless
cf.

[see 1087e.] adv. somehow,

round casket
80 5
.

(for jewels) ; sampute likh, write a thing (ace.) in the strong-box of a

HOOa and
m.
2.
1.

1104 3 .]
i.e.

person
'

(gen.),

i.e.

credit

it

to him.

[sam +
and

samagama,
[V

a coming together,
inter-

puta,
so
2. 3.

a together-fold,' 1289a.]
adv.
1. just

meeting with,
a. 1. like;

samprati,
(like

opposite;

gam + sam-a. ]
-i,

(to the

same

limit) even, exactly;

samana,
;

f.

one and the

15 same, 78 ; -am, adv. in the same way, 103 13 2. common (to different persons

and
end)

so just

Eng. even) at the very time; now. [sam (intensive, 1077b


1314a.]
a.

+ prati,

or

countries),

73*,

98 17

united,

73 16

sam-priya,
1289a.]

mutually dear,

[priya,

[2

sama, 1245d.]

sam ana -grama, m. the same village. sambandha, m. con-nection and so, as in Eng., relationship. samanagramiya, a. belonging to the [V bandh + sam. ] same village, [samana-grama, 1215.] sambhava, m. origin; at end of adj.
;

samasa,
then

m.

1.

a putting together; and


'

so (cf. Lat. con-trahere,

draw

together,'

'abridge')
[V 2 as, f.

abridgment;
cinctly.

2. a condensation; -ena and samasatas, suc'

[VbM + sam.] sambhavya, grdv. to


.

cpds, having in

as

its

origin,

originating

be supposed, sup-

posable.

throw,'

+ sam.]
kindlings)
2. as n.
;

sambhrama,
fuel.

[caus. of V bhu + sam.] m. extreme agitation, haste

samidh,
[\/idh

(like

Eng.
near ;

arising

from

excitement.

[V

bhram +

+ sam,
1.

'kindle.']
a.

sam.]
near-

samlpa,
ness,

sam-mila,
united with.

a.

corn-mixed, mixed with,


i.e.

neighborhood, presence used like 2a. samipam, w. gen. or in antika, q.v. ;

[1289a.]
f.

sam-rajnl,
ruler
;

complete,

sovereign

cpd, (to the presence of, i.e., simply) to, w. verbs of going, 6 W , 27", 33*, 44 u ; 2b. samlpe, w. gen. or in cpd (in the

mistress.

end, and 1077b end see 2-13a 2 .]

[for sam, see 1289b for instead of m,

presence or neighborhood of, i.e., simply) : 9 16 14 near, 25 ; hard by, 34 before, 2


; ;

sa-yatna,
to,
i.e.)

a. (having, i.e. taking pains trying to, w. inf.; engaged in,

3 by, 40

[cf.

pratipa.]
a.

w.

inf.

samipa-stha,
neighborhood

in cpd, situated in

the

sara,

a.

running, moving, going,


a.

in cpds.

of, near.

[Vsr.]

samutsarga,
[Vsrj

m. an ejecting, discharge.

sarana,
V

running;

as

n.

a running.
hasten,

+ sam-ud, 216.1.]
m. a gathering of waters, a sea, ['a

[Vsr, 1150. la.]

samudra,
an ocean,
1188b.J

saranya

(saranyati).

run,

con-fluence/

Vud + sam,

[sarana, 1059d.J

saranyu,
f.

samunnati,
and
d.]

f. arising; elevation, i.e., + sam-ud, 1157 [V Jig., distinction.

nam

a. hastening, swift -yu [355c], Saranyu, daughter of Twashtar, and spouse of Vivaswaut, to whom she bare
;

Yama and Yami,


(a

85 15

N.

[V

saranya,

samrti.y.
samarana.]

coming together, and


[Vr

so)
cf.

1178h:
s

cf. 'Eplvv-s,

'the swift' goddess of


or
'

col-lision, shock,

+ sam,

1157d:

sampatti,
ance, 17
14
.

/. success; prosperity;

abund-

vengeance.] a r d a f. the bitch of Indra n gods cf. 83 N. [' the runner

m
;

of the
'

or

mes-

[Vpad + sam,

1157d.]

senger,' Vsr, cf. 1166.]

[269]

[savayas
whole, entire
'
;
'

saras,
water,'

n.

lake,
'

pool.
'run,'

[orig.

'fluid,

i.e.

'

Lat. salvus,

'

whole, un'

from

Vsr,

just as fluidus

from

fluere,

flow, run.']
n.

harmed, well Lat. stem sollu'all-iron

Oscan

sollu-s,

entire

'
;

in cpds, e.g. solli-ferreum,


soll-ennis,

aaras-tira,

bank

of a pool.

(weapon),'

'of every
cere-

sarasvant,
/.
:

1. a. rich in

waters

-vati,

year,

annual,'
:

used

of

religious

Saraswati, name of a mighty 3. Sarasstream, probably the Indus wati, a small stream in Madhyade9a, to
2.
;

monies

no connection w. Eng.
a.

(w)hole,

see also kalya.]

sarvam -sah a,
things,

patiently bearing all

which the name and attributes of the 4. great stream were transferred the goddess of voice and Saraswati,
;

[sarvam, 1250a, 1270b.]


a.

sarva-gata,

(gone to
1.

all,

i.e.)

uni-

ar11

speech, learning and eloquence, [saras.] ' stream. , f. [V sr, run, flow,' 383. 3
.

versally prevalent. sarvatas, adv.


all

from

all

sides;

on

sides,
12
;

93 12
2.
:

for mg, cf Ger. Fluss, ' stream,' w. fliessen, ' flow,' and Eng. stream under V sru.] 1. shot; 2. stream or spurt sarga, m.
or

101

11 every direction, 3 , omnino, altogether, 56 16

in

jet;

3.
let

which is from the


or 2.

loose, esp.

a letting loose; 4. that a herd let loose


76 4
;

[sarva, 1098b acct, cf. 1298c.] 1. everywhere or in all sarvatra, adv. 19 2. at all times; always, uncases, 21
;

14 interruptedly, 5

[sarva,
1. in

1099:

acct,

stall,

5.

chapter of an

cf.

1298c.]
adv.

epic poem, a Jig. use of the word in


[Vsrj, 216.1.]

mg

sarvatha,
by
all

every way;

2.

means.
adv.

[sarva, 1101.]

sarpa,

m. (like serpent from serpere, 14 'creep') the creeper, snake, serpent, 84


[V srp, q.v.]
n.

sarvada,
ever,

always;

constantly; for

[sarva, 1103.] sarva-deva, m. pi. all the gods.


self all the gods,

sarpis,
and
'

clarified

butter,
'

either

warm sarvadevamaya,
[orig.

still

fluid or cold

and hardened, and


ghee.' slippery,

so not differing fluid


'

from ghrta,
or
' '

in the

name

containing in himrepresenting or being of all the gods, 28 19 [sarvaa.


i.e.
.

butter,

the

fat

'

deva: see maya.]

stuff,
slip,'

from

V srp,

creep,
'

move
oil,

gently,

1153: see Vsrp and srpra: akin are


e\ir-os,

sarva-dravya, n. pi. sarva-bhava, m. the

all things.

whole heart.
a.
.

Hesychian
<!\<j>-os,

olive

fat,'

and
sealf,

sarvabhutamaya,
himself
see
all beings,

containing

in

'butter';

Ger. Salbe, AS.


1. entire or

56 20

[sarva-bhuta :

Eng.

salve.~\

maya.]

sarva
50 2 \

[524], pron.

95 18
;

96 2

salvus,

complete, integer, un2a. subst.


:

harmed
sing, m.,
pi.,

2. adj. all,

every

sarva-yosit, f. pi. all women. sarva -1 oka, m. the entire world. sarva-vira, a. with unharmed heroes
with
all

or

everyone

sing,

n.,

everything

heroes,

i.e.

having

lost

none.

2b. common at beg. of cpds of an adj.: thus sarva-gunair 12 yuktas, for sarvair gunair yuktas, I 2 3 so cf. 10 15 w. 10 23 32 15 w. 32", cf.
all
;

[1298.]

instead

sarvagas,
together,
1106.]

adv.

wholly, altogether;

all

66

together,
a.

65 15

[sarva,
faultless,

51

22

w.

52 23
2c.

similarly 6

4
,

17
,

1-

9
,

21

23
,

sarvanavadya,
[anavadya, 1279 *.]

entirely

etc.

idam sarvam, 63 21
;

see

idam
2,

so for

66 19

sarvanavadyanga,
that both

a.

having an enesp.

observe

mgs,

and
;

are

tirely faultless

body,

[anga, 1298.]
of

common

to the

post-Vedic literature

that in

savana,

n.

pressing,

Soma.

Veda, sarva occurs only in mg 1, while for mg 2 the proper Vedic word is vigva, q.v.; but see 77 11 K.
the oldest parts

of

the

[Vlsu, 'press out.']

sa-vayas,
m. pi.
(like

a.

of like

strength or age;
'

fjAt/cej,

fi\iKiurai,

equals in

[cf.

o\os,

Epic

ov\os,

*oA.A.os,

*O'AFO-S,

age, comrades') comrades.

[3vayas.]

savarna]
sd-varna,
a.

[270]
1.

ternal appearance, exactly similar, 85 H ; 2. of the same caste, 62 7 [for rags,


.

having the same ex-

have, had

'
:

w. sahas, *sagh-as, cf the


.

Germanic stem
Goth. neut.
all

seg-oz,

as

it

appears in

siyis,
'

AS.
'

sigor,
;

see varna.]

meaning
in

victory

sa-vitana,
canopy.

a.

having a canopy, with a

also

Seges-tes,

name

prob. neuter, the stem appears of a Cheruscan

prince

savitf,

m. 1. (with the two mgs of 2. Eng. quickener) impeller, enlivener The Enlivener, Savitar, name of a god,
;

mund :
'

(Tacitus, Annals), and in Sigiscf. also AS. sige, Ger. Sieg,


1.

victory.']

+ ud,

hold out, endure;

2.

be

selection

xxxvi.

3.

the

sun,

23 13

sa-vinaya,".
politely.

[V2su, 'impel.'] with politeness


a.

able, w. inf. ; katham svartham utsahe, how can I (sc. do, prosecute) own

my
na

-am, adv.
1

object.

sa-vigesa,

possessing distinction, distinguished; -am, adv. in a distinguished

in

1. saha, common

adv. together; saha

etad,

ours

(is)

that,

i.e.

we'll

own

way, especially.

2. prep, with, along that together, 97 10 ; 16 8 with, w. instr., I , 89 [cf. 2sa, and
.

savya,

a.

left,

101 19, 102", 103 2


.

as m.

1104 3 .]
2

the left hand or foot, 60 5

[prob.

for

saha,

a.

1.

powerful

2.

enduring,

would appear fr. the Church patiently bearing. [Vsah.] Slavonic form suj, 'sinister'), and so per- saha-carin, 1. a. going together, ac2. as m. comrade, haps akin with trKaws, *<TKaFio-s, Lat. companying; [for

*syavya

(as

scaevus, 'left.']

2,

cf.

savyatha,
[sa

a.

with sorrow or trouble, with a turn to the

saha-jd,

sahaya.] a. born together, con-nate,


a.

in-

+ vyatha.]
a.

born, natural.
left, i.e.

savyavrt,

saha-bha sman,
saha-vatsa, a. saha-vahana,
sahas,
victory
i.e.)

with the ashes.


calf.

turning to the left, [avrt.] sa-gisya, a. with his pupils.


V
s

with the
a.

[1304c.]

having their
[1304c.]

teams

sas
asa
,

(sasti).

sleep, slumber.

along, with their teams.


n.
;

m. or

n.

herbs
o.

grass.

sasamdhya,
light,

with the morning twia.

u superior power; might, 75 sahasa, adv. (with violence,


;

[samdhya.]
with the evening

suddenly, straightway,

[see under

sa-samdhyanga,
twilight.

Vsah.]

sa-sambhrama,
sa-sarpa, a. with sasya, n. standing
field, grain,

a.

with excited haste.

a serpent.

sa-hasta, a. having hands. sahasya, a. powerful, [sahas, 1212dl.] sahasra, n. a thousand; esp. a thousand
kine
;

crop;
field

produce of the
of grain.

a thousand, in the sense of a great


' ; for constructions, see 486. one-thousand,' 3 sa + hasra : witl

[cf. sasa.]
n.

6 many, 87

sasya-ksetra,

[prop.