Metals are normally crystalline solids at room temperature,although there are some exceptions such as hydrogen(a gas) , gallium and mercury(liquids). Metals are noted for the ease with which they give up their valance elecrtons; this accounts for certain characteristics such as good electrical and thermal conductivity and the tendency for metals to form cations(positive ions) in solution;metals are also strong, lustrous and ductile.All metals have crystal lattice, it can be:cubic, body-centered cubic and face- centered cubic. Alloys:two or more metals that are mutually soluble in each other in the molten state. Liquidus temperature :the temperature below wich a metal is completely solid(i.e..the temperature at which it begins to melt.) Solidus temperature : the temperature above which a metal is completely melted . Grain: a single crystal of metal as seen in the metal‘s microstructure.Grain growthenlargement of grains by heating. Pure metals such as gold, silver are not used in prosthodontic(their relatively poor physical properties make them a poor choise for intraoral use). .Generally alloys are used in dentistry because alloying strengthens a metal. Grain refiner (‫:)מזקק‬a metal such as iridium that is added to a metal or alloy because of its high melting temperature.Since it remains solid while the rest of the metal is molten, its small particles act as seeds around which grains of the solidifyring metal form.This enhances the physical properties of the solid metal. Sag (‫)לשקוע‬deformation: of metal or alloy; for our discussion, this occurs at high temperatures such as during porcelain(‫ )חרסינה‬firing. Yield strength- the stress at which dislocation motion, permanent deformation begin. During solidification(i.e. when a metal or alloy goes from liquid to solid),the following process occurs: Random atoms to embroys(temporary nuclei) to nuclei to dendrites to grains.As the grains grow, they contact each other.The border or junction between them is called a grain boundary. Generally, a metal to bee used under intraoral conditions should have a fine-grained structure because it tends to be more resistant to permanent deformation. Smaller grain size can be achieved by rapidly cooling the molten metal and by inclusion of a grain-refiner such as iridium(as noted previously).When iridium is added in a small concentration(0.005%=50ppm), the tensile strength and ductility (‫)גמישות‬ increas.The is little, if any, effect on hardness and yield strength. Effects of some metals: Gold: melting temp.-1064˚C, increases resistance to tarnish (тускнеть) and corrosion,increases ductility and malleability; Copper: principal hardener, is necessary for heat treatment(when added in a concentratio>12wt%) Silver: melting temp.-960.5˚C; main purpose is to modify the red color produced by gold and copper,reduces melting temperature,increases ductility and malleability.

errosion. acts to absorb hydrogen gas which can cause porosity in the castting. reduces tarnish and corrosion. which improves castability. increases tensile strength. increases fluidity and decreases surface tension.ruthenium. palladium.Other names for oral galvanysm are galvanic mouth currents. osmium and iridium. and metal tension fields. ductility).Resistance to corrosion is criticaly important for a dental alloys because corrosion can lead to roughening (шероховатым) of the surface. and dentinal plasma.1773˚C.Liberation of elements can produce discoloratio of adjacent soft tissues and allergic reactions in susceptible patiens. and liberation of elements from the metal or alloy. and causing untold damage and ill health. Galvanic corossion: The potential difference that exist when two dissimilar metals are immersed (поглощенный) in a corosive or conductive solution is responsible for galvanic corrosion. even more galvanic currents will be created if a gold crown is . noble metals are added to an alloy to reduce its tendency to corrode.or a gold crown constructed as a final restoration.saliva. Passivating effect-Chromium is electrochemically active it reacts readily forming a layer of chromic oxide which protects the metal or alloy from further decomposition. rhodium. bone fluid. raises melting temperature. Titanium: derives corrosion resistance by forming a surface layer of titanium oxide.The infection and toxity that can indirectly result from this „battery effect “ in the mouth. “mouth battery“.The less-resistant(anodic) metal is corroded relative to the cathodic metal(it is called galvanic or electrolytic cell). platinum.For example.Pasive elements are: Cr. weakening of the restoration.or an amalgam buildup is installed .act as conductors for electrolytes(minerals that dissolve in a fluid medium into electrically charged ions). silently permeating the body. biological. has a very strong whitening effect on gold alloys even when used at a low concentration(i.Variuos fluids in the mouth. raises melting temperature. rendering us more vulnereble to inflammation and infection elsewhere in the body. as they cross-react with one another.All regulating events in the human body are communicated by electrical charges. any conflicting electrical charges that emanate from dissimilar metals in the oral cavity create an imbalance that can lead to pathogenicity. Palladium:melting temp.These include gold. crevice (трещина). to a much lesser degree(if at all).Therefore. Al and Ti. it also increases. stress corrosion. decreases the coefficient of thermal expantion.The difference of electrical potential created by two or more dissimilar metals in the mouth or even by a single metal that conflicts with the body‘s own bioelectrical current is called oral galvanism.Can be metalic pain or/and taste in the mouth too. prevents tarnish and corrosion.Commonly. This leads to a disruption of the body‘s own internal electrical currents.These problems are exacerbated by using different metals in the mouth. this increases tensile strength and percentage elongatio(i. hardness and yield strength. intergranular.e.Platinum: melting temp. which in turn has a negative impact on the functioning of the immune system. CORROSION Surface deterioration of a metal because of its interaction with the surrounding environmentis called corrosion.Whenever a non-precious metal post is placed in a root canal for reinforcement.e.5wt%) Zinc: acts as a scavenger and prevents oxidation of the other metals during the manufacturing process. measurable electrical currents emanate from that tooth.-1555˚C. increases hardness. There are many types of corosion: galvanic. pitting. Iridium: acts as a grain refiner. Chromium: it is included as a component of many alloys in order to improve corrosion resistance.

which creates a place where the passive film may break down.When such an alloy is exposed to oxiding media. gaskes surfaces. biocompatible material).Should be used only one kind of alloy in the mouth for avoiding „battery effect“.The metal then fails at a load far below its nominal mechanical strength. lap joints.Then the metal tries to grow a new layer via corrosion. Intergranular corrosion: It is the result of heating an alloy(e.This is called sensitation.e. Crevice corrosion: an intense localized corrosion frequently occurs within crevise and other shieled areas on metal surface exposed to corrosive attack. stainless steel) can suffer local(normally the grain boundaries) depletion of an essential element for corrosion protectio(e.e.Allergic reactions can be local and /or systemic. Biological corrosion: When the metalic surface is immersed in water a biofilm will being to form if there is any bacteria in the water. produces holes. leachable. causing systemic toxic responses.pits in the metal).Other methods for preventing pitting corrosion include reducing exposure to aggressive ions be shielding the part. metals and alloys used in the mouth should be polished to remove surface irregularities.(i.A biofilm is a microbial mass composed of aquatic bacteria.instaled.g. PROBLEMS OF METALS BIOTOLERATION Ideally.Crevice corrosion or concentration cell occurs in poorly gasketed flanges and under bolt heads and attachments components immersed in liquids. chromium).The gold being the most desirable choise as it does not readely oxidise. bacteria grow.To reduce corrrosion by this mechanism. mucosa.precious metal partial(a removable bridge) that contacts with gold crown. pulp and bone.It should contain no toxic.The biofilm begins when organic material is absorbed onto the surface of the metal.Use materials with alloying elements designed to minimize pitting susceptibility.They are called biomaterials.When the metal is mechanically stressed while being exposed to this environment(the stress can be also result from the fabrication process).and minimizing the effects of and exposure to corrosive factors of those design elements that must not be weakened by pitting. the corrosion proceeds along the grain boundaries and the alloy disintegrates into grain. followed by a non. Stress corrosion cracking(SCC) : Specific combinations of alloys and environment can lead SCC. It is important to use material that will not trigger an immune response(i.It is an especially insidious form of corrosion because in cause restorations to fail after only a small percentage of the designed for weight loss. which is removed again.Crevice corrosion like pitting could be very damaging because the destructive action is extremely localized. a dental material that is to be used in the oral cavity should be harmless to all oral tissues-gingiva. Titanium is used in implantology as it is inert and has a very high level of compatibility with human tissues. algae.This type of attack usually is associated with small volume of stagnant liquid at design details such as holes. which is enhanced by presence of oxidising chemicals. reducing the concentration of these ions in the environment surrounding the part. oxygen is exluded. or diffusible substance that san be absorbed into the circulatory system. Errosion.The material also should be free of agents that could elicite sensitication or an allergic response in a sensitized patient.Importan that the bone cells grow well around .This corrosion is caused by atacts of chlorides on a protective(passive) layer. including teratogenic or carcinogenic effects. Pitting corrosion: pitting is a form of extremely localized attack that produces damage characterized by surface cavities. or other micro-orgamizms. and crevices under bolt and rivet heads.corrosion: deterioration at an acceleated rate that is caused by relative movement between a corrosive fluid and metal surface.g.

There are seven noble metals but widely are used gold. that is they resist oxidation and are not attacked by acids . Nonpresious alloys are made from ignoble(base) metals(Co.Be. Palladium-based alloys have been reported as causative agents in cases of stomatitis. silver is usually a major ingredient in most alloys advertised as precious. Palladium allergy seems to occur in patients who are sensitive also to nickel. Si. platinum(other-Os. They usually contain a small amount of tin.Large amalgam particles that are embedded accidentally in the gingiva during placement of a restoration may elicit chronic inflammation. semiprecious and non-precious metals.Cr.dens hydroxyapatite. Allergy to gold-based restorations is reported more commonly than allergic reactions to nickelcontaining dental alloys. There is no known skin hazard connected with touching or handling solid forms of beryllium oxide. In dental advertisements precious usually refers to silver. palladium. lichenoid lessions. it is worth reviewing the terms high-noble.titanium plasma spray.silicium carbide. Au-Pd. Chromium-cobalt alloys have an excellent history of biocompatibility. Ir. a metal that is precious but not noble.Fe) Classification according to alloys composition: High -noble metals must have a noble metal content of at least 60%.The insertion of gold may result in pulpal reactions. dehydration of the cavity and micro leakage. The disadvantage of these alloys include their lower rigidity and poor sag resistance during porcelain firing. Au-Cu-Ag-Pd) Noble metals are defined on the basis of their chemical properties. and disseminated urticaria. oral lichenoid reactions.aluminium oxide. The alloys must contain at least .nickel. noble. Beryllium and cadmium (toxic metals) can be harmful too.chromium cobalt and berylium. DENTAL ALLOYS CLASSIFICATION: Before discussing alloys characteristics.These reactions iclude burning sensation of oral mucous membrane in contact with the gold alloy. This increases the alloy’s bond strength to porcelain. Dental amalgam can cause local soft tissues reaction. Ru. indium.Others biomaterials are used in imlpantology too:bioglass. of which at least 40% is gold. Classification according to the cost -precious. zirconium oxide. and general systemic reactions. Gold foil is a stable and relatively insoluble restorative material. although there are some reports of tissue sensitivity in a very limited population. It is very important for dental technicians. cavity preparation. Allergic reactions have been described for many of metals.There are patiens sensitized to gold may react to gold restorations. so called “berylliosis” is due exclusively with inhalation.implant. titanium nitrid.Pigmentation of oral mucosa is called „amalgam tattoo“An increased content of mercury has been observed in gingival biopsies from areas in close contact with amalgam. including palladium. There are three subclasses of high noble alloys(Au-Pt. Rh). tricalcium fosfate. base-metals .calcium fosfate ceramic. and in oral lichen planus lessions. and/or iron which provides for oxide layer formation. metallic beryllium or beryllium containing alloys. but these are generally thought to be caused by the conductivity. Approximately 10% of women and 1% of man are sensitive to nickel. The hazard associated with chronic beryllium disease.

and have twice as high an elastic modulus as do the high-noble and noble-metal alloys. Pd-Cu-Ga. copper-10%. removable partial dentures) The most commonly used type III which composition is:gold-75%. long-span fixed partial dentures. For removable partial dentures. zinc-2%. for removable partial denture frameworks.span fixed dentures will be more resistant to flexure. Gold. which can lead to porcelain fracture. crowns. They are used for full-cast and porcelain fused to metals restorations. Finally. they are less burnish able and more difficult to finish and polish than the high-noble and noblemetal alloys. They may be yellow or white in color. crowns) type III.ceramic purposes.fused –to. This latter property is advantageous because casting can be made thinner and still retain rigidity. They are more difficult to cast than non base-metal alloys because of their very high liquidus temperatures They also exhibit a greater casting shrinkage (about 2.3%)that must be compensated for because of their lower ductility and greater hardness. white copper . Alloys for removable partial dentures Gold.silver-10%. difficult to solder. But they have disadvantages too. As a group they are much harder.cast restorations 2.25% noble metal.hard( for inlays. their composition changes: gold content.metal restorations 3.two surface inlays) type II. and long. Co-Cr) Dental alloys classification according to the main element: • • • • • • Gold Palladium Silver Nickel Cobalt Titanium Dental alloys classification according to their use: 1. stronger. this means that porcelain need not be over-bulked for esthetics. There are three subclasses of noble alloys(Au-Cu-Ag-Pd.based alloys for full. Ni-Cr.There are three subclasses of base-metal alloys(Ni-Cr-Be. palladium-3%. As the gold-based full casting alloys go from type I to type IV. MOD.medium( for inlays. The base-metals alloys also have excellent sag resistance. Pa-Ag) Base-alloys contain less than 25% noble metal. beryllium and nickel can cause allergic reactions and may have carcinogenic effect . and can cause an allergic reaction in susceptible patients. greater rigidity is advantageous because major connectors can be made thinner(and therefore less objectionable to the patient) and still be rigid. short-span fixed partial dentures) type IV extra-hard( for crowns. and ductility decrease. They are more prone to corrosion under acid conditions. For metal. alloys for porcelain.based alloys classification according to physical properties: type I –soft(for casting subjects to non bearing stress or very slight stress bearig. temperature.

Corrosion resistance is excellent. Porcelain bond strength is also excellent. that contributes to strength and hardness.25-30%Cr. and improves grain structure. Titanium and titanium alloys • • • • • • • • These alloys differed from the gold-based alloys used for full-cast restorations in the following ways: 1.silver alloys(10-15%Ag.chromium alloys (60%Co.gallium ). copper because it could cause the alloy to sag during porcelain firing. iron. Alloys for removable partial dentures • • • Type IV gold. Gold. proportional limit.copper alloys(70%-80%-palladium. small amount of indium. tin. solder well and have the lowest sag tendency of the precious metal alloys. Nickel. if any. copper. So.5%Be).2%Al. silicon.9%. platinum.20-30% palladium)Disadvantagehave tendency to change the porcelain color(yellow-green) because of their silver content Palladium. enhances fluidity. aluminum. Corrosion resistance is excellent because of high nobility. Palladium-silver alloys (50-50%Pd)Good corrosion resistance.chromium-beryllium alloys Cobalt. restoration: • High gold alloys(74-88%-Au and total noble metals content is about 97%).0. Manganese and silicon enhance fluidity of the molten alloys. if any. and beryllium lowers the melting range.15%copper. Alloys for porcelain-fused.)They may also contain minor amount of molybdenum.palladium)Disadvantagethe silver free alloys tend to have lower expansion values than the silvercontaining group.content.based alloys Chromium-based alloys Cobalt-based alloys .expansion porcelains. silver which could cause the porcelain to turn green. gallium are added for strength and to promote a good porcelain bond to metal oxide. 50%. they had higher melting temperature(due to greater palladium content) to accommodate the temperatures required for porcelain application. gold palladium group thermal expansion is incompatible with some of the higher. Gold-palladium.They are extremely rigid and are used for full-cast and metal ceramic restorations.16%Cr. gallium. carbon. they contained little. and yield strength increase. contain little or no gold.which imparts corrosion resistance. Al and Ni form an intermetallic compound. they contain little. tensile strength.palladium alloys(no silver. iron. Nickel-chromium alloys (70%Ni. 2. 3.

The Cr.1-0.and Co.5%) for hardening.based alloys differed from metal-ceramic counterparts in that they contained a small amount of carbon(0.The type IV gold-based alloys were strong enough to function adequately when used to make frameworks. .

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