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Social network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of actors (such as individuals or organizations) and the dyadic ties between these actors (such as relationships, connections, or interactions). A social network perspective is employed to model the structure of a social group, how this structure influences other variables, or how structures change over time. The study of these structures uses methods in social network analysis to identify influential nodes, local and global structures, and network dynamics. Social networks are distinct from information, biological, or electrical networks, but theories and methods generalizing to all of these complex networks are studied in the field of network science. Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations." Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships as structures in which people were points and the relationships between them were drawn as connecting lines. These approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s.
1 Overview 2 Background 3 Levels of analysis 3.1 Micro level 3.1.1 Actor level 3.1.2 Dyadic level 3.1.3 Triadic level 3.1.4 Subset level 3.2 Meso level 3.2.1 Organizations 3.2.2 Randomly-distributed networks 3.2.3 Scale-free networks 3.3 Macro level 3.3.1 Large-scale networks 3.3.2 Complex networks 4 Theory clusters 4.1 Communications 4.2 Community 4.3 Complex Networks 4.4 Criminal networks 4.5 Diffusion of innovations 4.6 Demography 4.7 Economic sociology 4.8 Health care 4.9 Human ecology 4.10 Language/Linguistics
15/05/12 Social network . Thus. see differentiation). economics. social psychology. singular or in combination.wikipedia. commonly translated as "community") or impersonal. The nodes through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. from the local to the global as well as the scale-free. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social Evolution graph of a social network: phenomena should be primarily conceived and investigated through Barabási model. and sociolinguistics. organizations.1 Organizations 8. formal.2 Peer-reviewed journals 8. German. necessarily. sociology. Precisely because many different types of relations. network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions. organizational studies. information science. communication studies. these fields of study include. groups. relational. the free encyclopedia 4. Scholars in these and other areas have used the idea of "social network" loosely for almost a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social units across all scales of analysis. Many kinds of relationships may form the "network" between such nodes.org/wiki/Social_network 2/10 . both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadow the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. links.11 Organizational Studies 4. biology. the properties of relations between and within units. form into a network configuration. instead of the properties of these units themselves.Wikipedia. The theoretical approach is. or even entire societies (social units. The ties (sometimes called edges. or connections) in the structure are called "nodes". but are not limited to anthropology. although this is not the case in practice (see agent-based modeling).3 Textbooks and educational resources 8. Social network approaches are useful for modeling and explaining many social phenomena. In social science. Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the en. geography. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (Gemeinschaft. commonly translated as "society").4 Data sets Overview A social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals. and instrumental social links (Gesellschaft. In the late 1800s.12 Social capital 4. Background Some of the ideas of social network theory are found in writings going back to the ancient Greeks. but interpersonal "bridges" are a defining characteristic of social networks. German. one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is essentially ignored.13 Structural Holes 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links 8.
Such Self-organization of a network. and mathematics working independently. Alfred Radcliffe-Brown. the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius. Actorcentered network analysis often centers on network characteristics such as centrality. the early (1930s) work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure.org/wiki/Social_network 3/10 . emergent. and macro-level. Barnes. Jacob L. often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed. Levina. However. drawing upon Parsons' theory. In anthropology. meso-level or middle-range. Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks. and Claude Lévi-Strauss. may be targeted to analyzing (2011) specific types of relationships and be scale-free. Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology. writing at the turn of the twentieth century.. of persons whose relationships are to be analyzed fall within a specific scale or. Micro level At the micro-level. the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory.e. & Timme. such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system. a global network analysis of. including John A. snowballing as social relationships are traced. pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely-knit networks rather than groups. anthropology. A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School. and complex. all interpersonal relationships in the world—or even one global region—is not feasible and is likely to contain so much information as to be uninformative. an "actor". especially classrooms and work groups (see sociometry). Later. based analyses can be delimited according to theory such that a specific set on Nagler. a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. Levels of analysis Main article: Social network analysis In general. In sociology.Wikipedia. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups. These patterns become more apparent as network size increases. In psychology. i. social networks are analyzed by the number and type of relationships relevant to the researcher's theoretical question. there are three general levels into which networks may fall: micro-level. for example. the free encyclopedia properties of individual actors. again according to theory. Georg Simmel.15/05/12 Social network . social network research typically begins with an individual. J. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations.wikipedia. Actor level The smallest unit of analysis in a social network is an individual in their social setting. By the latter 1900s. Thus. in the 1930s. or may begin with a small group of individuals in a particular social context. prestige and roles such as en. social networks are self-organizing.
partnerships. There are a variety of legal types of organizations. charities. the free encyclopedia isolates.Wikipedia. meso-level theories begin with a population size that falls between the micro. armed forces. as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network en. Social network diagram.org/wiki/Social_network 4/10 . Randomly-distributed networks Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the 1980s. homophily and attributebased activity and popularity effects. but may crossover into the meso-level of analysis. Network research on organizations may focus on either intraorganizational or inter-organizational ties in terms of formal or informal relationships. and tendencies toward reciprocity. Meso-level networks are low density and may exhibit causal processes distinct from interpersonal micro-level networks. micro-level. social equality.and macro-levels. group actions or behavior. Research at this level may concentrate on factors such as balance and transitivity. and bridges.and macro-levels. Meso level In general.15/05/12 Social network . liaisons. and universities. governments. cohesive subgroups. as well as social equality and tendencies toward reciprocity. or other group action. cliques. meso-level becomes a mixture of a government and a corporate organization. However. ethnographic kinship analysis or other genealogical studies of relationships between individuals. sometimes referred to as ego-centric or ego networks. meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro. Network research on dyads may concentrate on structure of the relationship. As a result the hybrid organization Social network diagram. are most commonly used in the fields of psychology or social pyschology. Organizations Formal organizations are social groups that distribute tasks for a collective goal. This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks. a dyad is a social relationship between two individuals. and at the node-level. Subset level research may focus on distance and reachability. and you have a triad. Such analyses. international organizations. non-governmental organizations. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector. cooperatives. Subset level Subset levels of network research problems begin at the micro-level. Dyadic level Simply put. simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. Triadic level Add one individual to a dyad.wikipedia. including: corporations. not-for-profit corporations. including general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity.
Another general characteristic of scale-free networks is the clustering coefficient distribution. macro-level analyses generally trace the outcomes of interactions. Note the networks have some common characteristics. One notable "hubs" in the scale-free diagram (on characteristic in a scale-free network is the relative commonness of the right). Macro level Rather than tracing interpersonal interactions.15/05/12 Social network .Wikipedia. These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micro-networks. primarily. do not show these features. as do biological. however. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity. such as economic or other resource transfer interactions over a large population. and may serve specific purposes in their networks.org/wiki/Social_network 5/10 . The highestdegree nodes are often called "hubs". Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution. such as lattices and random graphs.wikipedia. Complex networks Diagram: section of a large-scale Most larger social networks display features of social complexity. complexity science. see network motif). although this depends greatly on the social context. triad significance profile (TSP. the free encyclopedia ties. in social and behavioral sciences. Parameters are given in terms of the prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network emerges. Originally. The Barabási model of network evolution shown above is an example of a scale-free network. and technological networks. In network theory a scale-free ideal network is a random network with a degree distribution that unravels the size distribution of social groups. assortativity or disassortativity among vertices. scale-free 32 nodes and 32 links. vertices with a degree that greatly exceeds the average. dynamical system and chaos theory). a high clustering coefficient. allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social behavior. In contrast. Scale-free networks A scale-free network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law. at least asymptotically. the term was used extensively in the computer sciences (see large-scale network mapping). Specific Examples of a random network and a characteristics of scale-free networks vary with the theories and scale-free network. social network which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology. community structure. Each graph has analytical tools used to create them. with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random (see. This distribution also follows a power law. which decreases as the node degree increases. and hierarchical structure. in economics. in general. and other features. Theory clusters en. many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past. Large-scale networks Large-scale network is a term somewhat synonymous with "macrolevel" as used.
Andrew Papachristos has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. psychology. anthropology. Complex Networks Complex networks require methods specific to modelling and interpreting social complexity and complex adaptive systems. This line of research seeks to explain why some become "early adopters" of ideas and innovations. such as Mark Granovetter. price.org/wiki/Social_network 6/10 . respondent driven sampling is a network-based sampling technique that relies on respondents to a survey recommending further respondents. More narrowly. Barnes' day. ability to punish or reward. information. information science. literary studies. because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation. biology. have developed core principles about the interactions of social structure. and attended church with whom. Granovetter examines how social structures and social networks can affect economic outcomes like hiring. Community In J. a "community" referred to a specific geographic location and studies of community ties had to do with who talked. productivity and innovation and describes sociologists’ contributions en. the study of social networks has led to new sampling methods for estimating and reaching populations that are hard to enumerate (for example. homeless people or intravenous drug users.A. Diffusion of innovations Diffusion of ideas and innovations studies focus on the spread and use of ideas from one actor to another or one culture and another. Sociologists. and economics as well as rhetoric.) For example. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source. however. the free encyclopedia Communications Communication Studies are often considered a part of both the social sciences and the humanities. and can thus be conceived of in terms of a network.15/05/12 Social network . drawing heavily on fields such as sociology. Demography In demography. there are extended "online" communities developed through telecommunications devices and social network services. also make extensive use of such methods. Economic sociology The field of sociology focuses almost entirely on networks of outcomes of social interactions. Community development studies. Criminal networks In criminology and urban sociology. much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. and semiotics. Today. traded. associated. political science. Many communications concepts describe the transfer of information from one source to another. economic sociology considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets". today. but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength. For example. often using network science methods.wikipedia. including techniques of dynamic network analysis. and links social network structure with facilitating or impeding the spread of an innovation.Wikipedia. and trust that frequently recur in their analyses of political. Such devices and services require extensive and ongoing maintenance and analysis. economic and other institutions.
from one language system to another through networks of social interaction. disease prevention. not only in epidemological studies but also in models of patient communication and education. anthropology. because of lack of knowledge of language). Social capital Social capital is a sociological concept which refers to the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to achieve positive outcomes. economics. reaping a reward from mediating trade between the communities. and is sometimes referred to as an alternate conception of social capital (above).g. and other resource transfers.org/wiki/Social_network 7/10 . Studies show that there a positive relationship between social capital and the intensity of social network use. This concept was developed by sociologist Ronald Burt. They can also act as brokers. and built environments. mental health diagnosis and treatment. and natural ecology. Human ecology Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural.Wikipedia. as groups of people add and/or abandon languages to their repertoire. For example. Finding and exploiting a structural hole can give an entrepreneur a competitive advantage. particularly evolutionary linguistics. focus on the development of linguistic forms and transfer of changes. the free encyclopedia to analyzing the impact of social structure and networks on the economy. See also Social relation Interpersonal relationship Social group Social network analysis en.15/05/12 Social network .wikipedia.. psychology. For example. newly arrived immigrants can make use of their social ties to established migrants to acquire jobs they may otherwise have trouble getting (e. economic sociology. Language/Linguistics Studies of language and lingustics. The scientific philosophy of human ecology has a diffuse history with connections to geography. social. a unique combination of business ties can allow them to combine expertise from two otherwise disconnected fields to create novel products. sounds or words. Social networks are also important in language shift. Structural Holes Structural holes refer to the absence of ties between two parts of a network. organizational communication. Health care Analysis of social networks is increasingly incorporated into heath care analytics. Organizational Studies Research studies of formal or informal organizational relationships. and in the study of health care organizations and systems. The term refers to the value one can get from their social ties. zoology. sociology.
Jon (2010). ISBN 978-0-521-19533-1. Paris: F. 3. 56(4): 579–605. the free encyclopedia Semiotics of social networking Social media Social networking Social web Network society Social complexity Complex networks Dynamic network analysis Network theory Network science References 1. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Bronislaw (1913). ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978521382694|978521382694]]. Peter (1960). 19. Gerald F.1126%2Fscience. Crowds. London: University of London Press. doi:10. CA: Sage Publications. Science 323 (5916): 892–895. John P. Linton (2004). ^ Savage. Mehra.15/05/12 Social network . Empirical Press. Emile (1893). ^ Freeman.) 9.wikipedia. Richard. 16. Leipzig: Fues's Verlag. Social Network Analysis: A Handbook (2nd edition). John (1954). and Barry Wellman (1995).Wikipedia. Alcan. Labianca. The Family Among the Australian Aborigines: A Sociological Study. 7. 1–20." The Sociological Review. Giuseppe (2009). David. Boston: Beacon Press. J. 14. (2000). W. 1957 by Charles Price Loomis as Community and Society. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. "A Theory of Social Integration. ^ a b c Scott. Exchange and Power in Social Life. 12. Talcott ( 1949). pp. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. Alfred Reginald (1930) The social organization of Australian tribes. "Elizabeth Bott and the formation of modern British sociology.) 8. Claude (1967). Thousand Oaks. Ajay. 11. 1969 by J. De la division du travail social: étude sur l'organisation des sociétés supérieures.1165821 (http://dx. Stanley. 5. New York: Free Press. by Lewis A. ^ Lévi-Strauss. "Networks In and Around Organizations". 2. Soziologie. Inc. Kleinberg. 1969. 20. and R. Linton C. Mouton et Co. and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World. (7): 39-58." The American Journal of Sociology. Les structures élémentaires de la parenté.. NY: The Free Press. 18. 17. ^ Durkheim. "A note on the ancestoral Toronto home of social network analysis. (Translated. 4. Networks. Georg (1908). ^ Blau. ^ Barnes. Peter (1964). Australia: University of Sydney Oceania monographs. R. von Sturmer. (2003). Bell. 1–27. Brass. NY: The Free Press. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft.1. Paris: La Haye. 10. Daniel J. H. ^ Tönnies. ^ Freeman.doi. "Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish. "Social Network Analysis in the Social and Behavioral Sciences". The Structure of Social Action: A Study in Social Theory with Special Reference to a Group of European Writers. "Overview".1126/science. Pearson Prentice Hall. ^ Parsons. ^ Simmel. 15. ^ Malinowski. ISBN 1-59457-714-5. Needham.) 13. Sydney. New York. 1964. pp." Human Relations. Coser as The Division of Labor in Society. The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Davis. as The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Peter (1956). (Translated. ^ Blau. ^ Easley.." Connections. Organizations and Organizing.org/10. (Translated.org/wiki/Social_network 8/10 . 18(2): 15-19. Bureaucracy in Modern Society. ^ Scott. Mike (2008).1165821) . Talcott (1951). New York. Ferdinand (1887). Cambridge University Press. (65)6: 545-556 . ISBN 0-13-195893-3. Faust. Cambridge University Press. No. ^ Borgatti. 6. New York: Random House. ^ Parsons. Katherine (1994). ^ Blau. The Social System. (May). ^ a b Wasserman. "Network Analysis in the Social Sciences". Stephen P. ^ Radcliffe-Brown. en.
Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge University Press. (1988). Jan. (2011). Kee (2009). Albert-László (2003). ISBN 1-59457-714-5.1103/PhysRevE. André A. Rickard Sandell. Oxford University Press. Cambridge. ^ Newman. ^ Wellman.. Charles (2012). Henrich (2010). José S. ^ Levy.org/issues/view.doi. Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. Skyler J.uk/users/hedstrom/ajs3. (2004).) (2010). 19(1): 33-50 (http://www. 31.php?sf=48) 34. arXiv:cond-mat/0603272 (http://arxiv. ^ Cranmer. Costa Filho. ^ Ernstson. Kerk F. 106(1): 145–72. S. George A. Watts (2006). "Structural analysis: From method and metaphor to theory and substance. Kadushin." The Journal of Economic Perspectives. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Plum. and Findings. and Participation". Valenzuela. External links Organizations en.”Mesolevel Networks and the Diffusion of Social Movements: The Case of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Jr.wikipedia. ISBN 978-0-452-28439-5. ISBN 978-0-19-537946-4. and Bruce A. Further reading Wellman. "Exploring complex networks. "Special Issue: Social network analysis in natural resource governance." Nature. 19-61 in B. ^ Nagler. 33.org/abs/cond-mat/0603272) . ^ Granovetter.nuffield.org/stable/4134991) 32. ^ Granovetter. Paula. 23. 30. The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Beatrice and Klaus Hubacek (eds. 26. Barry (2008).1103%2FPhysRevE.) Social Structures: A Network Approach. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14 (4): 875-901. and Charlotta Stern (2000). Mark. The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity).ox. 48. John (1991). SAGE. (2001). Desmarais (2011). (http://www. Freeman." Ecology and Society. Mark (2005). Cambridge University Press. "Introduction for the French Reader. and everyday life. MA: JAI Press. ^ Barabási. 410: 268-276.jstor. Anna Levina and Marc Timme (2011).065101 (http://dx. ISBN 978-1-4129-7911-5. Oxford: Princeton University Press.D. 24.15/05/12 Social network . Barry (1988). Physical Review E 73 (6). Social Networks and Health. 25. ^ Crona. Demétrius R. Linton C. Katherine (1994).065101) . NY: Plum. science.org/wiki/Social_network 9/10 . Andrade. Wasserman. Linked: How everything is connected to everything else and what it means for business." Pp. Concepts. Judith and Bernice Pescosolido (2002). Albert-László Barabási and Duncan J.Peter. "Impact of single links in competitive percolation." Resilience Science (http://rs." Nature Physics. D.ac. Wellman and S. (http://www. ^ Moreira. Barnett. Stanley. 28. Empirical Press. and everyday life. "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes. Faust. Trust. Scott. Namsu Park. New York." Sociologica 2: 1–8 22. 19(1): 66-86. Mark (2007).”American Journal of Sociology. ^ Wellman. ^ Sebastián. Social Network Analysis: a handbook. Berkowitz. "Inferential Network Analysis with Exponential Random Graph Models. Albert-László (2003). ^ Strogatz.org/10. Barry. 37: 221-222. Berkowitz (eds." Contemporary Sociology. the free encyclopedia 21.ecologyandsociety. "Reading list: Using social network analysis (SNA) in social-ecological studies. ISBN 0-521-24441-2. Linked: how everything is connected to everything else and what it means for business. 7: 265-270. 29. (2006).org/2010/11/03/reading-list-using-social-network-analysis-sna-in-socialecological-studies/) 35. doi:10. Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. Barabási.Wikipedia." Political Analysis. ISBN 978-0-7619-6338-7. Steven H. Boston. "Review: The development of social network analysis: A study in the sociology of science. ^ Hedström. Understanding Social Networks: Theories. UK: Cambridge University Press.resalliance. SAGE. science.73.pdf) 27. Encyclopedia of Social Networks. "Competitive cluster growth in complex networks". Raimundo N. ISBN 978-0-521-38269-4. "Is There Social Capital in a Social Network Site?: Facebook Use and College Students' Life Satisfaction.73.
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