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ISSN 0974-5904

October 2009

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering
Indexed in Chemical Abstracts – CAS Ref. No.: 172238

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International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering
The International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering (IJEE) is a referred Journal focusing on Earth sciences and Engineering with emphasis on earth sciences and engineering. Applications of interdisciplinary topics such as engineering geology, geoinstrumentation, geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering, mining engineering, rock engineering, blasting engineering, petroleum engineering, off shore and marine geotechnology, geothermal energy, resource engineering, water resources and engineering, geochemical engineering, environmental engineering. Specific topics covered include earth sciences and engineering applications, RS, GIS, GPS applications in earth sciences and engineering, geo-hazards such as earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, debris flows and subsidence, rock/soil improvements and development of models validations using field and lab measurements.

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SHIVAPUR. K. and S. NAZEER. GOLAM MOSTOFA M. A. MAHARANI.5 EDITORIAL NOTE Innovations in Composite Materials and Structural Design By SHAMSHER BAHADUR SINGH RESEARCH PAPERS Interferometry SAR for landslide Hazard Assessment in Garhwal Himalaya. K. RAJEEVA 441-449 433-440 424-432 416-423 403-415 396-402 389-395 . THIRUNAVUKKARASU. M. SHANKAR. RAJENDRAN. Bangladesh By CHOWDHURY QUAMRUZZAMAN. POOVALINGA GANESH K. VENKATESH and RAVIRAJ H. RAJAMANICKAM and S. FARHAD HOWLADAR and FARID AHMED Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai. B. MATTUR C. Tamil Nadu. MULANGI Investigations on Chloride Diffusion of Silica fume High-Performance Concrete By M.K. SWAIN Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Performance of a Horizontal Plate Breakwater By SUBBA RAO. CHAMPATI RAY Surface Subsidence Prediction in Barapukuria Coal Mine Dinajpur.INDEX Volume 02 October 2009 No.V. KIRAN G. India By A. RAJA Proterozoic Kolhan Sedimentation in Chaibasa-Noamundi Basin – A Review By SMITA S. India By VIVEK KUMAR SINGH and P. NARASIMHAN. ROOBIN V. SHIRLAL. Dharmapuri District.M. B. S. VARGHESE AND PRASHANTH S Yield Studies on Neersagar Reservoir and its Catchment By ANAND V.

A and GOVINARAJAN.ii News and Notes Solid Waste Management and Engineered Landfills Nuclear Minerals . M 458-466 BOOK REVIEW Geological Remote Sensing Review by S.R. C. VISWANATHAN and G. VENKATA RAMAN i . K. SENTHIL KUMAR 450-457 Effects on Rate of Degradation in Vegetable Solid Waste Composting in a Rotary in-vessel with Varying Periods of Rotational Spells By MONSON C.Role of Silica Fume and GGBS on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete By K. SUBRAMANIAN AND S.R. CHINNARAJU. MURUGAPPAN.x .Uranium Discovery of water molecules in the polar regions of the moon Forthcoming seminars/ symposiums/ technical meets ii – ii iii – iv iv – v vi .

prestressing steel tendons were facing durability concerns over time. Prestressing techniques are widely accepted for the higher load carrying capacity and aesthetic appearance of the structures. Construction of roads.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904 CAS Ref. A special issue of International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering (IJEE) and CURIE Journal will publish selected peer reviewed papers presented in International Conference on Advances in Concrete. dams. Introduction of multilayer prestressed tendons for bridge girders has shown bright and innovative design approaches to achieve higher ductility and possible constructions. The multilayer prestressing pattern is consisting of pre-tensioning of bonded tendons and post-tensioning of external un-bonded tendons. High Performance Concrete and most importantly Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) are some of the newly developed concretes and / or composites for special infrastructure. Prestressing applications of FRP materials involve highly fundamental designs and executions. The theoretical design philosophy of multilayer tendon prestressed bridge girders are based on balanced ratio which classifies the beams into under and over-reinforced sections. India. Michigan. buildings.ac. 2009 at Birla Institute of Technology and Science. The advances in the field of concrete. October 2009 . Further. India E-mail: sbsingh@bits-pilani. Critical problems arise during design and construction with the presence of earthquake and other natural calamities. both FRP and concrete are brittle in nature and when it comes to prestressed concrete structures. Non-metallic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) can overcome such durability concerns. Southfield. Structural and Geotechnical Engineering (ACSGE 2009) held during Oct 25th to 27th.in In general. Pilani. However. 5. bridges and other important infrastructures are always crucial. Rajasthan-333031. Self Consolidated Concrete. structural and geotechnical engineering are enormous over many decades. civil engineering plays a vital part in human civilization. Early days investigations on utilization of FRP materials concluded that the FRP reinforced beams have shown less ductile failure. Rajasthan. the bridge girders are prestressed with CFRP tendons in vertically distributed multiple layers. This editorial note presents recent progress in advanced composite materials used for sustainable infrastructure construction and fiber-composite industry and the themes of the ACSGE 2009 which effectively covers these recent advances in associated fields. The combination of pre-tensioned and post-tensioned tendons will increase the load carrying capacity and ductility significantly due to progressive failure mechanism. No. USA. Volume 2. Concrete structures started using fiber based reinforcements in the place of steel reinforcements for higher durability and ductility.: 172238 Innovations in Composite Materials and Structural Design SHAMSHER BAHADUR SINGH Group leader of Civil Engineering Group Birla Institute of Technology and Science. Pilani. CFRP materials can be used as externally tensioned FRP tendons. No. In this method of design. The multilayer CFRP prestressing technology has been successfully employed in the construction of Bridge Street Bridge. ductility becomes a point of concern. Ultra High Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Multilayer CFRP Prestressing Technology Advantages such as high strength to weight ratio and non-corrodible characteristics made advance composite materials as potential construction materials in recent past. Moreover.

Innovations in Composite Materials and Structural Design Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) In general. overall strength. polymeric fiber and plasticizer. PE-ECC and PVA-ECC use short discontinuous arbitrarily oriented Polyethylene (PE) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibers. with multiple microcracks during the inelastic deformation. It is natural that the pseudo-tensile strain hardening behavior of ECC will increase the moment carrying capacity of the beam section. The use of PEECC and PVA-ECC consisting of polymeric fibers eliminates the durability concerns to the greater extent. In uni-axial loading. yielding behavior of structural steel provides enough ductility to reinforced concrete structures over normal loadings. In addition. these structures need more inherent ductility to withstand the failure load and prolong the service life. The ECC can be used as a primary construction material at plastic hinges and beam-column joints. to reduce the cost and to increase the material greenness fly-ash can be added by replacing cement upto 60%. the 3-D Tsai-Hill criterion is used to predict the failure of a lamina while the Editorial Note . design and construction. stability. SIFCON and SIMCON use steel fibers to reinforce cement matrix. cutout aspect ratio and location of cutout on pre-buckling and postbuckling responses. fiber breaks or delamination.5-3%. failure loads and failure characteristics of (+45/-45/0/90)2s. the effects of edge boundary conditions on buckling and failure loads and maximum transverse deflection associated with failure loads for a (+45/-45/0/90)2s quasiisotropic laminate with and without cutout have also been investigated. fuel lines. Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON). Hence. Moreover. The presence of these cutouts forms free edges in the composite laminates. it requires innovative design approaches which can directly relate the micromechanical parameters to structural analysis. Typically ECC is cast using cement. All these high performance cement composite materials show a unique behavior ‘pseudo tensile strain hardening’ which is directly related to ductility of the structures. Due to practical requirements cutouts are often required in composite structural panels. the steel fiber poses durability concerns. The ductile detailing of reinforcement helps in preventing concrete from its brittle cracking behavior. and failure characteristics of composite panels with cutouts are some of the important parameters for an improved design of structures fabricated with laminated panels. In uni-axial tension and bending. respectively to reinforce cement matrix with typical fiber volume fraction of 1. (+45/-45)4s and (0/90)4s laminates with square/rectangular cutouts under uni-axial compression. and to reduce the overall weight of the aircraft. Typically. such as in wing spars and cover panels of aircraft structures and bridge decks to provide access for hydraulic lines. electrical lines. ECC shows ultra-high tensile strain capacity (3%-7%). Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) is cement based high ductile composite material. however. Among these innovative composites. Thus. both of these composites exhibit pseudo-tensile strain hardening which improves multipurpose performances. Postbuckling Response and Failure of Symmetric Laminated Plates with Square Cutouts under Uni-axial Compression Composite laminates can sustain a much higher load after the occurrence of localized damage such as matrix cracking. A recent investigation is conducted by the author on the effects of rectangular cutout size. which in turn cause high interlaminar stresses leading to loss of stiffness and premature failure of laminates due to onset of delamination Therefore. Above mentioned serious ductility related concerns can be solved to a better extent by using ductile concrete materials such as Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON). Polyethylene Engineered Cementitious Composite (PE-ECC) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Engineered Cementitious Composite (PVA-ECC) in structural constructions. Applications of ECC are much more beneficial to brittle concrete structures reinforced with FRP materials. damage inspection. But during earthquake excitation and heavy impact loading conditions every structure undergoes large deformations. sand. In these investigations. ECC can be very useful for rehabilitation of deficient structures with enhanced ductility. However. water.

In addition. Structural and Geotechnical Engineering (ACSGE 2009) to be held during Oct 25th to 27th. Thus. India.) without that the organization of this event has not been so effective. India and also wishes a grand success of ACSGE 2009 with co-operation of one and all participating in the conference. Therefore. Pilani. Hence. slope stabilization Geosynthetics – Materials and applications Geoenvironmental Engineering Numerical modeling – Geomechanics and under ground structures Applications of FEM. failure loads. etc Geotechnical instrumentation Ground improvement techniques. Furthermore. the author wants to emphasize the association of various office bearers and editorial board of International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering (CAFETINNOVA Technical Society. the effects of boundary conditions on buckling load. design and management Rehabilitation/Retrofitting of structures Offshore structures. there is always a need for the researchers and the practising engineers working in the broad field of concrete technology. Bridge Structures Structural Design and Low Cost Housing Retaining structures Seismology and Ground motion studies • • • • Soil . irrespective of boundary conditions. construction. solved and extended for use in the context of soil-structure interaction. structural and geotechnical engineering. it is imperative for all designers and structural analysts to use and incorporate the latest developments in materials technology (especially composites) and design approaches for economical and efficient design of composites structures in general and high performance concrete structures with and without FRP (fiber-reinforced polymer) reinforcements in particular. failure modes and maximum transverse deflection for a (+45/-45/0/90)2s laminate with and without cutout have also been predicted.Liquefaction. and other uncertainties. Pilani is organizing an International Conference on Advances in Concrete. structural and geotechnical engineering. structural materials and geometry. Rajasthan. to keep abreast of the latest trends and developments in these fields with the aim of updating their analytical and practical skills. it has been observed that the location of cutout in the practical structural laminates has significant effect on the pre buckling and postbuckling strength. Many problems in structural and geotechnical engineering are looked upon. Civil Engineering Group of Birla Institute of Science and Technology (commonly known as BITS). microzonation.structure interaction Geohazards . Moreover. the various technical contributions from eminent experts of the fields related to innovative materials and structures. soft soil stabilization. the expansions in contemporary infrastructure depend mainly on the technological developments in the concrete science. 2009 at Birla Institute of Technology and Science. Also. Editorial Note . The author hopes that all delegates and resource scientists will have wonderful time at BITS Pilani. Rajasthan. The main themes of this International conference covering the above aspects and objectives of the conference are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • Advanced composite materials Composite structures Concrete Technology Low Cost Housing Sustainability of construction. and infrastructures will give immense exposure and opportunity to young scientists to enrich their technical knowledge and know-how of the latest developments in analysis and design aspects of innovative structures.SHAMSHER BAHADUR SINGH onset of delamination is predicted by the inter-laminar failure criterion. modes of failure and general failure characteristics. Nano Technology in Civil Engineering • • • • To conclude. It is concluded that square laminates with small square cutouts have more postbuckling strength than without cutout. landslides.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 02, No. 05, October 2009, pp. 389-395

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Interferometry SAR for landslide Hazard Assessment in Garhwal Himalaya, India
VIVEK KUMAR SINGH* and P. K. CHAMPATI RAY**
*Jharkhand Space Applications Center, Department of Information Technology, Govt. of Jharkhand, Ranchi, India **Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, ISRO, Department of Space, Dehradun Email: vivekearth@gmail.com, champati_ray@iirs.gov.in Abstract: Landslides are a major geological hazard in Garhwal Himalayas, since they are widespread dynamic processes that cause damage, and even loss of life, every year. Development of urban areas, Highway construction and expanded land use in Garhwal Himalaya mountain regions has increased the incidence of landslide disasters. The enormous damage caused by landslides can be reduced by means of monitoring systems used for mitigation strategies. Monitoring systems help to forecast the evolution of an area, analyze the kinematics and geometry of failures, and define the history of a failed slope. Conventional monitoring techniques, such as inclinometers, extensometers or GPS provide information on accessible points throughout landslide areas. Space borne or ground-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry has been shown to be an effective complementary tool for landslide monitoring. The present study illustrates some current and potential uses of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) for landslide assessment in Garhwal Himalaya. Keywords: Landslide, InSAR, DInSAR, DEM, Himalaya Introduction: The Himalayas are undergoing constant rupturing in the thrust belt zone in the Garhwal Himalayas, due to which earthquake and mass movement activity is triggered. These processes of mass movement and landslides have been constantly modifying the landscape. Landslides are one of 'the indicators of the geomorphological modifications taking place in this active and fragile terrain. InSAR techniques can be applied to detect and measure ground deformation, provided that the topographic phase contribution is removed from a sufficiently long time span interferogram in which interferometric phase surface displacement is recorded. This involves the generation and subtraction of the so-called synthetic interferogram, and leads to Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR). It can be done either by exploiting an a priori DEM (two-pass technique) or by using a Tandem or short temporal baseline “topographic” Interferogram (three-pass and four-pass techniques, with or without phase unwrapping of the Interferogram (Zebker et Massonnet et al., 1996). “topographic” al., 1994b;

SAR Interferometry exploits the differences in phase between two complex SAR images. With space-borne systems the two SAR images are acquired at different times and with different viewing angles in order to retrieve a three-dimensional model of the scene imaged, or if there are any, the ground deformations that occurred over the elapsed time. Data acquired by SAR systems can provide 3D terrain models and be used to assist in regional scale investigations, e.g. aimed at evaluation of susceptibility of slopes to failure. Under favorable environmental conditions, the innovative Permanent Scatterers (PS) technique, which overcomes several limitations of conventional SAR differential interferometry (DInSAR) applications in landslide studies, is suitable for monitoring slope deformations with mill metric precision.

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Interferometry SAR for landslide Hazard Assessment in Garhwal Himalaya, India Geological Setup: The Garhwal Himalaya is located at the western end of the central Himalaya in the northern India and is situated in a seismic gap along the Main Central thrust that separates the lesser Himalaya to the South from the Greater Himalaya to the North (Valdiya, 1988). Physiographically the area around Chamoli shows a matured topography which has undergone rejuvenation resulting in a combination of highly dissected topography with valleys showing vertical walls and scarps in the lower parts and gently sloping concave hill tops in the upper wider parts. The area is drained by the river Alaknanda and its tributaries, viz. Patal Ganga, Garur Ganga & Birahi Ganga. Geologically, the area is transected by Grahwal Lesser Himalaya and the Central Crystallines, which are separated along the Main Central Thrust. Main Central Thrust (MCT) thrust locally strikes NW-SE and dips 15-200 N. the Quartzites are well exposed at Chamoli and extended 2-3 km to the northeast and are replaced by limestone and Slate sequences of the Pipalkoti Window. The present study area consists mainly of the alternate bands of Slate and Dolomite which is also known as Carbonate suite of Chamoli (figure 2). The Carbonate suite of Chamoli consists of alternating sequence of Slates and Dolostones and massive dolostone that forms the doubly plunging, Pipalkoti anticline. It is thrust over by the thick Quartzites of Gulabkoti and the Chinka formations, which in their own turn are thrust upon by the Central crystallines along the main central Thrust.

The proposed study is being carried out in the Alaknanda river catchment in Garhwal Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India. The study area lies in the Chamoli district of Garhwal Himalaya, covering places like and Badrinath, Lambagarh, Joshimath, Patal Ganga, Langsi, Tangani, Pakhi, Pipalkoti, Birahi, Nijmula, Chamoli, Gopeshwar, Mandal, Maithana and Nandprayag of Chamoli district (figure1). The catchment receives heavy precipitation between July and September. Landslides here are an outcome of the intrinsic geology, adverse natural topography, i.e., steep slopes in talus accumulation, weathered rocks and soils, and man-made modification of these fragile slopes. The inherently unstable slopes frequently fail during rainstorms, often with catastrophic consequences.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 02, No. 05, October 2009, pp. 389-395

VIVEK KUMAR SINGH and P. K. CHAMPATI RAY

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Figure.2 Regional Geological Map of the Study Area (after Valdiya 1980) Structural Features: The area is traversed by majors thrust zones viz. the vaikrita, MCT (Jutogh-AlmoraMunsiari) and Bhatwari (=chail= Ramgarh) thrusts. The thrust sheets have been eroded to expose tcetonics windows,(e.g Chamoli, Pipalkoti windows) and klippe (Nandprayag klippe is the NW continuation of Baijnath Ascot klippe). In the epicentral region,west of chamoli between Nandakini and Alaknanda, thrust sheets are repeated in a complex schuppen zone. Two mega lineaments (i.e Haldwani- Karanprayag trending NW-SE and Najibabad- ChamoliPipalkoti lineament trending NE-SW (Virdi, 1979) also traverse this region and their intersection with major thrusts in the area may have reactivated them, leading to the generation of swarms- type aftershock activity. Methodology: The present study illustrates some current and potential uses of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) for landslide assessment in Garhwal Himalaya. ERS data were used for the InSAR analysis. In order to select a set of suitable scenes a thorough baseline analysis of all ERS-1 and ERS-2 ascending scenes acquired over the location of Garhwal Himalaya during summer between 1996 and 1999 was performed. It was of interest to find as many data pairs as possible during that time period, yet keep the perpendicular baselines below 100 m, thus reducing contributions of topography on differential phase values. Ascending orbit was chosen so the look direction (right) would correspond with the aspect of the slope. Seven scenes were finally selected for this initial reconnaissance study, which yielded five data pairs with perpendicular baselines below 100 m.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 02, No. 05, October 2009, pp. 389-395

02.4 Differential interferogram generation using ERS 1 & 2 data International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 3 & 4 provides an overview of the processing steps involved. The interferometric DEM used was generated from an ERS tandem pair of 11/12 April 1996 & 21/22 September 1998 (figure 3).392 Interferometry SAR for landslide Hazard Assessment in Garhwal Himalaya. October 2009. as they are implemented in the software. Fig.000 scale topographic maps and points collected through DGPS Figure. India survey. Vol. 3 Surface movement detection due to landslides using InSAR Figure. pp.2. Geocoding and elevation values were refined using ground control points taken from 1:25. No. 389-395 . 05. All data pairs with baselines below 100 m were processed to geocoded vertical elevation change maps using the software package Sarscape 3.

GPS). high variation of topography. Figure. Rott et al. K. 1994). SAR interferometry is a powerful tool. pp.. providing an image representing the motion with a centimetric precision and with a decametric resolution (Massonet et al. and on episodic events. 05. CHAMPATI RAY 393 The study of the spatial and temporal evolution of the surface motion can help in the understanding the influence of the parameters controlling slow landslides (some centimetres per week over several years). lasermeter. 1996. A multiyear trend of velocity variation may be superposed on seasonal meteorological variation.. 1999). 02. 1993..5 Interferogram generated from ERS 1 & 2 data of 21 & 22 September 1998 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.. In particular.. Remote sensing techniques can help in landslide studies. 1999. October 2009. al. Carnec et al. This technique has already proven its capability to detect and to map surface displacements caused by different natural and anthropic phenomena such as earthquake (Massonet et al. high deformation rate leading to loss of coherence. Vol.VIVEK KUMAR SINGH and P. 1993). No. 1996. Despite some severe limitations (high vegetation density leading to decorrelation. A multitemporal and multiscale study is required to decipher the signature of different causes. the capability of SAR interferometry to detect movement fields in landslide areas has been demonstrated (Fruneau et al. Kinematic studies are usually realized by techniques measuring punctual displacements (levelling. Vietmeier et al.. which may not be very suitable to reveal spatial heterogeneities of mass movements. Zebker et. 389-395 .

post-failure mechanism and mobility.394 Interferometry SAR for landslide Hazard Assessment in Garhwal Himalaya. No. 02.7 (A) & (B) DEM Flattened Interferogram (21&22Sep1998) of Enlarged areas Results & Discussions: The initial result has shown that SAR textural and interferometric techniques can assist in the understanding of landslide processes. Study demonstrate that InSAR images (11/12 April 1996/ 21/22 September 1998). 6. 389-395 . October 2009. 7 & 8). Vol. This suggests that InSAR techniques can be used to supplement field monitoring techniques on active landslides. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp.8 Landslide movements past Gauna Tal on east as observed on ERS 1 & 2 Interferogram (Geocoded) and ETM image. The InSAR pairs with small baselines provide more accurate results. 05. show evidence of motion at different locations of landslide in the study area (figure 5. India Figure.6 (A) & (B) Ellipsoidal Flattened Interferogram (21&22Sep1998) of Enlarged areas Figure. Figure.

Rossi. 138–142. (1996) Observation and Modeling of the Saint-Etienne-de-Tinée Landslide Using SAR InterferometryTectonophysics vol 265-pp. P. H.26pp. Goldstein. Grasemann. 3579– 3582. Peltzer..A.. F. C. K.Werner.34-pp. [8] Valdiya K. 489–497. Vadon. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 19617–19634. Lakhera. Dehradun References: [1] Carnec. Journal of Geophysical Research vol. D. Feigl.. W.VIVEK KUMAR SINGH and P. (1993) The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by Radar Interferometry.. (1999) Monitoring moderate slope movements (landslides) in the southern French Alps using differential SAR interferometry. Austria. [11] Zebker. Geosciences Division IIRS. (1994b) On the derivation of coseismic displacement fields using Differential Radar Interferometry: the Landers earthquake. Head.. No. Nature vol 364-pp. and Dikau. V. R.. Gyanodaya Prakashan.. M. (1979) Status of the Chail Formation vis-à-vis Jutogh-Chail relationship in Himachal Lesser Himalaya. S.A. C..9pp. 181–190. H. 32 (4)-pp.. [10] Zebker. 389-395 . Rosen. M. Adragna.Werner. C. (1996) Two examples of the application of SAR interferometry to sites of small extent .A. King.. (1999) Monitoring very slow slope movements by means of SAR interferometry: a case study from a mass waste above a reservoir in the Ötztal Alps. K.Geophysical Research Letters.. Rossi..823–836. Massonnet. [6] Rott... Nainital. Gabriel. Siegel..S.. [2] Fruneau.L. Scheuchl. (1994) Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 Interferometric Radar. Carmona. J. C. CHAMPATI RAY 395 Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the contribution and help provided by Dr... Rabaute.C. G.. vol. Achache. R. Dehradun and Prof R. A. D. D. 02. (1996) Reduction of the need for phase unwrapping in Radar Interferometry..S. 05.. 111-125. Geophysical Research Letters vol.99 (B10)pp... India. B.. H. [3] Vietmeier. Gyanodaya Prakashan. H. pp. Delacourt. [7] Valdiya K.M. India [9] Virdi. October 2009. C. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing vol. Dadhwal. (1988): Geology and natural environment of Nainital Hills Himalaya.A... Rosen. K. Dean IIRS. Fringe 1999 [4] Massonnet.L. vol 23-pp. [5] Massonnet. Nainital. B. A. C. T. (1980) Geology of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya.1629–1632. B. Vol... J.. S. N. Himalayan Geology. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing vol.. P. Wagner. Hensley.

02. Barapukuria coal mine is promptly organized by the Jiangsu Coal Geology Company. pp. and successively for the mining of 5th slice the ground subsidence may 2. Barapukuria. 1975) method. all surface effects of subsidence associated with mining must be recognized. Bangladesh. All rights reserved. October 2009. Bangladesh (Fig. FARHAD HOWLADAR2 and FARID AHMED1 1 2 Department of Geology & Mining. horizontal strain.75 m ground subsidence may occur for the mining of 1st slice. the empirical Graphical method is used for the prediction of surface subsidence as a consequence of BCMP field condition. mining problems. #02020502 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. GOLAM MOSTOFA1. horizontal displacement. University of Rajshahi. Bangladesh. slope.M. particularly the stress-strain behavior of litho-stratigraphy of Bangladesh. CMC. Keywords: Barapukuria Coal Mine. As BCMC is the first step for Bangladesh entering into the coal mining era. 05. Surface Subsidence.com Abstract: As a part of the evaluation of long wall caving mechanism of the 1101 coal face of the Barapukuria coal mine (BCMC). Incorporation of this research work to the mine authority will facilitate guideline and provide an integrated tool for future long wall planning and design of the mine. To extract coal from Barapukuria Coal Mining Company (BCMC) using the method of Inclined Slicing Roof Caving Long Wall Mining along the Strike. it is estimated that at around 0. Mining of 1101 coal face initiates caving from the lowest strata in the immediate roof and propagates upward into the Gondwana Formation and up to the base of lower Dupi Tila and finally reaches up to the surface. A. . and the existing information is not sufficient enough for a detail analysis of subsidence model. Dinajpur. Bangladesh. Again. Rajshahi-6205. Bangladesh CHOWDHURY QUAMRUZZAMAN1. For this. Bangladesh. of Petroleum and Georesources Engineering. Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. This research work is intended to provide primary focuses on the impact of mining operations of 1101 long wall face of BCMC operations. Vol. and vertical curvature (SME. Analysis of horizontal strain and subsidence that would be expected at the ground surface over long wall coal face was performed. Hence very little information is available concerning subsidence prediction model. enters into the coal mining era for the first time. of which is relatively difficult to control the ground response and a violent interaction effects may anticipated. such a high risk mining methods must be avoided because its failure would seriously jeopardize any future mining prospects in the country. BCMC is expected to bring about a number of others mining related activities in the country. Email:cqzam@yahoo. As the country having no coal mining experience in the past. M. Filling process can not eliminate subsidence but reduce it if the operation is carried out to a higher standard and to allow an increase in the percentage of recovery of the coal over the caving mining methods. NBC (England. slice mining Introduction: Coal mine of Barapukuria basin in Dinajpur district.K. The major components of subsidence that influence its environmental impacts are vertical displacement. To be analyzed from an underground coal mining as well as an environmental standpoint.1) and confirmed the presence of 157 m thick Gondwana sediment between the basement and Tertiary sediments in the area. Sylhet-3114. as a consequence of direct surface effects. which is a modern and large scale one with a production capacity of 1 million tones annually. under the direct supervision of Petrobangla. Parbatipur. Bangladesh. now trail basis production is under processes.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. The analysis of vertical displacement that will impact of mining operations has often been the primary focus of subsidence investigations. During 198485 and 1986-87 field seasons Geological survey of Bangladesh (GSB) drilled seven boreholes in and around Barapukuria area under Parbatipur Upozilla of Dinajpur district. China. Dept. No. 1986). and the sequence of slices mining from top to bottom order. 396-402 396 Surface Subsidence Prediction in Barapukuria Coal Mine. Dinajpur district.25 m occur.

(NCB. 1996). by Shillong massif in the north and open to the Bay of Bengal to south as an active Foredeep. by Indian Shield in the west. This method is to represent the effects of major factors by a series of nomographs based on numerous movement and deformation curves collected under similar mining conditions and geological setting. 1978). As such locally observed. Pleistocene and Recent ages respectively were encountered in the bore holes which lie on the Pre-cambrian Basement Complex. empirical models of subsidence prediction for BCMC is more relevant to NCB’s method to be developed. The geologic succession of this basin has been established on the basis of borehole data (Guha. which is bounded by ArakanYama Mega-anticlinorium in the east. Dupi Tila Formation. damage assessment and prevention measures have been established based on surface measurement. pp. the location and extent of tension and compression zone in the upper roof strata can be predicted with acceptable accuracy. 1994). 1992).al. 05. However it is believed that the subsidence phenomenon in any underground substance is similar to that in the surface. and Alluvium of the Permian. Subsidence Prediction of 1101 Coal Face: It is difficult or even impossible to thoroughly measure the displacement of the upper strata due to subsidence caused by mining activity in the targeted coal horizon. which are most probably happened due to the erosional or non-depositional phase exit during Triassic to Pliocene age (Khan and Rahman. The general structure of the Barapukuria Coal Mine area is a single syncline spreading along N-S direction and cut by faults (CMC. like the absence of available mining data and obviously the practical condition of gob forming process.. Barind Clay Residuum. Within these area. Methods of Study: The most comprehensive and widely used empirical method of predicting subsidence and surface strain profiles is that developed by the National Coal Board. The method becomes more widely used under a wide range of situations and it is easiest and convenient to use. 1986). October 2009. but it is not unusual to use the method as a basis for preliminary development work in other coal fields. 02. Theories or methods for subsidence prediction. Bangladesh. information becomes available. No. Hence it is recognized that significant variation in the predicted values for the subsidence and strain profiles between the NCB and locally derived BCMP prediction model may result. this basin area is a plain land covered with Recent Alluvium and Pleistocene Barind Clay Residuum. Again. Geology of the Mining Area: Bangladesh constitute the major part of Bengal Basin.1 Location map of the Barapukuria Coal Mine area. Barapukuria coal field located in the Rangpur saddle of the Indian Platform (Bakr et. the subsidence profile predicted by this method usually appears within the variation of ±10% of the actual field measurement. 1992). but in absence of any local data the use of NCB method can be considered to be appropriate for the purpose of the study.397 Surface Subsidence Prediction in Barapukuria Coal Mine Dinajpur. Pliocene. Peng. The BCMC now in trail basis production mode and the 1101 coal face is going to be prepared for the extraction of coal. Although this method is only and strictly applicable to the UK. Geologically. Thus by adapting the surface subsidence theory to the upper seam in a multiple seam mining environment. 1975. Bangladesh in the NCB’s subsidence Engineers hand book (1975). 396-402 . The sedimentary rocks of Gondwana Group. and only Fig. UK and reported International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Most of the research on subsidence has concentrated on surface movement of the mine prone area. The coal bearing Gondwana intra-cratonic basins (graben and halfgraben) have been discovered in many gravity lows within the basement of Rangpur saddle and adjoining areas (Khan and Rahman. The NCB prediction model is used in the case of 1101coal face trail basis production stage of BCMC under some limitations. Vol. A large gap in sedimentary record is present in between Gondwana Group and Dupi Tila Formation. Parbatipur Dinajpur District.

396-402 . No. A brief analysis of 1101 long wall coal face of the BCMP. the limit angle or angle of draw is assumed to be 35° from the vertical plane (Wardell Armstrong. the limit of subsidence development is approximately 0. 1993) Shown in Fig 2. depth of seam or overburden. Maximum Vertical Subsidence (S) in Relation to the Width/Depth Ratio (w/h) Fig.4 Vertical subsidence away from centre point or critical axis of the mine working. width of the long wall face. i. size of opening. The overall geometric layout of 1101 face has a thickness of m = 2. In the case of BCMP the extracted width of the 1101 Coal face to be W=103 m. Or.3. one cycle of cutting complete by double drum shearer is 30~33 min. GOLAM MOSTOFA M. subsidence prediction assessment was carried out by the empirical graphical method (NCB. FARHAD HOWLADAR and FARID AHMED 50 m of the long wall face is to be developed. w = 103 m.e. S =0. the maximum vertical subsidence (S) decreases with increased seam depth (h) and vice versa relationship. According to Peng. The calculated maximum or central subsidence.M. Horizontal Displacement (V) The horizontal displacement (V) associated with a vertical subsidence (s) at a distance X from the critical axis is given by: V = K2 × s The coefficient K2 is plotted against X/L for the values of w/h = 0. the influence of subsidence may initiates by a circle of diameter of 175 m from the edge of the Track gate and Belt gate crosscut to the retreating direction of the 1101 coal face upper strata. Limit angle and Subsidence development: When the mined-out gob has reached the critical size.5. a working face.3×m. 1975). 1982) depending on the location. Maximum Possible Vertical Subsidence (Smax) Theoretically the maximum possible vertical subsidences which can occur when complete mineral extraction and subsequent roof caving has taken place within the circle of influence is 90% of the seam thickness. as S m =0. distance X from the centre of working may be expressed as: s = K1× S The coefficient K1 is plotted against various values of X/L from Fig. is the angle of draw.7 h in front and 0. A.412 from Fig. S max = 0. 398 For a given width of the long wall face(w). Fig.K. Vertical Subsidence (s) away from the Centre Point of the Working: The vertical subsidence (s). 2. Theoretically it varies from 15° to 45° (Allgaier. the angle between the vertical line at the face edge and the line connecting the face edge to the movement basin. 5. 02. m=2.4 for the construction of details subsidence profile. Incase of BCMC. rate of advancing speed of shearer cutting 5 m/min. Fig. Results and discussions: 1. h = 250 m.3. which is given below: Calculated Sequences.3 Subsidence related to Width / Depth ratios of 1101 coal extraction. October 2009. The value of S can be calculated for subsidence profiles from Fig. thickness of coal seam. S=0. and the local geology.9 m 3. Vol.2 Terminology for subsidence profile above a single long wall coal face.CHOWDHURY QUAMRUZZAMAN. 1984. 05.75 m 4. From this point of view.5 m.5 m and the depth of over burden h = 250 m. Here International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp.7 h behind.

8 for compressive strain (+E) and K3 = 1.65 for tensile strain (-E) in the prevailing condition for the BCMC 1101 coal face ground surface.412. i.75. 7a.399 Surface Subsidence Prediction in Barapukuria Coal Mine Dinajpur. From rows 1 lists values of horizontal strain e/E from Appendix of NCB. Rotation (Gmax) = Smax dK1/L A more accurate estimate of maximum rotation in a subsidence trough may be obtained from the expression: G = K3 S/h International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. No. Now the coefficient K3 is plotted against w/h from fig. In Table-2 (appendix) listed the computed value for a complete strain profile. Strain Profile Like subsidence profile the strain profile can be constructed. Where. Basically.6. The number and interval of steps of the calculation sequence are arbitrary. K3 is the proportional constant.75 Smax/ h 8. Calculation sequence for the determination of subsidence profile. Basically. and h=250 m) by the multiple fractions in row 1 to obtain row 2. The proportional constant K3 is determined from fig. Ground Slopes or Rotations (G) Change in ground slope or rotation (G) can be derived from vertical subsidence by considering two points at a small distance apart.45 and decreases with either an increasing or decreasing of w/h (Peng. In table: 1. ie.6. shown in Figs. which is physically signify the local subsidence that may happened in the upper strata of the mining horizon of 1101 coal face. 02. 7. it follows that the maximum possible slope is given by: Gmax = 2. it is estimated that K3 =0. the value X/L (where. Fig. 6. From fig. all final horizontal displacements are moving towards the central axis of the working face.4. by maintaining the following procedure. 05. from Fig. Vol. Then multiplying each value of Row 3 by overburden depth.6 Horizontal strain and slope at various Width/Depth ratios of extraction. h =250m to obtain the actual distance from the center of the face for Row 4. Therefore Row 3 is derived by transferring the distance interns of ‘h’ for W/h = 0. Bangladesh Like subsidence and strain profile. can be derived from horizontal displacement by considering two points at a small distance apart. The maximum slope is greatest for an opening with w/h= 0. Now multiplying each step in row 1 by maximum subsidence (S=0. Hence. pp.e. X is the distance from the center of the face) is estimated for w/h=0. the slope profile may vary with the w/h of the opening. For the determination of horizontal displacement in Row 3 is calculated from Appendix of NCB. fig. Horizontal Strain (± E) Horizontal strain or change in unit length (± E). it is regarded as the empirical assumption of it is noted that.6. Subsidence Profile The complete subsidence profile determined from the graph.75) to obtain row 2.412 from Appendix of NCB. Strain (± E) = S dK2/L The maximum strain is related to the maximum subsidence and depth of overburden of the rock mass.6. which is depending on the w/h of the working face and it is different for both the tensile and compressive strain. 1975. 1975. 9. 1975. October 2009. it is the relative displacement of the upper strata due to the mining of target horizon.5 Horizontal Displacement away from the centre point or critical axis of the face in terms of width/depth of the extraction. There by plotting the predicted final subsidence profile. 1984). which can be expressed in a table given below: Table:1. Fig. Row 2 lists the actual subsidence for points listed in corresponding columns of row 4. 396-402 . of which can be from the centre point of the workings to the rib side of the face. & row 2 is the product of K3 ×S/h (where S=0. Row 1 lists the steps of the ratio of local subsidence to maximum subsidence (s/S) between 0 (Zero) for the subsidence edge and 1 for the center point of the face.

Fig. Subsidence (vertical displacement) decreased from the center of the face to the edges. FARHAD HOWLADAR and FARID AHMED which can not be determined in the practical field condition. Subsidence basin may initiate at a distance of 25m from the cross cut road way towards 400 the center line of the studied coal face. and sinking of the ground (vertical displacement). squeezing (compression). GOLAM MOSTOFA M. Generally due to long wall mining. 05. vertical subsidence may occur on the surface along the centerline of the face. where as the maximum vertical displacement is calculated as 0. Given that the ground sinks from less than unity at the face edges to maximum at its centerline. 02. The effects of the forces are measured and studied by developing a subsidence profile. Fig.03 m at the edge of the face. By this way the iteration of calculation sequence for strain profile is completed.75 m. and the surface experienced measurable horizontal movement. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. an analysis of horizontal strains and subsidence that would be expected at the ground surface over long wall coal face was performed. In the figure it shows that at the center of the face. it is shown that the greatest amount of vertical displacement may occur along the lengthwise centerline of the 1101 long wall coal face. Bangladesh.7b Evidence of subsidence around the Barapukuria Coal Mine. No.75 m from the cross cut entry to the coal face at a distance of 240 m. Vol. shown in fig. Historically long wall mining method results in a larger area of subsidence troughs than the conventional room-andpillar mining. a maximum subsidence of 0. A. 396-402 .M. overburden rock over the coal seam. Dinajpur.CHOWDHURY QUAMRUZZAMAN. the strain profile is graphically presented by using the value of row 2 and row 4. Fig 8 shows the horizontal displacement may observe at the 1101 coal face projected ground surface. the input parameters and NBC empirical method used for this analysis. These forces may include stretching (tension).75 m at the center of the face to 0.75 m calculated with no measurable change in slope. This section of the report provides a general discussion of subsidence effects. Now multiply row 3 by h= 250 m to obtain row 4 in terms of distance from the center of the opening. The long wall coal mining is designed to recover large blocks of coal and left almost no coal prior to support the surface. i. the subsidence trough progressively decreases at a point along the trough of the profile until the limit of the affected surface area is reached. From the constructed profile (Figs. and the magnitude of damage depends on the forces (stress) that propagate to the surface as the mine roof collapses. 7a).e. and the predicted horizontal strains and subsidence displacements obtained from these analyses. of which is the final predicted strain profile for the maximum subsidence of S=0. Inclination or curvature reached maximum levels at approximate midpoints between the centerline and the face edges. The study also examined the horizontal displacement created by the subsidence event. 7b). and the surface topographic features. October 2009. The same categories of subsidence impact have already been observed in field (Figs. pp. of which depends upon seam thickness. 10. which shows how subsidence would look on a cross-section usually drawn at a right angle to the long wall face advance. Mining induced surface subsidence ultimately results damage to the surface features and structures.K. Final Subsidence Profile As a part of the evaluation of long wall caving mechanism of 1101 coal face of BCMC. The average vertical subsidence may vary from 0.7a Predicted subsidence Profile over 1101 Long wall face.8. Now.

60 m in case of 2. Surface tensile strains are more likely to cause damage than surface compressive strains because of the possibility of tearing of the ground surface or shallow groundwater into surface cracks. Conclusion The advancement of long wall face in the coal seam. The generation of fracture planes sufficient to intercept a surface water body can give rise to forming a direct flow path between the surface and the mining horizon.9 Compression and tension due to Movement of 1101 long wall coal face. Again Professor Whittaker of Nottingham University.8 Horizontal Displacements over the 1101 Long wall coal face At approximate midpoints between the centerline and the face edges. Fig. From the analysis. This simplified model gives a prediction of maximum subsidence expected along the centerline of a panel. The advancing wave creates a tensional force and then changes to a compressional force. shown in Fig.75 m) in the case of 1st slice.5 m seam height. Surface features and structures above the long wall face will experience varying levels of stress and subsequent deformation depending on specific location above the face. 05.9. Another profile shows that both the horizontal and the vertical forces of tension and compression move in a wavelike motion along the surface slightly ahead of the advancing longwall face. Where as in this research work it is calculated that after extraction of 5th slice the ground surface above the extracted coal face to be 3. October 2009. In his report. progressively increasing the number of slices up to 6. So it is commenced that the mine authorities should take this analogical comparison between the studies.6 m at the ground surface. pp. 02. 396-402 . U. unless a deadly event may observe in the country’s first mining industry. it is calculated that for mining of 1st slice the maximum subsidence of about 0. where from successively it may be assumed that after mining 5th slice the rate of ground subsidence may 2. where as at the trough edge it shows the maximum value of 24×10-4 m for single coal face extraction. it is estimated that the rate of subsidence is relatively large enough (0. From the calculation. Tensile and compressive stress-strain fields and vertical and horizontal deformations develop at the surface due to the collapse of the long wall cavity.401 Surface Subsidence Prediction in Barapukuria Coal Mine Dinajpur. The development of subsidence trough above multi slice long wall face give rise to the generation of fracture plane and opening of pre-existing weakness planes between the mining horizon and the surface. horizontal displacement found at its minimum value. the resultant subsidence would be expected 3. The mine design plan expected that 5 slices will be mined out through the course of mine life. The main concern relating to subsidence occurrence at the ground surface of the BCMC site is the development of subsidence trough. it is estimated that at around 0. Similarly a major fault or the sedimentary dyke could be Fig.25 m. The purpose of the subsidence analysis was to determine locations of International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Where as the ground slope or rotation value represent a negligible degree of changes of the predicted profile over the coal face. as a means of mine fate.75 m ground subsidence may occur due to the mining of 1101 coal face of BCMC. Vol. Bangladesh relative highs in surface horizontal tensile and compressive strains at undermined study sites for possible correlation to areas of stressed location. of which is relatively difficult to control the ground response and a violent interaction effects may anticipated. the support from the overlying strata is detached and hence the original equilibrium of these strata is disturbed.75 m. No.K (1990) carried out a prefeasibility study for BCMC. Profile parallel to the face. provide a schematic of this process depicts how the surface is subjected to waves of stretching (tension) and squeezing (compression) as the longwall face passes.

1992.art of ground control in long wall mining and mining subsidence. [5] Khan... Chowdhury. Islam. Society of Mining. Table: 2 Calculation sequence of predicting strain profile. [9] SME Mining Engineering Handbook (1992) Hartman. Sultan-UlIslam. Bangladesh. FARHAD HOWLADAR and FARID AHMED sufficiently opened by undermining as to allow water body to drain into the mine workings below. NY. M. p65-78. Barapukuria Coal project. M. S. New York. No.. John Wiley & Sons.” John Wiley & Sons.K.8 part 1p36. (1996) Geology and coal deposit of Barapukuria basin.. Inc. Bangladesh.. September. Chapter 1 & 2.K. Again it is mandatory for the mine authority to carry out a detail study for the ground response and expansion of the materials. of 4th Annual Conference.. 49 pp.K.-206. Dinajpur.A...N. [10] Whittaker (1990) Unpublished report of Wardell Armstrong.AIME. and Anam.M. [8] Peng. p351-364. H.CHOWDHURY QUAMRUZZAMAN.H. (1978) Tectonic Framework and oil and gas prospect Appendix: Table: 1 Calculation sequence for the determination of subsidence profile.A. 1 & 2.. vol. M. London. Reference: [1] Allgaier FK (1982) Surface Subsidence over long wall panels in the western U. Mannan. [11] Wardell Armstrong (1993) Techno. A.M. NewYork. M.M. S. 05. vol. 02. Uddin. Vol. Records of Geological Survey of Bangladesh.W.. U. Bangladesh Geological Society. Haider. Q. S.. M. [3] CMC. Proc. Therefore it is recommended to allow longer and more productive coal face to be worked without increasing the disturbance of the Gondwana Formations above the mining horizon. SME.M. [7] Peng. Inc.H. Howard L. Bangladesh.. Bangladesh.M. Port City Press. (1984) Longwall Mining. pp. [4] Guha.. pp199-210. A. and Chiang. A. (1994) Preliminary Geology and Exploration Report of Barapukuria Coal Mine.A. Islam. Baltimore. 402 of Bangladesh.J. Resan. 491 pp. 708 pp.K. Ali.” Production Department. February. [6] National Coal Board (1975) Subsidence Engineers’ Handbook. and without increasing the risk of inundation from the Dupi Tila Formation. M... 396-402 . An analysis of gravity and tectonic evaluation of north-western part of Bangladesh. (1986) Coal Mine Ground Control. state –ofthe. D..N. Dhaka. October 2009. Proc. NY.. Metallurgy and Exploration. Tectophysics. Vol. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.A and Rahman T. Inc. Dinajpur District. Dinajpur Districts. 2nd Edition.. An Alternatie method of thick seam mining of the Barapukuria Coal Basin. M. K. GOLAM MOSTOFA M.A.S.Economic Feasibility Study. [2] Bakr. Rahman.

Sm/Yb. Vol. Introduction: Banded iron formations (BIF’s) are deposited during the Pre-Cambrian. 1864. The Al2O3 and TiO2 contents are remarkably low. Tirthamalai region. Annamalai University 608 002.in Abstract: Banded Iron formation (BIF) of Tirthamalai region is situated about 12 km northeast of Harur in Dharmapuri District. Dharmapuri District. B. K. Plot of Chondrite-normalized (Ce/Sm)CN vs. suggesting that detrital components were starved during the deposition when ironformations occurred. The distribution of RareEarth Elements (REEs) in Pre-Cambrian ironformations (IFs) provides valuable insight into the composition of contemporaneous seawater and evolution of the atmosphere. India. 1943. It is essentially composed of quartz and magnetite with ferrous aluminosilicates. Godumalai. Dubey and Karunakaran. and Ramanathan.1% hydrothermal fluid and hydrogenic Fe-Mn crust field. RAJENDRAN. India. (La/Sm)CN for banded magnetite quartzites show that these are clastic metasediments. =47. October 2009. India *E -mail: thirugeo_au@yahoo. BMQ) occurred as in the hilly terrain. Tamil Nadu. magnetite quartzite. 1970) considered these iron ores have resulted from metamorphism of the originally existing ferruginous sediments enriched in silica.71 wt %) and Fe2O3 (51 wt %). The plot of trace elements of Co+Cu+Ni vs. MAHARANI. THIRUNAVUKKARASU*. 1944. (King and Foote. Al2O3-SiO2-Fe2O3 ternary diagram suggests that iron-formations in study area are of Pre-Cambriannature. The ultimate source of material for the iron formations might have been derived from the oldest continental crust.co. SHANKAR. 1969. 403-415 403 Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai.hydrosphere-lithosphere system. Krishanan and Aiyangar. RAJAMANICKAM and S. The banded magnetite quartzites of study region can be interpreted to have been older than 3. These formations occur in Tirthamalai. Tamil Nadu. 1972). 36 representative banded magnetite quartzite samples were collected from the study region. Vellalakundam and Kanjamalai regions of Tamil Nadu state. India. Elemental ratio plots for Eu/Sm. RAJA Department of Earth Sciences. The rocks of the area are mainly consist of banded magnetite quartzite associated charnockite and gneiss. The results of this investigation. POOVALINGA GANESH K. pp. with the majority of these rocks formed in between ~3. Saravanan. Tamil Nadu state. 02. This study presents the rare earth element geochemistry of iron formation of Tirthamalai region. S. trace and REE. which have been #02020503 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. compared with other investigations of iron-formations of world led to the following conclusions: The REE content and distribution patterns in the study area of ironformation have been significantly changed during diagenesis and metamorphism. Keywords: REE geochemistry. The positive europium anomaly of the iron formations can be used as an indicator for knowing the presence or absence of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Precambrian times. 05. All rights reserved.2 Ga on the basis of evolution diagram of Eu/Eu* values normalized to the average Eu/Eu* of oxide-facies. Saravanan. India A. . Holland. 1893. and Anjaneya Sastry et al.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. banded iron formation (BIF). ΣREE content shows that the rocks of study region differ from the hydrothermal field. M. and Y/Ho show that 0. There are four bands of iron formation (Banded Magnetite Quartzite. No. 1969. Tattayangarpettai. The general consensus is that the rocks are of sedimentary origin. in which 20 samples were analyzed for major. Totally.8 and 1 billion years (Ga). The results of analyses show that the banded magnetite quartzites are mostly composed of SiO2 (average.

Dharmapuri District. Na2O. shearing structures. Twenty samples were selected for major. DNC 1. 1984. The effects of post-depositional process (diagenesis. 1983. except for determinations close to Tirthamalai and associated hills are detection limit. October 2009. trace and REEs in banded iron-formation of Tirthamalai. 1986. 1977.24 m thickness. 1979). Chitteri hills. The general trend of the hill and the direction of strike of the rocks are in N-S Results and discussion: but. The iron ore of the hill is estimated with the reserves more than 60 million tons with average iron content of 38 to 40 %. 1989. No. Also. and environmental conditions during the early history of the earth. near the Ponnaiyar River the strike is more The concentrations of major elements are given nearly to NE direction. Morris.21 Km long. metamorphism. CaO. Chemical analyses were carried out at Activation Laboratories (ACT-LABS). 1 which is (±20%). The (Figure 1). La Berge. between 5 abundant with banded iron ores. Trendall and Morris.404 Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai. The and 20%. The average rainfall of in Table 1. 02. the study area is about 896 mm. The area in and around of Tirthamalai forms a Major elements: part of the Archaean Peninsular complex that The Fe2O3 and SiO2 contents of these has undergone high grade regional samples are considerably high (50-60 wt metamorphism with folding. among which.1 area are banded magnetite quartzite. 20 samples were collected from the first band. Fryer. trace and REE chemical analysis. Enormous amount of banded ironformations (BIFs) occurring mainly at the Archaean and Proterozoic times that have received worldwide attention from tectonic. several researchers have attempted to derive the evolution of the BIF deposits in equilibrium with normal seawater (Fryer. There are few publications that deal with REE geochemistry of BIFs distributed within the granulite terrain of India. 18. FK-N. BIR 1 and GBW 07113 which were analyzed routinely with each sample run. 696 and 1633b. 1991. with a maximum width of 121. 15 samples were collected from 2nd band. Derry and Jacobsen. 403-415 . A kilometer south of Andiyur there is a fourth short band on Tirthamalai hill. Vol. Klein and Beukes. The first band is 3. Goodwin. Morris 1985). the second band is seen in the peak 979 m. extending for about 15. The measurements were calibrated against international reference materials namely TM1. and K2O are less than 0. 1993 and Khan and Naqvi. 1973. faulting and %). All samples were ground to a powder in a tungsten carbide vessel. 10 samples were collected from 3rd band and 15 samples were collected from the fourth band. surface weathering) have been studied based on primary REE and Y in BIF by Bau (1993) and Bau and Dulski (1996). This area has been investigated by the Geological Survey of India in detail between 1961to 1963. SY-3. MnO. and for REE. 1973. Gross. where the accuracy found to be geographically the northern extension of the more variable. The major rock types of MgO. About 60 magnetite quartzite samples were collected from the study region. Tamil Nadu. NIST 694.48 m. 1996). India rocks. Materials and Methods: subjected to a fairly degree of metamorphism (Gole and Klein 1981. Canada. The Study Area and Geological Setting: accuracy for major element determination is estimated between 1 and 5% except for TiO2 The study area is shown in Fig. pp. the present study is undertaken with measurements of major. All other major oxides like TiO2. 05.92 m occurs near the Tirthamalai Temple which is situated in N-S direction. As there is very limited work on the REE chemistry of banded iron-formation of granulite region of southern Peninsnsular India. Khan et al. climatic. Although various models have been proposed for the genesis of BIFs. better than 10%. 1990. 1992. et al. A little east to this band. There are four bands of magnetitelow values of Al2O3 and high TiO2 indicate quartzite on this hill separated by charnockite International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Holland. Precision was better than 10% in all cases. The third band appears to be an offshoot of the second one and shows a maximum thickness of 30. wt % in the samples reflecting the charnockites and epidote hornblende gneisses dominance of magnetite and quartzite. and for minor elements. the source of FeO and SiO2 are highly debated (Cloud.

A. THIRUNAVUKKARASU, S. RAJENDRAN, B. POOVALINGA GANESH K. SHANKAR, K. MAHARANI, M. RAJAMANICKAM and S. RAJA that contribution of high amount of clastic contaminent (Evers and Morris 1981). To distinguish the iron formations of post PreCambrian BIF from Pre-Cambrian BIF, the ternary plot of Al2O3-SiO2-Fe2O3 (Govett 1966) has been plotted. The samples of study area fall within the Pre-Cambrian field (Fig. 2) and thus, the iron formation of the study area belongs to Pre-Cambrian age. The average major element concentrations of the Tirthamalai region are compared with other BIFs of Kanjamalai, Godumalai, Superior Lake and Quartz Magnetite of Isua iron formation (Rajendran 1995; Rajendran et al. 2007; Dymek and Klein, 1981; Gross and Macleod, 1980) and given in Table 2 and Fig. 3. It can be observed that the iron formations of study area are similar to other banded iron formations of the world. Trace Elements: Average concentration of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn are compared with the normalized average crustal abundance of the earth (Shaw, 1980; Table 4) concentration of trace elements in Tirthamalai iron formations are less than that of the average crust and tend to increase in relative depletion with decreasing atomic number viz. Sc and V exhibit relative depletion; Cr and Co are within 10 % average crust; and Zn, Cu and Ni are enriched similar to crust. When the average concentrations of transition metals in the Tirthamalai banded magnetite quartzite samples are compared to average Isua iron-formations (Fig. 4; Table 4), the BIFs of Tirthamalai area are similar to those of Isua. Chromium, Ni and Zn are strongly enriched but Sc, V, Co and Cu are strongly depleted. In order to know the source for silica in the early Archaean BIF and banded magnetite quartzs of Tirthamalai area, the data are compared with other iron formations using (Ge/Si) ratio of the 2.3 Ga old Hamersley BIF of W. Australia (Hamade et al. 2003). The relationship between Ge/Si ratios and silica content of the banded magnetite quartz are given Table. 3 and shown in Fig. 5. The results show that the decrease of Ge/Si (molar ratio) is similar to the product of clastic aluminous metasediments. Thus, the formations of the

405

study area are similar to meta-sedimentary type (Saravanan, 1969) and Anjaneya Sastry et.al, 1970). Rare Earth Elements: The REEs are characterized by low to medium Σ REEs, ranging from 4.16 to 13.21 ppm. The abundances of these elements are similar to that of Isua magnetite iron formation (Dymek and Klein 1988). Chondrite- normalized rare-earth element patterns for the Tirthamalai banded magnetite quartzite (Fig. 6) show relative depletion light REE, flat trend of HREE, positive Eu anomalies and negative Ce anomalies. When the sums of REEs are plotted against Co+Cu+Ni (Fig. 7), the samples of study area fall closer to the field of hydrothermal deposits (Bonnot-Courtois (1981). When the normalized average REE values of Tirthamalai iron-formation samples are compared with Godumalai, Kanjamalai and Isua iron formations [Table 6 and Fig. 8], the Isua and Tirthamalai iron formations are roughly similar but differ Kanjamalai, Godumalai iron formations. However, all the patterns are in similar trend of the banded iron formations of the Pre-Cambrians. Rare earth elements and Y abundances (Table 5 and Table 2) of the Tirthamalai ironformation are generally similar with other iron formations particularly and that of Isua formation (Bolhar et al., 2004). Cerium anomaly data suggest that (Fig. 9) quartz magnetite iron formations of Isua, clasticmetasediments, amphibolites and Tirthamalai are depleted in Ce suggesting meta-sedimentary origin (Fryer 1983, Dymek and Klein 1988). Plot of chondrite normalized Sm/Yb and Eu/Eu* to the banded magnetite of Tirthamalai shows that the similar characters that observed elsewhere Kuruman and Penge IFs (Bau and Dulski, 1996; Fig. 10). The exhibited Eu anomalies >1 and enriched LREEs (Bau and Moller, 1993) suggest the characteristics of the continental crust. The two component mixing calculations [Bau and Dulski, 1999; Alibo and Nozaki, 1999; Fig. 11 a, b, c] of the banded magnetite quartzites provide further constraints on their origin. The plots Y/Ho vs. Eu/Sm and Eu/Sm vs Sm/Yb ratios show that all the

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Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India suggests clastic chemical similarity of other Pre-Cambrian iron formation of the world. Molar ratios of Ge/Si, show characteristics of metasediments but poor in hydrothermal characteristics. The chondrite normalized REE patterns of the banded iron formation, well defined positive Eu anomaly and depleted LREE with respect to MREE and flat HREE are salient features of the study area. Two and three components mixing ratio models indicate that all the rocks appear to have very poor in hydrothermal and seawater sources. On the other hand, characteristic of Fe-Mn crust. The enrichment of Ce indicates that supergene oxidation process was high during Archaean period. The positive Eu/Eu* anomalies of magnetite quartzite of study area normalized to the average Eu/Eu* of oxide-facies of BIFs of Hamersley falls within the >3.5 Ga that confirms PreCambrian age. Finally, it is concluded that the banded magnetite quartzite derived form weathering of continental land mass that interpreted for Isua and Kuruman Penge iron formation. Acknowledgement: The authors are thankful to Actlab, Canada for providing results of chemical analyses of samples by ICP-MS. The financial support and facilities provided by University Grants Commission (UGC-RGNF F16-6/6/SA II), and Department of Science and Technology, Projects – GEMIORD (SR/FTP/ES-01/2000) and SPECSIGNS (NRDMS/11/1153/06), New Delhi, for that we are grateful. References: [1] Anjaneya Sastry, C, and Krishna Rao, J. S. R (1970) Ore microscopic, X ray and trace elemental studies of a few iron ores from South India: Journal, Geological Society of India, vol 11- pp. 242-247. [2] Aiyengar, A (1941) Preliminary, report on the Iron ores of the Salem District, Madras, G.O. Report No. 1781, Govt. of Madras. [3] Alibert, C, and McCulloch, M. T (1993) Rare earth element and neodymium isotopic compositions of banded ironformations and associated shales from

samples of the study area are away from the field of hydrothermal fluids (>3500C, Bau and Dulski, 1999) and seawater (<500 m Alibo and Nazaki, 1999) but close to hydrogenetic Fe - Mn crusts (Bau et al. 1996). Plot of Sm/Yb vs. Y/Ho shows that the samples of the study area falls away to the ratios mixing of hydrothermal fluids. All of these interpretations suggest that BIF of Tirthamalai is similar to those of Kuruman and Isua iron formations. The component mixing model [Ce/Ce*CN] vs.[Pr/Pr*CN], Bolhar et al. 2005; (Fig. 12) also indicate that Tirthamalai formations are similar to Kuruman and Penge iron formation suggesting that these are differ from those of hydrothermal fluids and seawater. The plot of Tirthamalai banded magnetite quartzites on a discrimination diagram, with respect to Ce anomalies, we note that CeCN of all samples do not display positive anomalies. Crustal contamination could have a considerable effect on the primary composition of hydrogenous sediments. The diagram of Eu/Eu*CN vs. Pr/Sm CN (Fig. 13) to demarcate the crustal contamination in the samples in the study area. From the Fig. 14, it can be observed that the crustal contamination can be ruled out for Panorama jasper iron-formation because Archaean shales and volcanic tuffs are generally devoid of significant positive Eu anomalies (Taylor and McLennan, 1985) in contrast to the samples of Tirthamalai iron formations and show systematic trend of crustal contamination. An evolution diagram (Sreeniva and Murakami, 2005) for Tirthamalai iron-formation (Fig.15), the Tirthamalai banded magnetite quartzites show positive normalized Eu anomalies and fall within the 3.5 Ga age group. Conclusions: The study area forms a part of the great Archaean Peninsular complex having intensive high grade regional metamorphism. Geochemically, the major oxides of iron formations of Tirthamalai region signify chemical precipitates and low concentrations of ferromagnesian trace elements characteristic of metasediments. Plot of data on Al2O3-SiO2-Fe2O3 diagram

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A. THIRUNAVUKKARASU, S. RAJENDRAN, B. POOVALINGA GANESH K. SHANKAR, K. MAHARANI, M. RAJAMANICKAM and S. RAJA Hamersley, western Australia, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol 57-pp. 187-204. [4] Bau, M and Dulski, P (1992) Small scale variations of the rare earth element distribution in Precambrian iron formations. Eur. J. Mineral. Vol 4-pp. 1429-1433. [5] Bau, M, and Dulski, P (1996) distribution of yttrium and rare-earth elements in Penge and Kuruman ironformations, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. Precambrian Research, vol 79-pp. 37-55. [6] Bau, M, and Dulshi, P (1999) Comparing yttrium and rare earth in hydrothermal fluids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; implications for Y and REE behavior during near-vent mixing and for the Y/Ho ratio of Proterozoic seawater, Chemical Geology, vol 155-pp. 77-90. [7] Bau, M, and Moller, P (1993) Rare earth element systematics of the chemically precipitated component in Early Precambrian iron formations and the the evolution of the terrestria atmospherehydrosphere-lithosphere system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol 57-pp. 2239-2249. [8] Bolhar, R, Kamber B. S, Moorbath, S, Whitehous, M. J, Collerson, K.D (2005) Chemical characterization of Earth’s most ancient clastic meta-sediments from the Isua Greenstone Belt, southern WGreenland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol 69-pp. 1555-1573. [9] Brain, W, Alexander, Michael Bau, et. al (2008) Continentally-derived solutes in Shallow Archean seawater; Rare earth element and Nd isotope evidence in iron formation from the 2.9 Ga Pongola Supergroup, South Africa, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol 72-pp. 378-394. [10] Chandrasekaran, V, and Gopalakrishnan (1991-1992) Regional surveys for gold in banded iron formations of Tamil Nadu, Record, Geological Survey of India, vol 126, PT.5. [11] Derry, L. A, and Jacobsen, S. B. (1990) The chemical evolution of Precambrian seawater: evidence from rare earth elements in banded iron formations.

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Geochimica et. Cosmochimica Acta, vol 54-pp. 2965-2977. [12] Dymek, R. F, Klein, C (1988) Chemistry, Petrology and origin of banded iron formation lithologies from the 3800 Ma Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland, Precambrian Research, vol 39-pp. 247-302. [13] Ewers, W.E and Morris, R.C. (1981) studies o the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron-Formation, Economic Geology, vol 77-pp.1929-1953. [14] Frei, R. and Polat, A (2007) Source heterogeneity for the major components of ~ 3.7 Ga Banded Iron Formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland): Tracing the nature of interacting water masses in BIF formation, Earth and Planetary Science, vol 253-pp.266-281. [15] Fryer, B (1977) Rare-earth evidence in iron-formations for changing Precambrian oxidation states. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol 41-pp. 361-367. [16] Govett, G. J. S (1966) Origin of banded iron formation: Geological Society of America Bullutin, vol. 77- pp. 1191-1212. [17] Geological Survey of India (1961-63) detailed mapping of iron ores of Tirthamalai region (reference No.6) [18] Hamade, T, Konhauser, K. O, Raiswell, R, Goldsmith, S, Morris, R. C. (2003) using Ge/Si ratios to decouple iron and silica fluxes in Precambrian banded iron formations, geology, vol 31-pp 35-38. [19] King and Foote (1864) on the geological structure of parts of Salem, Trichinopoly, Tanjore and South Arcot in the Madras Presidency Memorial, Geological Survey of India, vol 6-pp. 223-386. [20] Klein, C and Gole, J.J. (1981) Mineralogy and petrology of parts of the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia, American Mineralogy, vol 66-pp. 507-525. [21] Khan, R. M. K, Das Sharma, S, Patil, D. J and Naqvi, S (1996) Trace rare –earth element, and oxygen isotopic systamatics for the genesis of banded ironformations: Evidence from Kushtagi schist belt, Archaean Dharwar Craton,

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[31] Trendall. C (1991) Depositional environment of ironore formation from Salem District. 184-201. J.408 Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai.42. Balz S. 366 India.N. 203-211. N. Deposit.45 Ga Warrawoona Group. T. [25] Majumder. 02. F. 3285-3294. vol 100-pp. Tamil Nadu. 441474. K. Mineral. Salem District. India [27] Robert Frei Peter.2 Ga first rise of atmosphere oxygen. S. A. Sci. pp. F and Blockley. Dahl Edward. Precambrian Research. vol 162-pp. India. 05. Pilbara CratonFormation from hydrothermal fluids and shallow seawater. Geological survey Bulletin. A (1982) Geochemistry of banded iron formation of Orissa. 236-244. K. USA): Assessment of chemical change during 2. T (2005) Emerging views on the evolution of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian. No. (1944) The iron ore deposit of parts of Salem and Trichnopoly District: Geological Suvev of India Bullutin Series A: 1-64 [24] Majumder. [26] Robert Bolhar Martin J Van Kranendonk. Mineral. vol 10-pp.9-1. Tamil Nadu. Symposium on Metallogeney of the Precambrian IGCP project -91: 93-102 [23] Krishnan. Depletion of incompatible elements in the mantle. E and Chakraborty. [29] Shaw. Dharmapuri District. Kambar (2005) A trace element study of siderite-jasper banded iron formation in the 3. M. vol 137-pp. vol 10-pp. vol 45-pp. Precambrian Research. Part III. 93-114.1 Geology and location map of the study area International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Whitley.9 Ga deposition bracketing the 2. Madras State. L and Bhattacharjee. (1970) The iron formations of the Precambrian Hamersley Group. J. [22] Krishna Rao. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. (1984) Rare earth elements in the Indian banded iron formation. G. 107-118. Fig. T. Duke et al (2008) Trace element and isotopic characterization of Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic iron formations in the Black hills (South Dakota. Indian Mineralogist. J. 281300. S. S (1969) Origin of iron ores of Kanjamalai. S and Aiyengar. 403-415 . Chakraborty. vol 17-pp. [30] Sreenivas. Murakami.M (1980) Development of the early continental crust. J. [28] Saravanan. Petrol. vol 60-pp. B. October 2009. Precambrian Research. Western Australia. with special reference to the associated Crocidolite. Chemical Geology. R and Kasipathi. L. K. Vol. vol 119-pp. D.

R. THIRUNAVUKKARASU. Average Godumalai iron-formation (Rajendran et al. (1988) Fig. 02.1 Major element data for banded magnetite quartzite samples of Tirthamalai region (all values in wt %) Table.3 Average major elements of Tirthamalai iro formations are compared with Godumalai and Kanjamalai (Rajendran et al 1995) and Isua iron-formations (Gole and Klein 1981). C. 1980) Average Quartz-Magnetite IF (10 analyses) Dymek. Fig.2 Comparison of major elements of banded magnetite quartzite of study area with other parts of the world. 1966) Average Tirthamalai iron formation (oxide facies). B. 403-415 .A. SHANKAR. MAHARANI. M.2 Plot of the Tirthamalai iron-formation in the Precambrian field of SiO2 . POOVALINGA GANESH K. N=20 (this study). No.Al2O3 Fe2O3 (after Govett. Vol. 05. RAJAMANICKAM and S. RAJENDRAN. K. (2007) Average Kanjamalai iron-formation (Rajendran. pp.F. RAJA 409 Table. S. October 2009. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 1995) Average Lake superior silicate facies ironformation from North America (Gross and Macleod. and Klein.

05.43 0.2 21.29 1. 403-415 .08 0.15 0.33 4.4 3 0.F. Vol. R.08 0.13 0. No. Dharmapuri District.16 1.55 4 0. and Klein.5 7 4. India Table. C.4 20 2.05 7.5 7.45 0.410 Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai.05 0.5 13 30 2 0.3 Trace element data of iron ores of Tirthamalai region (all values in ppm) Table.54 0. October 2009.76 0.1 28. pp.19 0. Tamil Nadu. (1988) Average ferromagnesian Tirthamalai region/Shaw (1980) Average ferromagnesian trace element Isua/Shaw (1980) International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.75 Average ferromagnesian trace element Tirthamalai region Average ferromagnesian trace element Isua (Dymek. 02.6 41.4 Concentrations of trace elements compared to other Sc V Cr Co Ni Cu Zn 1 1.

K. M.33Tb)CN. No. Average REE of Tirthamalai region. Kanjamalai and Isua regions and seawater. 1982). 6. b Not analysed International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. SHANKAR. Pr=(Pr/0. THIRUNAVUKKARASU. North Atlantic Sea water.67Sm+0. 1. MAHARANI. 5. Average Isua. elderfield and Greaves.6 Average REE data of banded magnetite quartzite samples of Tirthamalai.5La+0. 2.5Nd)CN. G/Gd*=(Gd/2Tb-Dy)CN Table. 1983). pp. Vol. Hydrothermal fluid. Ce/Ce*= (Ce/0. 600 m depth (converted from values given as mol kg1.. RAJENDRAN. average of 5 analyses (Michard et al.5 Rare earth elements of banded magnetite iron-formation of Tirthamalai region Data normalizing using the Nakamura and Taylor and Mclennan (1984) Eu/Eu*= (Eu/0. B. 4.5Pr)CN. October 2009. Godumalai. RAJAMANICKAM and S. POOVALINGA GANESH K. RAJA 411 Table.A. S. 05.5Ce+0. Average REE of Kanjamalai. Average REE of Godumalai 3. 02. EPR at 210 N. 403-415 .

6 Co+Cu+Ni abundances vs. 2007) and Isua Dymek and Klein 1988) iron formations International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 2003) Fig. Isua quartz magnetite ironformation represented by Dymek. 7 The chondrite abundances are those of Tirthamalai banded magnetite ironformation. All the samples are falls in decrease of molar ratio characteristics of clastic metasediments (after Hamade et. pp. (1988) Fig. Data used for these plots are from Table 1. and Klein. Vol.2.412 Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai. Ge/Si ratio. Dharmapuri District. Tamil Nadu. Godumalai (Rajendran et. C. total REE content (La+Ce+Nd+Sm+ Eu++Tb+Yb+Lu) for analyses listed in Table. R. The field labled hydrothermal deposits represents data from the FAMOUS and Galapagos areas.F. No.al. 02.8 Comparison of chondrite normalized REEs with Kanjamalai. 403-415 . October 2009.5 Silica (wt%) vs. which are mostly green muds/nontronite. whereas the field labeled “metalliferous deep-sea sediment’ represents mostly DSDP samples from eastern Pacific sites (see Bonnot-Courtois (1981) for an extended discussion of these data). al 1995. The samples of Tirthamalai region are poor in trace and total REE concentration and not having the characteristics of “hydrothermal or Metalliferous deep-sea sediments”. India Fig. 05. Fig.

1999). S. indicating that a significant higher contribution of hydrothermal fluid in the Tirthamalai ironformation. REY distributions (Alibo and Nozaki. C. The yellow shaded area represents the range of values Fig. THIRUNAVUKKARASU.. Sm/Yb. POOVALINGA GANESH K.7 Ga Isua Ifs (Bolhar et al. yet display Sm/Yb values similar to continental crust and lower than Mozaan iron-formation. All iron formation samples have significantly lower Sm/Yb and Eu/Eu* than high-T hydrothermal fluids. MAHARANI. B. 2. Fig. K. Average shale (PAAS. (after Dymek. No. The Tirthamalai iron-formation exhibit Eu/Eu* between that of the Isua and Kuruman Ifs. 02. 1999). and Y/Ho. 1989). whereas all the BIFs plot below this line indicating that they possess negative Ce anomalies (see text for discussion.F.. 1999) is sufficient to explain Eu/Sm ratios in the Tirthamalai iron formation. Vol. Isua samplesw are those considered by Bolhar et al. Bau and Dulski 1999) fluid contribution to waters with shallow (<500 m) seawater. RAJAMANICKAM and S. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. McLennan. October 2009. 11a Elemental ratio plots for data sets presented in with two-component conservative mixing line for Eu/Sm. R. RAJA 413 for 62 pelites from the Pongola Supergroup sampled by Wronkiewicz (1989). 11a.A. shallow (<500 m) Pacific seawater (Alibo and Nozaki. SHANKAR. 403-415 . RAJENDRAN. (1988) Fig. showing a 0. (La/Sm) in samples from the Tirthamalai iron formation. and Klein. 2004) to reflect contemporaneous seawater.1 % high-T hydrothermal (>3500C. and including data for 3.5 Ga Kuruman and Penge Ifs (Bau and Dulski. 10 Plot of Chondrite-normalized Sm/Yb and Eu/Eu* for Tirthamalai IF. 11b Y/Ho versus Sm/Yb. pp. The clastic metasediments and amphibolites plot along the SLA indicating no anomalous behavior for Ce. 9 Plot of chondrite-normalized (Ce/Sm) vs. 05. and high-T hydrothermal fluids (>3500C. Note break in horizontal axis. M. Fig. Bau and Dulski. 1996). Y/Ho versus Eu/Sm. and crossed square represents Post-Archean. 2004).

early Archaen Strelley Pool Chert stromatolites and early Archaean BIFs from Greenland (Bolhar et al. The steep positive array for jasper samples suggests mixing between shallow seawater and a hydrothermal fluid component with strongly enriched Eu (i. 2004). In Tirthamalai banded magnetite iron-formation samples lacking Ce anomalies and positive La anomalies.al. 05.. Pr/Pr*CN ([Pr/0. Webb and Kamber. Compositions for modern seawater and hydrothermal fluids. 1998. Kamber and webb. depleted LREE relative to MREE). Dharmapuri District. (after Robert Bolhar et. late Archaean Figure 13 The Eu/Eu*CN versus Pr/Sm CN ratio plot for Tirthamalai banded magnetite quartz.5Ce+0. 2004). moderate positive Eu anomaly. while elevated LREE/MREE with slightly decreasing Eu/Eu* suggests contamination with terrigenenus material. 1999) Fig. 2004. The locus of intersection is inferred to be an approximation to Archaean seawater (i. pp.al. 2000). Jasper-siderite samples are distinct from Holocene microbialites (Webb and Kamber.e. German and elderfield.5Pr]CN) Vs. All the samples fall within the crustal contamination. 02. No. Tamil Nadu. 11c Sm/Yb as a function of Eu/Sm demonstrating that relatively smal (0. 2001. LateArchaean BIFs from Transvall Group (Bau and Dulski. Bau and Dulski. (after Bau and Dulski. high-T). Devonian reefal carbonates (Nothdurft et.1%) contributions of block smoker fluid can model Sm/Yb and Eu/Sm behavior in the Kuruman and Isua Ifs. 1996) Fig.5La+0. 2001). but do not adequately account for the relative distribution of these elements in the Tirthamalai iron-formation. October 2009. Bolhar et..e. 1989. India Campbellrand stromatolites (Kamber and Webb. Composition of possible ambient shallow seawater is approximated by composition of strelley Pool chert stromatolites. 403-415 .5Nd]CN) used to differentiate between La and Ce anomalies in seawaterderived sediments. Vol. Strong but discrete correlation exist for jasper and siderite samples defining distinct trends. Data sources Alibo and Nozaki. 2000).414 Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Banded Iron Formation of Tirthamalai. 2005) (Low grade( Magnetite)) International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 12 Plot of Ce/Ce*CN ([Ce/(0.al. 1999.

The average normalized Eu anomalies value of banded magnetite quartzite samples of Tirthamalai region plotted with evolution diagram (data in Table 5).14.15. South Africa. 05.5 field. October 2009. 02. 1993). Chondrite normalized Eu/Eu* anomalies (normalized to oxide-facies Hamersley BIFs. MAHARANI. 403-415 . SHANKAR. POOVALINGA GANESH K. Bau and Dulski. (after Sreenivas and Murakami. 2005). RAJENDRAN. Vol. S. THIRUNAVUKKARASU. 1996).5 Ga. Fig. All the banded magnetite iron-formation do not display CeCN anomalies (they predominantly plot in field IIA). B. Ce/Ce* vs. Precambrian iron-formation show negative Ce anomaly compare to Early and Middle Paleoroterozoic . RAJA 415 Fig. Pr/Pr* discrimination diagram banded magnetite iron formation samples of Tirthamalai region superimposed with data from the other world iron formation. Western Australia (Alibert and McCulloch. All the samples fall within the <3. K. No. pp. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. M. These are indicated lacking of oxidation process in the Archaean time. (discrimination diagram established by Bau and Dulski (1996). The data from the Kuruman and Penge iron-formations (Transvaal. RAJAMANICKAM and S. This feature is interpreted to be result of overall trend decreasing event at 3.A.

Vol. 1994). first recognized by Dunn (1940).com Abstract: The pear-shaped epicontinental Kolhan basin lie unconformably over the Singhbhum granite in the east and has a faulted contact with the Iron Ore Group in the west. Towards the western part of the Singhbhum granite the Kolhan Group of sediments are preserved as a linear belt covering an area of 800 sq. Kolhan.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. The sandstones are composed of sub-litharenite to quartz arenite. The Kolhan Group is preserved as linear belt extending for 80100 km with an average width of 10-12 km revealing deposition of Kolhan sediments in narrow and elongated troughs. Saha (1994) has divided the Kolhan Group of sediments into four detached sub-basins Chaibasa-Noamundi basin.96Ga of Soutpansberg Group. SWAIN Department of Geology and Geophysics. pp. Saha (1948a. Structurally it represents a dome and basin. Singhbhum. 416-423 416 Proterozoic Kolhan Sedimentation in ChaibasaNoamundi Basin – A Review SMITA S. Geology of the area: The Chaibasa-Noamundi sub basin represents a shallow pear-shaped epicontinental basin (Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. The sediments were deposited in embayed shallow marine environment / tidal flat environment. 1994). The geological and tectonic setting of the Kolhan Groups in Singhbhum Iron ore craton is shown in Fig. Two broad lithofacies have been found in sandstones . West Bengal-721302 Email: smitaswarupaswain@gmail. 05. Introduction: The Singhbhum craton in eastern India is mainly composed of Archean granitoids forming the nucleus rimmed by a Proterozoic mobile belt to the north and east (Saha. sandstone. The Kolhan Group is similar in many respects with Manganese-bearing Wyllies Poort Formation of 1. 1969 (Fig. Key words: Basin. All rights reserved. Iron-Ore Group to the west. stratigraphy and depositional settings by Ray and Bose (1959.km. The Kolhan Group lying unconformably above the Singhbhum granite is bounded by the Jagannathpur lavas on the southeast and south and the Iron Ore Group on the west. 02.hummocky cross stratified sandstone facies and planar cross stratified sandstone facies. The geological map of the ChaibasaNoamundi basin is well documented by Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. Structure. 2002).Kolhan conglomerate.8-1. 1964). Kolhan sandstone. #02020504 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. 1 (Saha. The western contact of the basin is faulted against the Iron Ore Group. . South Africa suggesting a possible Indo-African connection during the Neo-Archean age (Bandopadhyay and Sengupta. 1969) with a low westerly 510° dip. The sediments have undergone gentle tectonic deformation and very low grade metamorphism. Chaibasa-Noamundi basin: The main basin extends in NNW-SSE direction for about 60km from Noamundi (850 28′ – 220 09′) in the south to Chaibasa (850 48’ – 220 33’) in the north with a maximum width of about 12km (Mahadevan. folded and thrust-faulted. The metasedimentary rocks comprising of basal conglomerate. ChamakpurKeonjhargarh basin. IIT Kharagpur. Some works have been done on various aspects of sedimentology. structure. lithology. October 2009. 2004). Kolhan limestone and Kolhan shale. Northeast Kaapvaal Craton. The basin has four lithostratigraphic units . The Kolhan Group of rocks represents one of the least studied basins in the Singhbhum-Orissa– Iron Ore craton. limestone and phyllitic shale lie unconformably over the Singhbhum granite in the east and partly over. 2). Mankarchua basin and Sarapalli-Kamakhyanagar basin. No.

The structures are diastrophic in origin and pass into areas of enechelon brachy anticline and brachy syncline (Ray and Bose. The incompetent shale has developed cleavages as a result of the deformation and is more disturbed towards the west (Bhattacharya and Chatterjee. the basin was involved in a triaxial deformation. (2006). Bandopadhyay and Sengupta. As stated by Ray and Bose (1959. 1998.3). but a gradual increase in stratigraphic thickness of the deposit towards west and north indicate a deepening of the basin towards west. due to oblique stress acting on a small thickness of strata against a rigid basement. Bhattacharya and Chatterjee (1964). Singh. The eastern part of this basin is characterized by shallow belt of sandstoneconglomerate-limestone and has a rolling dome and basin structure of 1-100m across in diameter. 1964). Mukhopadhyay et al. 1969 (Fig. Lithofacies and Environment: The lithofacies association represents a varied lithological provenance. 1994. impersistent limestone and phyllitic shale with general westerly dip. 85° 44’) (Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. The thin sandstone overlain by thick shale represents an asymmetry in vertical basin-fill architecture. 05. Regional distribution patterns of lithofacies indicate the transgressive nature of the deposits. pp. which includes a rudaceous. As suggested by many workers. The maximum thickness of this formation is about 100m. sandstone. limestone and shale. Detailed studies of facies characteristics and lithotypes have been carried out in the Chaibasa–Noamundi basin (Saha. Bandopadhyay and Sengupta (2004). 1969. October 2009. Mahadevan. The actual date of deposition may be ~ 2000 Ma.2). Recently the whole rock Rb/Sr dating gives a maximum 1531 My for the Kolhan shale. 2002. Vol. This is International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.417 Proterozoic Kolhan Sedimentation in Chaibasa-Noamundi Basin – A Review 1948b).. 02. But according to Saha (1994) this age may be the approximate age of metamorphism. 1964). Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. 416-423 . sandstone. 1964). The main basin comprises of a sequence of basal conglomerate. 1969). To the west of the belt. locally passing into a dome-indome structure on small to intermediate scale (Ray and Bose. The shale succession in its basal part often laterally grade to calcareous shale and encloses lenticular bodies of limestone. Stratigraphy and Structure of the basin: The type area of Chaibasa-Noamundi Basin represents a sequence of basal conglomerate. the shales have a homoclinal dip that progressively steepens further westwards and abut against a thrust fault (Iron Ore Group boundary). Chatterjee and Bhattacharya (1969). The very low dip of the Kolhan near the granite contact and with a progressive increase to the west away from the granite is characteristic (Fig. tectonically Kolhan Basin represents an epicontinental basin whose NNE-SSW alignment is controlled by the trend of the older Iron Ore Group synclinorium which also run in the same direction in South Singhbhum and parallel to the Eastern Ghat strike. Chakraborty et al. attributed to the basement structure.(2005). interbedded limestone-shale sequence and thin interval of manganese oxide interbedded with shale. No. calcareous and argillaceous facies within a few tens of meters of thickness. The basin is characterized by a dome and basin structure. The Kolhan stratigraphy is best visualized in the section along the river Gumua Gara near village Rajanka (22° 26’. supported by the longitudinal and transverse sections as recorded by Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. 2004) which established four lihounits: • Kolhan shale • Kolhan limestone • Kolhan sandstone • Kolhan conglomerate There is a general variation of thickness of Kolhan basin. 1964).

hummocky sandstone bodies (hummocky cross stratification . rich in ferric oxide and mostly consist of quartz arenite and sub-lithic arenite.2 mm) and continuous in the outcrop scale. The massive conglomerate is poorly sorted and exhibit matrix supported character and are products of debris flow.HCS) and planar to cross stratified sandstones (Fig. Lithic clasts except shale and rounded chert grains are absent. Individual bed of HCS are up to 0. The conglomerates occur as (a) crudely stratified with tabular bed geometry (b) massive sheets with wavy upper bounding surfaces.2 m thick) or as amalgamated beds (up to 1. Harms et al. SWAIN 418 Kolhan conglomerate: It occupies the basal portion of the lithologic section. devoid of structures.5-10 cm. The framework grains are poor to moderately well sorted. the hummocky cross International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 416-423 . these conglomerates are mostly submature to immature. and becomes more oligomictic to the south with chert and jasper pebbles.1975). planar stratified sandstone facies which includes sheet sandstone and rhythmic sandstone units. The conglomerate is thin impersistent. The bed geometry and internal sedimentary structures of these sandstones however vary considerably. disorganized. angular. The sandstones are typically red and purple in color. 02. The field photographs of different sedimentary structures like wavy sandstone facies.. Framework quartz amounting 77% on average and the matrix less than 15% characterizes the petrography of the quartz arenite sandstone. Sedimentary structures in the Kolhan sandstone enable distinction of plane bedded and cross-bedded. 2004). The first category is poorly sorted. 4) (wavy planar beds of Mukhopadhyay et al. Kolhan sandstone: The conglomerate grades upward to medium-fine grained arenite –sub-lithic arenite sandstone.4 m thick). subrounded and occasionally well rounded and have syntectic quartz overgrowths occupying the framework interstices. The interbedded crudely stratified poorly sorted conglomerate are likely to be products of sheet floods along steep slopes and were deposited under fluvial environment. 05. the hummocky cross stratifications (HCS) constitutes the swelling parts of these sandstone bodies. with a sandy matrix more or less very similar to the overlying sandstone. Present either as single bed (up to 0. both planar and trough types (Bandopadhyay and Sengupta. 1984. matrix supported. 15-20m in thickness. along the long axis. In the first category. the maximum being 6. The conglomerates with gently undulating wavy mega-ripple geometry imply that they were deposited in wave dominated foreshore –shore face depositional settings. Vol. the sandstone bodies are fine grained (0. 2006).SMITA S. pebbly sandstones and thin and impersistent layers of shale. The individual pebbles are mostly elliptical. Feldspars amounting to 10% of the framework detritus are mostly orthoclase. Collinson. The sandstone bodies show an overall hummocky topography formed either by preservation of the bedform morphology (passive variety) or developed through erosion of substrate as indicated by truncation of bedding plane (active variety. According to Chatterjee and Bhattacharya (1969). Internally. Ferric oxides and argillaceous matter is often preserved in this sequence. In this litho-facies plane-bedded sandstones are interbedded with minor thin beds and lenses of conglomerates. ripple laminated sandstone and cross stratified sandstone facies around Chaibasa are shown in Fig.5 cm. These sandstones can be divided into two facies . October 2009. 4. Also large wavy ripples are seen in the contact of the two layers with wavelength varies 3-40 cm and height varies 0. non-graded in nature and are interbedded with cross stratified coarse / pebbly arkose. pp. and vary considerably in size. a few are microcline and albite is virtually absent.4 m thick and are composed of lamina sets that are usually 6-15 cm thick (maximum 20 cm). The debris flow conglomerates and intebedded cross– stratified arkosic deposits are typical of a gravelly alluvial fan-braided plain at tectonically active semiarid basin margins (Nemec and Steel. In the northern part of the basin the conglomerate is polymict with quartz and granite pebbles. No.. 1996).

1940). The limestone in its lower part show a color variation from white-pale grey pale pink-pale green with argillaceous matrix. (2006) reported this shale to be devoid of any siliciclastic / carbonate components coarser than mud and therefore. Kolhan Limestone: The Kolhan limestone (thickness <20m) exhibits variation in color. suggest a deepwater outer ramp/shelf to basin depositional environment. October 2009. where the v’s closes in down current direction). At places. Within the siliciclastic lake basin. Kolhan Shale: The end phase of sedimentation is represented by a monotonous reddish brown thin bedded shale unit (Jetia Shale. 1948).. Singh 1998). The absence of interbedded resedimented deposits led Mukhopadhyay et al. basically characterized by erosional lower bounding surfaces dipping mostly less than 10°. On the other hand Bandopadhyay and Sengupta. opaque ores.5 cm respectively (Chakraborty. 100m thick. The upper horizon which is extremely variable in thickness represents a metasomatic rock. very rarely other carbonates and argillaceous matrix. Such an interpretation together with lateral facies variations in basal part of the shale supports a lacustrine setting. Paleocurrent azimuth obtained from this cross-stratification reveals bimodal E-WSW pattern. Presence of fine laminations in individual beds. On bedding planes there is a rare preservation of straight crested near symmetric ripple like forms. commonly present in wave dominated shoreface. Vol. whose wavelength and amplitudes are 6. manganese oxide is present at the contact of shale and sandstone (Dunn. Besides calcite. phosphorous and sodium. structure. development of fault controlled local topographic lows coupled with changes in chemistry of the International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. But Bandopadhyay and Sengupta (2004) opines that the limestones have deposited in near shore lagoonal environment because of the presence of high content of manganese. et al. formed by low temperature replacement of the overlying phyllitic shale by lime bearing solutions derived from the primary carbonate layer (Saha. chlorite.2 cm and 0.419 Proterozoic Kolhan Sedimentation in Chaibasa-Noamundi Basin – A Review stratifications are either aggradational or originate from laminae draping shallow and very low angle truncation. 416-423 . No. 2005). The chevron cross-stratification is present in coset (avg. The broad ripple like forms with straight and occasionally bifurcated crests and high wavelength–amplitude ratio possibly replicate shore parallel swash ripple or antidunes. thickness 8-10 cm). 02. pp. The hummocky sandstone bodies are overlain by cross stratified bodies which are then capped by tens of cm thick thin bedded rippled fine sandstones. Mukhopadhyay et al. 05. shallowing upward facies succession possibly resulted from repeated progradation of the shore line. texture. the limestone constitutes quartz. 2007). composition. Both wavy and chevron cross– stratification shows the dominance of oscillatory flow. fine grain size and absence of tide or storm generated structure led Bandopdhayay and Sengupta (2004) to suggest an extremely low energy calm environment for the deposition of the shale from suspension load. Sandstone beds in this facies tend to be sheet like with constant bed thickness along the strike. (2004) believes this shale to be calcareous towards its basal part and contains laterally impersistent layers and lensoid bodies of limestone and interbedded sequences of limestone and shale/calcareous shale. alternating with abrupt transgression. plane lamination and chevron cross-stratification (the typical v-shaped stratification with straight ridge. It is believed that the lower limestone horizon is the result of chemical precipitation in shallow warm sea water. (2006) to suggest a gently dipping homoclinal ramp depositional setting (beyond the zone of coarse clastic sedimentation) for these limestones. the sandstones are well sorted coarse sandstone which represents the alternation between two units. Recurrent development of this stacked. Chevron cross stratification in this facies are interpreted as products of fair weather wave ripples and provide indication for E – WSW palaeoshoreline orientation. (Dalabehera and Das. In the latter case.

753-757. The basin represents an event of major transgression and relative sea level rise. 05. Jharkhand-Vistas in Geological Research. The author is highly grateful to the Head of the Department of Geology and Geophysics IIT Kharagpur for providing necessary facilities to carry out the present investigation. [3] Chakraborty. resulting in the formation of lenticular units of limestone.. Reading (Ed. 2005). United Kingdom. Sedimentological study by Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. Singhbhum district. Subashis Das. Publ. Bhattacharya. D (1996) The Coast. which leads to the sedimentation (Panda and Das. Kolhan Group Eastern India-Jour Geological Society India. an intensely weathered low-relief provannce dominantly composed of granitiod rocks and a warm and humid palaeoclimate. Petrofacies analysis (Dalabehera and Das. [7] Dunn. J. October 2009. The basin is characterized by transgressive a marine deposit which usually depicts a medium to low energy environment.SMITA S. Elmore et al. P.. The association of the shale with fluvial deposits (Picard and High. L.K. pp. The hummocky cross stratification and planar cross stratification are the two dominant sedimentary structures indicative of sediment deposition in shallow marine environment / tidal flat environment (Chakraborty et al. Sedimentary Environments: Processes. Blackwell Science. A. 02. the eastern side of the Iron Ore synclinorium was faulted giving rise to a half graben structure.K (1969) Tectonics and sedimentation in a Precambrian shallow epicontinental basin-Journal Sedimentary Petrology. Sengupta. 37-81 [6] Dalabehera.Gondwana Research.1566-1572.G.C. [4] Chatterjee. 416-423 . 1969 the basin to be an embayment from a geosyncline. Das.1228-1235. Paul. cooperation and constant guidance extended by her supervisor Prof. Vol. B. (2006) are of the opinion that the Kolhan sediments have deposited in a deep water cratonic depositional setting beyond the reach of coarser detritus. P. 3rd Edition. 2007) is suggestive of sediments in the Chaibasa and Noamundi basin was derived from various acid plutonic rocks and the Iron Ore Group. P. 758-779. J. Das. S. A (2005) Facies development and depositional environment of the Mungra sandstone. pp. BiharGeologische Rundschau. 1989) is a basis for suggesting a lacustrine setting for the shale. A. 1981. These sandstones are quite mature and fall in the terrestrial recycled zone. No. Chatterjee.). Facies and Stratigraphy.U Spl. Vol 65-pp... Vol 53-pp. Conclusion: Various workers have carried out sedimentological studies in ChaibasaNoamundi basin. The main basin has undergone a phase of extension. India and the Indo-African Supercontinent. Mukhopadhyay et al. U. According to Saha (1994). In: H. Vol 39 (4)pp. the Kolhan basin represents an intracratonic marine basin within the Singhbhum – Orissa Iron Ore craton. the lithology of the basin varies. References: [1] Bandopadhyay. [5] Collinson.. S (2004) Paleoproterozoic supracrustal Kolhan Group in Singhbhum craton. During this phase. S (2007) Petrofacies analysis of the sedimentary rocks of Kolhan Basin. SWAIN 420 lake water possibly prompted the deposition of carbonate mud at the total exclusion of fine siliciclastics. West Singhbhum. Vol 7(4)-pp. Depending upon the source area and other environmental conditions. B. 2007).K (1964) Petrology of Precambrian Kolhan formation of Jhinkpani.a case study from Chaibasa-Noamundi..K. London. in Geology. Acknowledgements: The author acknowledges the help.A (1940) The stratigraphy of North Singhbhum-Memoir Geological International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Vol 6-pp 1-13. [2] Bhattachrya. Petrography and geochemistry of Kolhan sediments by Bandopadhyay and Sengupta (2004) suggest passive margin tectonic setting.

[15] Ray. Vol 2-161pp. J. J. S.. S. (1998) Precambrian stratigraphy of Bihar-An overview. Paliwal.. Vol. (Eds. pp. K.K (1959) Fold patterns in the Kolhan formation-46th Indian Sci. Vol 4-pp. Congr. Vol 31-pp. A. Steel.E.49-58. Vol 20pp. S.1-31 [13] Panda. Special Publication. T. S. A. 22nd Session. Vol 43-pp. A.R. S. R.C. L. D.W. Vol 10.G (1975) Depositional environment as interpreted from primary sedimentary structures and stratification sequences-Society of Economic Paleontologist and Mineralogist.P. R. 202pp. Milavec... 191-213. pt.. Bangalore.D. 02. Proc. H. Jour. Scientific Publ. Vol 6-pp. Southard. M (2002) Geology of Bihar and Jharkhand. Chaudhuri. [12] Nemec. Jodhpur. 05.. Ghosh. M. R. G. J. [17] Saha. M. [16] Ray.B.U Spl. [9] Harms. Met. M..163170. J.)..K. Spearing. Publ. W. Eastern IndiaMemoir Geological Society of India. Sedimentology of gravels and conglomerates: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir. [14] Picard. Vol 27338 pp.R (1981) Physical stratigraphy of ancient lacustrine deposits in recent and ancient non-marine depositional environments: models for exploration-SEPM. In: Koster.. India. A. DST Publication. Min. A. Internationla Geological Congress. High.).421 Proterozoic Kolhan Sedimentation in Chaibasa-Noamundi Basin – A Review Survey of India. [8] Elmore.. In: B. Geological Society of India. October 2009. Bihar. Vol 14pp. [10] Mahadevan. Bose.K (2006) Depositional setting of the Kolhan Group: its implications for the development of a Meso to Neoproterozoic deep-water basin on the South Indian Craton-South African Journal of Geology. sedimentology and organic geochemical aspects of lacustrine deposition-Precambrian Research.. (1964) Unique fold pattern in shallow basinRept. 50-57. K (1994) Crustal evolution of Singhbhum-North Orissa. pp.. [20] Singh.D. [18] Saha. III.K (1948b) The Kolhan Series-Iron –Ore Series boundary to the west and southwest of Chaibasa. G. Quart.J. 376-408 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. R. 563pp [11] Mukhopaddhyay.. M. Steel. [19] Saha.K (1948a) A study of limestone near Chaibasa.77-79. 303369. ENGEL (1989) The Precambrian Nonesuch Formation of the North American mid-continental rift. Nandi. in Geology. pp.183192. (Ed. 416-423 . Vol 63(3)-pp.. Geol. Imbus. Soc.Science and Culture. Vistas in Geological Research U. Das. 233-259.. No. Bose. Walker..J (1984) Alluvial and coastal conglomerates: their significant features and some comments on gravelly mass flow deposits.. The Precambrian. S (2007) The Kolhan Basin-A Riview. pp.

pp. 05. 02. 1969) International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 416-423 .SMITA S. Vol.1 Map of the Singhbhum craton showing the distribution of Kolhan Group in Singhbhum Iron-Ore craton (Saha.2 Geological map of the Chaibasa-Noamundi basin (modified after Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. 1994) Fig. No. October 2009. SWAIN 422 Fig.

416-423 . pp.423 Proterozoic Kolhan Sedimentation in Chaibasa-Noamundi Basin – A Review Fig. 02. October 2009.3 Schematic cross sections showing the distribution of the lithofacies in the Precambrian Kolhan basin (Chatterjee and Bhattacharya. 05. No. Vol.4 a) Ripple laminated sandstone facies (b) alternation of sandstone and shale units (rhythmic sandstone facies) (c) cross-bedded sandstone facies (d) sheet sandstone facies from Rajanbasa village (Hammer for scale) International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 1969) Fig.

com. 1999). They are economical as they require smaller armour stones when compared to the conventional breakwater. Submerged breakwaters with or without the core are used worldwide for coastal protection.005 when the submergence ratio is less than 0. Srinivasnagar. 424-432 424 Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Performance of a Horizontal Plate Breakwater SUBBA RAO1.roobin99@gmail. D. submerged breakwaters which will reduce the wave activity to the desired limit and provide partial protection is a natural choice. 2.com. wave attenuation wave force 1. Surathkal.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. No.surakrec@gmail. Plate breakwater can also be used to induce wave breaking and dissipate wave energy. The major ports need high protection whereas the minor harbours can be permitted to have some amount of wave activity. Their economical viability depends on the availability of armour stones in the nearby quarries.kshirlal@gmail. India.com Abstract: Employing submerged breakwaters for inducing wave breaking is a well adopted technique in many places to provide partial protection from waves. However the submerged breakwaters obstruct the currents and cause settlement of most of the sediment transported.prashanthbajpe@gmail. . wave transmission. E-mail:1. Karnataka. Vol. In such cases. The paper explains the physical model studies to evaluate the transmission. SHIRLAL2. 4. It has the advantages of low interference with current and sediment transport while saving substantial quantity of material. 3. 05. District. which in turn increase the tendency of erosion on the downstream side. Key words: Plate breakwater. Hence the wave activity in an area can be controlled by providing obstruction in the surface region. National Institute of Technology Karnataka. Investigations show that fixed #02020505 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. They are environmental friendly as they allow exchange of surface water. Alternative types of breakwaters are being investigated universally to economise the utilisation of construction materials and to provide eco-friendly solution to coastal engineering problems (Subba Rao et al.. There are tourist places and recreational and water sporting areas and aquaculture location which need some wave activity throughout the year for their successful operations. All rights reserved. 02. The study shows that the breakwater consisting of a single horizontal plate is effective for attenuating short waves with a transmission of less than 60% for waves steeper than 0. It is observed that effectiveness of horizontal plate breakwater increases with deep water wave steepness and relative depth but decreases with plate submergence. K. It permits exchange of surface and subsurface water and hence.com. Pin 575025.1 Concept of plate breakwater: Ocean waves are surface water phenomena. 1. submergence. reflection and loss coefficients and wave forces on a thin submerged horizontal plate breakwater at varying wave climate and plate submergence. They are efficient at sites where tidal fluctuation is moderate. KIRAN G. They permit exchange of surface water but obstruct the movement of a major portion of the sediments. VARGHESE3 AND PRASHANTH S. Most of the wave energy is concentrated in the surface region. The particle orbits which are circular in deep water condition and elliptical in shallow water region can get modified by the plate interference. suitable for ecologically sensitive region. The structures need strong foundation soil which may not be available at all the locations. October 2009. pp. Introduction: Breakwaters are structures constructed to protect the shore from the destructive action of waves and to create a calm lagoon to facilitate various port activities. ROOBIN V.4 Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics.33. reflection.

55 to 0.60) for s/d = 0.04. horizontal plate kept at surface or slightly below the surface can attenuate the wave energy primarily by inducing wave breaking and by turbulence and friction. The maximum dimensionless force decreased with increase of submergence. The ratio of depth of submergence of first plate to the total depth (ds/d) influenced the reflection coefficient (Kr). The minimum value of Kt was when B/L is 0. ρ is the specific weight of water.2 A general solution for the problem of wave scattering on a fixed horizontal plate was attempted by Patarapanich (1984).5. Physical model study on a single surface plate and twin plate barriers with regular and random waves shown that reflection increases and transmission decreases corresponding to the increase of B/L ratio. submergence of top plate. The waves near critical steepness may be induced to break by the submerged breakwater. Twin plate acted just like a single plate when the spacing was 0. L is the wave length at the site) shown significant influence in wave transmission for relative depth of submergence (ds/d. 02. 2006). The reflection increased by 20 to 30% when the s/d increased to 0.76) for a single surface plate (Neelamani and Gayathri.12 compared to (Kt = 0.2 Literature Review: Dattatri et al. Vol. (1978) studied hydraulic behaviour of various shapes of submerged breakwaters and observed that the incident wave steepness has an important influence on wave breaking. Kt values reduced with increase of relative submergence (d/L) for all plate spacing.06 (Neelamani and Reddy.25.32.3 to 0. It was observed that the transmission was least when the relative submergence of the plate (ds/d) was about 0. pp. where ds is the depth of top of breakwater from still water level) values in between 0 to 0.23 for which the Kt value was in between 0. The width of plate and the longitudinal distance between the plates was kept as 1. The optimum results were when ds/d = 0.0 m.4.75 to 0. Experimental investigations on fixed horizontal plate in deep water conditions revealed that minimum transmission of waves occurred when the fixed plate is kept at the still water level. No. ‘a’ is the wave amplitude. Wang and Shen (1999) conducted mathematical model analyses to evaluate the performance of multiple-plate breakwater. Optimum s/d = 0.20 and the International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. A twin plate breakwater system consisting of a horizontal surface plate and an identical submerged plate just below the surface plate was investigated analytically based on linear potential wave theory. 05.10 to 0.5 depending on the relative width (B/L). and B is the length of breakwater) in shallow water region and it reduced to a value in between 0. relative water depth (d/L) and the gap between the plates. 1992). October 2009. Normalised force did not show significant variation with respect to the relative depth (d/L) in shallow water but it decreased with increase of d/L in intermediate water depth. The reflection and transmission coefficients have shown increasing and decreasing patterns with increase of B/L. The long wave solution for surface plate and submerged plate was extended to obtain the hydrodynamic forces and overturning moments exerted on the plate. but the loss of energy was maximum when the plate was slightly below the still water level with ds/d = 0. The relative depth (d/L. 1. It was found that the Kr and Kt depend on plate length. where d is the depth of water. Cheong and Patarapanich (1992) have attempted to derive analytically the reflection and transmission coefficients of double plate. The performance of twin plate system was better than that of the single plate breakwater (Usha and Gayatri 2005).425 Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Performance of a Horizontal Plate Breakwater corresponding transmission coefficient is in between 0. The transmission coefficient was minimum (Kt = 0. Experiments were also conducted using random waves on breakwater consisting of a leeward surface plate and a submerged seaward plate.75. 424-432 . The value of Kt showed oscillatory nature with increase of s/d. The dimensionless vertical force on the surface plate (Fy/ρgaB) = 1 (where Fy is the vertical component of force.

The present study was conducted to find the effectiveness of a thin short plate and to examine the influence of various parameters on Kt. 1b.1m deep and has a smooth concrete bed for a length of 42m with a 6m long wave-generating chamber at one end and a beach of 1V:10H slope consisting of rubble stones at other end. 02. KIRAN G. The load cells for measuring wave forces were connected to the supporting frame as shown in Fig. three for acquiring incident and reflected wave characteristics (Hi and Hr) and one for transmitted wave characteristics (Ht) as shown in Fig. The vertical and horizontal loads were measured separately.24m and wave periods ranging from 0. 1450 rpm induction motor which can rotate at 0–155 rpm and is regulated by an inverter drive (0–50 Hz). No. It is shown that submerged reef can be designed with B/d ratio of 0. 0. The wave generator is operated by an 11 kW.71m wide and 1. Kr. The plate was maintained horizontal at the required depth of submergence using adjustable screws at the top of the supporting structure as depicted in Fig. 424-432 .5 m. shows the two-dimensional wave flume in which physical model studies of the submerged plate breakwater were conducted. Kt is below 0. Most of the previous works were carried out using a thick and long plate. A load cell connected to the frame measures the vertical load acting on the plate and also makes the system fully rigid. ROOBIN V. SHIRLAL. The transmission coefficient decreased with increase of relative width. Four such probes were used during the experimental work.25 to 8. 2 Oblectives: The objectives of the investigation were to study the transmission. When the B/L is below 0.3 Model: Model of plate breakwater was constructed using smooth steel plate of 3.33.67 to 1. With the increase of wave steepness (H/L).675 and X/d ratio in between 6. 05. The study of available literature shows that the horizontal plate can attenuate some of the wave energy. Vol. The plate and the frame were connected to the supporting frame by using two pairs of hinged links. The system has one degree of freedom which is in the vertical direction.1 Wave flume: Fig. The signals from wave probes were verified online during the experimentation and recorded by the computer through the data acquisition system.2 Data Acquisition: Capacitance-type wave probes along with amplification units were used for data acquisition. The system can generate regular waves with wave height ranging from 0. Kr increased and Kt decreased. (2007) have suggested possible use of submerged reef for coastal protection as it reduces the wave energy in the leeward side and produces turbulence and hence reduces the silt accumulation behind the structure. pp.33. The Kt and Kr were not significantly influenced by the relative gap (s/H) of the plates. 1a.2. VARGHESE AND PRASHANTH S 426 Multiple-layer breakwater consisting of several horizontal plates was investigated using physical model (Wang et al. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 2006). Shirlal et al.02 to 0. The flume is 50m long. A similar arrangement is done for measuring horizontal load also. h/d ratio > 0. 3.1a. The flume is provided with a bottom-hinged flap-type wave generator. Kr does not increase evidently.0mm thickness. Kl and wave force. It was supported by steel flats from the top which provide stability against oscillation.8 to 4s at a maximum water depth of 0.2 the reflection increased with B/L but when B/L > 0.. It has potential to be used as a costal protection measure at sites with low tidal variation. The spacing between probes was kept near to one third of the wave length to ensure the accuracy. reflection and loss coefficients and the forces acting on a breakwater consisting of a fixed horizontal plate acted upon by monochromatic waves in varying water depth and relative submergence.25. 3. for which Kt < 0.SUBBA RAO. 3 Experimental Procedures: 3.5 when B/L > 0. These were then processed for separating the incident and reflected components using a programme based on the method developed by Issacson (1991).6. October 2009. 1a.

2 sc 5 -15 cm 30 -50 cm 0 -15 cm 50 cm (3) Where Hi is the incident wave height.5 Computation of non-dimensional wave parameters: Non dimensional parameters such as Transmission coefficient (Kt).2.6 Variables involved and their range: Fig 2 shows the sketch explaining the variables used in the study. The horizontal and vertical forces measured using load cells.6s and 2.10m.5m. No. Regular waves of height (Hi) of 0. October 2009. and 0.1 Variables and their selected range for the experimental investigation Variables Wave period Wave height Water depth Depth of submergence of top edge/ free board Length of plate Range 1. 3. a = wave amplitude. pp. Ht is the transmitted wave height. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 1. coefficient of loss (Kl) are calculated from the incident. Combinations that produced the secondary waves in the flume were not considered for the experiments. reflected and transmitted wave heights. 3. Reflection coefficient (Kr).15m with varying periods (T) of 1.0s. The flume was calibrated to produce the incident waves of different combinations of wave height and wave periods before starting the experiment.05m. Table. The incident wave heights are recorded using the first three probes and transmitted wave heights were measured using the fourth probe. Vol. Incident and transmitted wave heights were also measured manually to crosscheck the instrumental data. the waves were recorded by the probes which were calibrated at the beginning and at the end of the test runs. The primary variables and their range in the experimental programme and the non dimensional parameters derived for the study are given in Table 1 and Table 2 below.0 . The non-dimensional parameters such as normalised horizontal forces | Fx | and normalised vertical forces | Fy | are calculated. 3. g = acceleration due to gravity.4 Calibration of experimental set-up: The wave flume was filled with ordinary tap water to the required depth (d) of 0. 424-432 . 0. 05. 02. (1) (2) | Fx |=| Fx | / ρgaB | Fy |=| Fy | / ρgaB on the plate (4) (5) | Fx | = the maximum horizontal force acting | Fy | = the maximum vertical force acting on the plate ρ = specific gravity of water. During the experiment. Hr is the reflected wave height.2s were generated. B = width of plate.427 Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Performance of a Horizontal Plate Breakwater Where The system along with the load cells has been calibrated for the range of force that is expected to be acting on the plate breakwater for sufficient accuracy.

80 to 0.50m and for the entire range of other parameters. and 0. from 0.25 to 0. The highest values of Kt is for ds/Hi = 3. The horizontal forces acting on the plate were measured by using load cells connected to the frame. 02.42 at d/L = 0. 0.1 Variation of transmission coefficient (Kt): The most important parameter of the study is the transmission coefficient.0 to 3.5. 0.87 to 0.SUBBA RAO. from 0. The plate breakwater with ds/Hi ≤1.50.0 can be used where d/L > 0. This is because the wave activity is more predominant in the surface region as d/L increases.48 (45%) for ds/d=0. 424-432 . the value of Kt is below 0. The detailed analyses are given below.67 and 1. pp.6.87 to 0.42 (51%) for ds/d=0.58 as d/L varies from 0. ROOBIN V. In this case the plate is situated where the particle velocity is high and it will be in contact with water even when the trough of the wave passes the plate.33. 05.08 to 0.33 or when H0/gT2 < 5x10-3 since the particle velocity is low and the waves are relatively in stable condition.001 to 0. The general trend shows that Kt decreases as d/L increases.0.2.33.6. It drops from 0. The value of Kt is varying from 0.0 0.6 for value of H0/gT2 > 5×10-3 for all depths.1. VARGHESE AND PRASHANTH S 428 Table.2 Non dimensional parameters and their range for the experimental investigation Non dimensional parameters Deep water wave steepness parameter (H0/gT2) Relative depth at site (d/L) Relative submergence of plate (ds/Hi) Submergence ratio (ds/d) Range 0.33.1 to 0.83 to 0. Kt generally decreases with increase of wave steepness and relative depth.33.88 for the entire range of the experiment.17 since Kt is < 0. The lowest value of Kt is from 0. Variation of normalised vertical force is also plotted against relative depth. 0. KIRAN G.5 and that of ds/Hi = 2.6. Kl against various non dimensional parameters such as d/L. In the cases where the relative plate submergence ds/Hi = 0. 4.1 Influence of deep water wave steepness (H0/gT2): Fig 3 illustrates the best fit line for variation of Kt with H0/gT2 for different ranges of ds/d=0. 4. Graphs are plotted for Kt. It is observed that for the entire range of experiments Kt decreases with increase in H0/gT2. 0. Vol.85 to 0.29 to 0.38 to0.29 observed when ds/Hi = 0. 0. For ds/d from 0 to 0.1. For submerged breakwater. Submerged breakwaters are generally designed for a transmission coefficient of 0.1 to 0.016 0. thereby ensuring full time contact and maximum interaction of plate with water.25 to 0.33.83 to 0.29 to 0.50 4 Results and Discussion: The experiment was carried out for plate length of 0. which reduces their speed due to friction. October 2009.0 for which the trend line varies from 0.30 (64%) for ds/d=0. The influence of horizontal plate is less when ds/d>0. the trend lines are very close to each other with highest values of Kt around 0.50. Major observations are presented below.50.86 to 0.85 to 0. 4.38 to 0. reflected and transmitted wave heights were recorded using wave probes.0 to 0.33and from 0.2. Plate breakwaters also found to exhibit similar trend. No.08 and low values of Kt around 0.0 varies from 0. SHIRLAL.5 varies from 0. Small amplitude wave theory shows that the particle velocity decreases with the level of particle below still water surface and the velocity at the top 1/3 of water depth is considerably higher than that of the lower layers. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. ds/Hi.35 0. This causes the waves with steepness higher than 5x10-3 to break and reduces the transmission coefficient below 0. Horizontal plate when placed in the top 1/3 portion offers higher intensity of interaction with water particles.30 (63%) for ds/d=0. ds/d.8 at d/L = 0. The incident.08 to 0. Kr. H0/gT2. Trend lines of ds/Hi = 1.2 Influence of relative depth (d/L): Fig 4 shows the best fit line for variation of Kt with d/L.54 respectively.

1 Influence of deep water wave steepness (H0/gT2) Fig 6 shows variation of Kr with H0/gT2.96 (65%). Influence of various parameters is discussed below.011.0.96 (71%).50 to 0.38 to 0. It can be Fig 5 shows variation of Kt with d/L for a horizontal plate fixed at still water level.20. 4. This is found to be matching with the observation of Neelamani and Reddy (1992) who had reported maximum reflection when the plate is at the surface. General trend of Kl is to increase with H0/gT2 up to a value of H0/gT2 = 0. The results of other investigators from their physical and mathematical model studies are compared with those of the present study. Kl increases from 0.15.08 to 0.001 to 0.31 as d/L increases from 0.1 to 0.33. The wave reflection from the thin plate may be mainly because the horizontal plate forms a rigid boundary which does not permit the free vertical motion of the particle. Vol.08 to 0. 0. Horizontal plate also shows low reflection similar to conventional structures.5. ds/d = 0. The reflection is maximum when ds/Hi = 0. The values of Kr is maximum for plate close to the still water level ie.56 to 0. High value of loss coefficient and low value of Kr is desirable.33 for the entire range of the study. 0.2.0 m) plate. 0.15. results of the present study fall between those of Gayathri (2003) and mathematical models of Usha and Gayathri (2005) and Patarapanich (1984). 05.5. Variation of Kr with respect to H0/gT2 for any particular ds/d value is negligible for all ds/d values. (1994) who reported Kr variation from 0 to 0. pp. The water particles rebound from the bottom of the plate and causes waves which propagates in both seaward and lee ward directions.429 Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Performance of a Horizontal Plate Breakwater 4.3 to 0. after which Kl does not increase significantly. 4.1 Influence of deep water wave steepness (H0/gT2): The variation of Kl with H0/gT2 for various values of ds/d is depicted in Fig 8. The present results converge well with that of the physical model study of Gayathri (2003) for d/L > 0. Kt decreases from 0. It is found that there is considerable loss of energy.05 to 0. 0.33 and 0.5 using experimental study. turbulence and wave breaking. Rubble mound structures are reported to have low reflection and vertical wall structures have high reflection.50 respectively as H0/gT2 increases from 0. 4.89(65%) and 0. For ds/Hi = 0.33 and minimum when ds/Hi = 1. Kr shows very little variation with d/L and the maximum value of is about 0.011. The values of Kr for a plate at still water level is also very close to this.33 for the entire range of d/L and ds/Hi. The seaward component is recorded as reflected wave. The values are near to that found by Nallayarasu et al. Cheong and Patarapanich (1992) found Kr varying in between 0.05 and 0. This may be because they do no take in to account of the loss of energy due to friction and turbulence during the wave transmission across the breakwater.2 Influence of relative depth (d/L): Fig 7 shows that Kr is between 0. For smaller ranges of d/L varying from 0.2.2.5. 424-432 . International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. No. 4. The reflection decreases with increase of ds/d.1 to 0.15 for ds/d = 0.58 to 0. The study shows that a non specific relationship exists between ds/Hi and d/L with Kr.3.25 to 0.3 Variation of coefficient of loss (Kl): Effectiveness of a breakwater is to be judged by the portion of the energy it dissipates through friction. The reflection coefficient is in between 0.85 (70%) for ds/d = 0. It is noticed that the mathematical models tend to predict conservative values of Kt.2.2 Variation of reflection coefficient (Kr): Some of the energy of the incident waves is reflected by the submerged structure. 02. Their values are higher than that of the present study probably because of they used thicker (12 mm) and longer (1. as concluded by Usha and Gayathri (2005).83 to 0. The reflection depends on the submergence ratio and the wave parameters.54 to 0. October 2009. which emphasises the importance of physical model study since most of the mathematical models neglect the energy loss.

No. 02. 4. It decreases when the plate is at the surface and also when it moves further down. 6 Conclusions: Physical model study has been conducted using the wave to analyse the characteristics of wave propagation over a horizontal thin submerged horizontal plate using monochromatic waves in a laboratory flume. The variation of normalised vertical force with d/L for various ds/d are shown in Fig.5.1 to 0.17 for ds/Hi ≤1.al. (1992) Reflection and transmission of random waves by a horizontal double-plate breakwater. • Kt decreases with increase of H0/gT2 and d/L for the range of experimental values considered in the present study.50 to 0.15. VARGHESE AND PRASHANTH S 430 seen that the loss is almost same for ds/d 0 to 0. [2] Dattatri J. T.005 for ds/d ≤ 0. Lowest values of Kt does not correspond to the highest values of Kr Kr does not depend on H0/gT2 and d/L significantly. (1994). Lowest value of Kt is when ds/Hi = 0. [3] Gayathri. IIT Madras. Department of Civil Engineering. D Thesis. |Fy| increased sharply while d/L increased from 0. (1978) Analysis of regular and irregular waves and performance characteristics of submerged breakwaters. The horizontal force is found close to zero and hence negligible in comparison with the vertical force.33 and for d/L > 0.08 to 0. Our results are found in agreement with other authors reasonably.58 and the minimum is about 0.4 to 0. 5 Summary of Observations: The observations made during the physical model study can be summarised as presented below.0.08 to 0. 7 References: [1] Cheong H. General trend of Kl is to increase sharply as d/L increases from 0.33.6 to 0. The maximum value is about 0.0. Kt is below 0. This encouraging result prompts the horizontal plate breakwater as a structural measure to control the harsh wave climate.2 Influence of relative depth (d/L): Kl varies with d/L as shown in Fig 9.4 Variation of normalised forces: Horizontal and vertical forces are measured during the experiments.2.3.10. 4. (2003) Wave interaction with twin-plate breakwater. pp. Maximum Kl varies from 0.005 when ds/d<= 0. 05. 424-432 . Kl increases with increase of H0/gT2 and d/L for the present range of experimental values Wave force increases with d/L and decreases with submergence. The minimum values of Kl are found to be in good agreement with that of Cheong and Patarapanich (1992) who reported variation from 0. Vol.5.25 and moderately there after. which corresponds to the minimum values of Kt. KIRAN G. and Patarapanich M. however the highest force is when the plate is just below the surface the surface. ROOBIN V.23 and there was no significant increase thereafter.6 for H0/gT2 > 0. Ph. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.50 is effective in breaking high waves and it transmits only about 60% of the wave heights for H0/gT2 > 0. Coastal Engineering (18) 63 –82.. Similar observations were made by Nallayarasu et .2.8. The increase of force due to increase of d/L may be due to the fact that the wave energy is concentrated more near the surface in the case of deep water waves. The minimum values of Kl observed is in between 0. The decrease of force as submergence increases is quite expected since the particle velocity decreases with the depth.SUBBA RAO. It is found that horizontal plate of length 0. F. October 2009.17 when ds/Hi ≤ 1. Lower force observed at the surface level is because of the water force acting only on the bottom side. The force on the plate is maximum when ds/d = 0.6 for d/L > 0.0.8 for ds/Hi = 3. SHIRLAL. • • • • • • • Kt is below 0.93 for ds/Hi = 0.

Ocean Eng... International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Coastal.431 Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Performance of a Horizontal Plate Breakwater Department of Ocean Engineering. 19 (4) 327–341 [8] Patarapanich. pp.. (1992). Ocean Eng. Jr. (37) 703–715. [6] Neelamani S. 02. Reddy. (2006) Experimental study on the performance of the multiple-layer breakwater. (2007) Ocean wave transmission by submerged reef—A physical model study. [9] Shirlal K.G. 424-432 . (1999) Laboratory investigation on wave transmission through two rows of perforated hollow piles. F.. 34 (2007) 2093– 2099 [10] Subba Rao. Subba Rao. Ocean Engg. Ocean Eng. (33) 1829—1839. Int. Wang G. Q. S. [12] Wang. Eng. [11] Usha R.(2006) Wave interaction with twin plate wave barrier. Gayathri T.. Coastal Eng. Wave transmission and reflection characteristics of a rigid surface and submerged horizontal plate. (1984) Forces and moment on a horizontal plate due to wave scattering. (1994) Wave induced pressures and forces on a fixed submerged inclined plate Jr. (8) 279–301. B.. No. MS Thesis IIT. Cheong H. S. Ocean Eng. (1999)... Finite Elements in Analysis and Design. [13] Wang Y.. Manu. (2005) Wave motion over a twin-plate breakwater Jr. Ocean Engineering (33) 495–516 [7] Neelamani... S.S. Rao and Sathyanarayana V. Vol. 05. (26) 677-701. M.(117) 553 –569 [5] Nallayarasu S. (32)1054– 1072. [4] Issacson M. and Ocean Engg.. K. M. Sci. Shen. Measurement of regular wave reflection (1991). Madras.. and Li G. N. (18) 289-299. Jr.. Gayathri T. and Jothi Shankar N. Waterways Port. Wave motion over a group of submerged horizontal plates.H. October 2009.

02. Vol. 424-432 . pp. ROOBIN V. KIRAN G. No. SHIRLAL.SUBBA RAO. VARGHESE AND PRASHANTH S 432 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. October 2009. 05.

433-440 433 Yield Studies on Neersagar Reservoir and its Catchment ANAND V. Its sufficiency depends on the demand placed on it. October 2009. bvenki30@rediffmail. Introduction: Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies and the world in the 21st century. The SCS model was then applied to estimate the yield values of watershed. the conditions of surface runoff and soil infiltration. Dharwad – 580 002.com Abstract: The Neersagar watershed is about 200 km2.4MCM. Hanuman Nagar. In semi-arid. pp. the concept of water availability based on indicators driver from the renewable water resources divided by the total populations should be taken with great care. The available water is not sufficient for the production of food and for alleviating hunger and poverty in the regions. GIS software was used for the rectification of soil and land use map and also to derive SCS Curve Number (CN) for study area. the rainfall regime. This method involves various types of information related to vegetation. India ** Hard Rock Regional Centre. The estimated annual yield of the tank is 0. Under these conditions.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. quite different from those of humid or temperate areas. where quite often the population growth is larger than the capability for sustainable use of the natural resources. the water resources are probably already degraded or subjected to processes of degradation in both quantity and quality. Surathkal. we can use this method as an alternate method for estimating the yield from any watershed in this region. In the present study Soil conservation Service (SCS) model has been used to estimate the yield from the watershed. and in the replenishment regime of deep and surface aquifers. Srinivasnagar – 575 025. the processes leading to the water scarcity have specific characteristics. India *** Department of Civil Engineering. National Institute of Hydrology. These common features are to be found in the climate. land use. The results generated using SCS-CN and by monthly water balance method have been then compared. 02. societies face very large problems when a drought occurs or when man-made shortages are created. Water scarcity causes enormous problems for the populations and societies. No. In the present study. Of equal importance to the above.com. Vol. It is important to underline these characteristics that act strongly upon the availability of water and its management. MULANGI*** * Department of Civil Engineering. curve number. SHIVAPUR*. yield. which is west flowing river situated in plains of Western Ghats on eastern side in Karnataka State. In regions of water scarcity. which adds to the shortage of water. National Institute of Technology Karnataka. Hydrologic Soil Group and antecedent moisture condition of watershed. ravirajmh@rediffmail. an attempt has been made to understand the water availability in #02020506 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. mismanagement of resources and climate change. The accuracy of SCS-CN method is higher than the other method. VENKATESH** and RAVIRAJ H. are also some non-physical processes that may lead to water scarcity such as population growth. All rights reserved. Key words: antecedent moisture condition. However. The water availability of any region depends on its climate and then on the topography and geology. 05. Karnataka. arid and dry sub-humid regions affected by water scarcity. SDM College of Engineering and Technology. therefore. Most of these areas that are likely to be affected by water scarcity have similar factors that make up the identity of their ecosystem and particularly the functioning of the water cycle. . India E-mail: av_shivapur@rediffmail. B. Belgaum – 590 001.com. soil conservation services. Karnataka.

Study Area: The study area (Fig. 05. The forest cover is about 10 %.. The SCS method was applied to the small watersheds of the order of 10-50 ha. et. that before runoff can occur. In the present study.…. the estimates are with an accuracy between 80-90% (Mishra et. Geographical area of the catchment is 181. by subdividing the watershed on basis of land cover type for computing the storage and curve number. The climate is characterised by average maximum temperature of 37° C and minimum of 14° C.1 MSL. it is planned to study the water yield of the catchment by SCS method. the reservoir was designed to store 9MGD of water. 2005). which is a main source of domestic water supply to the twin cities of Hubli-Dharwad in Karnataka State. the estimates are reasonable even for the catchments of the higher order (i. rainfall must exceed the infiltration capacity of the soil and any initial abstractions in the watershed that is runoff begins after some rainfall has accumulated.al. 1978). without catchment subdivision is generally not recommended. No.km and it is located between latitude 15° 26′40″ and longitude 74°54′30″.434 Yield Studies on Neersagar Reservoir and its Catchment the Neersagar reservoir. Since 1950’s the SCS has been applying to relate the amount of surface runoff from rainfall to soil cover complexes. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.e. The results indicates that. October 2009. and then becomes asymptotic to a 45 degree line. The physical processes involved are. Ponce (1989) writes that “its indiscriminate use for catchments in excess of 250 km2. Keeping this in view. at the daily time steps.1) falls under the basin of river Bedti in Dharwad district. Karnataka state. investigated the applicability of SCS method for the catchment more the 25000 ha for a reasonable estimate of the daily flows. The various studies reported that the estimates obtained through the SCS are with an higher accuracy of 98% for shorter interval (may be event based at sub-hourly intervals). pp. Of late. Vol. in that it does not consider time in the calculations: there is an input value of rainfall and an output value of runoff (Hawkins.. >300 km2). hence the scarcity (shortage) of water for the people of these cities. The elevation of the catchment is about 674.. Mishra. The average rainfall of the catchment is 700 mm. it has been felt that. The major portion of the catchment is under cultivation (75%) and scrub (13%). (2005) have incorporated the antecedent moisture condition to compute the direct runoff. Johnson (1998). The runoff curve number was originally developed by SCS for use in midsize rural watersheds… therefore its extension to large basins requires considerable judgment” However. The SCS-CN procedure is a lumped approach to rainfall-runoff. Initially.84 sq. the humidity of the region lies in the range of 65% to 89%. 433-440 . the yield of the reservoir has been depleted due to anthropogenic interference and watershed developmental activities such as water and soil conservation structures are the main reasons. The underlying theory of the SCS-CN procedure is that runoff can be related to soil cover complexes and rainfall through a parameter known as a Curve Number (CN). However. The catchment receives rainfall mainly from southwest monsoon (June to Sept).. The soil type found in the catchment is moderately well drained with coarser textures. an attempt is made to compute the runoff from a watershed of the order of 200 km2. but at present it provides only 3 MGD.al. 02.

The first two can be obtained by field survey. of India (1972) to suit Indian condition are included in the study. No. et.3S )2 (P + 0. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Curve Number Method has proven to be very successful tool for the derivation of runoff from small catchment. Govt. The initial abstraction Ia is related to S as Ia= aS with the value of ‘a’ being a function of antecedent moisture condition (AMC) and type of soil. The soil map.000. land cover type and antecedent moisture conditions. Chandramohan. land use map and slope map.9S ) S= 2 (1) (2) Where 25400 − 254 CN In which CN is a coefficient called Curve Number This equation is for black soils and AMC of type II and III. Ia. October 2009. MULANGI 435 Methodology: One of the major activities in applied hydrology is the estimation of storm event (i. then the runoff is taken as zero. R= (P − 0. the relationship between runoff depth R (in mm) and rainfall P (in mm) in a rainfall event in a catchment is given as (Mishra et. The ratio of actual retention of rainfall to potential maximum retention ‘S’ is equal to the ratio of direct runoff to rainfall minus initial abstraction. 2) are derived (Table 1). Such estimates are often required in the engineering design of small hydraulic structures. which are within the catchment area.ANAND V. runoff) from ungauged small watersheds.e. Derivation of Slope Map for the Study Area: The slope map was derived using the contours of the catchment area. B. 02. while the third parameter refers to the moisture content present in the soil at any given time. The density of contours on the maps can be used for preparing the slope map that gives various groups or categories of slopes. A brief account of the SCS method adopted for the present study is given below.13CN ( II ) CN ( I ) = (4) (5) Data Preparation and Analysis: To undertake the study of estimating the runoff by SCS method.1S ) (P + 0. SHIVAPUR. Vol. For the study area following categories of slopes (Fig.. which are taken from the survey of India toposheet at the scale of 1:50. 2007) R= (P − 0.1S in above equation or less than 0. the model requires the daily data pertaining to rainfall of the stations. Curve number is a dimensionless co-efficient which reflects hydrologic soil group. has been satisfied. VENKATESH and RAVIRAJ H. The following relationships may be used to compute the Curve Number for any AMC conditions knowing Curve Number for AMC type II. II and III the above equation is modified as International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp.058CN ( II ) 23CN ( II ) CN ( III ) = 10 + 0. The curve number mainly depends on soil type.7S ) (3) If P is less than 0. The modifications suggested by the Ministry of Agriculture. 05.al. The fundamental hypotheses of SCS method are Runoff starts after the initial abstraction. The curve number CN is a relative measure of retention of water by a given soilvegetation-land use (SVL) complex and takes on values from zero to hundred.al. 433-440 . land use and antecedent moisture conditions.2005.2CN ( II ) 10 − 0. For black soils having AMC of type I and for all other soil types having AMC of types I.. The AMC values intended to reflect the effect of infiltration on both the volume and rate of runoff.3S. the relationship are 4. For Indian conditions.

When runoff from individual storms is the major concern. The land use map is then superimposed over the catchment area to know the extent of each hydrologic soil group present in the respective area.65 % of Area 16.5 28. which indicates the runoff potential of the soil.4 of infiltration. October 2009.3 1. Hydrological Soil Groups: Soil properties influence the process of generation of runoff form rainfall and they must be considered. The parameter. 02. The area under steep category is only 12%. Only those soil properties are considered that influences the minimum rate International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. No. is the qualitative basis of the classification.28 25. The influencing factors for minimum rate of infiltration are seasonal depth of high water table. 05. C and D hydrological soil groups include factors that produce higher amounts of runoff in the basin.48 18.81 10 14.78 18. 1988). which are obtained from a bare soil after prolonged wetting.1 Percentage area under each slope category Slope Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Area (Km2) 29.436 Yield Studies on Neersagar Reservoir and its Catchment Table. Hence the major part of the catchment is unfavorable for runoff generation. the properties can be represented by hydrologic parameters. In the current case.81 2. Vol.8 16. 433-440 .95 52. prolonged wetting and depth up to very slowly permeable layer. which means the catchment is gently sloping. pp. The hydrologic soil groups identified in the study area are tabulated in the Table 2.2 10.3) From the above table. it can be inferred that the major part (62%) of the catchment area lies in the slope category 1 to 3. The B.19 30. the soil map of Karnataka prepared by the National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP. The classification is broad but the groups can be divided into sub-groups whenever such a refinement is justified. which is negligible. The runoff potential map was prepared based on the soil groups identified in the basin (Fig.

Therefore.74 5.3 39. Theissen polygon method was used for computing areal average depth of precipitation.07 40.7 Table.79 3. The categories identified were forest area. Dharwad and Dhummawad. watershed characteristics in order to estimate the maximum runoff. As mentioned above.37 22. In the present study. since the catchment is subjected to significant development activities and therefore.5 136. Mugad. as described by the SCS.82 % of Area 53. (weight station data based on relative area represented by each station.91 72.35 6. For the present use. The runoff curve number. The area under each category is shown in Table 3.3 Land use pattern Category Forest Scrub Crop Tank Area (Km2) 17. uses rainfall data. scrub land and crop land (Fig. 433-440 . as expressed in the vegetation and other human interventions. pp. Land use pattern generally reflects the extent of resources utilisation and indicate the productivity of the area. various land use and land cover category is very important for the resources management. 05. the Theissen’s network was constructed and the respective areas of influence were obtained and the same is presented in Table 4.82 % of Area 9. October 2009. the catchment land use pattern was taken from the toposheets that are surveyed in the year 1985 and these data were verified and updated using the recent maps developed by the Karnataka State Remote Sensing Agency.2 Hydrological soil groups Soil Group B C D Tank Area (Km2) 96. the percentage areas under different land use category are subjected to the correction as we had used the data of recent years.15 5.95 % of Area 44 22 34 Results and Analysis: The runoff curve number procedure for runoff determination. The estimated average rainfall over the catchment is tabulated in Table. 02. SHIVAPUR. everything the land is being put to use.ANAND V. MULANGI 437 Table. This is done trivially using Natural Neighbor interpolation) The catchment is being gauged for rainfall at three locations namely. Vol. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Theissen’s method Raingauge Station Mugad Dharwad Dhummawad Area (Km2) 80. Rainfall Analysis: Most of the hydrologic problems require knowledge of the average depth of rainfall over the catchment area.4 74.81 60. covering the land surface.4). the changes in the areas of all the categories of land use.7 Table 4.87 Land Use and Land Cover: Land use and land cover broadly denotes. VENKATESH and RAVIRAJ H.55 12. B. However. No. The major portion of the catchment falls in the category of crop land.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.4 86 7086. As the study area fall under the transition zone of subhumid to semi-arid region. 433-440 . In reality. 1972). 02. the soil and land use maps which were prepared as explained in the previous section were used. The Curve Number for the above said class was derived by assuming the AMC-II as the other two AMC conditions represents the extreme conditions of the catchment.7 60 604. S=75. for the drainage area is determined for average soil-land cover complex and soil moisture conditions. the rainfall amount are being gauged at three locations. 1991).09 D 3.37 22. average conditions with high runoff potential AMC-II and dry conditions with low runoff potential AMC-I.31 47 484.16 Crop Land B 82. vegetative cover. It is often needed to use local runoff data when they are available to estimate correct CN values.4 C 50. antecedent soil moisture content and land use. 1993).8 C 10. It is reported that. et al.438 Yield Studies on Neersagar Reservoir and its Catchment CN.45 Tank 5. pp.6 CN for different land use and land cover Land use Area CN Area * classification (Km2) CN Forest (Open) B 4.. the accuracy of runoff simulation can be improved considerably by using soil moisture accounting procedure to estimate S for each storm.09 64 197. In the present study.81 100 581 Average CN=81 Maximum retention. the AMC-II condition would a better option to use. Using the AMC-II situation. This partitioning suggests that the rainfall-runoff relationship is discrete.19 50. Woodward. 1972 which also presents criteria for discrete partitioning of soil moisture between wet conditions with high runoff potential AMC.89 Scrub land B 10.50 136.82 The runoffs were calculated using the derived CN and S values for AMC-II for the areal average rainfall observed in the catchment for 20 year. The CN parameter varies between 0 and 100 and is a function of the dominant soil type. a method for determining CN from limited rainfall-runoff record is desirable (Hauser & Jones. land use layer) were superimposed one on the other to identify the land use under different soil type classification.31 82. CN varies continuously with soil moisture and thus has continuous values instead of only three. however. Hauser and Jones (1991b) found the median of curve numbers derived from field data pairs for short records estimated the curve number close to that of SCS method in the Western Great Plains. Thus.2 D 3.4 C 10.2 10. implying sudden shifts in CN with corresponding quantum jumps in calculated runoff.14 5. III. Table. these layers (such as soil. However. 1991b. the catchment is not gauged for the discharge. No. 05. Also.65 Area (Km2) Forest Scrub Crop Tank 17.5 Area under different soil type Land Use Area under soil type (Km2) B 4.09 Nil 3. The estimated runoff values with respect to the rainfall values are given in the Table 7.1 D 3. Guidelines for the determination are documented in USDA-SCS.19 64 780. The classified land use groups are tabulated in the Table 5 below. AMC-II conditions would estimates the runoff under any given situation (Yoo. the curve number for different classes is arrived and the average curve number for the catchment is presented in Table 6. Therefore.8 Table. Long runoff records are needed because the classic method for deriving CN from measured runoff data (USDA. SCS.65 93 339. Vol.57 C 12.2 44 184.09 90 4508. October 2009. infiltration behavior of the soil.07 12. Later on.

71 221. The estimated yield of the reservoir is given in the Table 8. 433-440 . No.8 737.0787 (6) r2 = 0. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.81 910.0109 P0. There is no gauged flow to compare the results thus obtained by the procedure. College of Engineering and Technology.33 1220. surface slope and rainfall intensity.18 124. pp. 02.ANAND V.6884 Power Equation: R = 0. 1. Almost half of the catchment is covered with the soil type B and about 40% of C type. Further.12 172. 2. Dharwad for the support and encouragement given for carrying out this study.59 775.18 103.04 125.18 280. The relationship between the rainfall and the resulting runoff is quite complex and is influenced by a most of factors relating the catchment and climate.7391 Where R is the runoff and P is the precipitation. MULANGI 439 Table.54 194. as this method is only applied for a smaller catchments (area ranging from 10-100 km2). The present study on Neersagar can summarize the following points. there is the problem of paucity of data which forces one to adopt simple correlations for the adequate estimation of runoff.35 783.91 957.57 92.M. A relationship has been established between runoff and the rainfall of the area using the different available types of regression tools. The losses such as evaporation and seepage were considered.7 Estimated Runoff for Neersagar using the Curve Number Arial Average Rainfall (mm) 753.81 827. VENKATESH and RAVIRAJ H. SHIVAPUR. The soils present in the cathcment are B. About 62 % of the area falls in the category of 1 to 5% slope. Acknowledgements: The authors deeply acknowledge the Principal and the Management of S. The relations developed are Linear Equation: R = 0. The catchment on the whole is gently sloping.47 213. B.57 98. Correlation between Runoff and Rainfall: Runoff coefficient represents the integrated effect of the catchment losses and hence depends upon the nature of the surface.49 208.23 638.554 (7) r2 = 0.74 Summary: The study was carried out for the higher order catchment with a complex land-cover type to determine the general applicability of SCS method.4 127. The relationship between rainfall and runoff with power type equation yields better estimates.6 600. The annual yield of the reservoir is about 416000 cubic meters 4.73 Estimated runoff (mm) (SCS method) 89. 05. October 2009. Determination of Yield: The yield of the reservoir was estimated using the observed monthly average water level in the reservoir and the monthly average runoff. 3. Vol. C and D.86 1125.26 973.0006 P +0.D.52 851.

USDA-SCS Engineering Division.L.8902 15806. 389-398.215 0. of ASAE Paper No.432 1.57 2948913.4 3. M. [2] Hauser.5778 29529.84 m3 [1] Chandramohan. Jain. MI: ASAE.142-148.98 7.73 577.11 .92 2396526. [3] Hauser.84 2668283.T.68 0. [12] Yoo.72 6. O.78 576.776 0.. User’s guide for the CREAMS computer model.786 62123. [6] Mishra.. Vol..014 0.29 2666113. Pp.89 415893.32 2667464.81 576..972 69594. No.. K.70 952. S. K. pp. and Jones.51 577.M. pp. [5] Johnson. (1984). Volume 19.803 5139.91-2607. DC.B.07 576. (1989) “Engineering Hydrology – Principles and Practices”. 6: Paper.06 Yield (m3) Monthly Yield (m3) Jan. (1993).440 Yield Studies on Neersagar Reservoir and its Catchment Table 8. 104 (IR4). Dilip G.55 526. Durbude.14 0. [4] Hawkins. Washington.12 8. Sept.. 57-62. Jl.H.H. [11] Woodward.. (1991b) “SCS curve numbers from short runoff records”. M. Soileau.34 165.985 0.91 2763. R. R.64 9..96 2666523. of ASAE. MI: ASAE. [10] USDA Soil Conservation Service.31 2955921. Joseph. P. (1978) “Runoff curve numbers with varying site moisture”.21 577.000 0.86 415. St Joseph. (1998) “Soils of Karnataka”.2718 [8] National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSSLUP).77 2244. [7] Hydrological Processes.910 0. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Technical Release 72. Oct. progress report ARS/SCS curve number work group. No 47.257 75244..88. Dec.69 7.6 2277085.6448 12469. 05.R. (1991a) “Runoff curve number for the Southern High Plains”. Journal of Environmental Hydrology. Total References: 577.7. October 2009.. Runoff Curve Number determined by three methods under conventional and conservation tillage.V.11 9.. July.028 61969. March April May June July Aug. 02. (2007) “Sensitivity of Runoff Curve Number to initial abstraction coefficient”.231 0. Publ. D.58 1999. K. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division.16 6.42 8. 433-440 .7 577.2 576. Transactions of the ASAE:34(1): pp.13 2427.123 0 0 32..001 0. [9] Ponce. American Society of Civil Engineers. Jl.73 578. of ASAE Paper No. P. 2701 .13 2206550... R.L. Vol.13301 97.50177 1007.R.R.2 578. Soils of India Series. pp.74 2275077.3 2279985. (1998) “An Investigation of Curve number applicability to Watersheds in Excess of 25000 Hectares”. V. and Jones.44 8.91-2614.61 8. pp. V. Jl. Issue 14 .V. 88. (2005) “Catchment area-based evaluation of the AMCdependent SCS-CN-based rainfallrunoff models”.693 82910..m) Monthly average Runoff (mm) 0. O.89 2780707. San Diego State University. and Venkatesh.87 NTL (m) Area (Sq. Nov. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Division. (1991).25 575. Estimated yield Month Monthly Average Tank Level (m) 8. Singh. Vol.36(1).. St. Pandey. Feb. The Institution of Engineers (India) pp.E.95 2070. 39-43..

To reduce the ingress of chloride into concrete. the volume of rust may increase upto six times the volume of pure iron (Mehta and Monteiro. resulting in better strength and durability performance. reduction in steel cross sectional area and reduction of bond between steel and concrete. supplementary cementitious materials. Concrete is a strong alkaline medium (pH 12-13). (Hou et al.. total binder content 483 kg/m3 and coarse aggregate content 1050 kg/m3. The reinforcement corrosion in concrete exposed to marine environment is due to ingress of chloride ions into concrete through the pores. impermeable iron oxide film on the surface makes the steel passive to corrosion. Depending on the oxidation condition. it is necessary to make the concrete less permeable. 2004). Keywords: hpc.3. . permeability.. National Institute of Technology Karnataka. Four different mixes with varying silica fume content were examined. India ***Department of Civil Engineering. The damage of concrete resulting from corrosion of embedded steel manifests in the form of expansion. TKM College of Engineering. and S. A part of cement was replaced by silica fume at 8. MATTUR C. The discontinuity in capillary pores of such concrete is due to the continued cement hydration and also due to pozzolanic reactivity. Dayananda Sagar College of Engg.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. for lower w/b ratios. Bangalore. pore volumes will be minimum and thus the moisture exchange between hardened concrete and the environment is minimized (Zhang et al. 2000. October 2009. ** Department of Civil Engineering. This passive state can be inhibited by the destruction of this passive film due to the entry of aggressive ions like chlorides and sulphates or by an acidification of the environment closer to the steel reinforcement by carbonation (Poupard et al. 2000. NAZEER*. spalling of concrete. 1997). chloride diffusion Introduction: Corrosion is the process by which a refined metal reverts back to its natural state by an oxidation reaction with a non-metallic environment (Broomfield.com Abstract: This paper presents the results of an investigation dealing with the effects of curing periods and the level of replacement of cement with silica fume on the strength and chloride diffusion rate of a few High-Performance Concrete (HPC) Mixes. 02. 1997). NARASIMHAN**. Laboratory investigations were carried out to determine the chloride diffusion characteristics by Simple Immersion Test and Rapid Chloride Permeability Test. thin. 05. Also. #02020507 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. A large volume of literature (Mullick. The fine aggregate content was modified in silica fume admixed mixes in order to keep the paste volume constant. India.. silica fume. pp. Srinivanagar-575025. 441-449 441 Investigations on Chloride Diffusion of Silica fume High-Performance Concrete M. 10 and 12% by mass of cement and the concrete was examined for both strength development and chloride penetration resistance. cracks. HPC was designed for a target mean strength of 70 MPa. Addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) will reduce the volume of pores to a greater extent and the pores will also be discontinuous. No. Papadakis. All rights reserved. Kollam. Surathkal. Vol. A protective. All mixes were prepared with w/b ratio 0.V. 2004) corrosion of steel occurs only at pH values lower than 9 or higher than 14. RAJEEVA*** *Department of Civil Engineering. The experimental study shows that the prolonged moist curing and higher silica fume content improve the chloride penetration resistance of concrete. India * E-mail:nazeertkm@gmail. According to Pourbaix diagram of electrochemical potential verses pH value.. 1999). The corrosion of steel in concrete is basically an electrochemical process..

shi. Concrete mixes with partial cement International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. namely. 1998). 10 and 12 percent (by mass). Vol. Among the mixes. The coarse aggregate content was fixed based on the average shape of the aggregate particles. The total coarse aggregate content was of two fractions. Water: Tap water. The grading of fine aggregate conforms to ZONE III of IS 383-1970. The chemical compositions of cementitious materials are presented in Table 1. Superplasticiser: A commercially available sulphonated naphthaline polymer based high range water-reducing admixture (HRWRA) was used. The particle size varied from 6mm to 20mm. Its optimum dosage (2.442 Investigations on Chloride Diffusion of Silica fume High-Performance Concrete Dehwah et al.17 was used as fine aggregate. Fine Aggregate: Locally available river-bed sand having specific gravity 2. superplasticiser dosage and coarse aggregate content were kept constant for all mixes.60 and fineness modulus of 2. Hence it is important to study chloride diffusion in concrete with SCM. No. After selecting suitable water content. The fine aggregate content was then calculated using the absolute volume basis. Experimental Investigation: In the present investigation. and Fraction II : Size varying from 6mm to 10mm. one was prepared with cement as the only binder (control mix) and the other three mixes were prepared by partially replacing the cement content with silica fume at 8. however it improves the pore structure on hardening. The design basically involves the determination of w/b ratio for the required compressive strength. Silica fume: Silica fume required for the work was supplied by Elkem India. was used for casting and moist curing of specimens. Mix Proportions: Concrete mix was proportioned for a target mean strength of 70MPa. 05. blended in the ratio 60:40.67 were used as coarse aggregate. fit for drinking. Cement is examined for different characterisation tests as per the relevant standards and the results are presented in Table 2. Scanning Electron microscope images of cementitious materials are shown in Plate 1 and Plate 2. The coarse aggregate content was kept constant in all the mixes under investigation as its variation may affect the mechanical properties of resulting mix.67 and fineness modulus 6. The volume of entrapped air was assumed to be 2 percent (Aitcin. Coarse aggregate and fine aggregates used for the investigation were tested for particle size distribution and specific gravity. the cement requirement was then determined. The method adopted for the design was similar to the one recommended in the ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (ACI 211). Coarse Aggregate: Crushed granite chips having specific gravity 2.25 percent by mass of binder) was determined by Marsh cone test method.. 441-449 . Materials Used: A brief description of the materials used and their physical properties are discussed below: Cement: Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 12269-1987 was used. 2004) is available on the strength and durability studies of concretes incorporating SCMs. depending on the dosage of superplasticiser. October 2009. 02. Fraction I : Size varying from 10mm to 20mm. Chloride diffusion was examined by the Simple Immersion Test (SIT) and by Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT). four concrete mixes have been studied for strength and performance to chloride diffusion. 2002. and the results are presented in Table 3. The addition of mineral admixtures in concrete may create a dilution of its alkalinity in the beginning.. The water/binder ratio. The pozzolanic activity further improves the pore structure by forming secondary cementitious material after consuming calcium hydroxide (CH) resulting from hydration of cement. pp.

3 M NaOH solution on one side (Anode) and 3% by weight NaCl solution on the other side (Cathode). The testing was done at the age of 28. 28. NAZEER. 56 and 90 days of moist curing. Preparation and Testing of Specimen: Cylindrical specimens were cast in cast-iron moulds 150mm diameter and 300mm long. 7. Simple Immersion Test: The sliced specimens (150mmΦx50mm) taken out of water. Casting of Specimen: Concrete cylinders of dimensions 150mm diameter and 300mm long and 100mm cubes were prepared from the different mixes mentioned. Compressive Strength: The cubes were tested for the compressive strength after 3. 28. A potential of 60V DC was applied between two electrodes placed on the opposite surfaces of the specimen which had been exposed to 0. This ensures unidirectional movement of ions through concrete when it was immersed in anionic solution. 7 and 14 days. while earlier setting was observed International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. October 2009. NARASIMHAN. A horizontal shaft mixer was used for this purpose and the mixing sequence as outlined below was followed: The mixer was initially loaded with coarse aggregate and run for 30 seconds adding just sufficient water for wetting the surface of aggregate. The balance of water-superplasticiser mixture was added and the mixing was continued for a further period of not less than one minute. pp. after specified period of curing. After their attaining sufficient strength. The fine aggregate was introduced to the mixer and mixed continuously till the wet mixture looked homogeneous.M. 2001). 02. The specimens were immersed in 5% NaCl solution. Vol. and S. The test runs for 6 hours and the total charge passed through the specimen during this period is calculated from the current-time plot (Basheer. 56 and 90 days of immersion and split length-wise. Cement and silica fume were added to the mixer and about three-fourth of the water. The depth of chloride ion penetration was measured from the colour change along the thickness of the specimen at six locations on each split piece and their average was taken to calculate the coefficient of diffusion. MATTUR C. there was a little delay in the hardening of control concrete.25 percent by mass of binder). The split surface was sprayed with Silver nitrate solution. 56 and 90 days. the specimens were sliced to 50mm thick discs using a diamond toothed saw after discarding 25mm of concrete from the top and bottom of the cast cylinders. RAJEEVA 443 replacement by silica fume were arrived by adjusting the total sand content in order to keep the paste volume constant for all mixes necessitated by the difference in the specific gravity of cement and silica fume. Mixing was continued for a period not less than four minutes. The details of mix proportions used in the investigation after modifying the trial mix are presented in Table 4. which however did not affect the mouldability of the concrete. After 24 hours of casting specimens were demoulded and put in water for curing. 05. Results and Discussion: It is observed that the addition of silica fume caused a reduction in slump value as shown in Table 4. No. Cubes (100mm size) were also prepared from each mix for the compressive strength determination. after specified period of curing were placed in a dirt-free environment till testing. This mix was used for casting specimens. Rapid Chloride Permeability Test: The sliced specimens (150mmΦx50mm) taken out of water. The curing process was continued for periods of 3. On hardening within moulds the specimens did not show any honeycombing. 441-449 .V. It was noted that at the administered dosage of superplasticiser (2. The specimens were then taken out after 7. were surface dried and coated with bituminous material to prevent the entry of chloride ions except through one face. pre-mixed with the required quantity of superplasticiser was poured in gradually.

The total charge passed through the specimen at the age of 56 and 90 days and for different curing conditions is plotted against the silica fume content and presented in Fig. the pore refinement is a continuous process for all mixes. The calculated diffusion coefficient values are used to classify the concrete in terms of their permeability as per the recommendations of the Concrete Society as given below (Basheer. which are moist cured for a longer (7 days or more) period. Eqn (2) where Qs is the charge passed through 100mm diameter standard specimen. Vol. Average permeability concrete: (1 to 5) x 10-12 m2/s. 5. the addition of silica fume in concrete reduces the total charge conductivity. No. 5 follow an exponential relation in the form: Eqn(3) Where C is the total charge passed through the specimen during the test period in Coulombs. r is a factor depending on age of concrete at the time of test. It is observed that. Qx is the charge passed through x mm diameter test specimen. The probable reason for this higher current through concrete mix with 12% replacement may be due to the poor compaction achieved owing to the reduced workability. 1. 441-449 . t . The progressive decrease in values indicates that. The area under the current vs time plot is calculated using a formula given in ASTM C1202. All the curves shown in Fig. it is clear that for all mixes the coefficients are less than those specified for low permeability concrete. 02.444 Investigations on Chloride Diffusion of Silica fume High-Performance Concrete for silica fume admixed concretes. This indicates that the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume started even at the early hours of hydration. and D – chloride diffusion coefficient in m2/s. the strength of SFC12 shows a lower value at later age mostly due to the imperfect compaction. Low permeability concrete:< 1 x 10-12 m2/s. For higher percentages. Mixes with higher silica fume content require minimum moist curing for pore refinement. 2001): High permeability concrete: >5x10-12 m2/s. the rate of strength development of such mixes was much faster in early ages (upto 28 days). October 2009. Also. It is also observed that the control mix requires longer period of moist curing for pore refinement. The reduction is more pronounced upto a replacement level of 10 percent. 05. The differences in diffusion coefficient values for a particular age of test with different curing conditions are higher for control concrete and this reduces with the increase in silica fume content. 4. However. The current (ampere) values observed in the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test are used to calculate the total charge passed through the specimen in Coulombs.the time of exposure in s. From these plots. and s is the percentage silica fume content in International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. The variation of diffusion coefficient with period of exposure for different curing conditions is plotted and is shown in Fig. The depths of chloride ion penetration from simple immersion test are used to calculate the chloride ion diffusion coefficient (Basheer. there is a tendency of increase in charge passed except for concretes. A is a factor depending on the period of moist curing and age of concrete at the time of test. The development of compressive strength of all mixes upto an age of 90 days is shown in Fig. The equation used is as follows: Eqn(1) Where Xd – the chloride penetration depth in m. 2 to Fig. To account for the non-standard dimension (diameter) of the specimen used in the test. Higher level of replacement of cement with silica fume caused increase in compressive strength at all ages of test. pp. this is due to the enhanced pozzolanic activity of silica fume. 2001) to get an idea of permeability of concrete. the calculated charge values are corrected using Eqn (2). the early age test result shows rather higher values of diffusion coefficient at 7 days for control mix and SFC 8 mix. However.

I0 (in mA) and the total charge passed. MATTUR C. The pore refinement increases with increase in silica fume content. 1050 for 90 days test and 1200 for 56 days test. Both prolonged moist curing and higher silica fume content improve the chloride penetration resistance of concrete. It is clear that. Fig. The chloride ion diffusion coefficients calculated from the depths of chloride ion penetration from simple immersion tests indicates that. higher dosage of superplasticiser may be required for maintaining workability. prolonged moist curing causes the reduction in the value of charge passed. This is more pronounced for control mix. 441-449 . The total charge passed through the specimen in RCPT decreases with increase in silica fume content. the parameter k may be written as: Eqn(6) Based on the total charge passed through the specimen. Vol. Ltd. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.09 for 90 days test and 0. and M/s GRASIM INDUSTRIES LIMITED for the supply of silica fume. The optimum replacement level of cement is 10 percent with respect to the total charge passed through the specimen. pp. For higher levels of replacement of cement with silica fume. the concrete can be rated as follows as per the ASTM standards: Total charge passed (Coulomb) < 100 100-1000 1000-2000 2000-4000 > 4000 under the category of very low permeability concrete. For any mix. the charge passed reduces with the addition of silica fume. NARASIMHAN. and S. Whereas. superplasticiser and cement respectively used during the present investigation. The approximate value of the factor r is 0. strength and resistance to chloride ion penetration are investigated and compared for three different curing ages.M. There is an interesting relation between the initial current. For the given mix proportions. M/s FOSROC CHEMICALS (India) Pvt. C (Coulombs) through the specimen over six hours test period. the addition of silica fume reduces the workability of concrete. For all silica fume admixed concretes. NAZEER. 05. Use of high range water reducing admixture is essential to enhance the workability of concrete. Chloride permeability rating Negligible Very low Low Medium High The total charge passed through the specimens at the age of 90 days is plotted against the period of moist curing and shown in Fig. There exists a linear relationship between the total charge passed and the initial current in RCP test. the factor A may be computed from the relation: Eqn(4) where Cp is the moist curing period in days and P is a constant. 6 shows this variation irrespective of the silica fume content.08 for 56 days test.V. RAJEEVA 445 concrete. October 2009. All concrete mixes have total charge passed between 100 and 1000 Coulombs and fall Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledges the support of M/s ELKEM INDIA (P) LIMITED. 7. There is a general trend that the strength of concrete mix increases as the replacement level increases except for SFC12 mix. No. Conclusions: The effect of silica fume on workability. the curves almost coincided. probably due to imperfect compaction. showing that even a small percentage of silica fume addition causes pronounced reduction in chloride penetrability of concrete. 02. This variation satisfies a linear relation in the form: Eqn(5) Accounting for the silica fume content. 7 days of moist curing makes the silica fume admixed concrete more impermeable.

Properties and Materials”. ACI Materials Journal. London. Philadelphia. and Monteiro PJM.. and Hwang CL. 1997. [5] Broomfield JP. A Study on Anti-corrosion Effect in High-Performance Concrete by the Pozzolanic Reaction of Slag. [15] Zhang MH. 991-1000. Kim KS. Ed. Corrosion by Chlorides in Reinforced Concrete: Determination of Chloride Concentration Threshold by Impedance Spectroscopy. “Concrete-Microstructure. [6] Dehwah HAF. 04. Effect of Supplementary Cementing Materials on Concrete Resistance against Carbonation and Chloride Ingress. The Indian Concrete Journal. Vol. Investigation and Repair”. Principles. American Society for Testing and Materials. Vol. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Cement and Concrete Research. 537-545. Vol. No. [9] IS 383-1970. 355-364. P. E&FN SPON. 02. BIS. 181-189. [11] Mullick AK. Vol. Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete-an Interactive Durability Problem. (2002). Chennai. 96(2). [4] Basheer. (1999). 34(6). pp. [7] Hou WM. 34(3).A. Cement and Concrete Research. (1993).Ramachandran and James J. in Handbook of analytical techniques in concrete science and technology. (2004).” E&FN SPON. 05. Malhotra VM.. Magazine of Concrete Research. USA. 34(4). Effect of Mixing Proportions of Concrete in its Electrical Conductivity and the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (ASTM C 1202 or AASHTO T 277) Results.-C. Chloride Induced Reinforcement Corrosion in Blended Cement Concretes Exposed to Chloride Sulphate Environments. and Maslehuddin M. Noyes publications. Specifications for 53 Grade ordinary Portland cement.446 Investigations on Chloride Diffusion of Silica fume High-Performance Concrete References: [1] ACI 211-1-91. Permeation Analysis. [10] Mehta PK. 441-449 . New Delhi. [3] ASTM C1202-97.M. vol. “High Performance Concrete. Beaudoin.S. Cement and Concrete Research. techniques and applications. Cement and Concrete Research. 1998. October 2009. Mokhtar AA. Chang PK. Concrete Incorporating Supplimentary Cementing Materials: Effect on Compressive Strength and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration. Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration. Part 1. and Dumargue P. [8] IS 12269 – 1987. V. and Kim JC. 2003. 1997. 658-737. Austin SA. [12] Papadakis VG. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. [13] Poupard O. 2001. P. “Standard practice for selecting proportions for normal. C. Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete. BIS. [14] Shi.. 54(5). (2004) 615-622. 30(2) (2000) 291-299. Vol. Vol. Bilodeau A. Indian Concrete Institute. Vol. “Corrosion of Steel in Concrete-Understanding. [2] Aitcin. (2004). (2000) 168176. New Delhi.. heavy weight and mass concrete” ACI Manual of Concrete Practice.02. New York.

V. Table 2: Physical Properties of Cement. 05.67 6. Plate 2: SEM Image of Silica fume. NARASIMHAN. MATTUR C.65 - International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Property Specific gravity Fineness modulus Grading zone (IS 383) Fine aggregate 2. 441-449 .M. pp. Vol.6 2. No. NAZEER. Table 3: Properties of Aggregate. 02. and S.17 Zone III Coarse aggregate 2. October 2009. RAJEEVA 447 Plate 1: SEM Image of Cement.

Fig. October 2009. Fig. No. Vol. 441-449 . 02.1 Development of compressive strength.3 Comparison of diffusion coefficient for mixes moist cured at 3 and 14 days.2 Comparison of diffusion coefficient for mixes moist cured at 3 and 7 days. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp. 05. Fig.448 Investigations on Chloride Diffusion of Silica fume High-Performance Concrete Table 4: Trial Mix Details.

Fig.7 Effect of silica fume content and period of moist curing on charge passed at 90 days RCP Test. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.6 Relation between total charge passed and initial current.4 Comparison of diffusion coefficient for mixes moist cured at 7 and 14 days. NAZEER. No. Fig. 02. 05. 441-449 . October 2009. RAJEEVA 449 Fig. moist curing period and test age on total charge passed through the specimen. NARASIMHAN. Vol. and S. MATTUR C.M. pp.5 Effect of silicafume content.V. Fig.

No.9]. Saravanampatti. Tamilnadu. 7.5%. . but it is one of the most important factors influencing the performance of concrete. 20% and 30%) of GGBS with silica fume as addition (0%. India *** P. All rights reserved. Coimbatore Inst. Silica Fume. 2. 10%. A statistical model has been developed to relate compressive strength with flexural and split tensile strengths.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.G. Vol. The effect of silica fume in concrete can be explained in two mechanisms. The early-age strength of the concrete with Portland cement partially replaced by GGBS is almost equal to that of the concrete before replacement while the strength at later ages is even much higher. pp. GGBS has been used as cement replacement material for 0%. Coimbatore. Tamilnadu.5%. 20% and 30% cement replacement levels with different values of silica fume (0%. K. SENTHIL KUMAR*** * Structural Engineering Division.P. Split Tensile Strength Introduction: The use of GGBS as additive to cement is in use for a reasonably long period due to overall economy in its production as well as the improved performance characteristics of concrete in aggressive environments. Chennai. 10%. GGBS can improve the fluidity of fresh concrete. 450-457 450 Role of Silica Fume and GGBS on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete K. CHINNARAJU*. High Strength Concrete. For each mixture.5%. Key words: GGBS. The ITZ is a weak zone in the microstructure of concrete. srr_senthilkumar@yahoo.5% by weight of cement). reduce its bleeding and postpone the setting when Portland cement is partially replaced by GGBS in concrete. A properly proportioned GGBS and silica fume in concrete mix improves properties of concrete that may not be achievable through the use of Portland cement alone [8]. 10% and 12. 5%. 02.com. Compressive Strength. super plasticizer has been added at different dosage values to achieve a constant range of slump for desired workability with a constant water-binder (w/b) ratio. The existence of a water-membrane and pores at the ITZ of aggregates results in a much more open microstructure and a high orientation of calcium hydroxide crystals in the zone [4]. Institute of Technology. 7. The introduction of GGBS has a great effect on the microstructure of concrete. Based on the test results the influence of such admixtures on strength aspects were critically analyzed and discussed. 05.5%. The rate of hydration due to addition of GGBS is known to be very slow and hence the silica fume which is very rich in reactive silica content is added along with the GGBS to accelerate the hydration process and compensate the draw backs [5 . 5%. Flexural Strength. SUBRAMANIAN** AND S. India E-mail: kcraju@annauniv. India ** Department of Civil Engg. namely the filler effect and the pozzolanic effect.R.edu. 10% and 12. Coimbatore.5% by weight of cement) as addition. drkscit@rediffmail. It mainly contains calcium silico aluminate with high reactivity [1]. #02020508 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. Experimental Program: To study the effect of GGBS and silica fume in the strength properties of high performance concrete specimens as mentioned in Table 3. of Technology. A set of 24 different concrete mixtures were cast and tested with different cement replacement levels (0%. which includes the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between aggregates and the hardened bulk cement paste. Tamilnadu. GGBS is a glassy material from by-product of blast furnace iron making.R. 2.com Abstract: To study the role of silica fume and Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) on the strength characteristics of high strength concrete a test program has been carried out. Anna University. October 2009.

Bombay. The replacement International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 20% and 30% while those of silica fume were 2.32 and total binder content of 583 kg/m3. Average of the strength of three specimens has been considered as the strength value. India confirming to IS: 12089 as mineral admixture in dry powder form has been used in this study.0 and confirming to IS 456-2000 was used for making concrete and curing the specimen as well. Its physical properties are dealt in table 2. Super Plasticizer Chemical admixture based on Sulphonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde condensate ‘CONPLAST SP430’ conforming to IS: 9103 – 1999 and ASTM C – 494 was used in this study. with beam span of 400 mm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS All the 24 mixtures were tested for their corresponding strengths and their results are shown in figures 1 through 4.5%. pp. From these results it can be seen that at 7th day the compressive strength due to the addition of GGBS as partial replacement of cement is less than the control mix. Silica fume The silica fume obtained from the M/s ELKEM Pvt Ltd . and for flexural tensile strength. The rate of increase in compressive strength is high at 7days and less at 28 days. 7. This is due to the fact that the hydration process will be slow with the addition of GGBS.5% 10% and 12.5% by weight of cement as addition. was used for the flexural test. 100 mm size cube specimens were used. All the specimens were moist cured under water at room temperature until testing. Its physical properties are dealt in table 2. Fine aggregate Locally available river sand (coarse sand) confirming to Grading Zone II of IS: 383 – 1970 was used in this experimental work. Vizak. A symmetrical two-point loading setup. Mix Proportions A total of 24 concrete mixtures were designed as per ACI 211. India confirming to ASTM C1240 was used for this study. It can be seen that the increase in compressive strength at 28 days is almost negligible. Coarse aggregate Locally available crushed blue granite stones confirming to graded aggregate of nominal size 12. 450-457 . Its physical and chemical properties are given in table 1. However when the silica fume is added an appreciable increase in the compressive strength is noticed which is due to the higher percentage of silica content in it. Vol. 5%. Specimens were tested according to relevant Indian Standards. October 2009. Casting and Testing For the compressive strength determination. No. 100x100x500 mm beam specimens were used. 05.4R having a constant water/binder ratio of 0. Split Tensile Strength Figure 3 represents the variation of split tensile strength at 28 days due to the Materials The properties of the selected materials for this experimental study have been reported as below: Cement Ordinary Portland cement 53 grade with physical and chemical properties as given in table 1 has been used in this experimental study. while 150 x 300 mm cylinder specimens were used for determining the split tensile strength.5 mm as per IS: 383 – 1970 was used in this experimental work. The mixture proportions are summarized in Table 3 in which the mixtures were designated according to the type and the amount of cementitious materials included.451 Role of Silica Fume and GGBS on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete levels for GGBS was 10%. Its physical and chemical properties are given in table 1. Also it is observed that the ultimate compressive strength reaches when the silica fume addition is 10 percent. The control mixture of grade M60 included only ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as the binder while the remaining mixtures incorporated the GGBS as cement replacement material and silica fume as addition. Water Potable water with pH value of 7. Figure 1 shows the compressive strength on 7th day whereas figure 2 shows compressive strength on 28th day. GGBS Slag(GGBS) obtained from Andhra Cements. 02.

pp. 450-457 . K. It is observed that the increase in split tensile strength is moderate when silica fume addition is up to 10% beyond that there is no increase of split tensile strength instead of that a appreciable drop in split tensile strength is noticed. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. split and flexural strengths as well. The ultimate split tensile strength was obtained for the combination of GGBS at cement replacement level of 20% along with the addition of 10% silica fume. 30. It can also be concluded that the replacements of 20% by GGBS with 10% addition of silica fume yields an overall optimum value. pp. (2000). and their combination”. Vol. 02. References: [1] Ganesh Babu. For all these relations the value of regression coefficients shows the better degree of reliability over the relations. [3] Tan Ke-Feng. “High Performance Concrete”. CHINNARAJU. Based on the above experimental and analytical analysis the following conclusions can be drawn. SENTHIL KUMAR 452 addition of GGBS as cement replacements up to 30% with the addition of silica fume up to 12. split and flexural strengths of high performance concrete.R. Sree Rama Kumar. 2. flexural strengths have been arrived along with their corresponding regression coefficient and shown in the figures 5 and 6 for various addition of silica fume. It is also observed that the flexural strength decreases with higher rate beyond the addition of 10% silica fume. October 2009. (1998).5%.K. “Efficiency of GGBS in concrete”. Even though the compressive strength decreases at 7th day due to the addition of GGBS. 1819–1825. 1996. This shows that the rate of decrease of compressive strength at early stage is compensated at the later stage due to the addition of GGBS and the contribution of silica fume for the later developments of strength is negligible. Flexural Strength Figure 4 shows the variation of flexural strength at 28 days age for cement replacements up to 30% by GGBS with silica fume addition of up to 12. however due to addition of silica fume there is appreciable increase in compressive strength and also noticed that the increase in compressive strength is maximum at 10% addition of silica fume. the 28th day compressive strength attains almost the control specimen value.. Correlation Analysis Figure 5 shows the correlation between square root of compressive strength at 28 days and split tensile strength and Figure 6 shows the correlation between square root of compressive strength at 28 days and flexural strength. It is also observed during tests that the failure of the specimen was sudden because of more brittleness. SUBRAMANIAN AND S. Conclusions Extensive experimentation has been carried out to determine the effect of addition of silica fume with the different cement replacements by GGBS on the compressive. Xin-Cheng Pu. China Architecture and Building Press. V. Cement and Concrete Research.5% by weight of cement. pp. [2] Feng Nai-Qian. “Strengthening effects of FGFA. 28 (12). Cement and Concrete Research. K. There is no enhancement in compressive strength at 7 days due to replacement of cement by GGBS. 05. The change in flexural strength is very limited for most of the combinations except at cement replacement level of 20% by GGBS along with the addition of 10% silica fume. Beijing.. A linear regression analysis has been made and the relationship between compressive strength and split tensile strength. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the 10 % addition of silica fume with any level of cement replacements by GGBS gives the optimum value of compressive strength. No. 3. GGBS. 1. By knowing the compressive strength of concrete for the percentage of addition of silica fume along GGBS replacement levels the corresponding flexural / split tensile strengths can be arrived at with the appropriate correlation equations. 1031– 1036.R. A statistical analysis also has been performed to get the generalized relations between the said strengths.

S. Mehta.0.M. 84. (2005)..M.453 Role of Silica Fume and GGBS on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag”. L. Neelamegam.4 .85 to 2.05 % 20.V.5 % 0..75 0. [7] Gengying Li and Xiaohua Zhao. Cement and Concrete Composites. 1273 1283. Cabrera J.66 % 2. Li. (2003). 293 – 299. pp. No.5 . [5] Hassan.. Qian. 1996..61 % % % % 2.0 % 0. (1995)..2 Basic Properties of Aggregates International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. H.8 % 0. [8] Ganesh Babu.23 % 0.. “The effect of mineral admixtures on the properties of highperformance concrete”. pp.K. (2003). P.5 % 0.. and Gopalakrishnan.44 % 2.1.. “Improvement in properties of High Performance Concrete with Partial Replacement of cement by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag”. 05.. 450-457 .. Dattatreya. 25. S.78 % 4.1.78 % 3.06 % 0.J. 35. pp.G.. Liu... Cement and Concrete Research.P..7 % 0.88 % 63.46 0. “Properties of concrete incorporating Table.15 31% 2 hrs 4 hrs 20. B.X. Institution of Engineers (I) – CV.P. London. Cement concrete research.2 .34 % 34. (2000). Vol.95 1050 to 1375 Powder form 33. “Efficiency of Silica Fume in Concrete”. 25 (6).K. Wang..0.4 % 0. Surya Prakash.1 .K. V.09 % 9.N. Gordon and Breach. J. October 2009. Maliehe. Cement and Concrete Research. “Pozzolanic and cementitious materials”. “ITZ microstructure of concrete containing GGBS”. pp.5 . C.F..E. R.2.62 % 1.0. 22. pp. pp.96 % 0. 38 – 41.2 .30 % - 20900 3.58 % 0.7 . [4] Gao.267– 271 [6] Malhotra. K. Advances in Concrete Technology. M.20 600 to 700 Powder form 90 .64 0.0. [9] Rajamane.J..0. 02.5 % Table.1 . 1299– 1304.8 % 0. Annie Peter.1 Physical and Chemical properties of cement and admixtures Property/ composition Physical properties Specific Surface Area (Blaine Fineness) (m2/kg) Specific Gravity Standard Consistency Initial Setting Time Final Setting Time Bulk density (kg/m3) Physical form Chemical composition Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) Calcium Oxide (CaO) Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) Sodium Oxide (Na2O) Potassium Oxide (K2O) Loss on Ignition Cement GGBS Silica fume 385 400 to 600 2.

SENTHIL KUMAR 454 Table.K. October 2009.R. SUBRAMANIAN AND S. No.R. 05. 450-457 . Vol.3 Mix proportions International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp. K. 02. CHINNARAJU.

02. 05. October 2009.4 Test Results 70 Compressive Strength (MPa) 60 50 GGBS 0 GGBS10 GGBS20 GGBS30 40 0 2. 450-457 .5 10 12. Vol. No.455 Role of Silica Fume and GGBS on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete Table.5 5 7. pp.5 Slica Fume Content (%) Fig 1 Compressive Strength on 7th Day International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.

00 0 2. SUBRAMANIAN AND S.5 5 7.00 GGBS 0 60.5 5 7. SENTHIL KUMAR 456 90.00 80.5 5 7. 450-457 .00 GGBS10 GGBS20 6. CHINNARAJU.5 Slica Fume Content (%) Fig 2 6.R.4 Flexural Strength International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. K.5 Slica Fume Content (%) Fig.00 Compressive Strength on 28th Day Split Tensile Strength (MPa) 5.5 10 12.00 0 2.5 10 12. Vol. 02. October 2009.R.00 GGBS10 GGBS20 GGBS30 50. pp.00 4.K. 05.00 11.5 10 12.00 GGBS30 5.3 Split Tensile Strength 12.00 10.00 GGBS 0 7.00 0 2.00 GGBS 0 GGBS10 GGBS20 GGBS30 3.00 8.5 Slica Fume Content (%) Fig.00 Flexural Strength 9.00 Compressive Strength (MPa) 70. No.

457 Role of Silica Fume and GGBS on Strength Characteristics of High Strength Concrete Fig. 05.6 Square Root of Compressive Strength Vs Flexural Strength International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp. No. 450-457 . October 2009.5 Square Root of Compressive Strength Vs Split Tensile Strength Fig. Vol. 02.

MURUGAPPAN. 1997).com Abstract: Kinetic studies on the degradation of vegetable solid waste by microbial composting process in a rotary in-vessel under controlled conditions and varying periods of rotational spells in batch process are important for the design of large scale operations.This is considered to be the best when compared with other cases where their periods of rotational spells were lesser and intermittent. wood shavings and dry leaves were used. These wide spread practices have brought significant health risks for the public and rapid degradation of a healthy environment (Kalamdhad et al. the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers for crop production has left the soil totally depleted of its indigenous nutrients and fertility (Deluca and Deluca. A2. This confirms rotations have to be given continuously as it has greatly influenced the decomposition process ensuring the reduction of composting period.2003).9 along with a temperature rise of 64. Measures adopted to solve them have only multiplied the problems to several folds. the shortage of dumping sites and the evolution of 5060% of methane from landfill emissions leading to global warming has all created much more complexity in India (Gupta et al. M** * Department of Civil Engineering Annamali University. in a motor driven in-vessel at 3 rpm for 14 days. Annamalainagar. had resulted in a maximum reduction in C/N ratio of 15. Bulking agents. (iii) a total of 20 hour rotation in a day with 4-hour rotational spells followed by 1-hour idle condition in two trials B1 and B2 and (iv) Continuously for the entire 24 hours in a day in two trials C1 and C2. A1. composting.5ºC and a higher reaction rate constant of 0. ecofriendly and cost effective solid waste management alternative for disposing the heterogeneous nature of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) have considered source reduction with decentralized composting as the preferred waste management strategy (Stelmachowski et al. 458-466 458 Effects on Rate of Degradation in Vegetable Solid Waste Composting in a Rotary in-vessel with Varying Periods of Rotational Spells MONSON C. the rising land cost. The enforcement of the environmental legislation. the burning of wastes in open dumps using poorly designed incinerators have led to atmospheric air pollution. #02020509 Copyright © 2009 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. namely (i) Control Mix 1 and Control Mix 2 in idle condition without any rotational spell (ii) a total of 12 hour rotation in a day with 3-hour rotational spells followed by 3-hour idle condition in two trials A1 and A2. rotary in-vessel. 02. All rights reserved. B2 and C2. No. were paddy straw and dry leaves while in Control Mix 2. Scientists and environmentalist pursuing for fast. Moreover. Kinetic studies have shown remarkable improvement in the reduction of C/N ratio indicating high decomposition rate and carbon loss. where the rotational spell was continuous for 24 hours. In all the trials. kinetics Introduction: Solid waste management (SWM) is largely becoming a complex problem due to high rate of industrialization and population growth in many Indian cities. in four sets of experiments with varying periods of rotational spells. B1 and C1. 1998). pp.032 day-1. 2009a). 05.International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. cow dung was used as a starter along with the bulking agents. as open dumping with poorly designed land fillings have contaminated the soil and underground sources. Keywords: vegetable solid waste. India ** Muthiah Polytechnic College. The reduction in C/N ratio of the waste in the control mixes and in all the trials is critically compared. . The combination of bulking agents used in Control Mix1. A* and GOVINARAJAN. October 2009. Meanwhile. India E-mail: profam@sify. The composting of vegetable waste was carried out. The reaction is found to follow first order kinetics. Trial C1. Vol. C*.

In-vessel composting is an effective alternate method to compost in which the high temperature required for destroying pathogenic organisms is achieved and also the organic matter get composted in a much shorter duration. 02. It requires less space. in four sets of experiments with varying periods of rotational spells. leading to loss of some nutrients in the heterogeneous nature of the end product. 1993). it will reduce the airspace in compost matrix and causes oxygen limitation to microbes (Sunderberg and Jonsson. Composting. 2006). so that the composting time period is reduced. though an oxygen consuming. 12 tonnes are vegetable wastes mainly from the market that can be easily segregated at the source. aeration and moisture control. The major drawback of such traditional composting is its long process duration. 458-466 . 2008). Investigation objectives are to find out the (1) decomposition rate of composting vegetable solid wastes with an initial C/N ratio of around 35 in the experiments. The in-vessel composting system has several advantages over the windrow system such that food waste and other organic wastes can be successfully composted. Though various large composting systems have been proposed. from the start to the end of the trials were carried out. if there is excessive moisture. so that it may be effectively composted and returned to the soil (Iyengar and Bhave prashant. 2007). This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of composting in a bench scale motorized in-vessel by adopting variations in rotational spells. heat-generating microbial process in a highly dynamic system. No. and provides high process efficiency in a controlled atmosphere better than windrows (Kim et al. The ratio of the mix of feedstock materials namely. in a better oxygenated environment (Haug. is moisture dependent for the function of the microbial composting process but.459 Effects on Rate of Degradation in Vegetable Solid Waste Composting in a Rotary in-vessel with Varying Periods of Rotational Spells controlled conditions for 14 days. vegetable waste –(S). The composting of vegetable waste was carried out. (iii) a total of 20 hour rotation in a day with 4-hour rotational spells followed by 1-hour idle condition in two trials B1 and B2 and (iv) Continuously for the entire 24 hours in a day in two trials C1 and C2. in a motor driven in-vessel at 3 rpm for 14 days. 05. namely (i) Control Mix1 and Control Mix 2 in idle condition without any rotational spell (ii) a total of 12 hour rotation in a day with 3-hour rotational spells followed by 3-hour idle condition in two trials A1 and A2. vegetable wastes collected from the town were taken from the mixed bunch and are shredded to a size of 25 mm as recommended by Rynk (1992) for providing better porosity. The wastes were amended with cow dung for proper microbial inoculation along with bulking agents of combinations of paddy straw and dry leaves in one trial. (2) Kinetics of the different trials for varying period of rotational spells and (3) the maturity value of C/N ratio of resultant compost during different trials. Physical and chemical analyses of the substrate. wood shavings and dry leaves in the other trial of each set of experiment to provide stability. The kinetics of the composting are studied in this work for varying periods of rotational spells. October 2009. Vol. pp. which is the oldest traditional way of disposal in India helps to degrade the organic portion of waste. 2008). Composting. Organic fractions of these vegetable wastes were taken for the study in a motor driven rotary in-vessel developed in the laboratory and composted with proper amendments in International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. many of them have failed in providing optimal operating parameters for effective degrading environment (Bongochgetsakul Nattakorn and Tetsuya Ishida. cow dung–(M) and the bulking agents (B) are presented in Table 1and 2. porosity and integrity to the structure as per Zhang Yun and Yong He (2006). Materials and Methods: In this study. Out of 39 tonnes of MSW collected from Chidambaram town in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu state. before they are dumped in landfills in the town outskirts without any proper treatment.

anticipating quick volume reduction. EC and moisture content. The drum is made to spin around its horizontal axes. The initial parameters were given for each trial in Table 3. The dried sample was ground and then used for determination of Volatile Solids (VS) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). 1978). M 460 Process: The laboratory scale bio-reactor used for bio conversion of the wastes is a cylindrical vessel with a capacity of 50 litres. 1986). 1995). October 2009.% ash)/1. a 6 mm thick insulation cover is wrapped on the outer surface of the drum to prevent the heat escape during the initial stages of the process. 458-466 . with a low rpm motor and controlled with preset timer device to switch on/off. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. The vessel was filled to its 90% of capacity. Equation (1) is used to define the first order reaction kinetics of the system. The air supply is given steadily with an aerator for the initial period at the rate of not less than 10 l/min which satisfies the requirement of 5% oxygen in the chamber as mentioned by Rynk(1992) which is regulated periodically as per the requirement. Reaction Rate Constant: Many researchers have made the kinetic studies of substrate degradation and reported that the reaction is based on first order function. Haug(1993) has given the model based on the BVS which showed a good fit to the selected BOD data at constant temperature over a composting period of 60-348 days and the degradation rate follows the equation of the form given in equation (1). made of fibre reinforced plastic material with a coating of Vinylester resin material inside to take care of the load and temperature as well as the chemical changes taking place at the time of the conversion process. Further. The design of the Eweson system which differs from that of the Dano system is divided into compartments such that the residence time can be varied throughout the drum (Golueke. Measurement of Physical and Chemical Parameters: A 50 g sample was taken once every two days for laboratory analysis. A first order model without temperature corrections has also shown evidence of fairly good fit at longer time periods exceeding 70. The ambient temperature at the time of experiments inside the laboratory varied between 28° to 32°C. ASAE. The speed of 3 rpm was arbitrarily chosen here in a 0.84 and 168 days in the experiments conducted by Bernal et al (1993). The pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were measured in the condition of solid-to-water mixture (weight: volume = 1:10). 1995.MONSON C.8 and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was measured using semi-micro Kjeldahl method (APHA. The assumption of first order kinetics has worked well in describing numerous processes involving biological oxidation. 05. t = time (days) and k = degradation rate constant (g BVS/day). The composting carried out in the Dano reactor typifies the horizontal drum category. 1960). had three or more meters larger in diameter and is rotated at 1-2 rpm for a short duration of three days (Haug. Fins are provided inside the periphery of the drum to provide proper mixing. C. (1) where BVS = the quantity of biodegradable volatile solids (kg). No. The air flow is provided centrally by an aerator through a stationary central pipe from one end of the drum and with an exhaust pipe on the other end to let out the hot gases (Refer figure 1). The VS was measured after igniting the sample at 550º C for 2h in a muffle furnace (APHA. Cow urine was added along with water whenever the moisture content was below the 50% level to accelerate the process. TOC was calculated using the formula (100 . pp. Vol. The multi pronged probe of Hitachi make was used daily for instant measurement of temperature. 1993 and Dean. MURUGAPPAN. A and GOVINARAJAN. 02. The moisture content of sample was measured after drying at 105ºC for overnight.35m diameter drum to treat a quantity of 9-11kg of waste.

the reduction of C/N ratio is from 34. 02.92 in trial A1 and 34. These values together could be used to determine the optimum conditions for the desired period of rotational spells to be given. The trials A1 and A2 have reached a temperature of 61ºC and 61. 12 h (Run B).5 ºC. showed the International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. Vol. B2. The R2 value of the best fitted straight line was obtained in each case. there is a marked improvement in the reduction of Data on Carbon constituents have been expressed here on a C-basis assuming the TOC in percentage as the degradation value against time. The Trial C1 having 24 hour rotational spell. pp. at the gap of 6 h (Run A).36-25. The decomposition rate is also ascertained by plotting the C/N ratio versus time. it should be noted that the TOC content are calculated from the directly measured values of volatile solids. October 2009.5ºC and 64ºC respectively on the third day. The degradation reaction rate constant kday-1 was calculated as the slope of the fittest straight line which was done for all the three sets of trials.48 in Control Mix2.38 in A2 shown in Figure 3 and 4.5ºC in trial C1 occurring on the third day after the initial increase shown on the 1st and 2nd day.55-23. 18 h (Run C) and 24 h (Run D) for 15 d has resulted in longer thermophilic phase with a higher rise at temperature of 58 °C in Run D (24 h turning frequency) and also obtaining higher mineralization. In trials B1 and B2 where the rotational spell has been increased to 20 hours a day. No. Composting conducted by Kalamdhad et al. The temperature rose to a high of 64.40 CFR Part 503(1994) guidelines that the materials should reach (a) temperature of 40ºC for at least five consecutive days or (b) 55ºC for at least three consecutive days or alternately (c) 55°C for a minimum period of four hours either in In-vessel or in windrows or in static composting for essential pathogenic destruction. Kinetic plots are obtained by plotting the ln (C/Co) at any time versus time.4128. A2.The potential residual amount represents a recalcitrant of the organic matter or C represented in equation (2) does not degrade fully and the degradation function does not reach zero as it requires long term studies. it gives (3) First order reactions are fitted linearly following equation (3) to find the rate of decomposition in batch system of study. C/N Ratio: The reduction of C/N ratio which is one of the predominant indicators showing the maturity of compost (Haug. k is the degradation rate constant (day-1) and t is the time (days).5ºC whereas in trials C1 and C2 the temperature shot up to 64. fared better than other trials showing evidence of higher rate of decomposition.5ºC< 59 ºC<42 ºC <40.5ºC in Control Mix 2 to a peak of 64.57 in Control Mix1 and 36. B1.Control Mix 2 and Control Mix 1 respectively. (2) where C is the biodegradable volatile solids being the remaining mass at any time (%). The reduction of C/N ratio in all other trials carried out clearly indicated the gradual reduction from 35. in the trials C2. which is far less compared to all other trials (refer Table 3). A1. The sustenance of temperature above 55ºC was observed for a longer period of 4 days in trials C1and C2 and for the remaining trials it happened for 3 days and declined from 4th day on wards.5ºC and 61.461 Effects on Rate of Degradation in Vegetable Solid Waste Composting in a Rotary in-vessel with Varying Periods of Rotational Spells highest sustenance of temperature above 55ºC for more than 4 days. but all the trials satisfied the stipulations laid by USEPA . 458-466 . (2009b) in a rotary drum at different time intervals. 05.82-30. Results and Discussions: Temperature: The evolution of temperature profile shown by all the trials is shown in Figure 2 ranges between a value of 40.5ºC in the trial C1 followed by 64ºC < 63. Integrating the equation (2) and letting C = Co initially when t = 0.5ºC on the third day and the temperature in the trials B1 and B2 shot up to 63.5ºC <61ºC < 60. 1993) is found to have steep slope in all the trials indicating good decomposition taking place inside the vessel except for the trials kept as Control.

3l/h and without any rotation in an enclosed environment.016 day-1). In peat composting carried out by Eklind and Kirchmann (2000) in an octagonal rotatable drum of capacity 125 litres for a lengthier period of 590 days by manual agitation given daily. The reaction rate constant arrived in trial C1 of 0. Figures 5 and 6 show the plots of ln (C/Co) versus time and the linear fits of trials Control Mix1.2617.032 day-1 and 0.84) as indicated in Table 3 as well as in Figure 3 and 4. These values also fall below the minimum acceptable range of first order reaction rate constant of 0. October 2009. gave a reaction rate constant of 0. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. For trials B1 and B2. Reaction Rate Constant: Correlation between ln(C/Co) with respect to time has been fitted linearly and the slopes of the lines have been found to vary with different trials (Refer Figure 5 and 6). B2 andC2 employed in the study.51-15. and trial C2 showed a value of 1.377 day-1 and 0. the C/N reduction is found to be at the rate of 0. Decomposition Rate: The decomposition rates for the trials are obtained by linear plot between C/N ratios versus time.005 day-1 and 0.718 day-1 respectively.90 and 35. Keener and Elwell (1998) has found out the bioconversion to be of first order reaction and the reaction rate constant ranges inbetween 0. as shown in Figure 3 and 4. and for trials Control Mix 2. B1 andC1 and Figure 4 shows C/N ratio for trials Control Mix2. Figure 3 shows the reduction rate of C/N ratio for trials Control Mix1. In Control Mix 1 and Control Mix 2. The maximum reduction in the C/N ratio from 34. A and GOVINARAJAN.083 day-1 suggested by Keener and Elwell (1998).007 day-1 respectively which is of the lowest order compared to all other trials.695 day-1 and 0.5kg of MSW treated in a 2 litres erlenmeyer conical flask provided with a rate of aeration of 0. which are far below the acceptable range of 0.017 day1 and0. 05. pp.48 is observed in trials C1 and C2 with rotational spells for the entire 24 hours. Trials C1 and C2 with continuous agitation for the entire 24 hours a day yielded reaction rate constants of 0.58 and17.308 day-1 is found in trial C1.B1 and C1.024 day-1 to 0.009 day-1 respectively. the C/N reduction is found to be at the rate of 0. A1. This is indicative of the bioconversion following first order reaction in all the trials of the study.230 day-1. which may be due to the smaller amount of substrate used in that small environment.(refer figure 7) The lines of fits of the plots of ln (C/Co) versus time for all the trials showed good Rsquared values ranging from 0.58 and 35. In Control Mix 1 and Control Mix 2. The straight lines are best fitted to the reduction in C/N ratio with time as R-squared values are ranging in a narrow band of 0.17 for a C/N ratio of 30 for the 0.24-17.022 day-1 respectively. No. Table 5 shows the reaction rate constants for reduction in TOC in different trials. 458-466 .986 for trial C2 (Refer Table 5).983 for trial B2 to 0. M 462 C/N ratio from 34. as shown in Figure 3 and 4.153 day1 and 1.032 day-1 employing the bulking agents paddy straw and dry leaves is found to be in the acceptable range suggested by Keener and Elwell (1998) and the linear line fitted between reaction rate constant and rotational spell confirms.In trials A1 and A2.31-16. The reduction in C/N ratio in trials C1 and C2 has obtained the acceptable value of less than 17 for compost as indicated by Iyengar and Bhave prashant (2006).MONSON C. the reaction rate constant is found to be at the rate of 0. The rate constants arrived in the trials carried out by Hamoda et al (1998) indicated high values of 0. The maximum rate of reduction of C/N ratio of 1.008 day-1 and 0. 02.192 day-1 respectively.083 day-1 suggested by Keener and Elwell (1998) Trials B1 and B2 with a 20 hour rotational spells per day showed higher values of reaction rate constant (0.083 day-1. C. A1.A2. A2.B2 and C2 respectively. Vol. the values of C/N ratio are almost close to 17 (17. The trials B1 and B2 attained a decomposition rate of 1.880 for trial B1 to 0. MURUGAPPAN. The reaction rate constants in trials A1 and A2 are found to be 0.024 to 0.024 day-1 to 0.382 day-1 .922 for trial A2.84 respectively.061 for organic carbon decomposition following a first order degradation function.

Kazmi S..Deluca. The C/N ratio attained after 14 days of composting in trial C1 (with paddy straw and dry leaves as bulking agents) and trial C2 (with wood shavings and dry leaves as bulking agents) are respectively 15. Chemosphere.T..19th edn. Determination of decomposition rate based on C/N ratio and the reaction rate constant based on carbon loss following a first order function have been found for all the trials considered in the study.. Composting for feedlot manure management and soil quality.M I49085-9659.Y. Compost Science. Resources. Journal of Hazardous Materials. (1993).(2006) In-vessel composting of household wastes. 05..R.B. vol 154-pp 272–277. Elsevier publications. vol 1(3). Wan Namkoon.032 day-1 is obtained in trial C1 compared to other trials where their periods of rotational spells were lesser and intermittent. (1998) Evaluation of municipal solid waste composting kinetics..308 day-1.(1960) “Composting Refuse at Sacramento. Elsevier publications.(2009a) Rotary Drum composting of different organic waste mixtures. This has been duly indicated in the kinetic studies made.M.(2009b) Effects of turning frequency on compost stability and some chemical characteristics in a rotary drum composter.. Elsevier publications... Kazmi S.H. Bio resource technology vol 74-pp115-124. Joon-Seok Park.A. 02.D. vol 102pp 235-241. where the rotational spell is continuous for 24 hours a day. October 2009.P.. U S A. DC [2] ASAE(1986)..K.R.Elwell.. vol 27pp 129-137.K. Elsevier publications.S.(2000) Composting and storage of organic household waste with different litter amendments. Elsevier publications. Washington. Vol.. References: [1] APHA (1995). The practical handbook of compost engineering. vol 26-pp 1070-1080.F. C. [7] Golueke.M.J.H.The highest reaction rate constant of 0...(1998) Specifying Design/operation of composting systems using pilot scale Conclusions: When the rotational spells are increased during composting. the rate of decomposition in the vegetable waste has increased. Conservation and Recycling vol 23-pp209-223 [10] Iyengar.vol 74. I: carbon turnover. 458-466 . No.. (1978) “European Manufacturers Display Systems at Kompost ‘77”.. [14] Keener.M. [9] Hamoda.Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste water. (1993).463 Effects on Rate of Degradation in Vegetable Solid Waste Composting in a Rotary in-vessel with Varying Periods of Rotational Spells [5] Deluca. Byung-Hoon In.. (10)-pp 1327-1334. is found to be high at 1.. Florida. APHA /AWWA/WPCF. Evaluation of pilot-scale in-vessel composting for food waste treatment.G.T. [3] Bernal M.M. Compost Science. [8] Haug.H. vol 19(2)-pp18-22.A. The society for engineering in agriculture. Daekeun Kim. Lewis Publishers. [6] Eklind. [11] Kim Joung-Dae.... Abu Qdais. California”. Journal of production in Agriculture. Bhave prashant. and Absar. it is concluded that quality compost could be achieved with increase in period of rotational spells of in-vessel.48.. ASAES524. and Scott. Bio-resource Technology vol 43-pp 35-39. Newham. The decomposition rate in trial C1.. The reduction of C/N ratio achieved in trials C1 and C2 has also been found to be high.. Application of natural zeolites for reduction of ammonia emissions during the composting of organic wastes in a laboratory composting stimulator. [4] Dean R.A.. Waste Management. March/April 1978 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. pp. These values are well below the C/N ratio of 17 regarded as a good maturity indicator of compost..(1997). Waste Management and Research -Sage Publications.P. (2008). and Absar. Elsevier publications. [12] Kalamdhad Ajay.90 and 16.Lopez-Real J. Autumn 1960.Kirchmann. [13] Kalamdhad Ajay..H. Hence.Standards.

gov/owm/mtb/biosolids/50 3pe Table. No.73 Volume m3 0.5 Mass KG 9-Jul 1. Bio resource technology vol 99(6)-pp 1630-1641. 458-466 .891...871.911.. New York.15 1.2 Feedstock characteristics of Control Mix 2. Sujata Gupta.21 67.003 0. pp.7-2..1538. Applied Engineering in Agriculture vol 13 (3)pp 377-384.1 Feedstock characteristics of Control Mix 1. 05. (1992). Resources. Conservation and Recycling vol 24-pp 137-154. [16] Rynk R.25 10. (1998)Solid waste management in India: Options and Opportunities. M 464 Data. On-Farm Composting Handbook. [15] Bongochgetsakul Nattakorn.15 1. Elsevier publications.74 0. [17] Stelmachowski M.450. A and GOVINARAJAN.7414.40 CFR Part 503 USEPA . October 2009. Arun Kansal.H. Elsevier publications.54 Volume m3 0.... Zarzycki Roman.91:1..013 BD Kg/m3 345285 758875 62-125 Materials Vegetable waste(S) Cow dung(M) Dry leaves and Woodshavings(B) C 3442 2933 5585 N 0..74 0.Krishna Mohan.61 C/N ratio 34. Applied Energy vol 75-pp 249-256.A new analytical approach to optimizing the design of large-scale composting systems.7-2. Elseiveir Publications.7414.51.14:1) Materials Vegetable waste(S) Cow dung(M) Dry leaves and Paddy straw(B) Moisture % 55-70 60-75 Mass Kg 9-Jul 1. MURUGAPPAN. [19] Shuchi Gupta.2379.0147 0. [20] USEPA . B2 and C2(S:M:B) (5.891..51.2:1.380. (1994)Land Application of Biosolids[online].029 0. Tetsuya Ishida. Trials A1..7 0. Ithaca. Elsevier publications.epa. B1 and C1(S:M:B) (5.65 Table. C.C.0023 BD Kg/m3 345285 758875 86104 C/N ratio C 3442 2933 4560 N 0.MONSON C. Trials A2.Availablefrom:http:/ /www. (2007). [18] Sunderberg.21 101. Vol. Jonsson.7 34.17:1) Moisture % 55-70 60-75 9-12.. 02. Elsevier publications. Jaststrzebska Magdalena.028 0.(2008) Higher pH and faster decomposition in bio-waste composting by increased aeration.. Rajkumar Prasad. Waste Management vol 28–pp 518526.25 10. (2003)In-vessel composting for utilizing of municipal sewage-sludge.00145 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.07 11-Aug 0. NRAES..1538.

13 1.33 63.382 0.12 43.1 37.79 40.61 37.02 TOC/ Carbon (%) 40.55 1.48 1.11 1.12 60.56 1.19 0.33 72.9 TrialC1 28.24 17.98 1.48 TrialA2 23.005 0.67 46.38 35.39 1.11 2.48 7.2 35.71 40.22 1.26 17.91 37.15 0.57 35.87 8.465 Effects on Rate of Degradation in Vegetable Solid Waste Composting in a Rotary in-vessel with Varying Periods of Rotational Spells Table.44 53.69 25.65 48.12 44.84 1.72 C/N ratio 0th 14th 0th 14th 0th 14th 0th 14th 0th 14th 0th 14th 0th 14th 0th 14th 65.23 2.01 0.83 1.48 Trial C2 29.21 7.02 0.04 1.63 1.99 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904.97 0.48 Table.98 51. 458-466 .56 71.07 1.51 15.41 28.23 63.49 42.32 1.52 57.98 1.58 34.36 25.67 36. k (day-1) R – squared value Control Mix1 A1 B1 C1 Control Mix2 A2 B2 C2 0.971 0.72 0.89 0.44 Trial A1 26.95 0.939 0.44 32.56 62.01 0. pp.15 1.45 8.15 1.43 5.76 6 7.35 69.55 24.83 39.8 73.23 1.67 42. Vol.56 1.97 1.92 1.86 Trial B1 30.79 1.18 45 61.55 48.18 1.987 0.02 0.94 1.1 51.31 0.56 75.377 0.48 34.34 2.007 0.88 34.84 35.56 2. October 2009.956 0.19 28.9 73.92 41.52 67.61 7.23 1.13 6.92 34.54 1.23 6.4 Reduction rate of C/N ratio Control Mix 1 Control Trials Trials C/N Reduction rate(day-1) R-squared value A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 0.37 31.58 7. No.5 Reaction rate constant for reduction in TOC Trials Reaction rate constant.64 1.78 1.83 6.3 Characteristics of the waste on the 0th day and 14th day of each composting trial Day MC % pH EC mS/cm LOI VS /Ash (%) (%) Control-Mix 1 26.17 43.9 35.03 0.5 31.12 61 45 64 43.96 0.66 Control-Mix 2 24.14 64.45 7.83 6.98 Table.5 37.145 1.37 1.03 38.97 0.5 6.5 62 56.31 16.93 39.45 70.23 0.34 TKN/ Nitrogen (%) 1.17 1.82 30.35 6.5 76.34 46. 02.98 68.7 0.88 0.02 Trial B2 27.02 0.69 28. 05.

B1 and C1) Fig. Trials A1. B1 and C1) Fig.1 Schematic Diagram of the Rotary Composter Fig. No. A and GOVINARAJAN. Time (Control Mix 1. C. B2 and C2) International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904. 458-466 .MONSON C. Trials A1.4 Profile of C/N ratio vs.5 Profile of ln C/Co vs. 02. Trials A2.7 Reaction rate constants vs. October 2009. Time (Control Mix 2. pp. Rotational spell Fig.3 Profile of C/N ratio vs. B1 and C1) Fig. M 466 Fig. MURUGAPPAN. Time (Control Mix 1.6 Profile of ln C/Co vs.2 Temperature profile of different trials Fig. Time (Control Mix1. Vol. 05. Trials A1.

raw or processed is best suited to study the volcanic terrain? 3. Which satellite image. Crop pattern. geological features such as layering. Mumbai-400076. Bombay. Can layered sedimentaries and parametamorphics be compositionally recognized and if so up to what scale? 4. It is hence peremptory to undertake serious study by resorting to all possible image processing. India **CSRE (Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering). there doest not seem to have been any break through. What is the best Digital Processing Technique to highlight true geologically linear zones both of larger and smaller dimension? The term lineament is vague and hence it would be wiser to use the term fracture.com The term ‘Geological Remote Sensing’ is presently used to denote extraction of geological and geo-related information based on the raw digital data obtained through a variety of sensors of the numerous satellites of different international space agencies such as the ISRO(Indian Space Research Organisation). Forest fires. Indian Institute of Technology. In the case of recognition of specific rock types and exposures of rock units which are massive intrusive. and non. Glacier configuration. shear or fault. The raw data from American Satellite ‘Landsat’ or IRS (Indian Remote sensing Satellite) of individual band are usually studied for geological information.Geological Remote Sensing S. For drainage related studies the satellite images and toposheets of the survey of India are used in conjunction to make out the attitudes and lengths of the streams of different orders. Bombay Campus. feeders. large scale shear or fracture zones are fairly traceable. 2. India Email: sviswam123@yahoo.feeders based on spectral signatures. Combinations of digital data from different Satellites with different spectral andl spatial resolutions are also attempted for a specified area or scene to understand how far such exercises are helpful in enhancing specific desired theme. Better results are obtained through myriad digital processing techniques and the composite images highlight different aspects of geomorphic. Mumbai-40076. Have attempts been made to separate the Deccan lava flows and recognize the dykes. Boundaries of large bodies of granitoids are demarcated after a strenuous field coverage and sampling.VENKATARAMAN** * Powai. geological and many other geographic features as Soil types and their distribution. oil sleeks and land use. VISWANATHAN* G. Can the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the apparently homogenous plutons like the close pat granite be tested for any spectral anomalies due to chemical and mineralogical variations? i . Normally with even single band imagery geomorphic features like topography and drainage lines. Forest density. image improvement techniques to answer the following:1. Indian Institute of Technology.

acclaimed worldwide as the father of Soil Mechanics. Visakhapatnam and demonstrated how geosynthetic application was carried out in that engineered landfill to contain the solid waste. Report on Workshop SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERED LANDFILLS (October 3-4. His comprehensive coverage of the topic helped participants to appreciate the varied applications of geosynthetics.S. Various product manufacturers.N. It is thus clear that only when an earth scientist directs his attention to the probing of the specific enhancement techniques to bring out litho-logical and structural features. More than 120 Delegates from different engineering departments namely GVMC. Public Health Engg. days should not be far when we would have Petro-sat. They have to be investigated for their spectral reflectance. Till now Aircraft borne multi-spectral data are not available over any part of our country. Kolkata and M/s GeoSol. inaugurated the workshop which was presided over by Prof P.N. Venkatappa Rao. Hyderabad shared their experiences of site applications of geosynthetics in engineered landfills and indicated that this is a viable sustained solution for growing issue of solid waste. Principal. authored by Dr G Venkatappa Rao and Dr R S Sasidhar (a SAGES Publication). The workshop started with an overview of Solid waste by Dr Sasidhar (Managing Director. Andhra University and Honorary Secretary. ITDC. who emphasized the need to look at micro management of landfills. Sea-sat. Andhra University. Carbonatites and the like. HPCL.V.U. Chief Engineer. VUDA. C.There are varieties of rocks such as Kimberlites. as silting of large landfills is becoming a challenge all over the country. Mumbai. Visakhapatnam on the occasion of 126th birthday Karl von Terzaghi. As it is every field geologist looks at remote sensing as a preliminary tool to avail of what-ever feature is possible in the ISRO’s satellite data products. Dept.N.V. This was followed by Engineered Landfills as option for disposal of solid waste and Geosynthetics applications for landfills applications by Dr G. College of Engineering. Coramandal Fertilizers Limited. Prof. with Indian scenarios and case studies. Irrigation Department. M/s Garware Wall Ropes. The two day workshop also covered overview of various regulations that are required to be complied with in regard to solid waste management. S. SAGES). C. Pune. (C. GVMC. Prof. Satyanarayana Reddy shared his experience of working on Jerosite landfill Construction with reinforced Zinc Slag bund at Hindustan Zinc limited. Ramakrishna Rao of Environmental Engineering shared his experience of solid waste management project carried out in Vizianagaram and highlighted some of the current challenges in the solid waste management across the city. Engineering College. Essar Steels. Mr B. M/s Maccaferri. M/s KK Enterprises. AP Pollution Control Board etc. Satyanarayana Reddy) Honorary Secretary IGS Visakhapatnam Chapter ii . he can lay his claim as a specialist in geological remote sensing. The workshop was organised by Indian Geotechnical Society Visakhapatnam Chapter in association with The Institution of Engineers (India) Visakhapatnam Local Centre. Carto-sat. which perhaps would give more details with cartographic accuracy.. A. Like Land-sat. A book on “Solid Waste Management and Engineered Landfills”. Raju.N. Visakhapatnam Port Trust. researchers and academicians participated in the event. 2009) A workshop on “solid Waste Management and Engineered landfills” was organized in the department of Civil Engineering. IGS Visakhapatnam Chapter coordinated the workshop. was released on this occasion which was well received as the first of its kind of book on this topic. Satyanarayana Reddy..V. Prof. Jayarami Reddy.

Australia and Kazakhstan produce over half of world’s production of uranium minerals.Nuclear minerals -Uranium Nuclear mineral Production in the world Canada. 1/1/05. and their efficiency is increasing. March 2009) Nuclear Power in India (May 2009) • India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20. It was discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth. and can be recovered from the oceans. Because India is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons program.000 Reasonably Assured Resources plus Inferred Resources. followed by Australia (24%) and Kazakhstan (17%).(WNA-2009) What is uranium? How does it work? • • Uranium is a very heavy metal which can be used as an abundant source of concentrated energy. it has been for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or • iii . They provide about 15% of the world's electricity as continuous.2009) • • • • Nuclear power in the World • • • • The first commercial nuclear power stations started operation in the 1950s. to US$ 130/kg U. USA (7%). (WNA. The chemical symbol for uranium is U. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050.743.000 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2020.World total tones U=4. causing convection and continental drift. from OECD NEA & IAEA. There are now some 436 commercial nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries. China (1%). It occurs in most rocks in concentrations of 2 to 4 parts per million and is as common in the Earth's crust as tin. 56 countries operate a total of about 280 research reactors and a further 220 reactors power ships and submarines(Source-World Nuclear Association. A statistical records about recoverable resources of Uranium (tonnes U. (Canada 9%). others (6%). %0 of world indicates Canada produces the largest share of uranium from mines (23% of world supply from mines). Uranium was apparently formed in supernovae about 6. a German chemist. Uzbekistan (2%) Jordon (2%).6 billion years ago. South Africa (7%) Namibia (6%) Brazil (6%) Niger (5%). Russia Fed. It occurs in seawater. with 372. in the mineral called pitchblende.000 MWe of total capacity. The high density of uranium means that it also finds uses in the keels of yachts and as counterweights for aircraft control surfaces. which had been discovered eight years earlier. (4%). Production and Demand. It was named after the planet Uranus. India (1%). Uranium 2005: Resources. Its melting point is 1132°C. today its slow radioactive decay provides the main source of heat inside the Earth. While it is not common in the solar system. as well as for radiation shielding. tungsten and molybdenum. reliable baseload power.

Providence." said Jim Green. director of the Planetary Science Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Due to these trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium. but still relatively small.2009) (Permitted use WNA website-Warwick Pipe-Web Manager Warwick Pipe <pipe@worldnuclear. The confirmation of elevated water molecules and hydroxyl at these concentrations in the moon's Polar Regions raises new questions about its origin and effect on the mineralogy of the moon. "Water ice on the moon has been something of a holy grail for lunar scientists for a very long time. "This surprising finding has come about through the ingenuity. M3 was carried into space on Oct. India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium. aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. which has hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009. M3's principal investigator from Brown University." From its perch in lunar orbit. The findings were published in Thursday's edition of the journal Science. a molecule consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom.org> for IJEE) Discovery of water molecules in the polar regions of the moon NASA. 2008. The spacecraft imaging spectrometers made it possible to map lunar water more effectively than ever before. India has reserves of 290. USA scientists have discovered water molecules in the polar regions of the moon. perseverance and international cooperation between NASA and the India Space Research Organization.• • • • materials. Answers to these questions will be studied and debated for years to come. 22. they found the wavelengths of light being absorbed were consistent with the absorption patterns for water molecules and hydroxyl. M3's state-of-the-art spectrometer measured light reflecting off the moon's surface at infrared wavelengths. or VIMS. Data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer. on NASA's Cassini spacecraft. From 2009. India has a vision of becoming a world leader in nuclear technology due to its expertise in fast reactors and thorium fuel cycle. NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper. such features are typically attributed to water and hydroxyl-bearing materials. and the High-Resolution Infrared Imaging Spectrometer on NASA's Epoxi spacecraft contributed to confirmation of the finding. also was found in the lunar soil. iv . Hydroxyl. and these are intended to fuel its nuclear power program longerterm(Source-WNA.000 tonnes of thorium . Instruments aboard three separate spacecraft revealed water molecules in amounts that are greater than predicted. instrument reported the observations. "For silicate bodies. When the M3 science team analyzed data from the instrument. splitting the spectral colors of the lunar surface into small enough bits to reveal a new level of detail in surface composition." said Carle Pieters. However. foreign technology and fuel are expected to boost India's nuclear power plans considerably.about one quarter of the world total. or M3.

S. and time of day. USA-for permitting the reproduction of the above data v . visit: http://isro. (For more information about the EPOXI mission." said Roger Clark.' we are not talking about lakes. While the abundances are not precisely known.I. oceans or even puddles. visit: http://www.gov/cassini The Editor-in-Chief. "When we say 'water on the moon. The spacecraft not only confirmed the VIMS and M3 findings. composition. Water on the moon means molecules of water and hydroxyl that interact with molecules of rock and dust specifically in the top millimeters of the moon's surface.gov/topics/moonmars .nasa. (For more information about the Chandrayaan-1 mission. Pasadena. "With our extended spectral range and views over the north pole. visit: http://www..000 water molecule parts-per-million could be in the lunar soil. Laboratory California. Water molecules and hydroxyl previously were suspected in data from a Cassini flyby of the moon in 1999. if you harvested one ton of the top layer of the moon's surface. Geological Survey scientist in Denver and member of both the VIMS and M3 teams. "Our analysis unequivocally confirms the presence of these molecules on the moon's surface and reveals that the entire surface appears to be hydrated during at least some portion of the lunar day.gov. we were able to explore the distribution of both water and hydroxyl as a function of temperature. IJEE wish to acknowledge NASA/Jet propulsion. visit: http://www.nasa. scientists turned to the Epoxi mission while it was flying past the moon in June 2009 on its way to a November 2010 encounter with comet Hartley 2. The Indian Space Research Organization built. "The data from Cassini's VIMS instrument and M3 closely agree. launched and operated the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. (For additional information and images from the instruments. but the water signature appeared stronger at the moon's higher latitudes. latitude. To put that into perspective." said Jessica Sunshine of the University of Maryland. manages the M3 instrument. (For more information about the Cassini mission. Sunshine is Epoxi's deputy principal investigator and a scientist on the M3 team.gov/epoxi . Cassini mission and Epoxi spacecraft for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington." For additional confirmation. "We see both water and hydroxyl. but also expanded on them. The M3 team found water molecules and hydroxyl at diverse areas of the sunlit region of the moon's surface.htm . a U. as much as 1. you could get as much as 32 ounces of water. Calif.nasa. but the findings were not published until now.in/chandrayaan/htmls/home.R." NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

IRD & BMD Joint Topical Meeting — Radiation Protection and Shielding Division.Announcement/ Forthcoming Seminars/Symposiums/Technical meets Ministry of Earth Sciences. 4. Tamil Nadu. 2010 Construction in Soils and Rock.igpetbhu. New Delhui-11003. 2010 IDC-6 — 6th International Dyke Conference 04 Feb 2010 → 07 Feb 2010. vi . Crustal structures studies Earthquake occurrence processes Detailed plate motion Geodynamic models Tsunami modeling 6 Structure safety and public awareness. USA. http://www. India http://www.asce. 5 to 7 January 2010. 2010.Met Building . Germany.ans. Isotopes and Radiation Division and the Biology and Medicine Division (RPSD. Varanasi. 2010 The International Conference on Earth Sciences and Engineering aims to bring together academic scientists.org/meetings/index.conference-service. Details and further information can be obtained from Head.html Fifth International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE2010 Chapel Hill. Geosciences/Seismology Division. May 23-27.html ICESE 2010: "International Conference on Earth Sciences and Engineering”. 2.Mausam Bhavan.Sat. 5.wessex.com/ 04 Feb 2010 → 07 Feb 2010.waset. Las Vegas. Milan. Lodhi Road. Leoben Jan. Proposals are solicited from scientists/academicians working in the related areas of different institutions in the country. India http://www. 3.org/conferences/2010/capetown/icese/ Safety Conference.com 2010 3rd International Perspective on Current & Future State of Water Resources & the Environment . IRD and BMD) Joint Topical Meeting 2010. South Africa.com/ 2010 RPSD.org/conferences/india2010/index. 6. Cape Town. Proposals may be submitted to address the following issues: 1.igpetbhu. 19 Apr 2010 → 23 Apr 2010. United States weblink: http://www. Jan 26-27. NV . leading engineers.cgi?c=t Third International Conference on Debris Flows.507. North Carolina. Email:bansalbk@nic. Ministry of Earth Sciences. Italy.uk/10-conferences/debris-flow-2010. http://content. Varanasi. Room NO. Government of India. January 27-29. the nodal agency for promotion of Earth Sciences related studies in the country plans to launch 1) a major programme in Andaman and Nicobar Island to understand the geodynamics of the region and to 2) to develop damage scenarios for various urban centres that lie in the vicinity of the Himalayas. 24 May 2010 → 26 May 2010. Austria. India. industry researchers and scholar students to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects: http://www. Chennai.in International seminars on earthsciences and engineering view web site for details: http://www.ac.

United States http://www. as ISRM Sponsored.http://www. 02 Oct 2010 → 05 Oct 2010.net/conferencias/detalhes. San Diego. California.php?id=1113&show=conf ICCE 2010 — 32nd International Conference on Coastal Engineering. 14 Aug 2010 → 18 Aug 2010. http://www. http://www. http://www.org/meetings/c_2 IX Congress of the Carpathian Balkan Geological Association CBGA2010 Thessaloniki. Greece.cwe2010. China.net/conferencias/detalhes. Keystone.php?id=1113&show=conf International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) International Symposium on Advances in Rock Engineering. Bloomfield.at/Mineralogie/IMA20 ISRM-EUROCK-2010-Rock Mechanics in Civil Engineering.isrm.isrm. 2010 http://www.php?id=1113&show=conf SEG 2010 — Society of Economic Geologists Conference.com The International Mineralogical Association. Switzerland. New Zealand.China-. Austria.13 Jun 2010 → 17 Jun 2010. Shanghai. Saizburg.31May-1 June. New Delhi.ans. Beijing.ac. http://www.26 September 2010 www. 2010 http://www.org Uranium 2010 Conference.2010 Conference on Nuclear Fuels and Structural Materials for the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors . Canada related subject(s): Mining & Mineral Processing.25-27 th Augut http://www.new. United States of America.univie. Colorado.new.The Science 2010 19 Sep 2010 → 23 Sep 2010. Puerto de la. Spain Cruz (Tenerite.com/ Plutonium Futures .iaeg2010.net/conferencias/detalhes. CO.seg2010.isrm. 7th-8th.isrm. Auckland.cbga2010.net/conferencias/detalhes.org International Workshop on Glacier Hazards. Saskatchewan. 30 Jun 2010 → 05 Jul 2010. http://Ed_Lam. United States http://www. 23 .org 3rd International Workshop on Rock Mechanics and Geo-Engineering in Volcanic Environments. August. Lausanne 15th June-18th June.isrm.net/conferencias/detalhes.cn/ ISRM-5th International Symposium on In-Situ Rock Stress .ans.05 Sep 2010 → 10 Sep 2010. 2010th http://www.20 th General Meeting of in Budapest Hungary.org/ 11th Congress of the IAEG (IAEG-2010) 59th Geomechanics Colloquy-2010. 21st to 27th to August. India.icce2010.php?id=1113&show=conf Geological Society of America (GSA) Annual Meeting vii . 25 -27th October. 2010 http://www.php?id=1113&show=conf IAEG2010 — 11th Congress of the International Association for Engineering and the Environment.

org 34th International Geological Congress (IGC) Australia 2012 Brisbane.org viii . Colorado. Canada. Amsterdam.com/ American Geophysical Union — 2011 Fall Meeting. United States. 12 Dec 2011 → 16 Dec 2011 http://www.isrm2011. Australia -2-10 August 2012 www. http://www. California.agu.org 2011 IUGG XXV General Assembly Earth on the Edge: Science for a Sustainable Planet. United States. Australia.icwe13. 2011 http://www. California. 13 to 17 November 2010.geosociety. 27 June .org/ ISRM 2011 — 12th International Congress on Rock Mechanics.agu. 31 Oct 2010 → 03 Nov 2010.Denver. China. United States. 2012 American Geophysical Union — 2012 Fall Meeting.34igc.htm 5th National Conference on Coastal and Estuarine Habitat Restoration. Melbourne. San Francisco.org/calendar/2010meet.org/ 2012 2012. July 1015. Shanghai. China 7th International Colloquium on Bluff Bodies Aerodynamics & Applications (BBAA 7) 11th International Symposium on Landslides. Banff 3-6 June-. http://www.8 July 2011 13th International Conference on Wind Engineering. The Netherlands. Beijing. San Francisco. Galveston. 16 Oct 2011 → 21 Oct 2011. 14 Dec 2012 → 18 Dec 2012 http://www. Texas.estuaries. United States http://www.

will be held at the Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre (BCEC). This high profile event will be of considerable interest to all people involved in geoscience. GA is contributing to promotions of AUSTRALIA 2012. Queensland. Dr Michael Leggo New Zealand representative – Dr Des Darby (GNS New Zealand) A Brisbane-based Professional Conference Organizer (PCO) – Carillon Conference Management – has been appointed to work with the Organizing Committee. Local Organizing Committee: The core Organizing Committee for AUSTRALIA 2012 has been appointed and held several meetings. be they in universities. Geo-science Australia (GA. and the international IGC Committee.au) is making considerable contributions towards AUSTRALIA 2012 in the form of financial and in-kind support. industry. to be known as AUSTRALIA 2012. Arrangements will be made for getting printed circulars to countries where electronic communications prove difficult. This has been formalized in an agreement between the Australian Academy of Science and the AGC. State and Northern Territory geological surveys and GNS New Zealand is contributing some funding towards the Congress and organizing field trips. Canberra – Mr Paul Kay (GA) Deputy Secretary General. GA is providing the President – Dr Neil Williams – and the Secretary General – Dr Ian Lambert – who will represent the 34th IGC Organizing Committee at meetings of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) Executive and Council. ix .gov. and providing personnel as required facilitating delivery of products for the 34th IGC.ga. government or the broader public. Brisbane – Dr Paulo Vascencelos (University of Queensland) Treasurer – Ms Miriam Way (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy) Scientific-Program Co-ordination– Dr Lynton Jaques (GA/Geological Society of Australia) Exhibitions – Ms Andrea Rutley (Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists) Sponsorship – Ms Shalene McClure (Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia) Field Trips – Mr Dave Mason (Geological Survey of Queensland) Australian Geo-science Council representatives – Dr Trevor Powell. The IGC has a tradition dating back to 1878.The 34th International Geological Congress (IGC) AUSTRALIA 2012 Brisbane.000 delegates. and is generally held every four years. from 2nd-10th August 2012. 2012 Oceania Invites You: The 34th International Geological Congress (IGC). In addition. the peak representative body of Australia’s geoscientists comprising the Presidents or Chief Executive Officers of eight geoscience-related societies in Australia. AUSTRALIA 2012 Organization: The legal entity responsible for AUSTRALIA 2012 is the Australian Geoscience Council (AGC) Incorporated. It comprises: President – Dr Neil Williams (GA) Secretary General – Dr Ian Lambert (GA) Deputy Secretary General. 2–10 August. Australia. see www. Delegate Information: The state-of-the-art Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre (BCEC) venue will readily hold more than 7. Circulars for the 34th IGC will be distributed electronically. As the national geo-science and geospatial information agency.

and organize plenary sessions so as to avoid overlap with other symposia and business meetings. professional/learned societies. to be set in 2011. although an individual will be able to coauthor several oral papers. Malaysia and New Caledonia/Vanuatu. International exhibitors will also include geological surveys. Efforts are also being made to attract a range of international groups to hold meetings timed close to. climate change and its impacts on land and water management. x . the IGC.and post-Congress field trips.org website is the key information outlet for AUSTRALIA 2012.Regional participation will be maximized by integrating meetings of the major Australian and regional geo-scientific societies into AUSTRALIA 2012. to accord poster sessions a high profile. the Philippines and Indonesia are under consideration. with consequent small audiences. these field visits will take in all Australian states and the Northern Territory. Field trips are also being planned to New Zealand. and mitigation of geo-hazards. This will be complemented by design of the scientific program to have major minerals and petroleum symposia in periods aligned with the exhibits. Public lectures and student events will be organized to broaden the messages of the Congress to the general public. A modest abstract handling fee will also apply. consultants and technical services/products providers. Scientific Program: AUSTRALIA 2012 will have a wide-ranging scientific program under the theme ‘Unearthing our Past and Future’. In an effort to minimize overlap between symposia. Further Information: The www. Sponsorship is currently also being sought from industry. poster sessions. is anticipated to be similar to that for the 33rd IGC. symposia on a wide range of geo-scientific topics. scientific publishers. The comprehensive technical program will comprise plenary ‘theme-of-the-day’ sessions. This is the first time a scientific Congress has been supported by QEC. It is planned to offer the opportunity for petroleum and minerals industry exhibitors to take booths for different halves of the Congress. A large GeoExpo (trade show) is expected to occupy two exhibition halls. or during. This theme will encompass the crucial contributions of geo-science in meeting societal needs and sustaining planet Earth – with particular emphasis on future mineral and energy supplies. Collectively. we are planning: • • • • a limit of one oral presentation per delegate. symposia will be convened by selected local geoscientists working closely with representatives of groups affiliated with IUGS. Sponsorship and Exhibition: The support of Queensland Events Corporation (QEC) for the promotion of the 34th IGC is gratefully acknowledged. Engineering Geology: The IGC organizers are endeavoring to maximize delegate participation in 2012 by the alignment of affiliated gatherings with the congress. Initial contact has been made to achieve this objective for the Engineering Geology strand of earth sciences. while trips to Papua New Guinea. Field trips: The 34th ICG is planning approximately 30 pre.34igc. The professional and learned societies under the AGC are investing in the Congress. which offer diverse opportunities to see the fascinating geology of the region. The registration fee in Australian dollars. workshops and short courses. We also anticipate a plenary session with a strong focus on Engineering Geology.

icetedrjjmcoe. STUDENT PAPERS: The papers sudmitted by graduate and under graduate students pursuing their program in affiliated colleges are consdered as student papers. Maharashtra . research scholars. 000/CONTACT US: Prof. 000/Student Authors: Rs. Kolhapur Dist. 1. etc are considered as contributed papers. Website: www.in Organized by Dr. The papers need not be an original concept or invention but the student's idea and imaginations in terms of emerging technology with the student's involvement in the paper is sufficient. professors. graphs.icetedrjjmcoe.. Gupta Organizing Chairman .21st February 2010 EVALUATION FEE: Contributed Papers: Rs. J. Jaysingpur. tabulated readings. J. The papers need to be orginal research work containing well stimulated results. 000/Other Participants: Rs.in . 9422728195 Tel: 02322-221825 Fax: 02322-221831 Website: www.per paper REGISTRATION FEE (After Selection): Contributed Authors: Rs. Kolhapur Dist.21st February 2010.ICETE 2010 Dr.. etc. 300/. Maharashtra .416 101. Magdum College of Engineering [JJMCOE]. J. INDIA In Technical collaboration with CAFET-INNOVA Technical Society CONTRIBUTED PAPERS: The papers submitted by academicians.416 101. Magdum College of Engineering Jaysingpur. Anil K. J. 2. 500/.per paper Student Papers: Rs.20th . INDIA Mobile: 9372720011. 3. IMPORTANT DATES: Last Date for submission of papers: 14th November 2009 Intimation Date for selected papers: 30th November 2009 Last Date for submission of camera ready papers: 26th December 2009 Last Date for Registration of selected papers: 16th January 2010 Date of the Event: 20th .