17 views

Uploaded by Azizul Lau

save

- SGbook
- Homework 10
- Q-5
- Notes - NMA
- MATH1231_1241 Test 1 Algebra
- Linear Maps
- Contributions to the Understanding of the MSK Modulation
- MA2250_BREDMOND_W2014-2014
- Important Definitions of Linear Algebra
- 1 Basis and Dimension Vector Spaces
- Chapter 7
- Ntu Sem 1 Syllabus
- 3 Gaussian Elimination
- MA Linear Algebra
- chap02
- Problem Sheet
- Dc8_finite Element Method
- Matrix
- ma2031-classnotes
- MATH HL PORTFOLIO (APs and GPs)

You are on page 1of 6

**§4.3, # 5: Is the following set a basis for R
**

3

? linearly independent?

Does it span R

3

?

_

_

1

−3

0

_

_

,

_

_

−2

9

0

_

_

,

_

_

0

0

0

_

_

,

_

_

0

−3

5

_

_

.

We form a matrix whose columns are these vectors:

_

_

1 −2 0 0

−3 9 0 −3

0 0 0 5

_

_

and row reduce, replacing row 2 by row 2 plus 3 times row 1:

_

_

1 −2 0 0

0 3 0 −3

0 0 0 5

_

_

This is in echelon form, so we can see that it has a pivot in every row but

not in every column. Thus, the set of vectors does span R

3

but is not linearly

independent, and hence is not a basis for R

3

.

§4.3, # 9: Find a basis for the null space of

A =

_

_

1 0 −3 2

0 1 −5 4

3 −2 1 −2

_

_

We need to solve Ax =

**0, so we form the augmented matrix:
**

_

_

1 0 −3 2 0

0 1 −5 4 0

3 −2 1 −2 0

_

_

and row reduce (ﬁrst replacing row 3 by row 3 plus −3 times row 1):

_

_

1 0 −3 2 0

0 1 −5 4 0

0 −2 10 −8 0

_

_

Now replace row 3 by row 3 plus 2 times row 1:

_

_

1 0 −3 2 0

0 1 −5 4 0

0 0 0 0 0

_

_

This is in echelon form. There are two free variables, x

3

and x

4

. The second row

says x

2

−5x

3

+4x

4

= 0 or x

2

= 5x

3

−4x

4

. The ﬁrst row says x

1

−3x

3

+2x

4

= 0

or x

1

= 3x

3

− 2x

4

. So, the solution of Ax =

0 is

_

¸

¸

_

x

1

x

2

x

3

x

4

_

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

_

3x

3

− 2x

4

5x

3

− 4x

4

x

3

x

4

_

¸

¸

_

= x

3

_

¸

¸

_

3

5

1

0

_

¸

¸

_

+ x

4

_

¸

¸

_

−2

−4

0

1

_

¸

¸

_

for any real numbers x

3

, x

4

. So, the null space of A is spanned by

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

3

5

1

0

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

−2

−4

0

1

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

.

In addition, this pair of vectors is linearly independent (they are not multiples

of each other), so they form a basis for the nullspace.

§4.3, # 11: Find a basis for the set of vectors in R

3

in the plane

x + 2y + z = 0.

Considered as a linear system, we have two free variables y and z, and then

x = −2y − z. So, the set under consideration is:

_

_

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

_

−2y − z

y

z

_

_

= y

_

_

−2

1

0

_

_

+ z

_

_

−1

0

1

_

_

.

So, the set is spanned by

_

_

_

_

_

−2

1

0

_

_

,

_

_

−1

0

1

_

_

_

_

_

.

Further, this set is linearly independent (the two vectors are not multiples of

each other), so it forms a basis for the plane in question.

§4.3, # 15: Find a basis for the space spanned by

_

¸

¸

_

1

0

−3

2

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

0

1

2

−3

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

−3

−4

1

6

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

1

−3

−8

7

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

2

1

−6

9

_

¸

¸

_

.

We form a matrix with these vectors as columns

_

¸

¸

_

1 0 −3 1 2

0 1 −4 −3 1

−3 2 1 −8 −6

2 −3 6 7 9

_

¸

¸

_

and row reduce, beginning by replacing row 3 by row 3 plus 3 times row 1:

_

¸

¸

_

1 0 −3 1 2

0 1 −4 −3 1

0 2 −8 −5 0

2 −3 6 7 9

_

¸

¸

_

Next, replace row 4 by row 4 plus −2 times row 1:

_

¸

¸

_

1 0 −3 1 2

0 1 −4 −3 1

0 2 −8 −5 0

0 −3 12 5 5

_

¸

¸

_

Next, replace row 3 by row 3 plus −2 times row 2:

_

¸

¸

_

1 0 −3 1 2

0 1 −4 −3 1

0 0 0 1 −2

0 −3 12 5 5

_

¸

¸

_

Next, replace row 4 by row 4 plus 3 times row 2:

_

¸

¸

_

1 0 −3 1 2

0 1 −4 −3 1

0 0 0 1 −2

0 0 0 −4 8

_

¸

¸

_

Finally, replace row 4 by row 4 plus 4 times row 3:

_

¸

¸

_

1 0 −3 1 2

0 1 −4 −3 1

0 0 0 1 −2

0 0 0 0 0

_

¸

¸

_

This is in echelon form, with pivots in columns 1, 2, and 4. This means that

this collection of columns in the original matrix was linearly independent, but

each of the other columns was dependent on this collection. So, one basis for

the space spanned by the ﬁve original columns is {v

1

, v

2

, v

4

}, i.e.,

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

1

0

−3

2

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

0

1

2

−3

_

¸

¸

_

,

_

¸

¸

_

1

−3

−8

7

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

.

§4.3, # 23: Suppose R

4

= Span{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

}. Explain why {v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

}

is a basis for R

4

.

Consider the matrix A =

_

v

1

v

2

v

3

v

4

¸

. Since {v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

} spans R

4

, A has

a pivot in every row. So, since A is a 4 × 4 matrix, A has four pivots. But,

since A has four columns, this means that A has a pivot in every column as

well, which means that {v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

} is linearly independent. Thus, since this

collection spans R

4

and is linearly independent, it is a basis for R

4

.

§4.3, # 29: Let S = {v

1

, . . . , v

k

} be a set of k vectors in R

n

with k < n.

Explain why S cannot be a basis for R

n

.

Consider the matrix A =

_

v

1

· · · v

k

¸

. This is a n×k matrix, and since k < n,

it can not have a pivot in every row (the most pivots it could have would be k,

one per column). Thus, {v

1

, . . . , v

k

} does not span R

n

, and hence cannot be a

basis for R

n

.

§4.3, # 30: Let S = {v

1

, . . . , v

k

} be a set of k vectors in R

n

with k > n.

Explain why S cannot be a basis for R

n

.

Consider the matrix A =

_

v

1

· · · v

k

¸

. This is a n×k matrix, and since k > n,

it can not have a pivot in every column (the most pivots it could have would

be n, one per row). Thus, {v

1

, . . . , v

k

} is not linearly independent, and hence

cannot be a basis for R

n

.

§4.3, # 34: Consider the polynomials p

1

(t) = 1 + t, p

2

(t) = 1 − t and

p

3

(t) = 2 (for all t). Write a linear dependence relation among p

1

, p

2

, p

3

.

Find a basis for Span{p

1

, p

2

, p

3

}.

We can see immediately that p

1

+ p

2

− p

3

= 0 for all t. Thus, p

3

is linearly

dependent on p

1

, p

2

, so we can remove it from {p

1

, p

2

, p

3

} without aﬀecting the

span. Further, since p

1

and p

2

are not multiples of each other as polynomials,

{p

1

, p

2

} is linearly independent. Thus, {p

1

, p

2

} is a basis for Span{p

1

, p

2

, p

3

}.

§4.3, # 35: Let V be a vector space that contains a linearly inde-

pendent set {u

1

, u

2

, u

3

, u

4

}. Describe how to construct a set of vectors

{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

} in V such that {v

1

, v

3

} is a basis for Span{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

}.

Let

v

1

= u

1

v

2

= u

1

v

3

= u

2

v

1

= u

1

Then, consider Span{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

} = Span{u

1

, u

1

, u

2

, u

1

}. Clearly, the extra

copies of u

1

are dependent on the other vectors, so they can be removed without

aﬀecting the span, i.e., Span{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

} = Span{u

1

, u

2

}. In addition, since

u

1

and u

2

are given to be independent, we have that {u

1

, u

2

} = {v

1

, v

3

} is a

basis for Span{v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

}.

§4.3, # 37: Show that {t, sin t, cos 2t, sin t cos t} is a linearly independent

set of functions.

In order to prove this collection is linearly independent, we need to show that

if we have

c

1

t + c

2

sin t + c

3

cos 2t + c

4

sin t cos t = 0

for all t, then we must have c

1

= c

2

= c

3

= c

4

= 0.

First, we plug in t = 0, and ﬁnd that

0 + 0 + c

3

+ 0 = 0,

so that c

3

= 0. Plugging this into our original equation, we now have:

c

1

t + c

2

sin t + c

4

sin t cos t = 0

for all t.

Now, plug in t = π, and ﬁnd that:

c

1

π + 0 + 0 = 0,

so that c

1

= 0. Plugging this into our original equation, we now have:

c

2

sin t + c

4

sin t cos t = 0

for all t.

Now, plug in t = π/2, and ﬁnd that:

c

2

+ 0 = 0,

so that c

2

= 0. Plugging this into our original equation, we now have:

c

4

sin t cos t = 0

for all t.

Finally, plug in t = π/4, to ﬁnd c

4

(

√

2/2)(

√

2/2) = 0, or c

4

/2 = 0, or c

4

= 0.

So, overall, we have proven that c

1

= c

2

= c

3

= c

4

= 0, and thus that the given

collection of functions is linearly independent.

so it forms a basis for the plane in question. this pair of vectors is linearly independent (they are not multiples of each other). . . 1 0 0 1 In addition.3. x3 and x4 . −3 2 1 −8 −6 2 −3 6 7 9 . −4 . # 11: Find a basis for the set of vectors in R3 in the plane x + 2y + z = 0. So. Considered as a linear system. we have two free variables y and z. 1 0 Further. §4. x4 . The ﬁrst row says x1 − 3x3 + 2x4 = 0 or x1 = 3x3 − 2x4 . the null space of A is spanned by −2 3 5 .This is in echelon form. §4. the set is spanned by −1 −2 1 . z z 0 1 So. this set is linearly independent (the two vectors are not multiples of each other). 0 . so they form a basis for the nullspace. The second row says x2 − 5x3 + 4x4 = 0 or x2 = 5x3 − 4x4 .3. . # 15: Find a basis for the space spanned by 1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1 . . So. and then x = −2y − z. the solution of Ax = 0 is 3 x1 −2 3x3 − 2x4 x2 5x3 − 4x4 = x3 5 + x4 −4 = 0 1 x3 x3 0 1 x4 x4 for any real numbers x3 . the set under consideration is: x −2y − z −2 −1 y = y = y 1 + z 0 . There are two free variables. So.

2. replace row 4 by row 4 plus −2 times row 1: 1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1 0 2 −8 −5 0 0 −3 12 5 5 Next. replace row 3 by row 3 plus −2 times row 2: 1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1 0 0 0 1 −2 0 −3 12 5 5 Next.We form a matrix with these vectors 1 0 0 1 −3 2 2 −3 as columns −3 1 2 −4 −3 1 1 −8 −6 6 7 9 by row 3 plus 3 times row 1: 2 1 0 9 and row reduce. This means that this collection of columns in the original matrix was linearly independent. beginning by replacing row 3 1 0 −3 1 0 1 −4 −3 0 2 −8 −5 2 −3 6 7 Next. replace row 4 by row 4 plus 4 times 1 0 −3 1 0 1 −4 −3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 row 3: 2 1 −2 0 This is in echelon form. and 4. replace row 4 by row 4 plus 3 times row 2: 1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1 0 0 0 1 −2 0 0 0 −4 8 Finally. with pivots in columns 1. but .

v3 . # 30: Let S = {v1 . . §4. Thus. . A has a pivot in every row. p2 . p2 (t) = 1 − t and p3 (t) = 2 (for all t). p3 }. p2 . . p2 } is a basis for Span{p1 . so we can remove it from {p1 . . . v3 . §4. v3 . §4. one basis for the space spanned by the ﬁve original columns is {v1 . . So. since p1 and p2 are not multiples of each other as polynomials. since this collection spans R4 and is linearly independent. Thus. v2 . This is a n × k matrix.3. and hence cannot be a basis for Rn . p3 is linearly dependent on p1 . # 34: Consider the polynomials p1 (t) = 1 + t. . which means that {v1 . v4 }. vk } is not linearly independent. p2 . Consider the matrix A = v1 · · · vk . Find a basis for Span{p1 . . v2 . p3 }. . vk } be a set of k vectors in Rn with k > n. and hence cannot be a basis for Rn . {p1 .e. v4 } is a basis for R4 . since A is a 4 × 4 matrix. A has four pivots. since A has four columns. vk } be a set of k vectors in Rn with k < n. v3 . Thus. . Explain why {v1 . Further. v2 . {p1 . one per row). . v2 . v2 . {v1 . i. . it can not have a pivot in every column (the most pivots it could have would be n. Since {v1 .3. Consider the matrix A = v1 v2 v3 v4 . This is a n × k matrix. So. . . . Thus. this means that A has a pivot in every column as well. Explain why S cannot be a basis for Rn . p2 } is linearly independent. Explain why S cannot be a basis for Rn . p2 . Thus. p3 } without aﬀecting the span. . v4 } is linearly independent.each of the other columns was dependent on this collection. p2 . Write a linear dependence relation among p1 . it can not have a pivot in every row (the most pivots it could have would be k. and since k < n. Consider the matrix A = v1 · · · vk .3. . v4 }. one per column). # 23: Suppose R4 = Span{v1 . # 29: Let S = {v1 . . 0 1 1 0 1 −3 . vk } does not span Rn .3. We can see immediately that p1 + p2 − p3 = 0 for all t.. −3 2 −8 2 −3 7 §4. v4 } spans R4 . But. it is a basis for R4 . {v1 . p3 . . and since k > n.

Now. v4 } = Span{u1 . we plug in t = 0. so that c3 = 0. u2 .§4. and ﬁnd that: c1 π + 0 + 0 = 0. the extra copies of u1 are dependent on the other vectors. Describe how to construct a set of vectors {v1 . First. sin t cos t} is a linearly independent set of functions. In addition. we need to show that if we have c1 t + c2 sin t + c3 cos 2t + c4 sin t cos t = 0 for all t. Plugging this into our original equation. v2 . u2 } = {v1 . # 37: Show that {t. u2 }. plug in t = π. Plugging this into our original equation. consider Span{v1 . Clearly. v2 .e. v3 } is a basis for Span{v1 . cos 2t.. v2 . In order to prove this collection is linearly independent. i. and ﬁnd that 0 + 0 + c3 + 0 = 0. v3 } is a basis for Span{v1 .3. u1 }. v4 } = Span{u1 . v3 . v4 }. Let v1 v2 v3 v1 = = = = u1 u1 u2 u1 Then. u2 . then we must have c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 0. # 35: Let V be a vector space that contains a linearly independent set {u1 . u4 }. so they can be removed without aﬀecting the span. u3 .3. v2 . we now have: c2 sin t + c4 sin t cos t = 0 . Span{v1 . v3 . we have that {u1 . v4 }. since u1 and u2 are given to be independent. so that c1 = 0. §4. v3 . we now have: c1 t + c2 sin t + c4 sin t cos t = 0 for all t. sin t. v4 } in V such that {v1 . v3 . u1 . v3 . v2 .

plug in t = π/4. to ﬁnd c4 ( 2/2)( 2/2) = 0. Now. Plugging this into our original equation. So. we have proven that c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 0. and ﬁnd that: c2 + 0 = 0. and thus that the given collection of functions is linearly independent. √ √ Finally. . or c4 = 0. we now have: c4 sin t cos t = 0 for all t. plug in t = π/2.for all t. so that c2 = 0. overall. or c4 /2 = 0.

- SGbookUploaded byRussell Fritch
- Homework 10Uploaded byRylee Lyman
- Q-5Uploaded byTuhin
- Notes - NMAUploaded byavishwas
- MATH1231_1241 Test 1 AlgebraUploaded byjzdoog
- Linear MapsUploaded byTom Davis
- Contributions to the Understanding of the MSK ModulationUploaded byResistor
- MA2250_BREDMOND_W2014-2014Uploaded byNasir Mahamoud
- Important Definitions of Linear AlgebraUploaded bySam Higginbotham
- 1 Basis and Dimension Vector SpacesUploaded byLutfi Amin
- Chapter 7Uploaded byKapilSahu
- Ntu Sem 1 SyllabusUploaded byjen
- 3 Gaussian EliminationUploaded byKen
- MA Linear AlgebraUploaded byHafed Alfarok
- chap02Uploaded byadi.s022
- Problem SheetUploaded byTim_Gns
- Dc8_finite Element MethodUploaded bygorantlalokesh
- MatrixUploaded byMohamedAaquil
- ma2031-classnotesUploaded byThilak Donipudi
- MATH HL PORTFOLIO (APs and GPs)Uploaded byBenjamin Valiente
- Multidimensional Matrix Mathematics- MAtrix Equations and Matrix Calculus-WCE2010_pp1848-1850Uploaded byAnshuman Sabath
- Finite Element Analysis by S.S. Bhavikatti, New Age Int. (2005)Uploaded byRavi Pratap Singh

- Lab_S3_RNAUploaded byluquitas214
- Christian Her TaUploaded byKhawar Bashir
- ConvNetUploaded byvp
- MG1402Uploaded bygpskumar22
- MAIN DOCUMENTATION.docxUploaded byPawan Kalyan Kalyan
- A Novel Approach for Reversible Image WatermarkingUploaded byIRJET Journal
- SURVEY KmeansUploaded bySabitha Durai
- Numerical Methods QB 11148S51B 12148S51B (1)Uploaded byGeorge Oliver
- Tensor TheoryUploaded bycuto9
- Fredric J. Harris Multirate Signal Processing for Communication SystemsUploaded byRakesh Peter
- Very Good FourierUploaded bymaitham100
- 04 10-Mark QuestionsUploaded byRoshna Ravindran
- Fip Gtu Summer 2015 QpUploaded bynandkishor joshi
- New Improved Recursive Least-squares Adaptive-filtering AlgorithmsUploaded byShafayat Abrar
- MA 523-LectureNote_Unit-1.pdfUploaded byPushpendraMeena
- cfx-numericsUploaded byChiragPhadke
- Wavelet-packet based Geodesic Active Regions (WB-GARM)Uploaded byAddy Osmani
- ch_07Uploaded byHarshil Sharma
- thesis report anuva kulkarniUploaded byapi-271987049
- Wook-Joong Et Al - 2005 - Fast Algorithms for Binary Dilation and Erosion Using Run-Length EncodingUploaded byElliot Steenson
- ParallelBZIP2Uploaded byViraj Raiyani
- Ch13 - NLP,DP,GP2005Uploaded bySonya Dewi
- Flexible Flow Shop Sheduling Problem With Machine EligibilityUploaded byRajesh Ravindran
- Cuadratura GaussianaUploaded byDiego Chávez
- lalalUploaded byHimanshu Sharma
- CBOTUploaded bysangeet83
- 7. Questions & Answers on Discrete Time Systems ImplementationUploaded bykibrom atsbha
- EJERCICIOS ALGORITMOSUploaded byJhonnySanchez
- r05320505-neural-networksUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Laboraotio 1 Control DigitalUploaded byJesus Quispe Diaz