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Math 215 Spring 2003—HW #7 Solutions

§4.3, # 5: Is the following set a basis for R
3
? linearly independent?
Does it span R
3
?
_
_
1
−3
0
_
_
,
_
_
−2
9
0
_
_
,
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
,
_
_
0
−3
5
_
_
.
We form a matrix whose columns are these vectors:
_
_
1 −2 0 0
−3 9 0 −3
0 0 0 5
_
_
and row reduce, replacing row 2 by row 2 plus 3 times row 1:
_
_
1 −2 0 0
0 3 0 −3
0 0 0 5
_
_
This is in echelon form, so we can see that it has a pivot in every row but
not in every column. Thus, the set of vectors does span R
3
but is not linearly
independent, and hence is not a basis for R
3
.
§4.3, # 9: Find a basis for the null space of
A =
_
_
1 0 −3 2
0 1 −5 4
3 −2 1 −2
_
_
We need to solve Ax =

0, so we form the augmented matrix:
_
_
1 0 −3 2 0
0 1 −5 4 0
3 −2 1 −2 0
_
_
and row reduce (first replacing row 3 by row 3 plus −3 times row 1):
_
_
1 0 −3 2 0
0 1 −5 4 0
0 −2 10 −8 0
_
_
Now replace row 3 by row 3 plus 2 times row 1:
_
_
1 0 −3 2 0
0 1 −5 4 0
0 0 0 0 0
_
_
This is in echelon form. There are two free variables, x
3
and x
4
. The second row
says x
2
−5x
3
+4x
4
= 0 or x
2
= 5x
3
−4x
4
. The first row says x
1
−3x
3
+2x
4
= 0
or x
1
= 3x
3
− 2x
4
. So, the solution of Ax =

0 is
_
¸
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
_
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
_
3x
3
− 2x
4
5x
3
− 4x
4
x
3
x
4
_
¸
¸
_
= x
3
_
¸
¸
_
3
5
1
0
_
¸
¸
_
+ x
4
_
¸
¸
_
−2
−4
0
1
_
¸
¸
_
for any real numbers x
3
, x
4
. So, the null space of A is spanned by
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
3
5
1
0
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
−2
−4
0
1
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
.
In addition, this pair of vectors is linearly independent (they are not multiples
of each other), so they form a basis for the nullspace.
§4.3, # 11: Find a basis for the set of vectors in R
3
in the plane
x + 2y + z = 0.
Considered as a linear system, we have two free variables y and z, and then
x = −2y − z. So, the set under consideration is:
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
=
_
_
−2y − z
y
z
_
_
= y
_
_
−2
1
0
_
_
+ z
_
_
−1
0
1
_
_
.
So, the set is spanned by
_
_
_
_
_
−2
1
0
_
_
,
_
_
−1
0
1
_
_
_
_
_
.
Further, this set is linearly independent (the two vectors are not multiples of
each other), so it forms a basis for the plane in question.
§4.3, # 15: Find a basis for the space spanned by
_
¸
¸
_
1
0
−3
2
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
0
1
2
−3
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
−3
−4
1
6
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
1
−3
−8
7
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
2
1
−6
9
_
¸
¸
_
.
We form a matrix with these vectors as columns
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 −3 1 2
0 1 −4 −3 1
−3 2 1 −8 −6
2 −3 6 7 9
_
¸
¸
_
and row reduce, beginning by replacing row 3 by row 3 plus 3 times row 1:
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 −3 1 2
0 1 −4 −3 1
0 2 −8 −5 0
2 −3 6 7 9
_
¸
¸
_
Next, replace row 4 by row 4 plus −2 times row 1:
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 −3 1 2
0 1 −4 −3 1
0 2 −8 −5 0
0 −3 12 5 5
_
¸
¸
_
Next, replace row 3 by row 3 plus −2 times row 2:
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 −3 1 2
0 1 −4 −3 1
0 0 0 1 −2
0 −3 12 5 5
_
¸
¸
_
Next, replace row 4 by row 4 plus 3 times row 2:
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 −3 1 2
0 1 −4 −3 1
0 0 0 1 −2
0 0 0 −4 8
_
¸
¸
_
Finally, replace row 4 by row 4 plus 4 times row 3:
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 −3 1 2
0 1 −4 −3 1
0 0 0 1 −2
0 0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
_
This is in echelon form, with pivots in columns 1, 2, and 4. This means that
this collection of columns in the original matrix was linearly independent, but
each of the other columns was dependent on this collection. So, one basis for
the space spanned by the five original columns is {v
1
, v
2
, v
4
}, i.e.,
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
1
0
−3
2
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
0
1
2
−3
_
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
_
1
−3
−8
7
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
.
§4.3, # 23: Suppose R
4
= Span{v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
}. Explain why {v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
}
is a basis for R
4
.
Consider the matrix A =
_
v
1
v
2
v
3
v
4
¸
. Since {v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
} spans R
4
, A has
a pivot in every row. So, since A is a 4 × 4 matrix, A has four pivots. But,
since A has four columns, this means that A has a pivot in every column as
well, which means that {v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
} is linearly independent. Thus, since this
collection spans R
4
and is linearly independent, it is a basis for R
4
.
§4.3, # 29: Let S = {v
1
, . . . , v
k
} be a set of k vectors in R
n
with k < n.
Explain why S cannot be a basis for R
n
.
Consider the matrix A =
_
v
1
· · · v
k
¸
. This is a n×k matrix, and since k < n,
it can not have a pivot in every row (the most pivots it could have would be k,
one per column). Thus, {v
1
, . . . , v
k
} does not span R
n
, and hence cannot be a
basis for R
n
.
§4.3, # 30: Let S = {v
1
, . . . , v
k
} be a set of k vectors in R
n
with k > n.
Explain why S cannot be a basis for R
n
.
Consider the matrix A =
_
v
1
· · · v
k
¸
. This is a n×k matrix, and since k > n,
it can not have a pivot in every column (the most pivots it could have would
be n, one per row). Thus, {v
1
, . . . , v
k
} is not linearly independent, and hence
cannot be a basis for R
n
.
§4.3, # 34: Consider the polynomials p
1
(t) = 1 + t, p
2
(t) = 1 − t and
p
3
(t) = 2 (for all t). Write a linear dependence relation among p
1
, p
2
, p
3
.
Find a basis for Span{p
1
, p
2
, p
3
}.
We can see immediately that p
1
+ p
2
− p
3
= 0 for all t. Thus, p
3
is linearly
dependent on p
1
, p
2
, so we can remove it from {p
1
, p
2
, p
3
} without affecting the
span. Further, since p
1
and p
2
are not multiples of each other as polynomials,
{p
1
, p
2
} is linearly independent. Thus, {p
1
, p
2
} is a basis for Span{p
1
, p
2
, p
3
}.
§4.3, # 35: Let V be a vector space that contains a linearly inde-
pendent set {u
1
, u
2
, u
3
, u
4
}. Describe how to construct a set of vectors
{v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
} in V such that {v
1
, v
3
} is a basis for Span{v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
}.
Let
v
1
= u
1
v
2
= u
1
v
3
= u
2
v
1
= u
1
Then, consider Span{v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
} = Span{u
1
, u
1
, u
2
, u
1
}. Clearly, the extra
copies of u
1
are dependent on the other vectors, so they can be removed without
affecting the span, i.e., Span{v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
} = Span{u
1
, u
2
}. In addition, since
u
1
and u
2
are given to be independent, we have that {u
1
, u
2
} = {v
1
, v
3
} is a
basis for Span{v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
}.
§4.3, # 37: Show that {t, sin t, cos 2t, sin t cos t} is a linearly independent
set of functions.
In order to prove this collection is linearly independent, we need to show that
if we have
c
1
t + c
2
sin t + c
3
cos 2t + c
4
sin t cos t = 0
for all t, then we must have c
1
= c
2
= c
3
= c
4
= 0.
First, we plug in t = 0, and find that
0 + 0 + c
3
+ 0 = 0,
so that c
3
= 0. Plugging this into our original equation, we now have:
c
1
t + c
2
sin t + c
4
sin t cos t = 0
for all t.
Now, plug in t = π, and find that:
c
1
π + 0 + 0 = 0,
so that c
1
= 0. Plugging this into our original equation, we now have:
c
2
sin t + c
4
sin t cos t = 0
for all t.
Now, plug in t = π/2, and find that:
c
2
+ 0 = 0,
so that c
2
= 0. Plugging this into our original equation, we now have:
c
4
sin t cos t = 0
for all t.
Finally, plug in t = π/4, to find c
4
(

2/2)(

2/2) = 0, or c
4
/2 = 0, or c
4
= 0.
So, overall, we have proven that c
1
= c
2
= c
3
= c
4
= 0, and thus that the given
collection of functions is linearly independent.

so it forms a basis for the plane in question. this pair of vectors is linearly independent (they are not multiples of each other).  .  . 1  0      0 1 In addition.3. x3 and x4 . −3  2   1  −8 −6 2 −3 6 7 9 . −4 . # 11: Find a basis for the set of vectors in R3 in the plane x + 2y + z = 0. So. Considered as a linear system. we have two free variables y and z.   1 0 Further. §4. x4 . The first row says x1 − 3x3 + 2x4 = 0 or x1 = 3x3 − 2x4 . the null space of A is spanned by     −2   3       5 .This is in echelon form. §4. the set is spanned by     −1   −2  1 . z z 0 1 So. this set is linearly independent (the two vectors are not multiples of each other).  0  . so they form a basis for the nullspace. The second row says x2 − 5x3 + 4x4 = 0 or x2 = 5x3 − 4x4 .3.  . # 15: Find a basis for the space spanned by           1 0 −3 1 2  0   1  −4 −3  1   .  . So. and then x = −2y − z. the solution of Ax = 0 is         3 x1 −2 3x3 − 2x4     x2  5x3 − 4x4   = x3 5 + x4 −4  = 0  1 x3   x3 0 1 x4 x4 for any real numbers x3 . the set under consideration is:         x −2y − z −2 −1 y  =  y  = y 1  + z 0 . There are two free variables. So.

2. replace row 4 by row 4 plus −2 times row 1:   1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1   0 2 −8 −5 0 0 −3 12 5 5 Next. replace row 3 by row 3 plus −2 times row 2:   1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1    0 0 0 1 −2 0 −3 12 5 5 Next.We form a matrix with these vectors  1 0 0 1  −3 2 2 −3 as columns  −3 1 2 −4 −3 1   1 −8 −6 6 7 9 by row 3 plus 3 times row 1:  2 1  0 9 and row reduce. This means that this collection of columns in the original matrix was linearly independent. beginning by replacing row 3  1 0 −3 1 0 1 −4 −3  0 2 −8 −5 2 −3 6 7 Next. replace row 4 by row 4 plus 4 times  1 0 −3 1 0 1 −4 −3  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 row 3:  2 1  −2 0 This is in echelon form. and 4. replace row 4 by row 4 plus 3 times row 2:   1 0 −3 1 2 0 1 −4 −3 1    0 0 0 1 −2 0 0 0 −4 8 Finally. with pivots in columns 1. but .

v3 . # 30: Let S = {v1 . . §4. Thus. . A has a pivot in every row. p2 . p2 (t) = 1 − t and p3 (t) = 2 (for all t). p3 }. p2 . . p2 } is a basis for Span{p1 . so we can remove it from {p1 . . . v3 . §4. v3 . §4. one basis for the space spanned by the five original columns is {v1 . . So. since p1 and p2 are not multiples of each other as polynomials. since this collection spans R4 and is linearly independent. Thus. v2 . This is a n × k matrix.3. and hence cannot be a basis for Rn . p3 is linearly dependent on p1 . # 34: Consider the polynomials p1 (t) = 1 + t. . which means that {v1 . v4 }. vk } is not linearly independent. p2 . Consider the matrix A = v1 · · · vk . Find a basis for Span{p1 . . v2 . p3 }. . vk } be a set of k vectors in Rn with k > n. and hence cannot be a basis for Rn . {p1 .e. v4 } is a basis for R4 . since A is a 4 × 4 matrix. A has four pivots. since A has four columns. vk } be a set of k vectors in Rn with k < n. v3 . Thus. . Explain why {v1 . Further. v2 . {p1 . one per row). . v2 . v2 . {v1 . i. . it can not have a pivot in every column (the most pivots it could have would be n. Since {v1 .3. Consider the matrix A = v1 v2 v3 v4 . This is a n × k matrix. So. . . . Thus. this means that A has a pivot in every column as well. Explain why S cannot be a basis for Rn . p2 } is linearly independent. Explain why S cannot be a basis for Rn . p2 . Thus. p3 } without affecting the span. . v4 } is linearly independent.each of the other columns was dependent on this collection. p2 . Write a linear dependence relation among p1 . it can not have a pivot in every row (the most pivots it could have would be k. and since k < n. Consider the matrix A = v1 · · · vk .3. . v4 }. one per column). # 23: Suppose R4 = Span{v1 . # 29: Let S = {v1 . .       0 1   1         0   1  −3  . vk } does not span Rn .3. We can see immediately that p1 + p2 − p3 = 0 for all t.. −3  2  −8     2 −3 7 §4. v4 } spans R4 . But. it is a basis for R4 . {v1 . p3 . . and since k > n.

Now. v4 } = Span{u1 . we plug in t = 0. so that c3 = 0. u2 .§4. and find that: c1 π + 0 + 0 = 0. the extra copies of u1 are dependent on the other vectors. Describe how to construct a set of vectors {v1 . First. sin t cos t} is a linearly independent set of functions. In addition. we need to show that if we have c1 t + c2 sin t + c3 cos 2t + c4 sin t cos t = 0 for all t. Plugging this into our original equation. v2 . u2 } = {v1 . # 37: Show that {t. u2 }. plug in t = π. Plugging this into our original equation. consider Span{v1 . Clearly. v2 .e. v3 } is a basis for Span{v1 . cos 2t.. v2 . In order to prove this collection is linearly independent. i. and find that 0 + 0 + c3 + 0 = 0. v3 } is a basis for Span{v1 .3. u1 }. v4 } = Span{u1 . v3 . v4 }. Let v1 v2 v3 v1 = = = = u1 u1 u2 u1 Then. u2 . then we must have c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 0. # 35: Let V be a vector space that contains a linearly independent set {u1 . u4 }. so they can be removed without affecting the span. u3 .3. v2 . we now have: c2 sin t + c4 sin t cos t = 0 . Span{v1 . v3 . we have that {u1 . v4 }. since u1 and u2 are given to be independent. so that c1 = 0. §4. v3 . we now have: c1 t + c2 sin t + c4 sin t cos t = 0 for all t. sin t. v4 } in V such that {v1 . v3 . u1 . v3 . v2 .

plug in t = π/4. to find c4 ( 2/2)( 2/2) = 0. Now. Plugging this into our original equation. So. we have proven that c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 0. and find that: c2 + 0 = 0. and thus that the given collection of functions is linearly independent. √ √ Finally. . or c4 = 0. we now have: c4 sin t cos t = 0 for all t. plug in t = π/2.for all t. so that c2 = 0. overall. or c4 /2 = 0.