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Option G.

1 Ecology of Species
G.1.1 Outline the factors that affect the distribution of plant species including temperature, water, light, soil pH, salinity, and mineral nutrients.  High temperatures denature enzymes and retards growth of plants; the rate of transpiration is also increased. Low temperatures decrease enzyme activity and freezing temperatures inactivate enzymes. Most plants live in moderate temperature zones. Water is needed for enzyme activity, transport, photosynthesis, support, and many other things. There is a low diversity of plants in deserts and polar regions. Light is important for photosynthesis and flowering. Dark areas have small amounts of plants. Soil pH is important for absortion of nutrients. If the soil is acidic, desertification can occur, the use of limestone can neutralize the soil. Salinity has an affect on the absorption through osmosis. High salinity causes plants to lose water through osmosis. Halopohytes live in high salinity. Mineral nutrients are needed for many vital functions. Nitrogen is needed to manufacture proteins, enzymes, nucleotides, vitamins, and other compounds.

G.1.2 Explain the factors that affect the distribution of animal species including temperature, water, breeding sites, food supply and territory.  High animal distribution according to temperature is found in the tropical rain forest due to the suitability of temperature and high availiability of producers as starters of food chains and webs. Water is needed for vital functions, so there is low animal distribution is deserts. Breeding sites are needed for growth and protection of young. High animal diversity is found in areas with varied topographical nature. Food supply is important for survival since animals are heterotrophs. High animal diversity is once again found in the rain forest. Some animals are territorial and need large areas for feeding, mating, and protecting their young. Some are territorial during breeding season and occupy areas to prevents others from approaching them. There is high animal distribution where there is room to occupy territoryand defend against other members of the species.

G.1.3 Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated values for t and the appropriate tables.  The t-test can be used to compare two sets of data and measure the amount of overlap.

G.1.4 Explain what is meant by the niche concept, including an organism's spatial habitat, its feeding activities and its interactions with other organisms.  No two species can live in the same niche, therefore there is competition for the resources of the land and only one species will survive. A niche is the total factors, biotoic and abiotic to one species.

G.1.5 Explain the principle of competitive exclusion.  First proposed by Lokta and Volterra, competitive exclusion is where two species need the same resources and will compete until one species is removed. Inevitably, one would be more capable of gathering more resources or reproducing more rapidly until the other was run out of existence. Later experiments with bacteria populations in the lab of Russian ecologist G.F. Gause demonstrated this concept scientifically. This principle was termed competitive exclusion.

Predation is the relation between the predator. and the prey. Energy is lost between levels in the form of heat (respiration). which is usually smaller.  Gross Production . It is difficult to place them on a certain level of the food pyramid.2. herbivory.Option G. Examples include rumen bacteria/protazoa that digest cellulose in the digestive systems of cows. and protazoa.2 Define gross production. Different animals feed on different plants. Examples of parasites are some viruses. fungi. and mutualism.2 Ecology of Communities G.2. .6 Construct a pyramid of energy given appropriate information. Mutualism is where two members of different species benefit and neither suffers. parasitism. tertiary. bacteria.2. rabbit feed on grass.5 Explain the small biomass and low numbers of organisms in higher trophic levels. Bacteria will display this manner.the food webhas been developed.3 Calculate values for gross production.2. which is usually bigger. such as humans.  There is small amount of organisms in the higher trophic levels because as the levels get higher. For this reason. G. an alternate method of classification. and may be quaternary consumers at the same time. the next bar is the energy ingested as food by primary consumers. The parasite causes harm to the host to get food and other resources. and the algae photosynthesize to produce a added source of sugars and nutrients.2.2.  Competition is when two species need the same resource such as a breeding site or food.2 Explain the following iunteractions between species. The units are energy per unit area per unit time. Net production is the amount of material that stays in the body of the plant after spending some material on respiration. giraffes on trees. and death. with the various feeding relationships between species existing as connections and the animals themselves existing as the hubs. Biomass is the dry weight of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat. and biomass from given data. worms. and biomass. G. Parasitism is the relation between the host and the parasite. making it difficult to survive. net production. predation. Lichens and Chlorella/Chlorohydra. waste. also exhibit such a relation. providing the cow with an energy source and the bacteria with a stable habitat. An example would be a fox and a rabbit. Herbivory is the relation between an animal and a plant. G. an algae.  It is difficult due to the fact that some organisms can be secondary.4 Discuss the difficulties of classifying organisms into trophic levels.Respiration = Net Production G.  The lowest bar of the pyramid of energy represents gross primary productivity.  Gross production is the amount of material fixed by plants in the process of photosythesis. The food web displays relationships not as a simple hierarchy but rather a complex network. Deer feed on tree leaves. net production. the amount of energy from feeding on the level below them is very low. G. The lichen provide an means of attaching to the surface. and so on. giving two examples of each: competition. It will result in the removal of one of the species.

8 Explain the effects of living organisms on the abiotic environment with reference to the changes occurring during ecological succession to climax communities. preventing soil erosion. A high value of D suggests a stable and ancient site and a low D value could suggest pollution. the face of the rock changes.  The Arizona Jaguar became extinct due to an increased demand for its fur. ecological. road construction and other sorts of human impact in the American Soutwest. Lichens inhabit a rock and over time. helping soil formation. This makes the rock now inviting to mosses. fire or flood. The plant roots hold the soil particles together. D is the diversity index.1 Discuss reasons for the conservation of biodiversity using rainforests as an example.G. and ecotourism offers a new source of funds for the many impoverished nations these forests exist in. their roots grow deeper down and break rock into small particles. The index is mormally used in studies of vegetation but can also be applied to comparisons of animal (or even all species) diversity. building. therefore disrupting all of the other species as well. G. Reasons should include ethical. n is the number of individuals of a particular species. As the human population increased in the areas inhabited by the jaguar. G.3. It became extinct because of farming. it is primary succession. The water that evaporates from the leaves condenses and comes down in the form of rain. so soil formation starts to occur. . recent colonization or agricultural management. The Fluffy groundsel is a kind of herbal plant with clusters of yellow flowers. as a plant grows. Aesthetic reasons are that the tropical rain forest is one of the most beautiful attractions on this planet. and aesthetic arguments. Then flowering trees grow. The presence of organic materials in the soil and the presence of roots and root hair help in the retention of water and slows down drainage. causing furthur changes to the rock.3. Medicinal substances can be taken from a veriety of plants in the rain forest. Economic reasons are that the rainforest is a source of materials important to human life. Plants enrich the soil with minerals as they die and decompose. If one species dies out. a food chain is disrupted.7 Describe ecological succession using one example  Ecological succession is the gradual change in the composition of a community with time in an ecosystem.3 Outline the use of the Simpson diversity index. then conifers.  Living organisms can help with soil development. If succession occurs in a lifeless area. Plants can contribute to the water cycle through the process of transpiration.  Biodiversity is highest in the tropical rainforests. and other larger trees.2. economic. the hunting and shooting increased and the last of this rare animal was shot in 1905 in New Mexico.3.2. Option G. The Simpson diversity index is a measure of species richness.  D = (N(N-1))/(summation of n(n-1)). Later.2 Outline the factors that caused the extincion of one named animal and one named plant species. Ethical reasons for conserving biodiversity are that all species have a right to live on this planet. ferns arrive through the activity of their roots. N is the total number of organisms of all species found.3 Biodiversity and Conservation G. Plants can grow heavily in a certain area that might result in blocking river flow and altering its direction. There is variety everywhere in the rainforest. Ecological reasons are that species live with great interaction and dependence on each other. G. It can start after things such as volcanoes.

2. 1. immigration. the birth rate begins to decrease. Natality is still larger than mortality. These factors determine whether a population is increasing or decreasing. ▪ Available resources. List three factors which set limits to population increase.Outline how population size can be affected by natality. The total number is taken note of and the number of those caught which are marked This is known as the "Lincoln Index" ▪ The formula (n1 × n2) / n3 is then used where: . but the difference between them is slowly decreasing. Mortality starts to become larger than natality. mortality. ▪ Disease ▪ Space available ▪ Predators Define random sample ▪ A sample where every individual in a population has an equal chance of being chosen. A species may have reached its Carrying Capacity. 3. Define carrying capacity ▪ Carrying Capacity: The maximum number of organisms of a species. As many individuals of a population are caught. ▪ One method of estimating the population size of an animal species is the capture-mark-release method. ▪ During the Transitional Phase. These individuals are marked. ▪ If (natality + immigration) > (mortality + emigration) then a population is increasing. The individuals are released back into their environment. The resources needed by the population such as food and space are abundant. Explain reasons for the exponential growth phase. available resources become so low that no further reproduction can take place. and emigration. and diseases and predators are rare. or the maximum population size which an environment is able to support. the plateau phase. ▪ During the Plateau phase. ▪ No Bias 
Describe one technique used to estimate the population size of an animal species based on a capturemark-release-method. and the transitional phase between these two phases ▪ During the Exponential phase the population increases exponentially because the natality rate is higher than the mortality rate.

▪ n2 = the number of individuals caught in the second trial. . ▪ n3 = The number of individuals in the second trial which were marked.▪ n1 = the number of individuals caught in the first trial.