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# 2.

3 Induction Machine Control

2.3.1 V/Hz Control The open-loop Volts/Hz control was by far the most popular method to control the machine speed, especially because of its simplicity. The method is based on the control of the stator frequency. The objective is to control the machine speed while keeping constant the magnitude of the stator flux. As a result, the machine retains its torque/ampere capability at any speed. By neglecting the stator resistance drop, the stator flux is kept constant if λ s =

Vs and the name of the method comes from this equation. ωe

Early approaches assume that the rotor speed ωr is approximately equal to the synchronous speed ωe (slip speed is neglected). For speed control, the speed reference ωr is set and the stator voltage Vs is computed to maintain the desired stator flux. Integration of the reference speed gives the angle of the stator voltage (θe). Finally, the space vector described by Vs and θe is used as command voltage for the three-phase inverter that powers the machine. The approach can be improved by considering the effect of the non-zero stator resistance and of the slip speed. To compensate for the stator resistance, a boost voltage can be added to the stator voltage. This is especially useful at low speed since the stator resistance absorbs the major amount of the stator voltage. The slip speed is also different from zero. To compensate, the slip is estimated using model equations and is added in the integration of the voltage angle. The control scheme is presented in Figure 2.6.

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6 V/Hz control scheme A detailed discussion regarding the V/Hz method and other scalar control schemes can be found in [2]. the magnitude of the stator flux is not maintained (the magnitude decreases) and the machine’s torque response is not sufficiently fast. The robustness of the method stems from the approach used in computation of the voltage angle θe. During the transient. In some operating regions. Generally. the system may become unstable. A step change in the speed command produces a slow torque response.Vs* ω * r * ω sl - PI * ωe Inverter + ωr ^ Estimator IM Figure 2. there is some amount of under damping in the machine’s flux and torque responses that increases at lower frequencies. 14 . In addition. A good-quality θe waveform (straight and undistorted) is obtained and this results in smooth shaft motion without ripple torque or oscillations. the method is very robust and works well even at very low stator frequencies. The major disadvantage of the V/Hz method is its sluggish dynamic response since the method disregards the inherent machine coupling.

neglecting the armature reaction and saturation. This means that when torque is controlled by controlling the current Ia. The construction of a dc machine is such that the field flux λf is proportional with the field current If and is orthogonal with the flux produced by the armature current Ia.2. The invention of vector-control in early 1970’s brought a renaissance in the high-performance control of ac drives. In a dc machine. the field flux is not affected and vice-versa.3. Accurate torque control has two prerequisites: Accurate control of the currents id and iq with no steady-state error and desired dynamics. the flux and torque currents can be independently controlled to obtain torque production in the same manner as in a dc machine.38) where K is a constant. The induction machine exhibits the same behavior when viewed in the rotational reference frame aligned with the rotor flux. the induction machine can be controlled similarly to a separately excited dc machine. the expression of the torque is: Te = Kλ f I a (2. Accurate estimation of the rotor flux angle θe that allows transformation of the variables from the stationary to the rotating reference frame. The field current (id) and the torque current (iq) appear as dc quantities in steady state and are orthogonal and decoupled. 15 . Therefore.2 Field-Oriented or Vector Control The modern approach for induction machine control is based on vector or fieldoriented control. This is because. These two fluxes are kept orthogonal by the collector-brush assembly. They are decoupled and stationary in space. in spite of the coupled and nonlinear machine model.

3.7). sliding mode etc).Generally.3 Direct Field Orientation (DFO) This method computes the rotor flux angle based on the projections of the flux vector on the stationary reference frame (Figure 2. The flux components λα r and λ β r are needed.7 Principle of Direct Field Orientation (DFO) 16 . other types of controllers have also been used (fuzzy-logic. Estimation of the angle θe based on the equations of the model can be done in two ways: by DFO or by IFO. The difficulties of the method come from the various problems associated with implementation of the observers (integration. the first condition is easy to achieve. Several model-based observers can be used to estimate them. Traditional PI controllers are the most common solution and they yield good experimental results. β q λ βr λr θ λα r − d α Figure 2. 2. dependency on machine parameters etc).

the angle of the flux vector (also called rotor position) is given by: θ e = tan −1 λ βr λαr (2. the method requires correct values for both the rotor speed and the rotor time constant.36). Also. Generally. The right-hand side terms in (2. Their integration provides the desired angle. the integration can produce incorrect rotor angle estimates if the initial condition is not properly chosen.With the rotor fluxes known.41) 2. since sin θ e and cosθ e are really needed for the Park transformation. The method is based on Equation (2.4 Indirect Field Orientation (IFO) An alternative approach to obtain the rotor flux angle is by Indirect Field Orientation (IFO).36) are the rotor electrical speed and the slip speed. the speed information is not available by direct measurement and it must be estimated. In sensorless drives. IFO works best for drives that use a speed sensor to measure the rotor speed (sensored drives).40) cosθ e = λαr 2 λαr + λ2 r β (2.3. For accurate estimation. these can be found directly by: sin θ e = λ βr 2 λαr + λ2 r β (2. The accuracy of the angle produced by IFO depends heavily on the speed estimate.39) However. 17 .

steady-state errors. comp Vdq λ* r * ωr 1 Lm i * d * iq PI - + + V * d dq V * α αβ Va* Vb* Vc* abc Vdc PWM Tabc ωr - PI PI Vβ* Vq* αβ 3-Phase Inverter θ tan −1 λ βr λαr λαr λ βr Speed and Flux Estimator Tabc ωr ib ia Vdc θ id iq αβ dq iα αβ IM iβ abc Figure 2. estimation delay due to low pass filtering are common problems that influence the speed estimation bandwidth and accuracy. An incorrect speed estimate can generally be acceptable for speed feedback but has severe effects on the drive stability and performance if the transformation angle is found by IFO. The basic IM control scheme used in this research is shown in Figure 2. floating of the machine parameters. however. Various topics regarding sensorless control are presented in the subsequent chapters.8.8 Block diagram of sensorless DFO induction motor control 18 .Many speed estimators are available.

these are used in order to completely decouple the dynamics of the d and q-axis currents. Instead. the compensation voltages have been omitted. the desired flux level is obtained by setting the reference d-axis current.42) ii  Vqcomp = σLs  βn pω r λr + n pω r id + ηLm q d  λr  (2. it was found through simulation that the addition of the terms in (2.The control scheme presented has the following characteristics: PI controllers are used to regulate the currents and the speed.43) may not significantly improve the dynamics. The approach significantly simplifies the software and is equivalent to flux regulation as long as the magnetizing inductance Lm does not saturate. Generally. Note the block that adds two compensation voltages to the outputs of the current controllers.43) The addition of the two decoupling voltages is not mandatory. In the work related to Chapters 4 and 5. Various flux and speed estimators have been used and they are not specifically shown in the control scheme. Details will be presented in the subsequent chapters. For easy implementation. The angle θe is computed using (2. the flux magnitude λr is not regulated directly. 19 . For the motor under study. The calculation of the above terms is computationally intensive and requires both the speed and the magnitude of the rotor flux.39) for convenience of computations. Their expressions are: V comp d 2  iq = −σLs  n pω r iq + ηLm  λr          (2.42)-(2.

98 Ω 0.572 Ω 4 220 V Lls.Llr Lm Rr Table 1 Rated parameters of Dayton motor model 2N863M Spectrum Digital DMC 1500 3-phase inverter. 20 . Current sensor interface: this current acquisition board was built in the laboratory.4 Experimental Setup The experimental setup used in this research consists of the following: Dayton model 2N863M 3-phase induction motor. The board has 2 LEM current sensors model HY 5-P (maximum peak current: 5 A) and two differential op-amp structures to allow signal interfacing with the DSP board.0149 H 0. 5 A continuous current.297 H 5. The motor plate data and rated parameters are presented in Table 1. 10 A peak current.2. Rating Speed Rs ¼ hp 1725 rpm Pole # Voltage 10. The rated values for the inverter are: 350V dc bus maximum value.

This is the controller board of the setup. fixed-point Digital Signal Processor as well as analog interfaces and emulator port. It contains the Texas Instruments 16 bit.ib Spectrum Digital TMS320F2407 Evaluation Board D/A Digital Scope Figure 2. The board has a digital to analog converter (D/A) with 4 channels that has been used to display the waveforms of interest.Spectrum Digital TMS 320F2407-PGEA Evaluation Module.9 Block diagram of the experimental setup 21 .ia. A block diagram of the experimental setup is shown in Figure 2. 5V 12 V 350 V (max) LEM a Spectrum Digital 3-Phase Inverter PWM Signals Currents ia.ib LEM b Dayton 2N863M Analog Signals Vdc.9.