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Dr Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda was born in the town of Calamba, Laguna on 19th June 1861

. The second son and the seventh among the eleven children of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso.

His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of fathers," came from Biñan, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language.

Early Education in Calamba and Biñan Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Biñan. It was a typical schooling that a son of an ilustrado family received during his time, characterized by the four R’s- reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Instruction was rigid and strict. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teacher’s whip. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education, Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. It may be said that Rizal, who was born a physical weakling, rose to become an intellectual giant not because of, but rather in spite of, the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime.


Rizal's two books "Noli Me Tangere" (Touch Me Not) which he wrote while he was in Berlin. but because of his age. he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent. Rizal was a polyglot conversant in twenty two languages. he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. Belgiun in 1891 exposed the cruelties of the Spanish friars in the Philippines. On June 21. In the same year. these books told about the oppression of the Spanish colonial rule. Germany. In 1878.In 1877. the defects of the Spanish administration and the vices of the clergy. Germany in 1887 and "El Filibusterismo" (The Rebel) in Ghent. at the age of 23. 1881. he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19. He also studied painting. while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. 2 . 1878. at the age of 16. at the age of 24. he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. sculpture. 1884. 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21.Rizal was a prolific writer and was anti-violence. 1882. he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas." He took graduate studies in Paris.1885. 17. France & Heidelberg. he learned to read and write in at least 10 languages. He rather fight using his pen than his might. He finished the latter course on March 21. These two books made Rizal as a marked man to the Spanish friars. On May 3. he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30.

if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow?" The general consensus among Rizal scholars is that his execution by the Spanish helped to bring about the Philippine Revolution. promoted community development projects. although he would support "violent means" as a last resort. Rizal believed that the only justification for national liberation and self-government is the restoration of the dignity of the people. On July 6. a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan led by Andrés Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine self-government peacefully through institutional reform rather than through violent revolution.In 1892 when Rizal returned to the Philippines. he established a school for boys. in northwestern Mindanao.why independence.. fell in love and lived with Josephine Bracken. 3 . saying ". while he was in politcal exile in Dapitan. 1892. He remained in exile for four years. an non violent reform society of patriotic citizen and a forum for Filipinos to express their hopes for reform. he practice medicine. industry and agriculture and freedom from the oppressive Spanish colonial administration. In Dapitan he also met. José Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina. he formed La Liga Filipina . he was exiled to Dapitan.. on the charge of fomenting unrest against Spain. As a political figure. he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago. he applied his knowledge in engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the towns people. to promote progress through commerce.

On the eve of his execution while confined in Fort Santiago. a scientist. an educator. after a trial. although Jose Rizal had no connection with the organization. He was executed on December 30. 1896 at the age of 35 by a firing squad at Bagumbayan. and of forming illegal association. now known as Luneta Park in Manila. a reformer and a visionary. a novelist. a doctor. he was convicted of rebellion.a linguist.In 1896. a painter. Rizal wrote a poem Mi Ultimo Adios (My Last Farewell) and hid it inside the gas burner and gave the gas burner to his sister Trinidad and his wife Josephine. On December 26. he left his people his greatest patriotic poem. 4 . the Katipunan. a poet. Mi Ultimo Adios to serve as an inspiration for the next generations. a nationalist secret society launched a revolt against the Spaniards. he asked Governor Ramon Blanco to send him to Cuba but instead he was brought back to Manila and jailed for the second time in Fort Santiago. Jose Rizal was a man of many accomplishments . To avoid being involved in the move to start a revolution. sedition. his enemies were able to linked him with the revolt. Rizal was sentenced to die. 1896.

the Romantic There were at least nine women linked with Rizal. Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love.Rizal. 5 . then came Leonor Valenzuela. charm and wit. O-Sei San. that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. Leonor Rivera. Nelly Boustead. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye. Gertrude Beckette. Unfortunately. Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda. Leonor Rivera Leonor Rivera. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. her mother’s choice. namely Segunda Katigbak. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her.Manuel Luz. his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate. Unfortunately. Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. Consuelo Ortiga. a tall girl from Pagsanjan. sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping. his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence. Leonor Valenzuela. who was then a known filibustero.

fell in love with him. Gertrude Beckett While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. y R. he boarded in the house of the Beckett family. within walking distance of the British Museum.O. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance. which became one of his best poems. he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude. he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. who was seriously in love with him. because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo. O Sei San O Sei San. She fell in love with Rizal. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission.. 6 . Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. Gertrude. a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters. a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.Consuelo Ortiga Consuelo Ortiga y Rey. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. Before leaving London.

In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid. Suzanne Jacoby In 1890. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. they fell deeply in love with each other. Luna apologized to Rizal. Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. In time. 7 . In Brussels. parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid. as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. thus averting tragedy for the compatriots. Eduardo Boustead. entertained the thought of courting other ladies. Fortunately. The lovers. Antonio Luna. however.Nellie Boustead Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera. Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads. he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host.

he mastered 22 languages. historian. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby. while still in Dapitan. Rizal asked Josephine to marry him. German. Latin. inventor. artists. who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. naturalist. ethnologist. America and Asia. and theologian. Greek. scientific farmer. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila.Josephine Bracken In the last days of February 1895. Having traveled extensively in Europe. which might have shocked or frightened her. English. journalist. propagandist. Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl. and other native dialects. with bold blue eyes. but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. businessman. sociologist. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. cartoonist. Italian. A versatile genius. Russian. Upon her return to Dapitan. musician. the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. 8 . She was Josephine Bracken. educator. However. These include Arabic. brown hair and a happy disposition. Spanish. Malayan. psychologist. Catalan. nationalist. Japanese. Sanskrit. poet. French. linguist. Hebrew. opthalmic surgeon. a result of some incidence. he was an architect. economist. Chinese. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable. scientist. the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong. mythologist. Portuguese. sculptor. Tagalog. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security. he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. novelist. Rizal was physically attracted to her.

Born in Biñan. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan. Spanish. Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda. FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. She was a business-minded woman. Batangas. courteous. and nine sisters and one brother. 1818. hard-working and well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz. Manila on November 14. Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents. 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a Chinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa. Manila. the family's paternal ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy. religious.Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese. 9 . Laguna on April 18. Domingo Lam-co. and died in Manila. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage.The Mercado . Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese. studied in San Jose College.Rizal Family The Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time.

a teacher and musician. Studied at San Jose College in Manila. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. died in 1887 from childbirth. LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. Laguna. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan. Rizal. OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo. became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution.PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. 10 . married Antonio Lopez at Morong. Married Matriano Herbosa. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child.

An epileptic.JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. died a spinster. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero. 11 . He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30. Died at the age of three.1896.

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