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 Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy." Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.
Hierarchy Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid, with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom, and the need for self-actualization at the top. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem , friendship and love, security, and physical needs. With the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) needs, if these "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term Metamotivation to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment. Metamotivated people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs), instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs). Physiological needs
For the most part, physiological needs are obvious — they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function. Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. The intensity of the human sexual instinct is shaped more by sexual competition than maintaining a birth rate adequate to survival of the species. Safety needs
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety -- due to terrorist attack, war, natural disaster, or, in cases of family violence, childhood abuse, etc -- people (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder and trans-generational trauma transfer. In the absence of economic safety -- due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities - these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, and the like. Safety and Security needs include: Personal security Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts Love and belonging After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. The need is especially strong in childhood and can over-ride the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents which is sometimes called Stockholm syndrome. The absence of this aspect of Maslow's hierarchy - due to hospitalism, neglect, shunning, ostracism etc - can impact individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general, such as: Friendship Intimacy Family Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging. Esteem All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain
and this is possibly the reason that these two levels of need are left out of most textbooks. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex. The lower one is the need for the respect of others. but master these needs. physiological. and in another it may be expressed in painting. safety. as well as the next and highest level. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs. and attention. in order to reach a clear understanding of this level of need one must first not only achieve the previous needs. are not strict. The higher one is the need for self-respect. As mentioned before. respect. prestige. They may seek fame or glory. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. and glory externally.” This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. The latter one ranks higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization. or inventions. a lower one and a higher one. pictures. which again depends on others. however. Maslow also states that even though these are examples of how the quest for knowledge is separate from basic needs he warns that these “two hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated” (Maslow 97). in another it may be expressed athletically. recognition. the need for strength. For example one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame. be it in a profession or hobby. mastery. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. self-confidence. This means that this level of need. Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem. separate levels but closely related to others. but must first accept themselves internally. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. love. Self-transcendence Viktor Frankl later added Self-transcendence  Criticisms In their extensive review of research based on Maslow's theory. weakness and helplessness. Self-actualization “What a man can be. and are ontologically universal and invariant in nature—part of the condition . or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. competence. Note. independence and freedom. the need for status. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels. Wahba and Bridgewell found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described. he must be. Chilean economist and philosopher Manfred Max-Neef has also argued fundamental human needs are non-hierarchical. but when applied to individuals the need is specific.recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution. to feel selfvalued. and esteem. fame.
individualistic or collectivist . Whichever product better fills the void created by the need will be chosen more frequently.e. along with breathing and food. Maslow’s pyramid puts sex on the bottom rung of physiological needs. poverty. Marketers have historically looked towards consumers' needs to define their actions in the market. This makes the model relevant to transpersonal business studies. It views sex from an individualistic and not collectivist perspective: i. This view of sex neglects the emotional. denied or unfulfilled. the needs of acceptance and community will outweigh the needs for freedom and individuality. Evaluating the different needs. the order of needs in the hierarchy with self actualization at the top is not representative of the needs of those in collectivist cultures. as an individualistic physiological need that must be satisfied before one moves on to higher pursuits.of being human. (May 2010) Courses in marketing teach Maslow's hierarchy as one of the first theories as a basis for understanding consumers' motives for action. being that he was from the United States. If producers design products meeting consumer needs. familial and evolutionary implications of sex within the community. values. International Business Understanding the strengths and weakness of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is important in the field of international business. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Since the hierarchy was written from the perspective of an individualist..ALT=" This section does not cite any references or sources. thus increasing sales. Hofstede's criticism of Maslow's pyramid as ethnocentric may stem from the fact that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs neglects to illustrate and expand upon the difference between the social and intellectual needs of those raised in individualistic societies and those raised in collectivist societies. Business Marketing FPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT.is incredibly valuable in cross-cultural . drives and priorities of people from different countries . Maslow created his hierarchy of needs from an individualistic perspective. may result from any one of these needs being frustrated. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. In collectivist societies. consumers will more often choose those products over those of competitors. The needs and drives of those in individualistic societies tend to be more self centered than those in collectivist societies. a highly individualistic nation. he argues. The order in which the hierarchy is arranged (with self-actualization as the highest order need) has been criticised as being ethnocentric by Geert Hofstede. with self actualization being the apex of self improvement. focusing on improvement of the self. Maslow’s hierarchy has also been criticized as being individualistic because of the position and value of sex on the pyramid.
2 This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs. Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something. and establishment of good relationships among contractees. Five Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Physiological Needs . and especially within the workplace. such as that in Japan. Physiological. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs. which is a process of growing and developing as a person to achieve individual potential. and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs). Further up the pyramid. which are for safety and security. Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation"1 and his subsequent book. meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. societal cultures in many individualistic countries. needs become increasingly psychological and social. Motivation and Personality. Once these lower-level needs have been met. but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Types of Needs Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Many collectivistic societal cultures. friendship and intimacy become important. the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth needs (also known as being needs or Bneeds). social. may lead to an advantage in technological research and development. suppliers and customers”. may result in an advantage in workforce organization. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid. water. security.communications. such as the United States. Soon. people can move on to the next level of needs. quality control of products and service. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization. It also illustrates how differences in values can greatly affect work atmosphere and work ethic between cultures: “ For example. Like Carl Rogers. As people progress up the pyramid. sleep and warmth. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food. the need for love. while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid.
Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment. Metamotivation is a term coined by Abraham Maslow to describe the motivation of people who are self actualized and striving beyond the scope of their basic needs to reach their full potential. “Self-actualizing people are gratified in all their basic needs (of belongingness. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met. Security needs are important for survival. romantic attachments and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance. love and affection. personal worth. Maslow states. health insurance. and self-esteem)”. food and sleep. Once a person has successfully navigated the hierarchy of needs thus satisfying all their basic needs. such as the need for water. Maslow suggested that man is initially motivated by a series of basic needs. social recognition and accomplishment. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs. Security Needs These include needs for safety and security. less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential. affection. Self-actualizing Needs This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. community or religious groups. respect. esteem needs becomes increasingly important. . called the hierarchy of needs. as does involvement in social. but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs.These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival. Social Needs These include needs for belonging. Maslow proposed they then travel “a path called growth motivation”. air. Esteem Needs After the first three needs have been satisfied. concerned with personal growth. Self-actualizing people are self-aware. safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment. Relationships such as friendships.
love. metaneeds and metapathology Metamotivation is what motivates and impels an individual toward self-actualization and excellence. or beloved job”. and those who are self actualized who are also with significant purpose. are described as the type of motivation that operates on the lower four levels of his hierarchy of needs. leading towards actions to alleviate tension and restore equilibrium. Maslow had an optimistic and humanistic view of humanity. These deficiency motivations are drives that arise when a physiological or psychological deficit is perceived.Maslow believed we must make a distinction between the motives of those who operate at or below the level of self-actualization (ones still striving for their basic needs. In his landmark book. Maslow stated that people who are self-actualizing and driven by metamotivation “are dedicated people. . once people’s basic needs were met. In Maslow’s view. and it emerges after the lower needs are satisfied. devoted to some task ‘outside themselves. or duty. Maslow goes on to say that such a calling could be construed as a destiny or fate and that such people are particularly talented in their field and could be called naturals. or ones who have met their basic needs but still live without purpose). Deficiency needs (D-needs) motivate people to satisfy physiological needs such as hunger. Not all people that satisfy their basic needs automatically become driven by B-needs. Farther Reaches of Human Nature. He regarded people’s innate drive towards self-actualization beneficial to society as a whole. while exploring their ultimate potentials and creating a fulfilled life. they were free to explore their abilities and strive to further develop those innate abilities.’ some vocation. which Maslow calls “deficiency motivations” or DMotivations. Driven by Metamotivation people are more spontaneous and free to be themselves. whereas being needs (B-needs) propel a person beyond self-actualization and drive them to fulfill their inherent ultimate potential. Metamotivation is distinct from motivation operating in the lower level needs. Metamotivation. sex. These lower motivations. as their motivations differ significantly.
using and fulfilling their potential. . coming into play primarily after the lower level needs have been met. inadequate education. or creativity. Metapathology is thwarting of self-development related to failure to satisfy the metaneeds. Metaneeds are involved in self-actualization and comprise the highest level of needs. Maslow's list of Metaneeds: Wholeness (unity) Perfection (balance and harmony) Completion (ending) Justice (fairness) Richness (complexity) Simplicity ( essence) Liveliness (spontaneity) Beauty (rightness of form) Goodness (benevolence) Uniqueness (individuality) Playfulness (ease) Truth (reality) Autonomy (self-sufficiency) Meaningfulness (values). metaneeds is associated with impulses for selfactualization.Maslow describes a metaneed as any need for knowledge. lower economic conditions. Reasons people may not become self-actualized include: poor childhoods. anxieties and fears and the Jonah Complex. beauty. Metapathology prevents self-actualizers from expressing. In Maslow hierarchy.
Fear of seeming arrogant. and hence not acceptable to others.Jonah Complex is the fear of success which prevents self-actualization Causes Fear of the sense of responsibility that often attends recognizing our own greatness. Fear that an extraordinary life would be out of the ordinary. requiring a holistic approach. 1. talents. 5 basic assumptions of Motivation in the Maslow model. etc. self-centered. potentials.Dynamic Theory of Maslow Maslow?s theory of personality is based upon his understandings of human motivations towards action. The whole person is motivated. . Sometimes called "The Third Force" in psychology (Freud & Behaviorism are 1 & 2) The Holistic .
using a telephone as a way to feel love and belongingness. Maslow Motivation assumptions (continued) Additionally. 5A. Maslow believes in the fundamental similarity of the human experience. People are universally motivated by the same basic needs. Motivation is usually complex: several sources can contribute to the eventual appearance of some behavior. . the needs which must be satisfied are universal in nature. love and self-esteem. Needs can be arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Satisfying one need only results in the individual trying to satisfy other needs. companionship.(This is in marked contrast to Freud. Although we may achieve needs in a culturally specific (or culturally proscribed) manner which is idiosyncratic. the desire for sexual union may reflect needs for dominance. For example. 4A. For example. who discussed the roles each mental structure plays in producing behavior) 2. 3A. certain motivations may be unconscious. People are continually motivated by one need or another.
The Basic (or conative) Needs : Physiological Needs : The most basic needs of oxygen. and satisfaction of these "basic" needs is necessary before "higher" needs can be addressed. shelter. water. the need for law and order.The Hierarchy of Needs Certain human needs are more fundamental than others. & clothing) Commonly satisfied in first world countries. Physiological needs are continually recurring. and maintenance of body temperature (food. . Safety needs can never be over satisfied. so we must seek satisfaction of this basic need on a daily basis. Physiological needs are the only needs which can be completely or even over satisfied. Basic (conative) Needs (level 2) Safety Needs : protection from harm. Theory of prepotent needs : Lower needs must be satisfied (and take precedence over) higher order needs. food.
than we can turn our energy toward our "Higher" needs. they develop basic anxiety and may become neurotic adults. Higher Order Basic Needs of Maslow Higher order needs are needs which develop after early childhood. The desire for friendship. Safety needs become highly important during natural disasters.When children due not have their safety needs met. safety needs are relatively easy to satisfy. According to Maslow. 3 situations can exist: . If both our physiological needs and are safety needs are satisfied. (Evolved need) First level of higher order needs: Need for Love and Belongingness : Maslow states that this level is what the majority of the population remains at. accidents. and represent a more phylogenetically recent need. In peaceful societies. and other life threatening situation. the search for a mate and the desire to be part of a family are all reflections of this need. fires.
A person who has experienced just a little love and affection will be strongly motivated to meet these needs. confidence. and might go about satisfying the need for love and belongingness in a pathological way. Maslow states that children need love in order to grow psychologically. . and not be devastated by the occasional rejection. If people find a way to satisfy their needs for love and belongingness. than they can concentrate on satisfying the next level of: Esteem Needs : The need for self-respect. Maslow distinguished between two levels of esteem needs : Reputation and Self-Esteem. A person who has received love and closeness during childhood will be able to love others.A person who has never experienced love and closeness will eventually devalue love and not be particularly worried over their inability to find it. and the respect of others. competence.
then they are ready to try to satisfy the highest level of needs in Maslow?s hierarchy. goodness. than you may be able top satisfy your : Self . yet still lives a life without purpose. People who embrace Bvalues will live a life of meaning and fulfillment. Perfection. & Autonomy If you hold these B-values to be an important determinant of your behavior. A major difference between people who don?t progress farther than the esteem needs stage is due to the adoption of core B-Values.Actualization needs : the desire for self-fulfillment. to realize one?s potential. beauty. Justice.If people are fortunate enough to meet their esteem needs.1% of the college population is selfactualized . Humor. People who reach this level are "fully human" Maslow stated that only 2% of the general population and . Simplicity. Effortlessness. Uniqueness. B-values (Being-values) : Are what distinguishes the truly enlightened person (one who is self-actualized) from an individual who has satisfied all basic needs. wholeness. Totality. Maslow believes it is fundamentally important to find meaning within your life. Aliveness. The B-Values are : truth. The self-actualized individual represents the future of human kind (similar to Roger?s idea of "People of Tomorrow") . Completion.
Cognitive needs must be constantly satisfied before any other needs can be satisfied. to solve mysteries. but reflective of the idea that some people are motivated by the need for beauty and order. . to be curious. Aesthetic Needs : Not thought to be universal. there are other needs which don?t fit into the hierarchical structure of conative needs. We need knowledge in order to satisfy our conative needs. and our cognitive needs motivates us to find answers which will satisfy our other needs.In addition to the 5 conative needs. Cognitive Needs : the desire to know.
you might become overly aggressive and hostile. and a majority of selfactualization needs. Examples: If safety needs are not satisfied early in life. Maslow estimated the degree to which all of these needs are satisfied within the general population : Physiological Needs : 85 % Safety Needs 75 % Love & Belongingness 50 % Esteem Needs 40 % Self-Actualization Needs10 % A self-actualized individual would satisfy 100% of the first four conative needs. If you fail to satisfy the need for love and belongingness. Neurotic needs are seen as compensatory reactions to a failure to fulfill one or more basic needs.Neurotic Needs : nonproductive needs which perpetuate an unhealthy style of life. The Self-actualized person . an individual might develop the need to hoard material possessions.
Have a higher need for privacy. When an individual can not meet their self-actualization needs. Self-actualizes have metamotivation (motivation based on B-values) which propels them towards selfactualization. Coping Behavior is behavior specifically aimed at need satisfaction. and nature. Live with spontaneity and without artifice. rather than Coping Behavior. Expressive behavior is motivated by internal forces. metapathology can develop. . Greater acceptance of self.Show "expressive" behavior. Coping behavior is motivated by need deficiencies. others. Other Characteristics of Self-Actualized People More efficient perception of reality : Self-actualizers are better able to distinguish fact from fiction. Problem-Centered. instead of ego-centered. talks. Metapathology : the lack of a meaningful philosophy of life. Expressive Behavior is more indicative of "free will" and encompasses how someone walks. rather than external stimuli. and smiles. gestures.
Clear Sense of Right and Wrong Philosophical Sense of Humor High Creativity Resistant to enculturization : Although self-actualizers typically fit in. or social status.Are more independent and autonomous. age. Renewed appreciation for the world. . This type of love is qualitatively distinct from D-Love (deficiency love) In which you love another person because you are driven to satisfy your needs for love and belongingness. ethnicity. Can have "peak experiences" Gemeinschaftsgefuhl : Social Interest Profound Interpersonal Relations : serious relations are few. they can go against prevailing wisdom when the accepted cultural practice violates their own sense of right and wrong. gender. Self-Actualizers are more likely to experience B-Love : love for the essence or being of the other. yet deep. Have a democratic character structure : Self-actualizers are friendly to people without regard to race.
74) A. The second test of self-actualizing tendency is the Short Index of Self-Actualization developed by Jones & Crandell (1986) The Short Index uses 15 items from the POI to which the subject must state agreement on a 6 point likert scale (Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree) . Two people will get along best if each person feels free to express themselves. The second major scale measures "self" vs "other" orientation. Two people will get along best if each concentrates on pleasing the other person. such as: (Shostrom.Measuring Self Actualization Two tests have been developed which attempt to tap Maslow?s conception of self-actualized people. or the degree to which the individual embraces as existential approach to life. (Egocentrism) The ten subscales examine Maslow?s character traits of self-actualized individuals. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) 150 forced choice items. and 10 subscales The first major scale measures "present orientation". The POI has 2 major scales. B.
Much easier to administer and grade than the POI. Maslow interviewed people he both knew and admired. it showed that he had only a slight self-actualizing tendency. How Maslow developed his conception of the self-actualized person. (Common traits) . He would : 1. He would write down a list of traits he felt each person possessed. Interview a sample of people he thought were self-actualized. Also. He scored much lower than individuals who were identified as self-actualizers. Ironically. reduces irritability due to the forced choice format of the POI. when Maslow completed the POI.
He would use the trait list from 1 and then see how a second sample of self-actualized individuals matched up with the key traits. Famous People which Maslow felt were self-actualized : Thomas Jefferson Abraham Lincoln Albert Einstein Jane Addams Willliam James Albert Schweitzer Aldous Huxley Elanor Roosevelt .2. By refining his trait list again and again. he eventually came up with what he felt was a stable list of attributes which would define the self-actualized individual.
Self Actualized People must be free from psychopathology. The third criterion for becoming self-actualized is to realize your need to grow and develop. Self-Actualized individuals have progressed through the hierarchy of basic needs. Maslow thought that only 2 % of the population were fully self-actualized. . and to increasingly strive to become who you are fully capable of becoming.Basic Criterion of the self-actualized individual Remember. This rules out Van Gogh as a self actualized individual.
pathology is the result. Maslow states that everyone is born with a will toward health.rather.Self-Actualizers are not static beings who embrace the status quo -. and b)the emotional surge that fulfillment brings with us is too draining to experience on a constant basis. Maslow and Psychotherapy . Maslow believes the Jonah Complex arises due to a) the need for humility. than embrace change. He believed neurosis and psychotic behavior arises from need deficiencies If you can not satisfy your basic needs. Jonah Complex : A fear of success which keeps people from becoming self-actualized. The pathology may take the form of a neurotic need. because change is necessary for growth. Development of Psychopathology Maslow realized human beings are capable of terrible things. and a tendency to grow towards selfactualization.
Maslow felt his holistic . he felt that the therapist must develop an open. For Maslow. warm relationship with the client. Was Maslow practicing a rigorous scientific study of personality? . The Critique of Maslow Criticism of Maslow focuses (primarily) on two major points. Since he believes most people never move past the stage of satisfying needs of love and belongingness. the aim of therapy is to decrease the reliance on others and encourage the systemic urge toward psychological growth and self-actualization.dynamic theory did have practical applications.Although he did not have traditional "clients". Acceptance within a clinical relationship will hopefully lead to more healthy relationships outside of therapy. One.
Second Criticism : Maslow?s recognition of self-actualized individuals was almost exclusively limited to Highly Educated White Males. relied too heavily on case studies. and not enough experimental work was done on the construct of self-actualization. . racism. while important. Can an analysis of personality based upon the upper stratum of the dominant culture truly be a universal description of personality ? These critics charge that implicit sexism. and classism stem from Maslow?s work and therefore do not represent a valid way of understanding basic human personality.The answer is a resounding "sometimes" Many researchers feel that Maslow?s work.
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