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the Media

Jaap Bloem, Menno van Doorn, Sander Duivestein







Past, Present and Future of the Third Media Revolution
Since the mid 19th century countless innovations have sprung up from
American soil, in particular those related to technology and media. With
Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States the change that
web media can create, is being further satisfied. For example, during the
campaign at, YouTube and Facebook, and later at and amongst others, his messages were
resonating and swelling in a genuinely democratic way.
Through web media Barack Obama was able to deliberately implement We
the People anew, so that each and every individual who chooses to can
participate in a variety of ways. It is along these lines that the world is
moving ahead from the well-known concept of the Conversation Economy
to a Conversation Society, which is the ultimate consequence, if not goal,
of what is referred to in this book as the Third Media Revolution.
Me the Media is how we call this multimedia web-based age. The old,
trusted mass media have been absorbed by the new media mass in which
we all participate as individuals and consumers. After the printing press
and movable type, and after such mass media as radio and TV, the modern
era of the Web is the Third great Media Revolution undergone by humanity.
This sweeping wave has far-reaching consequences: for business, for
society, for technology, and for us.
In this Me-Media dynamics composites of digital alter egos are rapidly becoming an accepted
form of personal and brand identity. They increasingly form the basis of the social and economic
activity in which individuals, organizations, and government engage. The Third Media Revolution
e-mancipates physical identities to the Hyperego level: the digital mes we know so well from
CNNs iReport, iGoogle, iPhone, myBarackObama, YouTube and the like. All are hyperlinked and
super active on the Web, involving citizens, brands, companies and politicians.
The coming decades will see us intimately and physically interconnected within our own web by
means of ordinary hardware and software, but subsequently also via biochemistry (wetware)
and nanotech. In this way, life will become one huge test laboratory for the further development
of humanity.
Rise of the Conversation Society
for more content,
insight and discussion
Make Me the Media Pop with Augmented Reality Tech
1 Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or
265 with a webcam.
2 The PC will link the captured image to specific
Augmented Reality content via previously downloaded
software from
3 The additional Augmented Reality content will be
displayed on top of the trigger page: in this case a robot
holding a postcard with a welcome video.
VINT | v|s|on - lns|rat|on - Nav|gat|on - rends

VINT is the Research Institute of Sogeti, and was
founded in 1994. VINT has offices in Amsterdam,
Paris, Stockholm and Washington.
About the Authors
JAAP BLOEM is a senior analyst at VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti. Jaap previously
worked for publishing companies, the
Internet Society and KPMG Consulting. In
Me the Media, Jaap introduces ITainment as
the revolutionary extension of ITech,
analyzes our Programming Century, which
took off around 1965, and defines the
stages of telephony development.
MENNO VAN DOORN is director of VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti, in Amsterdam.
In 2007 Menno was voted IT Researcher of
the Year by VNU/Computable. In Me the
Media Menno introduces the concept of
Media Mass as opposed to Mass Media,
to emphasize the impact of modern web
SANDER DUIVESTEIN is a senior analyst at VINT,
the Research Institute of Sogeti. Sander was
a software architect at Capgemini and an
Internet entrepreneur. His expertise on
Web 2.0 and the Metaverse has been an
important stimulus in the creation of Me
the Media.
PETER LEYDEN heads Next Agenda, a new
project focusing on transformative agendas
into policy-making. Peter previously worked
as managing editor at Wired magazine, and
was a director of the Global Business
Network, a think tank on the future. During
Barack Obamas election campaign Peter
was director of the New Politics Institute.
VINT | Vision - Inspiration - Navigation - Trends
The Obama Moment
by Peter Leyden
9 789075 414226
ISBN 978-90-75414-22-6
the Media
Jaap Bloem, Menno van Doorn, Sander Duivestein






Past, Present and Future of the Third Media Revolution
Since the mid 19th century countless innovations have sprung up from
American soil, in particular those related to technology and media. With
Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States the change that
web media can create, is being further satisfied. For example, during the
campaign at, YouTube and Facebook, and later at and amongst others, his messages were
resonating and swelling in a genuinely democratic way.
Through web media Barack Obama was able to deliberately implement We
the People anew, so that each and every individual who chooses to can
participate in a variety of ways. It is along these lines that the world is
moving ahead from the well-known concept of the Conversation Economy
to a Conversation Society, which is the ultimate consequence, if not goal,
of what is referred to in this book as the Third Media Revolution.
Me the Media is how we call this multimedia web-based age. The old,
trusted mass media have been absorbed by the new media mass in which
we all participate as individuals and consumers. After the printing press
and movable type, and after such mass media as radio and TV, the modern
era of the Web is the Third great Media Revolution undergone by humanity.
This sweeping wave has far-reaching consequences: for business, for
society, for technology, and for us.
In this Me-Media dynamics composites of digital alter egos are rapidly becoming an accepted
form of personal and brand identity. They increasingly form the basis of the social and economic
activity in which individuals, organizations, and government engage. The Third Media Revolution
e-mancipates physical identities to the Hyperego level: the digital mes we know so well from
CNNs iReport, iGoogle, iPhone, myBarackObama, YouTube and the like. All are hyperlinked and
super active on the Web, involving citizens, brands, companies and politicians.
The coming decades will see us intimately and physically interconnected within our own web by
means of ordinary hardware and software, but subsequently also via biochemistry (wetware)
and nanotech. In this way, life will become one huge test laboratory for the further development
of humanity.
Rise of the Conversation Society
for more content,
insight and discussion
Make Me the Media Pop with Augmented Reality Tech
1 Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or
265 with a webcam.
2 The PC will link the captured image to specific
Augmented Reality content via previously downloaded
software from
3 The additional Augmented Reality content will be
displayed on top of the trigger page: in this case a robot
holding a postcard with a welcome video.
VINT | v|s|on - lns|rat|on - Nav|gat|on - rends

VINT is the Research Institute of Sogeti, and was
founded in 1994. VINT has offices in Amsterdam,
Paris, Stockholm and Washington.
About the Authors
JAAP BLOEM is a senior analyst at VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti. Jaap previously
worked for publishing companies, the
Internet Society and KPMG Consulting. In
Me the Media, Jaap introduces ITainment as
the revolutionary extension of ITech,
analyzes our Programming Century, which
took off around 1965, and defines the
stages of telephony development.
MENNO VAN DOORN is director of VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti, in Amsterdam.
In 2007 Menno was voted IT Researcher of
the Year by VNU/Computable. In Me the
Media Menno introduces the concept of
Media Mass as opposed to Mass Media,
to emphasize the impact of modern web
SANDER DUIVESTEIN is a senior analyst at VINT,
the Research Institute of Sogeti. Sander was
a software architect at Capgemini and an
Internet entrepreneur. His expertise on
Web 2.0 and the Metaverse has been an
important stimulus in the creation of Me
the Media.
PETER LEYDEN heads Next Agenda, a new
project focusing on transformative agendas
into policy-making. Peter previously worked
as managing editor at Wired magazine, and
was a director of the Global Business
Network, a think tank on the future. During
Barack Obamas election campaign Peter
was director of the New Politics Institute.
VINT | Vision - Inspiration - Navigation - Trends
The Obama Moment
by Peter Leyden
9 789075 414226
ISBN 978-90-75414-22-6
Me the Media
Me the Media
Rise of the Conversation Society
Past, Present and Future
of the ird Media Revolution
Jaap Bloem, Menno van Doorn, Sander Duivestein
Featuring e Obama Moment
by Peter Leyden, founder and CEO of
VINT j Vision - Inspiration - Navigation - Tronds
Research Institute of Sogeti
Attribution-Noncommorcial-SharoAliko v. 3.0 0nportod j VINT
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2000 VINT | Vision - InspiraLion - NavigaLion - Trcnds
Cover illustration Nick Lowndes
Production LINE UP Book & Media, e Netherlands
Translation Robert Olsen, Nadine Buijs-OBrien
Research assistant Jacob Aronson
Editorial supervision Minke Sikkema
Design Jan Faber
Print Bariet, e Netherlands
ISBN 978 90 75414 22 6
Preface 8
1 The Kick-Off 11
1.1 Me-Media Impact 12
1.2 rcc CrcaL Mcdia RcvoluLions l4
1.3 From ConvcrsaLions Lo McLavcrsc l6
1.4 Me the Media: Summary 19
1.5 ConsLanLly Dividing Your ALLcnLion 24
1.6 Me the Media Test Card 29
2 Me-Media and ITainment 33
2.1 From Printing Press to Web 2.0 33
2.2 Always boLh.and," Ncvcr ciLhcr.or" 36
2.3 IT or Web 2.0? 39
2.4 ITech and ITainment: IT from Beginning to End 43
2.5 We Are the Media Mass 47
2.6 c Busincss ImpacL o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion 52
2.7 e Telephone: From Intimate Dialogue to Media Center 54
3 Web Media: Business Heart Attack or Pacemaker? 65
3.1 Surprise! 65
3.2 ConvcrsaLions aL Lhc HcarL o Busincss 66
3.3 Communication Plain and Simple 68
3.4 Do Not Conceal Who You Are 70
3.5 Blogging Can Be Fatal 72
3.6 Abovc All, CranL CusLomcrs cir Forum 75
3.7 Socializing Banks: Cup of Cha and Stage Coach Island 76
3.8 Frankly and Freely Following the Rules 79
3.9 Two Dot Zero Rushes to Aid of Public Transit 80
3.10 Primark and AlbcrL Hcijn S2
3.11 Experimenting with Web Media 83
3.12 Fivc QucsLions abouL CorporaLc Wcb ConvcrsaLions S5
4 An Economy of New Conversations 89
4.1 e Era of the Economy 89
4.2 ConvcrsaLions in Lhc Fconomy 01
4.3 Crowdsourcing with Web Media 95
4.4 Arc Wc CcLLing Back WhaL Wc Havc IosL` 07
4.5 Doing Business in the Media Mass 99
5 The Obama Moment: From Conversation Economy to Conversation Society 101
5.1 Americas Moment 102
5.2 e Great Global Reframe 103
5.3 Obama and the New Politics of the Web 105
5.4 c PaLLcrn o Prcvious Progrcssivc Fras l06
5.5 e Political Paradigm Shift in Technology 108
5.6 c Ncw Progrcssivc PoliLical CoaliLion ll3
5.7 e Coming Paradigm Shift in the Ideas Business 114
6 Electronic Mass Media 119
6.1 Newspaper and Multimedia 119
6.2 Fighting and Playing 122
6.3 e First Radio War 124
6.4 c World Iivc in Your Iiving Room l26
6.5 Recording and Playing Back 128
6.6 650 Billion Lo Harass Fvcryonc l31
6.7 Propaganda and PR 133
6.8 A World o Fussy Individuals l35
7 Hyperegos in Their Social Networking Environment 141
7.1 From a Fcw Supcrcgos Lo All Hypcrcgos l42
7.2 Friends and Other Relationships: Friendster, MySpace, Facebook, Bebo,
Ning, LinkedIn, Plaxo, Cyworld 145
7.3 is Is Really Something: Digg,, StumbleUpon, Wakoopa 155
7.4 Online Shopping: eBay, Amazon, Craigslist 158
7.5 Identity and the Social Graph: OpenID, OpenSocial, DataPortability 162
7.6 A Large Socio-Economic Impact 166
8 The Metaverse: Our New Virtual Universe 171
8.1 Ncuromanccr, Snow Crash and Lhc McLavcrsc Roadmap l72
8.2 c McLavcrsc: IicsLrcams l77
8.3 c McLavcrsc: Mirror Worlds lS4
8.4 c McLavcrsc: AugmcnLcd and VirLual RcaliLy lS8
8.5 c McLavcrsc: VirLual Worlds lS9
8.6 c Ncw Univcrsc is Big Busincss 200
9 Five Industry Disruptions and a Cultural One 203
9.1 From Newspaper to Paperless News 204
9.2 e Attack on the TV Empire 208
9.3 e Attack on the Music Industry 223
9.4 e Attack on the Telecom Industry 231
9.5 e Attack on Banking Institutions 232
9.6 e Wiki Way to Enterprise 2.0 235
9.7 Further Disruptions 238
9.8 Tcn QucsLions You Nccd Lo Ask Yourscl 239
10 The Development of Virtu-Real Media 241
10.1 e Future Is Now 242
10.2 Man Is God 244
10.3 Best Bits of the Future 246
10.4 Virtuality Is Completely Normal 247
10.5 HypcrrcaliLy and Calm Tcchnology 251
10.6 MARA and MIA 254
10.7 Sir Tim Berners-Lee on the Mobile Future 257
10.8 State-of-the-Art Digital Manufacturing 258
11 Is Science Fiction Becoming Reality? 265
11.1 Hardwarc, SoLwarc and WcLwarc" 266
11.2 From One of the Crowd to a Complex New I 266
11.3 Singularity and Ideals 269
11.4 Me-Media and the New Internet 270
11.5 Neurotech Is Catching Up 272
11.6 Doubt and Inertia 273
11.7 Superhuman or Sand in the Gears? 277
Index 281
Anyone trying to come up with three media associated phrases will no doubt
hit upon media storm, power of the media and media hype. e sequence
is not important, the three terms are largely interchangeable. We are for the
most part still stuck in the mind set of an age dominated by TV, radio and
print (i.e. traditional mass media). ese were the digital Middle Ages, an era
in which Lhc audicncc was undamcnLally voicclcss and which camc Lo cnd
with the launch of YouTube at the beginning of 2005.
Twenty-one months later, the Renaissance of the twenty-rst cen-
tury erupted with a ourish when Google paid 1.65 billion dollars
in shares for YouTube. Time Magazine immediately seized upon the
cvcnL, naming You", Lhc prosumcr (Lhc digiLally producLivc consum-
cr), as Lhcir pcrson o Lhc ycar. In a ash, Lhc mass mcdia's cxclusivc
monopoly was threatened. Anyone could become a media outlet if
they wanted to, and people clearly wanted to. e YouTube formula
has now bccn cloncd and inLcgraLcd in various shapcs and sizcs. You-
Tube clones appear in many of the 150 million weblogs that currently
exist, but also in the iReport segment on CNN. e broadcaster be-
gan making this report in August 2006 when there was no longer any
doubt about the enormous hit potential of YouTube.
For the Internet, the bearer of the new multimedia power, the Golden Age is
only just fully dawning. e 2008 Beijing Olympic Games attracted hundreds
o millions o wcb vicwcrs around Lhc world during an cighL-wcck pcriod
( At present, more
Lhan 200,000 vidcos arc uploadcd Lo YouTubc cvcry day, whilc Lhc LoLal num-
bcr o vidcos sLorcd Lhcrc is approaching l00 million. Includc Lhc immcnsc
scope of all other social networks such as Facebook, MySpace, Friendster and
Hi5, acLor in Lhc growing populariLy o microblogs such as TwiLLcr and alcrL
aggregators like Friendfeed, and there can be little doubt that the glory days
o LradiLional mass mcdia arc now ovcr. ALcr all, cvcrybody knows LhaL you
can only dcvoLc your aLLcnLion Lo onc Lhing aL onc Limc.
Yes, you. You control
the Information Age.
Welcome to your world!
c Wcb rcvoluLion, which bcgan during Lhc hrsL dc-
cade of the twenty-rst century, has in fact caused
traditional mass media to be absorbed into a new
media mass, one in which anyone who so wishes can
makc Lhcir voicc hcard and Lhcir acc known. is dcmocraLizcd" mcdia
prcscncc may Lakc many cvcryday orms, including job rccrcnccs, CVs or
convcrsaLions. IL is bccausc o Lhis amcnabiliLy Lo gcncral usc LhaL social
media, also known as Web 2.0, is now spreading like wildre around the
world, wc arc incrcasingly lisLcning Lo cach oLhcrs' voiccs raLhcr Lhan Lo Lhc
MasLcr's Voicc. Individuals and ad-hoc communiLics communicaLc Lhrough
Lhc ncw mcdia mass on Lhc samc lcvcl and usc Lhc samc rcsourccs as Lhc
Masters Voices of days gone by (i.e. corporations, politicians and traditional
journalists). ese elites held control of the mass media, while the rest of
Lhc populaLion lisLcncd, waLchcd, slcpL and consumcd. Howcvcr, Lhcir Limc
has passed: the unilateral monopoly of the Masters Voices is gone for good.
In an exceptionally emphatic manner, the new media power has conrmed
Lhc powcr o Lhc mcdia and Lhc rolc o mcdia hypc. Howcvcr, Lhis powcr has
now bccn disLribuLcd via Lhc mulLi-mcdia World Widc Wcb. c Wcb has
libcraLcd Wc Lhc Pcoplc," individualizing us, socializing us and cmancipaL-
ing us. It has transformed each one of us into a media organism, into Me
the Media. is trend, which is only just beginning, represents a ird Me-
dia RcvoluLion, ollowing Lhc individuaLion and socializaLion broughL abouL
ovcr Lhc pasL 400 ycars by prinL and clccLronics.
Rise of the Conversation Society
Sincc Lhc mid nincLccnLh ccnLury counLlcss innovaLions havc sprung up
from American soil, in particular those related to technology and media.
With Barack Obama as the 44
President of the United States the change
that Web media can create is being further satised. For example, during
the campaign at, YouTube and Facebook, and later at and, his ncw MasLcr Voicc was communicaLcd
Lo Lhc pcoplc via Lhc InLcrncL, rcsonaLing and swclling in a gcnuincly dcmo-
cratic way. rough Web media Barack Obama was able to deliberately imple-
mcnL Wc Lhc Pcoplc" ancw, so LhaL cach and cvcry individual who chooscs
Lo can parLicipaLc in a varicLy o ways. IL is along Lhcsc lincs LhaL Lhc world is
moving ahcad rom Lhc wcll-known conccpL o Lhc ConvcrsaLion Fconomy"
Lo a ConvcrsaLion SocicLy," which is Lhc ulLimaLc conscqucncc, i noL goal, o
whaL is rccrrcd Lo in Lhis book as Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion.
Obama cell phone wallpaper
The Kick-Off
1.1 Me-Media Impact 12
1.2 rcc CrcaL Mcdia RcvoluLions l4
1.3 From ConvcrsaLions Lo McLavcrsc l6
1.4 Me the Media: Summary 19
1.5 ConsLanLly Dividing Your ALLcnLion 24
1.6 Me the Media Test Card 29
It is remarkably easy these days to play at being a newspaper, radio station, tele-
vision channel or business operation. You need only go to to start
your own weblog in three easy steps, complete with automatically generated ad-
vertisements providing the initial bit of income. The 15 minutes of fame that Andy
Warhol felt everyone deserved would seem to be closer at hand than ever before.
Traditional media are extremely troubled
by the explosive Web media activity and
are increasingly eying the Internet on ac-
count of its popularity and opportunities
of this multimedia and egalitarian medi-
um. A number of weblogs and alternatives
to newspapers have secured a good posi-
tion but, at the same time, the desperate
cry for attention has taken on gigantic
dimensions. Many bloggers compete with
each other for just a few seconds of fame
because, on average, there will be just a
fraction leftover of Andys 15 minutes for
everyone. leaves it up to you. Vox is for the rec-
reational blogger who wants to upload cookies once
in a while along with a few phrases. LiveJournal goes
a step further. LiveJournalists blog more frequently
and use the diaries to converse with others in order
to blossom into a community of independent blog-
gers. The third option is TypePad, which is tailored to
the professional blogger who truly has something to
report and wants to stand out from the crowd. Finally,
MovableType is the platform for corporate blogging.
It can be integrated into business applications and is
used by such organizations as The Washington Post,
Boeing, American Express and Genentech. If your or-
ganization is soon to make use of Intels SuiteTwo
collaboration software package, MovableType will be
automatically included. Blogs and wikis are regarded
as key to the new knowledge management geared to
the human scale (see Section 9.6 in particular).
Me-Media Impact
ese days, a little reading and
writing is more than sucient to
enable almost anyone to fulll an
adult (multi)media function on
the Internetat least in as far as
presentation is concerned. ere
can be no doubt about it: after the
letter, telephone and the written
submission, the present is the
glorious age for Me-Media. Largely to the chagrin of traditional pop FM sta-
Lions, ncwspapcrs and Lclcvision, Lhc ncw mcdia arc making iL possiblc or
pcoplc Lo Lruly havc Lhcir own voiccs hcard and accs sccn.
e popularity of these media is not only a matter of reading and writing.
Spcnding a cw hours wiLh amily and ricnds on YouTubc or cvcn waLching
prcscnLaLions on havc now bccomc highly rouLinc pasLimcs.
c acLiviLy can bc comparcd wiLh Lhc ways in which LwcnLicLh-ccnLury
Wurlitzer jukeboxes spun requested 45s in cafs and diners. Only, the num-
ber of performing artists and acts has grown exponentially.
Me the Media is how we call this multimedia web-based age. e old, trust-
cd mass mcdia havc bccn absorbcd by Lhc ncw mcdia mass in which wc all
parLicipaLc as privaLc individuals and consumcrs. ALcr Lhc prinLing prcss
and movablc Lypc and aLcr such mass mcdia as radio and TV, Lhc modcrn
cra o Lhc Wcb is Lhc ird grcaL Mcdia RcvoluLion undcrgonc by humaniLy.
is Lhird mcdia wavc has ar-rcaching conscqucnccs.
I had a blog too but Ive now gone back to just barking.
Rise of the Conversation Society
v i s i t
1 Consequences for Information Technology (IT)
After the mainframe (IT 0.0), the PC (IT 1.0) and e-Business (IT 2.0), the
ocus conLinucs Lo shiL Lowards Lhc cmpowcrmcnL o individuals and com-
munities (IT 3.0). Instead of on ITechnology (the IT Doesnt Matter from
Nicholas Carrs famous May 2003 article in Harvard Business Review: www., attention nowadays is increasing-
ly being focused on ITainment (or perhaps rather iTainment, like iPhone,
iTuncs, iRcporL and Lhc likc), which is Lo say on collaboraLivc" ino/cdu/
entertainment as an open basis for the adequate sharing of information
and knowledge, as well as a platform for production.
As wc havc known or millcnnia, lcarning and plca-
sure, utility and amusement, go side by side. But
the chance is extremely great that, with Web media
and ITainment, the balance will swing so far to the
fun side that we will slide o in that direction with-
out producing anything retaining a hint of signi-
cance. Chatting, Twittering, YouTubing, et cetera, is
ragmcnLing our zap culLurc cvcn urLhcr. c ncw
news websites of, for example, Google, Wikio, and
Digg and all the dozens of millions of weblogs of
which, according to Technorati, there are at least a
cw valuablc oncs, all arc sLrong conLribuLors Lo Lhis
further fragmentation.
2 Consequences for Business and Society
Wcb convcrsaLions arc crcaLing ncw powcr rclaLionships. c acL LhaL, on
the Internet, anyone can escape anonymity and become engaged in commu-
nities presents organizations a number of opportunities, but also pitfalls. e
ird Mcdia RcvoluLion makcs conLacLing cusLomcrs, cmployccs and anyonc
clsc much casicr, buL iL also dcmands crcaLiviLy and ncw Lypcs o communi-
cation skills. is especially applies to traditional organizations accustomed,
as Lhcy wcrc, Lo communicaLing Lo Lhc public raLhcr Lhan convcrsing wiLh iLs
mcmbcrs. c cconomic signihcancc o Lhc shiL Lo inLcr-acLiviLy can bc dc-
scribcd as Lhc blossoming o Lhc ConvcrsaLion Fconomy," characLcrizcd by
Lhc gcnuincly Lwo-way communicaLion LhaL is bccoming progrcssivcly morc
Lhc norm. U.S. PrcsidcnL Barack Obama has Lakcn Lhis conccpL cvcn urLhcr.
Web media enabled Obama to deliberately implement We the People anew,
so LhaL cach and cvcry individual who chooscs Lo can parLicipaLc in a varicLy
o ways. IL is along Lhcsc lincs LhaL Lhc world is moving ahcad rom Lhc wcll-
known conccpL o Lhc ConvcrsaLion Fconomy" Lo a ConvcrsaLion SocicLy,"
The intimate relationship between ITech
and ITainment is exemplied in the German
online edition of the Financial Times
newspaper ( The left menu bar
has an IT + Medien (IT + Media) section,
via which readers can choose between the
domains IT + Telecom and Media + Internet.
which is the ultimate consequence, if not goal, of what is referred to in this
book as Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion.
3 Consequences for Us
VirLual idcnLiLics arc gaining promincnL placcs in our livcs. cy may consisL
o bloggcr nicknamcs or avaLars in Sccond Iic, or cxamplc. Or Lhcy may bc
the identities of our intelligent proles and agents, who are able to dissemi-
nate information and may soon perform automatic tasks on our behalf. In
this Me-Media dynamics composites
of digital alter egos are rapidly be-
coming an accepted form of personal
and brand identity. ey increasingly
form the basis of the social and eco-
nomic acLiviLy in which individuals,
organizaLions, and govcrnmcnL cn-
gagc. c ird Mcdia RcvoluLion c-
mancipates physical identities to the
Hypcrcgo" lcvcl: Lhc digiLal mc's wc
know so well from CNNs iReport,
iGoogle, iPhone, myBarackObama,
YouTube and the like. All are hyper-
linkcd and supcr acLivc on Lhc Wcb,
involving ciLizcns, brands, compa-
nies and politicians. e combina-
Lion o virLualiLy and physical rcaliLy
will crcaLc a ncw virLu-rcal world, Lhc
complcLcly mcdiaLcd univcrsc which
wc arc calling Lhc McLavcrsc" and in
which Lhc Wcb mcdia rcvoluLion will
play itself out to its ultimate conclu-
Three Great Media Revolutions
Mcdia has a ccnLral rolc in our livcs, an obscrvaLion LhaL, according Lo Lhc
denition of the word, is also literally true. Traditionally, a medium is
ound in Lhc spacc bcLwccn scndcr and rcccivcr. As Lhcrc arc various ways o
communicating across this space (one-to-many, one-to-one, many-to-many,
visual, audio, LcxL and Lhcir associaLcd dcviccs), iL is possiblc Lo disLinguish
dierent types of media.

info and
Our digital
3D planet
All digital
The Metaverse of which our physical reality will soon be a part
(see Chapter 8)
As a result of the Internet, the pre-existing media of radio, TV, newspapers,
magazines, telephone, et cetera, are all brought together into a single multi-
mcdia cnvironmcnL LhaL is pcrsonal and social aL Lhc samc Limc. is Lrcnd
is highly troublesome to traditional mass media and the organizations that
tend to support communications, primarily in such mass-media forms. In
Lhc digiLal Middlc Agcs," cvcry mcdium had iLs own disLincLivc impacL, buL
Lhcsc disLinguishing caLurcs havc now bccomc ully inLcrwovcn on Lhc mul-
timedia Internet, forming what has now become one media mass.
Due to the emergence of this personal and social multimedia Internet, ex-
pcricnccs o brand and idcnLiLy havc gaincd cnormously in imporLancc.
Phrases such as information at your ngertips and the customer is always
righL" can now bc givcn ncw mcaning. c hrsL cxamplcs o Lhis ncw dcvcl-
opment are discernible in the ways that companies engage leading bloggers
Lo hclp Lhcm mainLain a compcLiLivc cdgc, whilc oLhcrs arc involving onlinc
cusLomcrs in innovaLion and markcLing. A similar obscrvaLion on consumcr
cmpowcrmcnL was madc by Lhc Amcrican innovaLion magazinc Business 2.0
and later by Time Magazine when it placed You in the top spot at the middle
and end of 2006.
Wc will now bricy considcr cach o Lhc Lhrcc grcaL mcdia rcv-
oluLions o our hisLory, Lhc mosL cpoch-making mcdia cvcnLs
LhaL havc occurrcd sincc Lhc dcvclopmcnL o wriLing hvc Lhou-
sand years ago.
1. Typo lottors and printing pross: e newspaper was the -
nal dcvclopmcnL o Lhc FirsL Mcdia RcvoluLion. is rcvoluLion
resulted from the introduction of type letters and the printing
press in Europe and subsequently
around the world. Modern printing
makcs iL possiblc or cvcryonc Lo bc
kept informed about the latest de-
vclopmcnLs. In Lhc Wild WcsL, or
example, posters clearly indicated
how big the reward would be for a
captured outlaw.
2. o oloctronic mass modia: In ad-
dition to the explosion of newspa-
pcrs and magazincs, radio and Lclcvi-
sion arc Lhc big innovaLions rom Lhc
Mass-Media Age. is Second Media
RcvoluLion cxposcd us Lo mulLimcdia broadcasLs across Lhc airwavcs. c
resulting forms of communication and socialization combined with print
media in a fruitful cross-fertilization.
3. Wob modia: e Internet, the PC and mobile telephones with cameras are
characLcrisLic o Lhc prcscnL phasc o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion. Wc arc
currcnLly living Lhrough Lhc LransiLion rom Lhc LradiLional mass mcdia Lo
a singlc massivc (mulLi)mcdium in which cvcryonc can pcrsonally parLici-
pate as a prosumer. For we are now all able to both consume and produce
LcxLs, imagcs and audio using such dcviccs as our mobilc Lclcphoncs, which
along wiLh Lhc PC havc dcvclopcd inLo Lhc mosL promincnL orms o InLcrncL
hardwarc. is ird Mcdia RcvoluLion mcans cvcn morc communicaLion
and morc socializaLion, as individuals via Lhcir Mc-Mcdia arc ablc Lo bccomc
pcrsonally involvcd aL any givcn momcnL. On Lhc Wcb Lhcy can casily or-
ganizc Lhcmsclvcs inLo associaLions such as Wal-MarL cusLomcrs, New York
Times rcadcrs, jazz lovcrs or libcrals.
From Conversations to Metaverse
Weblogs and wikis were the rst suc-
ccsscs o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion,
making convcrsaLion Lcchniqucs uni-
vcrsally acccssiblc. anks Lo Lhcsc
contemporary web tools, organiza-
tions, employees, customers and
partners are able to deal with each
other in remote and yet much more
personal ways.
csc days wc havc grown uscd Lo Lhc
availabiliLy o such Lools. CurrcnLly,
the spotlight is focused more acutely
on dcvclopmcnLs such as Facc book,
MySpace and Second Life, all of which
gcncraLc virLual idcnLiLics and social
structures. In addition to weblogs
and wikis, the current experience of
Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion primar-
ily rcvolvcs around digiLal conLacL in
social ncLworks and Lhc avaLars LhaL
physically shape our identities in
Virtual Worlds.
All media revolutions are sensational re-evaluations of
the individual and a correspondingly revised form of
socialization, but the third one is extra special. In prin-
ciple, the new Web media enable every literate Internet
user to escape anonymity. In the meantime, the pen-
etration of the Internet and mobile telecommunications
has exploded and the two have become fused together.
Rupert Murdoch, the archetypical media tycoon whose
enterprises range from Fox television and The Wall Street
Journal to MySpace, compares the impact of the Third
Media Revolution to the rst, that of the printing press:
To nd something comparable, you have to go back 500
years to the printing press, the birth of mass media
which, incidentally, is what really destroyed the old
world of kings and aristocra-
cies. Technology is shifting
power away from the editors,
the publishers, the establish-
ment, the media elite. Now
its the people who are taking
From His Space, Wired
magazine, July 2006.
VirLualiLy will aLLain an cvcn highcr prohlc in Lhc ncar uLurc, cvcn having
an impacL aL sLrccL lcvcl. Our plancL will bc mappcd ouL Lhrcc-dimcnsionally
(VirLual FarLh) and locaLion-rclaLcd mulLimcdia inormaLion will bc avail-
ablc cvcrywhcrc (AugmcnLcd RcaliLy) on mobilc phoncs and such prosLhcscs
as digiLal glasscs. c possibiliLy o our physical rcaliLy, Lhc univcrsc around
us, soon bcing parL o Lhc ncw virLu-rcal McLavcrsc sLill sounds an awul
loL likc scicncc hcLion, buL such a LransormaLion will simply providc uscul
supplcmcnLs Lo our daily acLiviLics.
Me is a Matter of Identities
c Mc in Mc Lhc Mcdia rccrs Lo cach inLcracLivc rolc-playing mcdia idcn-
LiLy uscd Lo ornamcnL individuals, brands, organizaLions, cL ccLcra, buL also
to the media presences used by other entities such as national museums in
responding to information requests made from, for example, mobile phones.
Here we see a so-called Hyperego in the midst of various digital (sub)identities
currently already accessible. Source:

As a consequence, the notion of identity will become increasingly more im-
porLanL ovcr Lhc coming dccadcs. O coursc, Lhis is parLly an oshooL o
concerns about security and authentication but, more importantly, it also
comcs rom our physical idcnLiLy bcing cxLcndcd by avaLars and scl-lcarn-
ing agents (bits of software code that perform certain tasks). is Me-Media
dcvclopmcnL is a logical conscqucncc o Lhc prohlcs and prccrcnccs wiLh
which we are already familiar.
e coming decades will see a complete mediatization of the world around
us. For instance, aordable care for a steadily aging population will be an im-
porLanL drivcr in Lhc inLroducLion o ambicnL inLclligcncc." I ncccssary, wc
may bc placcd undcr consLanL wirclcss obscrvaLion day and nighL by mcans
o a conLrol sysLcm LhaL wc will carry boLh on and in oursclvcs. Such a sys-
Lcm would accclcraLc Lhc inLcrwcaving o IT, nanoLcchnology, bioLcchnology
and ncuroLcchnology, whilc raising Lhc inLcgraLion o mcdia, individuals and
idcnLiLics Lo a highcr lcvcl.
Any such dcvclopmcnL would bc ground-brcaking. c scl-dchning virLual
media space that half a century ago, when the media landscape was domi-
naLcd by ncwspapcrs, magazincs, radio and TV, kcpL scndcr and rcccivcr aL
a rcspccLablc disLancc will soon bc ovcrpopulaLcd by individuals. BiL by biL,
rcsidcnLs will bcgin liLcrally Lo livc" in Lhcir (mulLi)mcdia acLiviLy, as mcdia
interaction comes to dene the content of their identity.
Wc can scc Lhis as a consisLcnLly implcmcnLcd varianL o Lhc agc-old uni-
mcdia adagc: Lhc wriLcr livcs on in his work." ALLaching idcnLiLy Lo (inLcl-
ligcnL) mcdia producLions and, in Lhis way, rcmaining alivc Loor aL lcasL
rcmcmbcrcd byuLurc gcncraLions is an cndcavor LhaL has bccn pracLiccd
LhroughouL Lhc ccnLurics. BuL Lhc impacL o mcdia-mass dcvclopmcnLs will
bc incomparably grcaLcr. Civcn unlimiLcd sLoragc and proccssing capaciLy in
which pcrccivablc soLwarc idcnLiLics will acL and inLcracL, wc ccl Lhc ol-
lowing sccnario is noL inconccivablc:
Intelligence from the past will be deliberately retained longer than its mortal origi-
nator. It will continue to develop in a sort of hyperbrain. On the one hand, it will
be a collective good and, on the other, it will be the responsibility of the person
or community who deemed it valuable to maintain the intelligence in question, to
upgrade it, to link it to and to integrate it with other intelligences, or whatever else
that may be the case.
e scenario undoubtedly raises a few eyebrows, but one thing is for certain:
scicncc hcLion is incrcasingly bccoming rcaliLy. c virLu-rcal hypcrrcaliLy o
an inLclligcnL McLavcrsc may assumc oLhcr mcLamorphoscs, as iL is unlikcly
that the future will be limited to what we can imagine today. Yet, in the cur-
rcnL phasc o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, iL is alrcady possiblc or us Lo sur-
vcy Lhc various dirccLions LhaL Lhc uLurc may Lakc. To Lhis cnd, iL is Lhc casc
now morc Lhan cvcr LhaL c FuLurc Is Now."
Me the Media: Summary
Perhaps this opening has already beggared belief or made it impossible for
you Lo urLhcr dclay Lhc advcnLurc LhaL is Lo ollow. For boLh groups o pcoplc
and cvcryonc in bcLwccn, wc will sLarL by mapping ouL Lhc voyagc ahcad o
us. Bcorc you vcnLurc inLo Lhc rcsL o Me the Media, the following summary
will clarify how the chapters of this book interrelate and how the story will
play itself out.
c margin logos providc a clcar indicaLion o Lhc pcriod bcing discusscd in a
chapter: the recent past of the electronic mass media, the present of the new
mass mcdia or Lhc uLurc in which our Hypcrcgos will Lakc o.
2 Me-Media and ITainment
c sccond chapLcr will cxplain how individuals, brands, organizaLions, poli-
Lics, and so on, arc using Wcb mcdia Lo rcprcscnL Lhcmsclvcs bcLLcr and morc
amboyanLly Lhan cvcr bcorc. c InLcrncL is Lhc siLc or Lhis grcaL cxplosion
o Mc-Mcdia. c Wcb is Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, ollowing Lhc prinLing
prcss and Lhc mass mcdia o radio and TV. Prcviously, wc had communicaLcd
by letter or telephone, and we could reach more people through written sub-
missions or by operating radio equipment. But the use of mass media was
always rcscrvcd or Lhc prcss, poliLicians, brands and organizaLions. anks
Lo Lhc Mc-Mcdia wcb rcvoluLion, cvcryonc is ablc Lo makc Lhcmsclvcs hcard
in a procssional and mulLimcdia way via onc largc mcdia mass o which Lhc
mass media industry is, to its great dismay, only one element. Modern Infor-
mation Technology (IT) makes this possible. IT is currently expanding from
ITechnology into ITainment, the latter now becoming the center of atten-
tion. e combination of Web media and ITainment makes communication
so inLcnsc and dominanL LhaL wc, Lhc acLors, individuals, brands, organiza-
Lions, cL ccLcra, can accuraLcly bc callcd Hypcrcgos, wc arc hypcrlinkcd and
bccoming supcr-acLivc, wiLh all Lhc rcsulLing conscqucnccs or Lhc dynamics
of our world.
3 Web Media: Business Heart Attack or Pacemaker?
By prcscnLing various cxamplcs, ChapLcr 3 will discuss Lhcbusincss impacL o
the new Me-Media Mass. Transparency and busy two-way trac are its com-
mon dcnominaLors. cy Lurn Lhc LradiLional rclaLionships involving brands,
organizaLions, poliLics and public on Lhcir hcads. Opcn convcrsaLions wiLh a
human face are now the norm for the media mass on the Internet. e anony-
mous public has emerged and is now calling the shots for brands, organiza-
Lions and poliLicians. UlLimaLcly, cvcryonc can prohL rom Lhc rcqucnL and
personal multimedia contacts that Me-Media makes possible. Without doubt,
Lhc mcdia mass can somcLimcs causc organizaLional hcarLs Lo racc and cvcn
drivc organizaLions crazy. BuL iL is a rcliablc paccmakcr or anyonc who knows
how Lo communicaLc on Lhc righL wavclcngLh.
4 An Economy of New Conversations
Our cconomy has always consisLcd o convcrsaLions which usually conLaincd
few wasted words. ere was the striking of a bargain, supply and demand,
later supplemented by after sales, customer support and the helpdesk. Chap-
Lcr 4 dcmonsLraLcs LhaL mulLimcdia wcb convcrsaLions propcl Lhc Lradi-
tional economy into a new phase that, in so many words, may be called the
ConvcrsaLion Fconomy. ChapLcr 5 will Lakc Lhis paradigm cvcn urLhcr by
proclaiming Lhc risc o a Lruc ConvcrsaLion SocicLy on Lhc basis o Lhc Mc-
Mcdia Mass LhaL wc crcaLcd. is dcvclopmcnL o Lhc ConvcrsaLion Fconomy
was already anticipated a few years ago, but now something is actually hap-
pcning. RcacLivc and proacLivc wcb convcrsaLions noL only cnsurc LhaL cli-
cnLs arc morc saLishcd buL LhaL adcquaLc producLs, scrviccs and cvcn laws
can be made more quickly.
5 The Obama Moment: From Conversation Economy to Conversation Society
e support attracted by Barack Obama during the primary and general
U.S. prcsidcnLial clccLions in 200S markcd a ncw convcrsaLional phasc in
the use of Web media. Obama and his campaign team took methods seen
in Lhc ConvcrsaLion Fconomy and clcvaLcd Lhcm Lo a Lruc ConvcrsaLion So-
cicLy lcvcl. Howcvcr uniquc Lhis may havc bccn, Obama's achicvcmcnL had
its structural precedents in politics before now. American politics periodi-
cally undcrgocs an inLcnsivc pcriod o innovaLion bascd parLly on Lhc rapid
adoption of new media technology. is time it was the adoption of powerful
web tools for communication, coordination, and cooperation. e societal
paradigm shiL LhaL wcb convcrsaLions bring abouL can bc vicwcd as Lhc ulLi-
mate consequence, if not goal, of what is referred to in this book as the ird
Mcdia RcvoluLion.
6 Electronic Mass Media
Iic was complcLcly Lransormcd in Lhc hrsL hal o Lhc prcvious ccnLury.
SLrccLcars and auLomobilcs gavc ciLics a modcrn acc. Trains bcgan Lo Lrans-
port us back and forth across great distances. Tanks and aircraft appeared
on the battleeld. Radio and TV broadcasted news and entertainment, pro-
paganda and advcrLising, narcissism and convcrsaLions. For Lhc hrsL Limc
we were really dealing with media, and the impact of it all was enormous.
e electronic mass media accompanied and shaped the transformation,
together with newspapers and magazines. Once and for all segmentation
and individualizaLion bccamc Lhc norm. Insidc our ncw global villagc," wc
traded the close ties of the past for hectic multitasking and quality time.
Against this background, a digital dematerialization of being began to take
hold around ten years ago, and the phenomenon has now expanded into a
complcLc mcdiaLizaLion o oursclvcs.
7 Hyperegos in Their Social Networking Environment
c sLagc on which Hypcrcgos acL (Hypcrcgos bcing hypcrlinkcd individuals
and organizations such as those appearing on Facebook) is so large that we
would ncvcr bc ablc Lo discuss iL ully hcrc. aL is why wc madc an ovcrvicw
o Lhc mosL imporLanL cxamplcs o social" Wcb iniLiaLivcs. For Lhc sakc o
historical understanding we will begin with the rst mass medium by means
of which identity was broadcast. Portraits of emperors on Roman coins
madc iL clcar Lo cvcryonc wiLhin Lhc Fmpirc jusL who was in chargc. Social
Wcb ncLworks havc madc us vcry amiliar wiLh similar prohlcs," aL lcasL in a
mcLaphorical scnsc. cy also shapc our idcnLiLy and havc valuc: $l5 billion
in Lhc casc o Faccbook. An ovcr-cxaggcraLion` cn considcr LhaL, in Lcrms
o rcsidcnLs," MySpacc was Lhc clcvcnLh largcsL counLry in Lhc world whcn
iL was Lakcn ovcr by Ncws CorporaLion in 2005. AL Lhc bcginning o 200S,
MySpacc had movcd up Lo Lhc ourLh placc in Lcrms o world populaLion.
e acquisition of the MySpace social network by Rupert Murdochs News
CorporaLion Louchcd o an cxplosion in Lhc dcvclopmcnL and usc o Lhcsc
sorts of ego display cases. It is not just shared friends lists, but also content
oricnLcd wcbsiLcs such as Digg and LhaL arc prospcring likc ncvcr
bcorc. c populariLy o all Lhcsc Social Wcb iniLiaLivcs has crcaLcd a grcaLcr
nccd or onc ccnLral locaLion whcrc uscrs can rcgisLcr Lhcmsclvcs and com-
binc Lhc possibiliLics o various social sLrucLurcs. c pracLicc o csLablishing
all kinds o social digiLal islands is no longcr acccpLablc. Hypcrcgos wanL Lo
be able to make the best possible use of the infrastructure that they them-
sclvcs havc builL inLo social ncLworks.
8 The Metaverse: Our New Virtual Universe
Social networks do not of course exist in isolation. ey are an important
ingrcdicnL o whaL can clcganLly bc Lcrmcd Lhc McLavcrsc, Lhc digiLal ulhll-
mcnL o Lhc physical univcrsc in which wc livc. c qualihcaLion McLa in-
dicaLcs LhaL Lhc McLavcrsc is an add-on or Lhc univcrsc. On Lhc way Lo a
ncw McLavcrsc, wc discovcr complcLcly ncw worlds. Considcr, or cxamplc, a
virLual world such as Sccond Iic, as wcll as Lhc mirror worlds o MicrosoL
and Google (Virtual) Earth.
c purposc o Lhc McLavcrsc is Lo digiLally cxpand our physical rcaliLy, crc-
aLing a ncw VirLu-RcaliLy LhaL adds socio-cconomic valuc Lo individuals and
organizaLions. is valuc cxprcsscs iLscl in urLhcr dcvclopmcnL o Lhcir
sLaLus as Hypcrcgos. DigiLal innovaLors such as Cooglc, IBM, MicrosoL and
many oLhcr companics on Lhc uscr sidc rcgard Lhc McLavcrsc as an cxLrcmcly
serious opportunity. A great deal of money is being poured into it.
9 Five Industry Disruptions and a Cultural One
Unsurprisingly, Lhc wcb mulLimcdia o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion arc dis-
rupLivc o Lhc LradiLional mass mcdia. To bcgin wiLh, Lhis is parLicularly Lhc
casc or ncwspapcrs, wiLh somc pundiLs cvcn prcdicLing Lhc immincnL dcaLh
of the printed newspaper as a result of digitalization. Whether or not such
dcmisc may bc Laking placc, a disccrniblc usion o ncwspapcrs, Lclcvision,
websites and social networks on the Internet is clearly happening. On the
Wcb subsLanLial amounLs o ncws arc alrcady rccly availablc. Many rcc
newspapers are managing to stay aoat, but are no longer independent op-
craLions. cy havc bccomc parL o Lhc pluriorm pallcLs run by mulLimcdia
companies, telecom organizations and publishing conglomerates.
In addition to the newspaper front, this chapter will examine the attack of
rcc wcb iniLiaLivcs on oLhcr mcdia sLrongholds, including Lclcvision. is
trend seems unstoppable. A YouTube-like approach is what consumers want
and are getting. In the case of the music industry, Napster and Kazaa ini-
Lially did noL sccm much o a LhrcaL. Howcvcr, pccr-Lo-pccr ncLworks arc
now pcrniciously popping up cvcrywhcrc. IL is noL jusL rccord companics who
are seeking new ways of directly contacting their fans and distributing their
music ovcr Lhc InLcrncL, buL rccording arLisLs Loo. A ourLh wavc o assaulL
is disrupLing Lhc Lclccom indusLry: rcc InLcrncL Lclcphony, or Voicc ovcr IP
(VoIP), has dramaLically changcd Lhc rcvcnuc modcl o Lclccom incumbcnLs.
Also, on Lhc uscr cxpcricncc sidc dcviccs likc Applc's iPhonc and T-Mobilc's
Cl, Lhc hrsL phonc caLuring Cooglc's Android OS, havc bccn succcssul
in redening the look-and-feel of the new portable media center, formerly
known as ccll phonc. c main Lrcnds in Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhc Lclcphonc
dcvicc and uncLionaliLy wcrc discusscd in SccLion 2.7: c Tclcphonc: From
Intimate Dialogue to Media Center.
To concludc our survcy o Lhc disrupLions in various cconomic sccLors
brought about by Web media, we will examine the banking sector, in which
pccr-Lo-pccr lcnding via InLcrncL brokcrs is an upcoming Lrcnd.
c hnal disrupLion" wc will discuss hcrc docs noL involvc Lhc uphcaval o an
economic sector but the change in traditional business culture by new forms
of collaboration and knowledge sharing, made possible by such Web media as
blogs and wikis.
10 The Development of Virtu-Real Media
e century between 1965 and 2065 is replete with coding, modeling, pro-
gramming and rccombining. is dcvclopmcnL slowly cmcrgcd in Lhc l060s
and, aLcr a pcriod o assimilaLion o Lhc Wcb 2.0 licsLylc, cvcnLually Look
ighL. Coding, modcling and rccombining arc now bcginning Lo cross-ovcr
inLo clcmcnLs o virLualiLy, cnriching our rcaliLy and making iL morc cccLivc
and ecient. At the same time, the future merging of ITech and ITainment
wiLh dcvclopmcnLs in nanoLcchnology, bioLcchnology and ncuroLcchnology
is now visiblc on our horizon. In Lhc uLurc, consciousncss and cogniLion will
no longcr havc Lo bc conLaincd wiLhin morLal shclls.
e Virtual Worlds that will ultimately come to exist will not completely
corrcspond Lo cnvironmcnLs such as Sccond Iic. InsLcad, (mulLi)mcdiaLiza-
tion, the new 2.0 lifestyle and articial intelligence in the form of agents and
avaLars will crcaLc a ncw pcrsonal hypcrrcaliLy, onc LhaL will cmcrgc during
Lhc ncxL Lcn ycars. In Lhis domain, virLual clcmcnLs LhaL havc bccn in Lhc
pipeline for some time now will come to enrich the way in which we deal with
and do business with each other.
Undoubtedly, this will soon be dierent in America than in Europe and dif-
ferent again in Asia and Africa. Geocultural, subcultural and also personal
dierences are, and will remain, great.
11 Is Science Fiction Becoming Reality?
Ultimately and, according to experts much sooner than we think, hyperin-
dividualizaLion will achicvc iLs Lruc ulhllmcnL Lhrough Lhc convcrgcncc o
digital (hardware and software) and analog (wetware).
is chapLcr will givc voicc Lo Lhc vicws o a numbcr o pcoplc aLLcmpLing Lo
skcLch ouL Lhc possiblc uLurc rcsulLing rom such an cvcnL. IL rcprcscnLs an
exercise in mapping out the scope of future possibilities emanating from the
probablc ncxL sLcp in Lhc dcvclopmcnL o InormaLion Tcchnology: Lhc IT
penetration of our skin. In the present Me-Media phase, things are still be-
ing done in what is perhaps a somewhat outmoded manner. In terms of their
objccLivcs, Lhc conLcmporary Mc-Mcdia arc mosLly jusL ragmcnLcd imiLa-
tions of mass media. e technology of Web media simply enables them to
a rcach a public morc casily. AL Lhc samc Limc, Lhc ncw Wcb cnvironmcnL
encourages us to be incredibly ckle.
Wcb mcdia clcarly havc a socializing and cmancipaLing cccL, buL Lhc ulLi-
mate consequence of the Ubiquitous Web would still seem to be far away.
Towards Lhc cnd o Lhc ncxL dccadc, howcvcr, wc may wcll bc looking back
aL Lhc prcscnL momcnL as i iL wcrc digiLal prchisLory, as dcvclopmcnLs arc
happening at an amazing speed.
e integration of ITech and ITainment with nanotech, biotech and cogni-
Lion is vcry closc aL hand (NanoLcch + BioLcch + ITcch/ITainmcnL + Cogni-
Lion = NBIC). Or aL Lhc vcry lcasL, Lhcrc is grcaL inLcrcsL in Lhc subjccL as
shown by Lhc rcccnL acLiviLy o Lhc U.S. PrcsidcnL's Council on BiocLhics, a
roLaLing group o MDs and PhDs organizcd in Novcmbcr 200l Lo advisc Lhc
PrcsidcnL on Lhc cLhical considcraLions o advanccs in biomcdical scicncc
and technology.
Constantly Dividing Your Attention
Whcn wc bcgan wriLing Lhis book, wc immcdiaLcly ound oursclvcs immcrscd
in all Mc-Mcdia dcvclopmcnLs. Wc pokcd and proddcd aL cvcry biL o social
software. We experimented with Twitter and, and were surprised
that many of the reports on Google News did not belong to the categories
in which Lhcy wcrc placcd. Fvcry applicaLion was sLill in bcLa and numcrous
ones perhaps will remain there. We were certainly able to agree on one thing:
all of these new social Me-Media require a huge amount of time.
What on earth are you meant to do with Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, Plaxo,
Jaiku, Twitter, Second Life, Wikio, Google News, CNN, Drudge Report, NYT.
com,,,,, WSJ.
com,, Lhc HisLory Channcl and all o Lhc inLcrcsLing documcnLarics
and clips on YouTubc and oLhcr vidco wcbsiLcs` AdmiLLcdly, you'll wanL Lo
keep up with a few interesting blogs while getting your work done, as well as
sccing a cw pcoplc in Lhc rcal world cvcry now and Lhcn (your amily, or cx-
ample), exercising a little more often and maybe enjoying some cooking with
nice music in the background. So what is all the Web media stu good for?
ere is one clear answer: nothing. So much Social Web warmth is simply
distracting. And an increasing amount of people are beginning to recognize
this fact.
e presence of the media mass on the Internet constantly commands our
attention; as the PC is already switched on, you might as well just nish one
last e-mail before sitting down to dinner. Once in a while, you might stumble
across grcaL ouL-o-copyrighL books availablc or rcc on
So much is on oer that it is hard to see how we actually get around to doing
anything these days. And this is not to mention all the music and lms that
you still want to download, the games that you want to play, and the CDs and
books sitting untouched on the shelf. ere is no doubt about it: the hectic
inLcracLions wiLh Wcb mcdia havc incrcasingly bcgun Lo Lakc ovcr our livcs,
making undividcd aLLcnLion a Lhing o Lhc pasL.
Linda Stone, the woman who established the Virtual Worlds
Group at Microsoft, has for some time been issuing warnings
about what she calls Continuous Partial Attention and Friend-
ship. Having Lo consLanLly dividc your aLLcnLion across, or
example, all of the online friendships that you wish to main-
Lain, mcans LhaL aLLcnLion and ricndship havc now bccomc
complcLcly dicrcnL valucs LhaL arc bcing cnLircly scramblcd
by web multimedia. Multitasking and being a jack-of-all-trades
aL Lhc propcr Limc is hnc, buL having Lo dividc your aLLcnLion
consLanLly and aL Lhc mosL inconvcnicnL momcnLs is somcLhing
else entirely.
The well-known American scientist Herbert Simon made a simi-
lar claim in his book Designing Organizations for an Information-Rich World:
What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its
recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a
need to allocate that attention efciently among the overabundance of infor-
mation sources that might consume it. In this book Simon outlined the basis
for what we now still call the Attention Economy.
c impacL on busincss is obvious. In largc doscs, ConLinuous ParLial ALLcn-
Lion is aLal or producLiviLy. In 2006, Lhc Amcrican consulLing agcncy Bascx
distracted a group of employees with e-mails and phone calls while letting a
sccond group smokc marijuana. BoLh groups subscqucnLly Look an IQ LcsL on
which the marijuana smokers scored higher. According to Basex, American
cmployccs arc inLcrrupLcd, on avcragc, clcvcn Limcs cvcry hour. is cquaLcs
to 2.1 hours or 28 percent of the working day, an amount of lost working
Limc LhaL cosLs Lhc busincss communiLy $5SS billion a ycar (sourcc: e Cost
of Not Paying Attention: How Interruptions Impact Knowledge Worker Productiv-
ity). AL Lhc sLarL o 2000 Lhis hgurc was updaLcd Lo $000 billion.
is loss o producLiviLy can bc dirccLly rclaLcd Lo Lhc adopLion o onlinc
communities in organizations based on weblogs, wikis, newsfeeds and in-
sLanL mcssaging. csc inLrusivc Lcchnologics musL bc handlcd in a mca-
sured manner, although the responsibility for their use is primarily borne
by Lhc uscrs Lhcmsclvcs. cy musL, aL Lhc vcry lcasL, cscapc rom Lhc macl-
strom a set number of times in order to concentrate on what is truly impor-
LanL and rcquircs Lhcir undividcd aLLcnLion. I Lhis docs noL happcn, Lhcn
the Enterprise 2.0, described by Don Tapscott and Anthony Williams in the
bestseller Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, could vcry
casily havc an undcsirablc cccL.
An ovcrdosc o ragmcnLcd Lhinking is harmul, whilc a pcriod o mulLiLask-
ing in a sLaLc o ow" can o coursc bc vcry cccLivc and inspiring. Morc-
ovcr, sLaying up Lo daLc wiLh a varicLy o issucs and pcoplc ccrLainly has iLs
benets, and a controlled dose of Social Web media ts well into the trend
o liclong lcarning. Howcvcr, iL is morc imporLanL Lhan cvcr bcorc LhaL wc,
as modcrn Hypcrcgos, makc conscious choiccs in allocaLing our aLLcnLion,
raLhcr Lhan allowing oursclvcs Lo bc consLanLly suckcd inLo Lhc swirling vor-
tex of the new Me-Media mass.
IL is noL only pcoplc likc Iinda SLonc and HcrbcrL Simon who havc bccn Lalk-
ing abouL aLLcnLion. c ncgaLivc digiLal ADHD cccL o ConLinuous ParLial
ALLcnLion has rcccivcd rcccivcd a grcaL dcal o aLLcnLion rcccnLly, cspccially
in Amcrica. Rcvilcr o amaLcur culLurc Andrcw Kccn abhorrcnLly vicws how
blogs, wikis, social networking, and the digital world are assaulting our econ-
omy, our culLurc, and our valucs." Maggic 1ackson, Lhc hcroinc o Lhc Inor-
maLion Ovcrload Rcscarch Croup scL up in mid-200S, sccs iL dicrcnLly buL
no lcss disparagingly. Hcr book is raLhcr ominously cnLiLlcd Distracted: e
Erosion of Attention and the Coming Dark Age. Mark Bauerlein, yet another dig-
iLal ADHD criLicasLcr, dcscribcs in harsh words How the Digital Age Stupees
Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future. e subtitle of his book reads:
Dont Trust Anyone Under 30: 50 Million Minds Diverted, Distracted, Devoured.
IL all boils down Lo a provcrb aLLribuLcd Lo Publilius Syrus, Lhc rccd
slavc who Caius 1ulius Cacsar oncc pcrsonally dcsignaLcd as Lhc win-
ner of what we now might term Romes Got Talent. Syrus is supposed
Lo havc said, Ad duo csLinans ncuLrum bcnc pcrcgcris," alLhough Lhc
Latin Library doubts that the aphorism is actually attributable to him.
is does not make the message any less pertinent. After all, doing two
things at the same time often means that neither is done as well as
whcn wc makc Lhc corL Lo dcvoLc our undividcd aLLcnLion Lo any onc
Mark Bauerlein promotes his ideas at, where you
can read the following abridged arguments:
The opposing partyperhaps not as dumb as all thatincludes Don Tapscott, the
owner of On the site, you can read the following:
If youre born in the baby boom echo and are a part of Generation Ythe Mil-
lennials, or what Don Tapscott refers to as the Net Generationyou might feel
targeted by what is becoming an increasingly loud attack against your charac-
ter and intellect. This public assault is widespread, as teachers, parents and
the media continue to paint an extreme, yet increasingly popular, image of
youth and the picture isnt pretty. Frankly, its quite offensive.

o Lhcm. c abbrcviaLcd IaLin scnLcncc oughL Lo bc inLcrprcLcd roughly in
Lhis way. ILs rclcvancc Lo our livcs is irrcuLablc, alLhough wc musL also ac-
knowledge that multitasking has its useful aspects and that we cannot just
simply avoid iL Lhcsc days.
Excessive Multitasking is Mind-Numbing and Maddening
c abovc-mcnLioncd provcrb, pcrhaps rc-adorncd in succincL modcrn Fng-
lish, is cvidcnL in WalLcr Kirk's arLiclc c AuLumn o Lhc MulLiLaskcrs,"
which appcarcd in Lhc Novcmbcr 2007 issuc o Amcrican journal e Atlan-
tic. Kirks introductory sub-heading is a sucient clue to the content of the
entire article:
Neuroscience is conrming what we all suspect: Multitasking is dumbing us down
and driving us crazy. One mans odyssey through the nightmare of innite con-
Kirk concludes his remarks by noting how Microsoft used to confront us
with their slogan: Where do you want to go today? Walter Kirk is sure of
his answcr: Now LhaL I no longcr conusc rccdom wiLh spccd, convcnicncc,
and mobility, my answer would be: AWAY. JUST AWAY. Someplace where I
can think.
Ovcr hal a ycar laLcr, Nicholas Carr also Lhrcw in a liLLlc morc grisL or Lhc
anti-multitasking lobbys mill in remarking alarmingly that his intellectual
powers had changed:
Im not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when Im read-
ing. [] I feel as if Im always dragging my wayward brain back to the text. e deep
reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle.
In cccL, Lhc aLLcnLion bcing dcvoLcd Lo digiLal ADHD by SLonc, Kirk, Carr,
Jackson, Bauerlein, Nobel prize winner Doris Lessing and all others walk-
ing in Syrus shadow only makes us more aware of the writing on the wall.
Busincss is cmbracing mulLiLasking Lo a scrious dcgrcc, as cvidcnccd by Lhc
ounding o Lhc InormaLion Ovcrload Rcscarch Croup (IORC) in 1uly 200S.
Also, IORG did not just fall out of the sky. Members were all long-term ac-
Livc parLicipanLs o Lhc Inomania SoluLions Workgroup aL Lhc UnivcrsiLy o
In September 2008, in the New York Times Damon Darlin reduced the obser-
vaLions or which Nicholas Carr rcquircd 4l75 words in e Atlantic to one
Twitter oering of 137 characters: Google makes deep reading impossible.
Media changes. Our brains wiring changes too. Computers think for us, at-
tening our intelligence.
NcvcrLhclcss Darlin vicws Lhis dcvclopmcnL as somcLhing ar
from as terrible as the doomsayers claim. In making his case, he
refers to an essential remark from Twitter founder Jack Dorsey,
who noLcd LhaL pcoplc havc ulLimaLc conLrol, as Lhcy arc rcspon-
siblc or using Lhc communicaLion rcsourccs availablc Lo Lhcm.
Wc no longcr havc Limc or borcdom in Lhis day and agc, whilc
Lhc opposiLcdigiLal ADHDcan inducc Lhc samc sLaLc o pa-
ralysis and neuroses. In both cases, we do not get done what we
need to get done. Focus, rest and rhythmthese constitute the
disciplinc rcquircd Lo Lhrivc aL Loday's hccLic pacc.
Me the Media Test Card
In rcccnL ycars, Lhc Wcb has mosL ccrLainly bccn addcd Lo our avoriLc mcdia
form as a result of which organizations reach out to their public. In 2007,
ovcr $3l billion in advcrLising moncy was spcnL on Lhc Wcb, comparcd wiLh
$l6S billion on Lclcvision. FxpccLaLions wcrc LhaL wcb advcrLising would
surpass Lhc radio sharc in 200S and LhaL in approximaLcly 20l0 wcb advcr-
Lising would rcprcscnL a LcnLh o LoLal world advcrLising cxpcndiLurc.
is ZcniLhOpLimcdia prcdicLion may havc bccn spoilcd by Lhc cconomic rc-
cession, but there is much more going on. anks to the Web, we no longer
sprawl on the couch icking channels during commercial breaks, rather we
scl-dcLcrminc whcrc wc will dcvoLc our aLLcnLion. To an incrcasing cxLcnL,
Lhc objccL o our dcvoLion is no longcr Lhc mass mcdia. c uni-mcdia ncws-
papcrs, radio sLaLions and Lclcvision channcls havc long sincc bccn dcvasLaL-
ingly ovcrwhclmcd by Lhc mulLimcdia mix or mcdia mass, in which Lhc Wcb
is becoming increasingly more dominant.
Undividcd aLLcnLion is a rariLy, and aLLcnLion span is pcrccpLibly rcduccd.
is primarily results from the amount of time that we are spending on the
Wcb and Lhc casc wiLh which wc ip ovcr Lo somcLhing clsc: c-mail, hlm,
product comparisons, news, games, sex, searches and web-TV to mention
just a few.
In addiLion, Lhc anonymous public is using Lhc Wcb Lo involvc iLscl in cv-
cryLhing. Wc havc our blogs, mainLain and csLablish conLacL Lhrough social
ncLworks, visiL phoLo siLcs, vidco siLcs, avoriLc siLcs, ncws siLcs, music siLcs,
and so on. e sky is once again the limit. Attention and content y o in
all directions, but fortunately web trac is easy to trace. As a consequence,
companics can LargcL producL salcs in a quickcr and lcss cxpcnsivc manncr.
e new dynamics call for experimentation and measurement. And once
again, that is not all.
As a result of the Web, mobile phones, GPS and computer games, we are grad-
ually cnLcring a ncw VirLu-RcaliLy, onc which will cvcnLually pcncLraLc inLo
Lhc vcry hbcrs o our bchavior and Lhc way in which pcoplc bchavc Lowards
us. Second Life, World of Warcraft, Google Earth, Microsoft Photosynth
and social ncLworksLhcsc arc Lhc prcdcccssors Lo an inLcgraLcd virLu-rcal
McLavcrsc in which dcsirc and rcaliLy inLcrLwinc or Lhc sakc o our plcasurc,
the enrichment of our experience and ease of life. e integration of our on-
line identities with the Web and the implicated interaction transforms us all
aL oncc inLo Hypcrcgos. Hypcrlinkcd on Lhc InLcrncL, wc muLaLc inLo hypcr-
LargcLs in a hypcrcompcLiLivc wcb cconomy. ink abouL iL: as individuals,
wc havc our parLial idcnLiLics, buL Lhc samc applics Lo Lhings, brands and
organizations, et cetera. e digital personalization and socialization is still
only just beginning.
c prcvious ccnLury was characLcrizcd by largc, amboyanL changcs such
as the car, the train, the airplane, the radio, the telephone and the computer.
DigiLal dcvclopmcnL has subscqucnLly bccomc all-cncompassing, inhlLraL-
ing nancial markets, all forms of communication, commerce, health care,
politics, and so on. e media function has come to occupy a central position.
e next step is to get it under our skin: literally, by fusing IT, nanotechnol-
ogy, biotechnology and intelligence. All these items are to be coded, modeled
and linked.
As a result, the coming decades will see us all intimately and physically inter-
connected within our own web by means of ordinary hardware and software,
as wcll as via Lhc biochcmisLry LhaL, or Lhc sakc o convcnicncc, wc will
call wetware. In this way, life will become one huge test laboratory for the
urLhcr dcvclopmcnL o humaniLy. c mulLimcdia linking o our biology,
bchavior, inLclligcncc, organizaLions, cL ccLcra, will bc a rcvoluLion wiLhouL
cqual. Who would havc cvcr LhoughL LhaL wc would bc Laking parL in Lhis
ultimate mediatization?
Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or 265 with a webcam. 1.
The PC will link the image it sees to specic Augmented Reality content via previ- 2.
ously downloaded software from
The additional Augmented Reality content will be displayed on top of the trigger 3.
page: in this case a robot holding a postcard with a welcome video.
Make Me the Media Pop
with Augmented Reality Tech
Me-Media and ITainment
2.1 From Printing Press to Web 2.0 33
2.2 Always boLh.and," Ncvcr ciLhcr.or" 36
2.3 IT or Web 2.0? 39
2.4 ITech and ITainment: IT from Beginning to End 43
2.5 We Are the Media Mass 47
2.6 c Busincss ImpacL o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion 52
2.7 e Telephone: From Intimate Dialogue to Media Center 54
This chapter will explain how individuals, brands, organizations, politics, and so
on, are using Web media to represent themselves better and more amboyantly
than ever before. The Internet is the site for this great explosion of Me-Media.
The Web is the Third Media Revolution, following the printing press and the mass
media of radio and TV. Previously, we had communicated by letter or telephone,
and we could reach more people through written submissions or by operating
radio equipment. But the use of mass media was always reserved for the press,
politicians, brands and organizations. Thanks to the Me-Media web revolution,
everyone is able to make themselves heard in a professional and multimedia way
via one large media mass of which the mass media industry is, to its great dis-
may, only one element. Modern Information Technology (IT) makes this possible.
IT is currently expanding from ITechnology into ITainment, the latter now becom-
ing the center of attention. The combination of Web media and ITainment makes
communication so intense and dominant that we, the actors, individuals, brands,
organizations, et cetera, can accurately be called Hyperegos; we are hyperlinked
and becoming super-active, with all the resulting consequences for the dynamics
of our world.
From Printing Press to Web 2.0
Rcasoning rom Lhc pcrspccLivc o our currcnL inormaLion ovcrload, iL
sccmcd Lo bcgin so pcaccully aLcr Lhc invcnLion o book prinLing in Furopc
around the middle of the fteenth century. e rst things to be printed in
Europe were tarot cards. Later, the Gutenberg Bible followed as the pice de
rsistance and subsequently profaner items such as world maps and pam-
phlets for and against the Reformation.
Church reformers spoke out against the papal hierarchy, incomprehensible
Latin, dominant Saints, all decorum, and for bare, naked Scripturethe
Word. e rst printed newspaper appeared just under a century later in the
Bclgian ciLy o AnLwcrp. Howcvcr, Lhcrc was sLill a grcaL dcal o illiLcracy
LhroughouL Lhc civilizcd world" wcll inLo Lhc lasL ccnLury, as books and pa-
pcr only bccamc aordablc as a rcsulL o Lhc indusLrial rcvoluLion.
Four centuries after the Gutenberg Bible, we came up with the telegraph
and later the telephone as electric wonders. ey both became hugely impor-
LanL in Lhc Mass-Mcdia Agc. In addiLion Lo prinL mcdia, radio and Lclcvision
cmcrgcd as ovcrpowcring Lcchnologics in Lhc sccond hal o Lhc LwcnLicLh
ccnLury as a rcsulL o dcvclopmcnLs in clccLronic and wirclcss communica-
Now, jusL a racLion o Limc laLcr, wc havc a mcdia whirlwind LhaL is bc-
coming progrcssivcly morc powcrul and mobilc, cncompassing c-mail, in-
stant messaging, text messaging, websites, e-Business and, not forgetting,
the social computing of Web 2.0 with its blogs, wikis, MySpace, Facebook,
YouTube, Digg and anything else that might exist. A completely new mass of
media in both the home and workplace.
In noLing Lhis dcvclopmcnL, wc havc riddcn Lhc spccd Lrain inLo Lhc prcscnL.
2007 was a memorable year: more information was generated in this single
From Gutenberg to the Internet
Print Media
ca.1425 Tarot cards
ca.1440 Type letters and printing press
1453 The Gutenberg Bible in print
1472 The rst printed world map
1520 The Reformation is the rst war of
1605 The rst printed newspaper

Personal & Mass Media
1844 The telegraph binds continents together:
the Victorian Internet
1875 The telephone: real-time sound from A to B
1877 The phonograph:
recording and playback of sound
1906 Radio: the rst voice across the airwaves;
wireless communication comes into being
1926 The rst live TV broadcast
1943 Colossus: the rst electronic computer,
decodes German messages
1978 TCP/IP: the basic Internet Protocol
1981 The IBM Personal Computer
Media Mass / Multimedia / Me-Media
1989 The World Wide Web:
Tim Berners-Lee links hypertext to TCP/IP
2003 OReilly Medias Dale Dougherty coins the
term Web 2.0
2006 Social computing:
You are named person of the year
2007 More information generated than in all of
the previous four thousand years put to-
gether. See Did You Know 2.0 on YouTube
Source: From Gutenberg to the
Internet. A Source-book on the
History of Information Technology,
year than in the entire history of writing since its inception in Mesopotamia
aL lcasL hvc Lhousand ycars ago.
From Lhc prinLing prcss Lo Wcb 2.0, Lhrcc major mcdia rcvoluLions havc
swept across Western Europe and America before engulng the entire world.
All Lhrcc havc had an irrcvcrsiblc impacL on Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhc powcr
rclaLions involving individuals, govcrnmcnLs, busincsscs and mcdia iLscl.
c progrcssivc mcdiaLizaLion hugcly rcashioncd Lhc individualizaLion, so-
cialization and economization of society, again displaying the social conse-
qucnccs o scicnLihc and Lcchnological dcvclopmcnLs.
To bcgin wiLh, wc had Lhc rcvoluLion o Lypc lcLLcrs and Lhc prinLing prcss,
which ultimately resulted in the mass-media newspaper. But newspapers
wcrc noL on Lhcir own or long, as radio and TV madc Lhcir advancc. PrinL
and electronic mass media existed harmoniously for a generation, until the
proound changc o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion swcpL across Lhc mcdia land-
scapc likc a wavc. Wcb mulLimcdia cngulcd Lhc cnLirc indusLry, crcaLing onc
largc mcdia mass. Wcb 2.0 now givcs cvcry liLcraLc InLcrncL uscr Lhc oppor-
tunity not just to make his or her ideas known, but also to join together in
various groups o likc-mindcd individuals.
c invcnLion o Lhc prinLing prcss cnablcd poliLical and rcligious acLivism
to ourish during the Reformation. Shortly thereafter, it was the turn of
science and literature to be widely circulated, followed by the dissemination
o ncws, producLs and scrviccs. c mcdia cncouragcd sharcd conLacLs and
idcologics, naLional pridc and a ncw ccling o scl-csLccm dcvclopcd. c
modern fashion experience emerged, the Me generation formed into an en-
From Gutenberg to the Internet
Print Media
ca.1425 Tarot cards
ca.1440 Type letters and printing press
1453 The Gutenberg Bible in print
1472 The rst printed world map
1520 The Reformation is the rst war of
1605 The rst printed newspaper

Personal & Mass Media
1844 The telegraph binds continents together:
the Victorian Internet
1875 The telephone: real-time sound from A to B
1877 The phonograph:
recording and playback of sound
1906 Radio: the rst voice across the airwaves;
wireless communication comes into being
1926 The rst live TV broadcast
1943 Colossus: the rst electronic computer,
decodes German messages
1978 TCP/IP: the basic Internet Protocol
1981 The IBM Personal Computer
Media Mass / Multimedia / Me-Media
1989 The World Wide Web:
Tim Berners-Lee links hypertext to TCP/IP
2003 OReilly Medias Dale Dougherty coins the
term Web 2.0
2006 Social computing:
You are named person of the year
2007 More information generated than in all of
the previous four thousand years put to-
gether. See Did You Know 2.0 on YouTube
Source: From Gutenberg to the
Internet. A Source-book on the
History of Information Technology,
tire new era and narcissism peaked. TV feeds us American Idol, Americas Next
Top Model, Britains Got Talent, et cetera, and YouTube a diet of stars such
as Lonelygirl15, Esme Denters and the satirical BarelyPolitical, the little
known ChurchOBlow and many, many morc. Nowadays, cvcryonc wanLs Lo
havc Lhcir own hLccn minuLcs o amc," and you can Lakc in whaLcvcr suiLs
your ancy whcncvcr iL is convcnicnL or you.
c Lhrcc mcdia rcvoluLions havc Lhcrcorc liLcrally broughL abouL a orm o
popularizaLion. Incrcasingly morc normal" pcoplc arc bccoming involvcd in
a growing numbcr o acLiviLics and cvcnLs, whcLhcr or noL Lhcir involvcmcnL
is passivc, acLivc, in morc or lcss casual orms.
Always bothand, Never eitheror
For the sake of articially-enforced clarity, we
havc a sLrong Lcndcncy Lo Lhink in boxcs whilc
working in isolation. But (healthy) narcissism
and community undoubtedly go hand in hand. To
be admired, celebrities require a public and one
that longs for idols. e same applies to heroes
as well as to role models, but also to objects. We
can adorn oursclvcs wiLh acccssorics and gadgcLs
to pimp our identity. Topping the British Cool
Brands list in 2007 were Aston Martin, YouTube
and iPod. An Englishman is only complete if he
has these three things, which are the media for
creating the best possible image. In America, the
marketing magazine BtoB listed the Blackberry, a
wireless e-mail and Internet cell phone, as the top
corporate brand.
IndividualiLy and socialiLy, cxhibiLionism and
communication join forces as poles in the same
continuum, to put forward what appears to be
a paradox. BuL such conLradicLions arc givcn in-
creasingly greater expression on Web media than
Lhcy havc cvcr had bcorc, as whaL is virLual and
whaL is rcal arc sLcadily convcrging. Ovcr Lhc
course of time, our experience of what is and is
noL rcal has conLinucd Lo cvolvc. AparL rom bcing
At this point in the Third Media Revolution,
the Web media mass has already settled the
question of eitheror or bothand in
favor of the latter. IT has hugely increased
media opportunities, and their creative
combination is more popular than ever. The
integration of nanotech, biotech, ITech, ITain-
ment and cognition/intelligence (NBIC) will
only continue this trend. NBIC is the upcom-
ing revolution, which has already begun to
take place. It appears that the principle limi-
tations of human
development will
shortly be a thing
of the past. Dan-
ish philosopher
Sren Kierke gaard
led the way as
far as this point
is concerned,
publishing a book
entitled Enten-
Eller (Either/Or) in
1843. Visit www.
individual and social, conLcmporary mcdiaLizcd cxpcricncc is, Lo an incrcas-
ing cxLcnL, also virLual and rcal. anks Lo Lhc InLcrncL and Lhc ird Mcdia
RcvoluLion, Lhcrc is hardly any ciLhcr.or" lcL aL Lhc prcscnL Limc, and Lhis
has happened while we are so accustomed to thinking in well dened catego-
ries that t together well.
Modcrn mulLimcdia can gcncraLc dcccpLivcly rcal cxpcricnccs. In
Lhc uLurc, wc will bc immcrscd in virLualiLy, which bcgan wiLh
the GPS system in our cars. Virtuality as an extension of reality
enhances our world, making life richer and easier.
Prcviously, wc crcpL inLo Lhc world o a book, using a ashlighL Lo
read under the blankets. Now, we watch a lm in our home cin-
cma, play World o WarcraL on our compuLcrs or visiL Lhc virLual
dollhousc Habbo HoLcl. WiLh CPS navigaLors, wc arc morc Lhan
cvcr Lruly cn rouLc." A moving sLrccL map wiLh landmark build-
ings has bccomc parL o Loday's sLandard cquipmcnL. So whaL is so virLual
abouL iL` c qucsLion docs noL cvcn occur Lo us. You arc simply ablc Lo havc a
clcarcr vicw o whcrc you arc whcn using CPS. c sysLcm liLcrally incrcascs
a pcrson's hcld o vision.
I wc can lcarn onc lcsson rom Lhc Lhrcc mcdia rcvoluLions and, spccihcally,
from the current Me-Media period, it is undoubtedly that eitheror does
noL cxisL. AlLhough iL may bc somcLimcs uscul Lo Lhink in boxcs, cvcryLhing
is always bothand. Shifts in emphasis are of course characteristic of a
ccrLain phasc. UlLimaLcly, wc will rcach Lhc ncxL lcvcl." cn, or cxamplc,
Lhc original aLLcnLion Lo Lcchnology will diminish in avor o considcraLion
for human-centric applications, just as it is doing now.
e consequences of the printing press, mass media and now the media mass
arc cxLraordinarily rcmarkablc and, in Lhis scnsc, rcvoluLionary. Howcvcr,
a mcdia rcvoluLion is, o coursc, a qucsLion o pcrspccLivc, a way o vicwing
rcaliLy, and Lhcrcorc parL o a complcx boLh.and." IL is ccrLainly a vcry im-
porLanL pcrspccLivc, as mcdia rcprcscnL immcdiaLc cxLcnsions o oursclvcs,
in which Lhc dcvclopmcnL o human communicaLion and, conscqucnLly, our
emancipation is key.
c Lhrcc mcdia rcvoluLions arc cach a scparaLc phcnomcnon, buL Lhcy ccr-
tainly did not occur in isolation. At least equally important were, for exam-
ple, the expanding world population, electricity and electronics, road, water
and air LransporLaLion, acLorics, roboLs, cncrgy, Lhc dcvclopmcnL o idcol-
ogy and politics, the economy and nancial markets, computing, biochem-
istry, nanotechnology, neurotechnology and the list goes on. Together they
constitute a continuum encompassing an increasing amount of complex in-
A cw ycars ago, Lhc collccLivc rolcs playcd by books, ncwspapcrs, Lhc Lclc-
phone, radio, TV, e-mail, websites, blogs, wikis, podcasts, Virtual Worlds,
and gamcs bcgan Lo cxplodc insidc Lhc mclLing poL o individualizaLion, cco-
nomics, globalizaLion and virLualiLy. is ncw playing hcld is bascd on Lhc
progrcssivc inLcgraLion o inormaLion, communicaLions and Lcchnology. c
fundamental relationship between Information Technology (IT, or Informa-
tion & Communication Technology (ICT) as it is called in parts of the world)
and media is, in part, the basic idea underlying the website From Gutenberg
Lo Lhc InLcrncL: A Sourccbook on Lhc HisLory o InormaLion Tcchnology. c
current relationship of information, communications and technology to me-
dia can bc vicwcd as ollows:
Information: e generic information ingredient is, at present, clearly
vicwcd as TainmcnL," which is Lo say cnLcrLainmcnL, cduLainmcnL, ino-
tainment, et cetera. Tainment is a media property. It is the combination of
mulLimcdia divcrsion, knowlcdgc and inormaLion. As a rcsulL, a sLrong o-
cus is placed on the accessibility and usability of information, as well as on
iLs cxprcssivcncss and aLLracLivcncss.
Communications: Communications and coordination are direct extensions
o cach oLhcr, alLhough coordinaLion rcccivcs incrcasingly morc aLLcnLion.
IL parLicularly involvcs Lhc coordinaLion o communiLics and o Lhc conLcnL
(information or Tainment) with which we work, the content that we as pro-
sumers produce and consume with and for each other. is lies at the heart
of the social computing of the current Me-Media phase.
Technology: Modern digital Me-Media technology is characterized by a fur-
Lhcr and dchniLivc shiL in cmphasis away rom Lhc ncccssary Lcchnology,
including concepts and structures to the concrete applications and use, in
boLh Lhcir acLivc and passivc orms. In shorL, aLLcnLion is now bcing ocuscd
on the human dimension, which comprises utility and amusement, learning
and divcrsion, prodcssc cL dclccLarc"Lhc agc old idca wc inhcriLcd rom
Lhc roman pocL Horacc, LhaL mcdia is mcanL Lo plcasc as wcll as Lo insLrucL.
e one side does not occur without the other: ITechnology is complemented
by ITainmcnL, by wcb mulLimcdia. WiLh Lhis wc havc rcLurncd Lo whaL was
said prcviously abouL Lhc inormaLion caLcgory.
IT or Web 2.0?
c progrcssivc inLcgraLion o I, C and T is gcncrally rccrrcd Lo as Wcb 2.0.
It is true that the multimedia Internet facilitates integration, but perhaps,
insLcad o naming iL Wcb numbcr whaLcvcr," iL would bc bcLLcr Lo rcLain IT
as the foundation of the multimedia, socializing and personal Internet. e
new IT of today and the near future must, as stated, be understood as multi-
media Tainment while, of course, including the necessary implicated layered
technological infrastructure.
Undisputed fact: Web 2.0 persists. is term, which was rst put into wide
circulation by publisher and Internet guru Tim OReilly in 2004, has become
an cvcryday cxprcssion. Tim's dccision Lo Lalk simply abouL Wcb 2.0 is, in
rcLrospccL, cxLrcmcly logical. Hc accd Lhc diculL Lask o cxplaining a Lrail-
blazing convcrgcncc o clcmcnLs.
To begin with, the recombination of software components, a pie in the sky
for some decades, has nally been implemented in a practical way using
so-called mash-up applications. e result has been a great increase in ex-
Lrcmcly usablc wcb uncLionaliLy, providing a basis or ourishing collabo-
raLion, socializaLion and individualizaLion as ncvcr bcorc. Tim clcarly clL
LhaL puLLing cvcryLhing LogcLhcr undcr a singlc vcrsion numbcr would bc
convcnicnL, which is cxacLly whaL hc did, and Wcb 2.0 was born.
Web 2.0 Rules!
Web 2.0 took o and became a resounding buzzword. But when the real ex-
pcrLs rom Lhc World Widc Wcb ConsorLium broughL O'Rcilly's vcrsion claim
to the examination table, Web 2.0 turned out to be based on features dat-
ing from 1995 and the years that followed.
Web 2.0 is a nice gimmick phrase, but, all
things considered, we are already working
with the preparation of Web 4.0 (see www.
Despite this fact, due to the popularity of
Web 2.0, the version number 2.0 has become a
synonym for meaningful functionality and hipness in very divergent elds.
Bascd on O'Rcilly's vcrsion dcsignaLion, wc arc now working on Lhc spccs
or Wcb 4.0, or aL lcasL LhaL is whaL W3C mcmbcr SLcvcn PcmbcrLon claims.
Obviously, Lhc problcm o using simplc vcrsion numbcrs Lo rccr Lo wcb dc-
vclopmcnLs is LhaL a ncw box wiLh Lhc subscqucnL numbcr docs noL jusL sud-
denly appear on the shelf, such as we are used to in the case of software
NcvcrLhclcss, Wcb 2.0 has bccomc unusually popular and, conscqucnLly,
Lhc 2.0 dcsignaLion as wcll. AL prcscnL, Lhcrc is a vcriLablc ovcrabundancc o
2.0 designations, such as Journalism 2.0, Collaboration 2.0, Education 2.0,
Lifestyle 2.0, Maslow 2.0, Enterprise 2.0 and MyCompany 2.0or simply
hll in any namc you likc 2.0. FurLhcr 2.0 varicLics can bc ound on Allings-, buL cvcn Lhis lisL is ar rom complcLc. Among Lhosc noL includcd
are Victorinox Lifestyle 2.0 Titanium Enhanced Auto Open and Close Um-
brella and E-Cigarette 2.0, an umbrella and a smokeless cigarette. Bubble 2.0
is also absent from the list.
e fact that we currently nd 2.0 names in the most diering domains and
ambiLions indicaLcs LhaL conLcmporary Wcb soLwarc dcvclopmcnLs havc
become the standard of hipness and meaningful functionality at the same
Limc. AdmiLLcdly, modcrn Wcb applicaLions currcnLly dcscrvc Lop billing on
accounL o Lhc valuablc ways in which Lhcy can cnrich our livcs.
BuL Lhcrc arc also Lhosc who bclicvc Wcb 2.0 Lo bc Lhc grcaLcsL possiblc piccc
o nonscnsc. c champion o Lhis posiLion is undoubLcdly Andrcw Kccn. Hc
is a former disciple of Tim OReilly who published a book in 2007 with the
self-explanatory title: e Cult of the Amateur: How Todays Internet Is Killing
Our Culture and Assaulting Our Economy (note the contrast between the deni-
graLing Lcrm culL" and Lhc valuc-ladcn Lcrm culLurc").
In 2007 Andrew Keen wrote a book entitled
The Cult of the Amateur: How Todays Internet Is
Killing Our Culture and Assaulting Our Economy.
Read the rst pages on

Web 2.0 is Killing Culture and the Economy
Some ten years ago, the British-American Andrew Keen was the head of dot-
com company Audiocafe, which afterwards appeared to be on the front lines
of what Fed president Alan Greenspan then identied as irrational exuber-
ancc." collapscd in l007, giving Andrcw Kccn a promincnL
place on the then famous so-called Fucked Company hit list.
In June 2007, Keen made himself heard in a signicant way. is time, it was
a book that was spreading his name around and, in this case, the rst book
by an insider who was totally opposed to Web 2.0, which according to Keens
subtitle was threatening to bring down our culture and economy. Andrew
Kccn cncrgcLically aLLacks Lhc ovcrcxaggcraLcd communisLic" romanLicism
implicd in Lhc cxccssivc praisc o Lhc magazincs Business 2.0 and Time of
You," o us as prosumcrs" givcn a voicc wiLhin Lhc digiLal communiLy and
conscqucnLly allowcd Lo rcmovc Lhc yokc o Lhc mcdia csLablishmcnL.
Keen, who enjoyed a sound British education, regularly cites a number of
nineteenth and early twentieth century Germans as part of his web-cult
criLicism, including Karl Marx, HcrbcrL Marcusc, Franz Kaka and Oswald
Spengler (author of e Decline of the West). By doing this, he showed an intel-
lccLual Lonc Lo which many Wcb 2.0 dcvoLccs could only aspirc. cy ound
Keen all the more irritating because he was once one of them, but had now
repented in a manner resembling Martin Luthers abhorrence of mother
ey were furious with Keen. And anyone who takes the trouble to read the
beginning of e Cult of the Amateur will understand some of the reasons
why. Keen specically describes his metamorphosis from disciple to disaf-
ccLcd individual during an inviLaLion-only FOO (Fricnds o O'Rcilly) camp
in 2004 for powerfully rich Silicon Valley residents who all talked about new
mcdia" and dcmocracy" in connccLion wiLh whaL Kccn callcd Lhc bcLa vcr-
sion o Lhc Wcb 2.0 rcvoluLion." AL Lhis poinL, hc convcrLcd and conLravcncd
the unwritten golden omerta rule of, as he puts it: no spectators, only par-
During the FOO Camp, things became clear to Keen, who broke entirely with
his old friends. We were the new media, says Keen about his experience.
Everyone was simultaneously broadcasting themselves [a slight aimed at the
YouTube slogan], but nobody was listening. Out of this anarchy, it suddenly be-
came clear that what was governing the innite monkeys now inputting away on

the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most
Under the rule of digital Darwinism, the person shouting the loudest wins;
the result is a great deal of sound and fury signifying nothing. No democ-
racy, but mediocracy, and before you know, you are inescapably bogged down
in banaliLy. Kccn docs pcrhaps havc a poinL hcrc, buL ailing Lo rcacL Lo Lhc
siLuaLion and rcLrcaLing Lo islands o civilizaLion insLcad is poinLlcss. Such
sandbagging was a feeble defense against the emergence of the newspaper,
Lclcvision and Lhc DoLcom Agc, and also againsL Lhc Wcb 2.0's Mc-Mcdia. AL
the FOO camp, Keen chose to retreat into a stoic resignation and be present
only in body. c annoyancc LhaL hc builL up ovcr Lhc ncxL Lhrcc ycars was
fully unleashed in e Cult of the Amateur.
e book was notably praised by none other than Larry Sanger, the joint
oundcr o Wikipcdia and main pcrson bchind CiLizcndium. On Lhc covcr o
Keens original publication, Sanger characterized the work as a
thought-provoking and sobering book really interesting insight and research.
Jonathan Last, online editor of e Weekly Standard, cvcn proclaimcd LhaL
Andrew Keen is a brilliant, witty, classically-educated technoscoldand thank
good ness. e world needs an intellectual Goliath to slay Web 2.0s army of
At a time when almost nothing else could be heard except You, Keen
launched a heartfelt jeer to disrupt all of the cheerleading.
IT Is No Longer Hip
Clearly, Tim OReilly created a lot of buzz with Web 2.0, and caused the fur-
ther decline of IT (information technology) as a fashionable term. is de-
clinc did noL happcn ovcrnighL buL bcgan whcn IBM inLroduccd Lhc Lcrm
e-Business in 1996, when the Business 2.0 magazine was launched in 1997,
and whcn, also in LhaL ycar, Lhc LhoughL-provoking book, Web-Enabled Ap-
plications Programmed on the Net: How to Become a Web-Enabled Enterprise,
became one of the rst handbooks for web organizations in the making. No
wonder that, under this web onslaught, the term IT began to lose its sense
o populariLy. NoL wiLhouL rcason, Sir Dcnnis SLcvcnson includcd Lhc C or
communication in his report on Information and Communication Technology in
UK Schools. To his mind, ICT seemed a more adequate term than IT alone.
ree years later, Forrester Research set the tone for the new millennium
with its report e Death of IT. Bobby Cameron predicted, e IT organiza-
tion will disappear in successful e-Businesses. A further three years later,
Nicholas Carr reiterated this point, although in another context, by uttering
the maxim IT Doesnt Matter. By this, he meant to suggest that computer
technology, which of course remained extremely important, had more or
lcss solidihcd inLo iLs dchniLivc vcrsion, aLcr orLy ycars o volaLiliLy daLing
from the birth of modern programming in 1965. At present, most attention
is cnLircly ocuscd on busincss-rclaLcd licsLylc bchaviors, spccihcally Lhosc
involving social compuLing" and Wcb 2.0 mulLimcdia.
Howcvcr, wcb dcvclopmcnLs bcing dcrivaLivc o IT, Lhc Wcb 2.0 qualihcaLion
and the criticism of it by the World Wide Web Consortium, mentioned two
subsccLions abovc in Wcb 2.0 Rulcs!, raiscs Lhc qucsLion o Lo whaL cxLcnL
a serious periodization based on IT would result in greater clarity. e fact
LhaL, aL Lhc bcginning o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, ITainmcnL has comc
Lo prcdominaLc ITcchnology could givc a boosL Lo Lhc usc o IT as a valuablc
term, one that certainly should not be abandoned.
ITech and ITainment: IT from Beginning to End
Information Technology is intended to manipulate data: it is as simple as
that. e entire eld was initially launched around 1965. At the time, there
was APL and PL/I, a language that combined the best of FORTRAN and CO-
BOL; Simula emerged as the rst object-oriented language and, in 1969, the
dcvclopmcnL o program languagc C was launchcd. BuL Lhings wcrc aL a vcry
early stage. Structured programming (program code without GOTO state-
ments) was at the center of interest. Edsger Dijkstra (19302002), an eminent
computer scientist, embodied this thinking, as shown in his 1968 article e
COTO SLaLcmcnL Considcrcd Harmul." is issuc had alrcady bccn broachcd
in 1965, when Dijkstra rst discussed it in Programming Considered as a
Human AcLiviLy."
AlLhough DijksLra did noL inLcnd anyLhing as signihcanL and cxLcnsivc as
Lhc LiLlc mighL rcLrospccLivcly suggcsL, iL is wiLhouL doubL highly rclcvanL
Lo vicw him in such a lighL, as programming appcars Lo havc bccn human-
itys worldly preoccupation if not its purpose since sometime around 1965.
At present, we code and manipulate any loosely or rmly interconnected
item with the greatest of ease: from an operating system to GPS, intelligent
avaLars and DNA. is will ulLimaLcly lcad Lo NBIC, an abbrcviaLion or Lhc
integration of nanotechnology, biotechnology and Information Technology,
supplcmcnLcd by cogniLivc scicnccs. IL is quiLc a mouLhul, buL onc LhaL is
undamcnLal and imporLanL as, whcn vicwcd in iLs cnLircLy, NBIC is con-
ccrncd wiLh Lhc unravcling and rccombinaLion o inLclligcnL lic iLscl.
IT 0.0
IT 1.0
IT 2.0
IT 3.0
With Programming Considered as a Human Activity
Edsger Dijkstra (Chairman of Computer Sciences at
University of Texas Austin, 19842000) unintentionally
kicked off our Programming Century
Second Life
ITech ITainment
+ > NBIC
1995 2010 2025 2065
- la|nment redom|nates lech
- A||cat|ons d |nte|||gence f|our|sh
- l matures and, |n the second
half of the Programming Century,
w||| deve|o |nto N8lL
- N8lL:
Nanotech 8|otech lech[la|nment Logn|t|on
- emova| of f|na| restr|ct|ons on the
development of intelligent life in the Metaverse
Virtual Earth
The Road to NBIC
All Lhings considcrcd, iL is cnLircly valid Lo rcgard DijksLra's l065 arLiclc Pro-
gramming Considcrcd as a Human AcLiviLy" as Lhc kick-o noL only or mod-
crn InormaLion Tcchnology buL or an cnLirc ccnLury in which a vcriLablc
programming rcvoluLion Look placc, and sLill is. NBIC will producc signihcanL
rcsulLs in approximaLcly 2050. In Tclcscopic FvoluLion, Lhc sixLh sccnc rom
the lm Waking Life, Procssor Famonn Hcaly cxplains how NBIC will dcvcl-
op. is can bc vicwcd along wiLh oLhcr sccncs on YouTubc. FurLhcr inorma-
tion about NBIC and Waking Life will bc providcd in ChapLcr ll o Lhis book,
while we will now discuss the four fteen-year periods into which modern IT
can bc dividcd and which LogcLhcr orm a prcludc Lo Lhc cra o NBIC.
ese periods (19651980, 19801995, 19952010 and 20102025) do of
coursc ovcrlap, as Lhcy did noL jusL appcar aL Lhc appropriaLc momcnL. crc
are periods of preparation leading up to them as well as ensuing legacies.
IT 0.0
e rst stage of modern Information Technology, which began with the de-
vclopmcnL o highcr programming languagcs around l065, cndcd in abouL
1980. More specically, it ended when the IBM PC was brought out in August
1981. anks to the accompanying programming language Basic, the auto-
maLcd cxccuLion o DOS commands in baLch programs, cnvironmcnLs such
as Turbo Pascal and Clipper, as well as macro facilities in text processors,
spreadsheets and database programs, programming could become the most
ordinary task in the world.
IT 1.0
It was only during the second IT period from 1980 to 1995 that Information
Tcchnology dcvclopcd inLo a popular phcnomcnon incxLricably inLcgraLcd
into daily life. For this reason, the second period is designated as IT 1.0, as
opposed to IT 0.0, the rst stage in which modern Information Technology
was, as it were, born.
IT 2.0
e subsequent period, IT 2.0, ocially began in October 1994, when Tim
Berners-Lee founded W3C: the World Wide Web Consortium. If, in terms of
the interlinking of machines, IT 1.0 brought forth the LAN (Local Area Net-
work), 1995 to 2005 was the glittering and turbulent age of the Internet on
the PC. As is well known, this stage has not proceeded without complication.
FirsLly, Lhcrc was c-Commcrcc and c-Busincss and subscqucnLly cvcn a Ncw
Fconomy." FurLhcr cxaminaLion provcd Lhis hypc Lo bc noLhing morc Lhan
an cnormous bubblc LhaL, oncc iL bursL, scnL a mulLiLudc o impovcrishcd
InLcrncL cnLrcprcncurs and invcsLors back Lo Lhc Lrcadmill along which Lhcy
havc uncxpccLcdly had Lo Lrudgc or ycars.
IT 3.0
In eect, we are currently in the IT 3.0 period, although this is not yet of-
hcial, or Lhis sLagc docs noL bcgin unLil 20l0. As mcnLioncd abovc, how-
cvcr, Lhcrc is always a prcamblc and a lcgacy, and Lhc urLhcr wc currcnLly
progrcss in Limc, Lhc morc concrcLc Lhc uLurc bccomcs. Unlikc any prcvious
moment in history, IT 2.0 is the age of the future is now and of the media
rcvoluLion" Lo ccho Lhc words o Casalcggio AssociaLi, makcrs o Lhc popular
YouTube clip Prometeus: e Media Revolution (the last chapter of this book
begins with the script for this production). In Me the Media, we place this Me-
Mcdia rcvoluLion in pcrspccLivc, noLing LhaL iLs convcrsaLional impacL on
Lhc cconomy and on socicLy as a wholc is acLually Lhc Lhird grcaL rcvoluLion,
following the printing press and electronic mass media.
At the end of IT 2.0 and throughout the IT 3.0 period, the focus is and will be
placcd on ITainmcnL: Lhc mass o mulLimcdia, social ncLworks and various
idcnLiLics LhaL individuals, organizaLions, brands and objccLs can Lakc on as
Hypcrcgos (hypcrlinkcd I's). In 200S, Lhc PC is shrinking urLhcr inLo ulLra
mobilc, wiLh a moLhcrboard-on-chip insLcad o Lhc invcrsc. c UlLra Mobilc
PC (UMPC), with which you can also make normal phone calls, will soon be
Lhc McLavcrsc dcvicc par cxccllcncc.
IT 3.0 is the nal age of pure Information Technology before the dawning
of the NBIC phase. At that time, the boundaries between nanotech, biotech,
inoLcch and cogniLivc disciplincs will bc blurrcd, and undamcnLal limiLa-
Lions on Lhc urLhcr dcvclopmcnL, sLoragc and rccombinaLion o inLclligcnL
lic in Lhc ncw McLavcrsc will bc climinaLcd. In Lhis scnsc, lic aL Lhc cnd o
the Programming Century will be a re-awakening into new life.
In Lhc hrsL sixLy ycars o Lhc Programming CcnLury (l065-2025), wc havc
wiLncsscd how Lhc compuLcr has movcd rom Lhc bascmcnL inLo our occs,
Lakcn ovcr Lhc mcdia uncLion and, hnally, combincd wiLh oLhcr disciplincs
Lo crccp undcr our skins. In oLhcr words, wc havc wovcn oursclvcs inLo a
single omnipresent web. A more essential transformation than this ITech

and ITainmcnL bascd c-mancipaLion" has ncvcr occurrcd aL any carlicr Limc
in our cvoluLion.
c cxLcnsion o oursclvcs Lhrough ITcch and ITainmcnL is noL surprising, as
the so-called killer apps of Information Technology belong to three essential
human drivcs: Lhc nccd or disLracLion, social conLacL and graLihcaLion o
curiosiLy and inquisiLivcncss. TainmcnL (cnLcrLainmcnL, inoLainmcnL and
edutainment), communication and information are elements that respec-
Livcly appcasc our appcLiLcs or disLracLion, socializaLion and saLisacLion
or curiosiLy and inquisiLivcncss.
We Are the Media Mass
At the transition from IT 2.0 into IT 3.0, we are now entering a world in which
cach individual can usc mass mcdia and Lhc InLcrncL Lo makc him or hcrscl
hcard as a privaLc and commcrcial bcing abovc Lhc largc and silcnL masscs.
is eect has been dubbed the Long Tail after the gradually diminishing tail
o a parabolic curvc. Prcviously, Lhc succcssul usc o mcdia was in Lhc hands
o a small group. As a rcsulL o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, wc arc now dcal-
ing wiLh Lhc Iong Tail, Lhc largc group o unLraincd individuals who Lhcm-
sclvcs sclccL Lhc Limcs aL which Lhcy will pay aLLcnLion Lo Lhc various orms o
TainmcnL, Lo which Lhcy oLcn havc a loL Lo conLribuLc Lhcmsclvcs.
e name we can apply to the shift of emphasis from ITech to ITainment has
become the title of this book. Me the Media means that we, all specic indi-
viduals, organizaLions, brands and objccLs, havc LogcLhcr bccomc Lhc ncw
Media Mass. is transformation can be directly related to the following two
quotes from Marshall McLuhans 1964 book Understanding Media: e Exten-
sions of Man.
Our private and corporate lives have become information processes because
we have put our central nervous systems outside us in electric technology.
e medium is the message.
What Marshall McLuhan meant by the medium is the message is quite
simple, namely the medium is the massage. is was in fact a mistake in
Lhc LiLlc o his l067 book LhaL McIuhan ncvcrLhclcss graLcully acccpLcd as
being dead on target. e slogans the medium is the message and the me-
dium is the massage boil down to the following point: any mediumbe it
radio, Lclcvision, Lclcphonc or oLhcrposscsscs uniquc characLcrisLics LhaL
signicantly aect the processing and appreciation of the message it trans-
miLs. c naLurc o Lhc mcdium dcLcrmincs Lhc manncr in which wc rcccivc
a massaged-in message.
Bricy considcr how wc cxpcricncc a ooLball gamc via Lhc radio. c cxpc-
rience is more intense than on TV, as our only source of information is the
sLandard chaLLcr o Lhc radio announccr. CumulaLivc audiLory impulscs arc
processed in our heads into fragmented images of the game, while we sit ex-
ciLcdly wiLh a cw ricnds glucd Lo our radio scLs and hardly havc Limc or a
snack, only or a ncrvous cigarcLLc.
A person may also sit glued to a TV set, but not like in a radio experience. e
rcason or Lhis dicrcncc is Lhc ovcr-sucicncy o inormaLion, noLhing is
left to ll in. Most games we can follow better on TV than in a stadium. With
number of people
The Long Tail
a small majority used to
dominate the market
nowadays the great mass
can also be active

Prior to the Third Media Revolu-
tion, only a fraction of all pos-
sible media actors participated
in mass media newspapers,
radio and TV. On account of
ITainment and, in the media
mass on the Internet, all literate
computer users can now match
themselves in digital quality
against the greats of yesteryear.
Various blogs and multimedia
platforms have already over-
shadowed the traditional media
insofar as attention and impact
are concerned. Time is the criti-
cal factor being reallocated to
the detriment of the newspaper,
radio and TV. These three are
challenged to consolidate their
position within the new media
The uni-media specialists from the previous century must all now invest in multimedia and in new
ways of attracting ckle individuals and communities.
chips, chccsc and bccr vicwcrs can
comportably watch all the action.
e entire course of the game, as
well as the stadium atmosphere, is
aLLracLivcly ocrcd Lo Lhc vicwcr's
scnscs rom various camcra anglcs,
complete with an array of images,
sounds and commentary, as well as
instant replay. And while technol-
ogy may noL ycL bc ablc Lo providc
the smells, it certainly can dress up
the scene in ambient color from
behind the at TV screen.
Web Media and ITainment
McLuhan was specically dealing
wiLh radio and Lclcvision, Lhc mass
media of his time with which he
was most familiar. We can easily
conccivc comparablc cccLs or Lhc Lclcphonc, ncwspapcr, book, glossy mag-
azinc, billboard, cL ccLcra, and analyzc Lhc advanLagcs and disadvanLagcs o
these media in terms of how we experience the communicated messages.
What we immediately note about the medium is the message is the use
of the word medium. ese days, worldwide discussion concerns media
and multimedia, words now used as singular mass nouns. Modern TV does
noL only bring rcgular Lclcvision programswiLhouL commcrcials i wc usc
Lhc righL cquipmcnLbuL radio sLaLions, LclcLcxL and on-dcmand movics as
On Lhc InLcrncL, wc rcccivc LcxL, sound and vidco all aL Lhc samc Limc, and
from all kinds of sources. Add newspapers, magazines, telephone calls and
books for anyone who wants them. In addition, there are Virtual Worlds
wiLh avaLars, noL orgcLLing chaL scssions and c-mail, communicaLion plaL-
forms such as Facebook and My Space, games and so on and so forth. What
does this ood of Web media mean for McLuhans maxim the medium is the
Again, the answer is simple. Web media ensure that medium or media
(regardless of it being considered in a specic or general sense) no longer
has any relationship to its original underlying technology. For the specic
Marshall McLuhan (19111980)
With the arrival of television in every household, this
device became the most powerful instrument for mass
manipulation. However, we were not only inuenced by
the programs
that entertained
or enticed us
into buying
products, TV
forced us to
look at our-
selves, and that,
according to
McLuhan, was
the greatest
impact of all.
media of radio, TV, the newspaper, the book and the telephone it is dierent.
We still think of the newspaper as something that rolls o the press, radio
broadcasLs in Lcrms o Lhc music and ncws LhaL wc rcccivc across Lhc airways
by mcans o an anLcnna, and Lclcvision as a signal LransmiLLcd by cablc or via
saLclliLc. BuL whaL abouL Lhc InLcrncL` Wc do noL havc any o Lhis on Lhc In-
ternet. It is quite simple: the Internet is.! MosL pcoplc arc noL cvcn vagucly
awarc o Lhc Lcchnology LhaL is involvcd in Wcb conLcnL and navigaLion, cx-
cept perhaps for their (touch) screen, mouse and keyboard, which normally
also will be taken for granted.
at is interesting. To be precise, it means that the medium character of
McLuhans message is, in the case of Web media, completely deected away
rom InormaLion Tcchnology and onLo Lhc applicaLions and cvcn InLcrncL
bchavior. c ocus is on Faccbook, MySpacc, YouTubc, MSN, Cmail, BiLTor-
rent, the Wall Street Journal Online, Drudge Report, to name just a few. In
short, the medium is now ITainment.
A cw acLors arc rcsponsiblc or Lhis shiL. FirsLly, Lhc ovcrwhclming mul-
Limcdia characLcr o Lhc InLcrncL as opposcd Lo Lhc (rclaLivcly-spcaking)
uni-media nature of the newspaper, radio and TV, for example. Secondly, the
fact that interaction between user and medium occurs in the on-screen ap-
plicaLion. And Lhirdly, Lhc InLcrncL is clcarly a pcrsonal mcdium: wc havc
all cmbraccd wcb applicaLions on a pcrsonal lcvcl, incorporaLing Lhcm inLo
our livcs. As no mcdium bcorc, Lhc mulLimcdia Wcb apps o Loday rcally arc
extensions of man, as meant by MacLuhan. at is why we call them Me-
IL is blaLanLly oblivious LhaL in cvcry rcspccL Lhc InLcrncL is Lhc ncw (and
only) mulLimcdium" or cvcryonc. c InLcrncL is Lhc domain o MySpace,
YouTube, OhMyNews, iReport, my e-mail, my MSN and my weblog. In fact,
we are all on the Internet, which also makes it the number one, unparalleled
worldwide social medium.
Due to the richly-colored interaction opportunities, the phenomenon of
Web media no longer emphasizes underlying technology but applications
and Lhcir inLcgraLion. Fvcn i you jusL ask whaL InLcrncL or Wcb mcdia arc,
then you will hear about Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, MSN, and the like.
c mcdium" is indccd sLill Lhc mcssagc." Howcvcr, duc Lo Lhc World Widc
Web (to properly distinguish carrier and parent application for once), the
mcdium" has bccomc a synonym or Lhc inLcracLivc social and mulLimcdia

character of web applications and their integration, which is to
say, a rcvoluLion. is characLcr is Lhc mcssagc" or Lhc massagc"
of the new Me-Media.
For Lhc masscs Lhc pcrccpLion o Lcchnology" has movcd rom
Lhc airwavcs, cablc, CSM (Lhc principlc sLandard or mobilc
phones), et cetera to drag & drop, pop-up screens, pull-down
windows, multimedia and all the functionality these enable. e
actual technological basis lies in the software applications them-
sclvcs: in Lhc APIs (Lhc ApplicaLion Program InLcraccs) o Facc-
book, Google, Amazon, and so on.
e message of all this is perfectly clear: the integration of web
functionality and applications is increasingly less associated with
Lcchnology. Any child can handlc Lhc Lasks involvcd, bc Lhcy pcr-
sonal or commcrcial. is obscrvaLion aL lcasL marks ouL Lhc linc o advancc,
onc LhaL wc all hcad down whcn wc cmploy mcaningul wcb scrviccs, soL-
warc mash-ups and widgcLs in a Scrvicc OricnLcd ArchiLccLurc. In so doing,
we are on the boundary of the transition from IT 2.0 to IT 3.0.
So What?
Why is all this so important? Well, to begin with, the shift in attention from
technology to applications and their integrations is extremely important, as
Lhc inLcracLivc wcb-mcdia phcnomcnon ocrs cndlcss and unparallclcd op-
portunities for personal, social and economic uses, thanks to the storage,
recombination and processing possibilities of the underlying hardware and
software. Consider for a moment that a medium exists for the rst time
cvcr in hisLoryan inLcracLivc mulLimcdia in acLand is linkcd Lo cach I"
and Lo cach idcnLiLy LhaL wishcs Lo bc involvcd. csc idcnLiLics and subjccLs
can all scnd and rcccivc, and scnsc and rcspond aL Lhc samc Limc, hcncc Lypi-
cally a question of the Long Tail.
Secondly, the dominant emphasis on applications is essentially important
our private and corporate lives have become information processes because we
have put our central nervous systems outside us in electric technology.
ConscqucnLly, wc rccr Lo McIuhan's own words Lo vanquish in a singlc blow
the mysteriousness of the medium is the message.
WhaL Lhis all collccLivcly mcans is LhaL wc all (cvcry busincss, brand or pcr-
sonal I" and idcnLiLy) havc dclibcraLcly movcd all our bcing, including our
scnscs and cvcn inLclligcncc, inLo conLacL wiLh Lhc clccLrical Lcchnology" o
ITech, the Web, ITainment and Me-Media, heading further down the path to
NBIC. is dcvclopmcnL is kcy Lo Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, ollowing on
rom Lhc prinLing prcss and Lhc clccLronic mass mcdia. As privaLc individu-
als, organizaLions and cvcry oLhcr conccivablc (parLial) idcnLiLy, including
inLclligcnL agcnLs and avaLars, LogcLhcr, wc consLiLuLc Lhc ncw Mc-Mcdia
The Business Impact of the Third Media Revolution
c Mc-Mcdia cmpowcrmcnL o Lhc pcoplc mcans LhaL convcrsaLions arc
changing. Me-Media are like a space you can enter: a space to go to when you
wanL Lo know cvcryLhing, a spacc in which no onc can gloss ovcr Lhc acLs, a
sort of replica or Virtual World in which your customers are able to conduct
inLcrvicws wiLh cach oLhcr, cmployccs can air Lhcir conccrns and, bcorc you
know it, your good name is dragged through the mud. Such a space stands
in sLark conLrasL Lo Lhc languagc o oldcrs and advcrLising campaigns. c
Mc-Mcdia Mass involvcs pcoplc's rcal cxpcricnccs,
emotions and encounters. ere is humor and a great
deal of cynicism.
e longer you remain in the space, the more you
obscrvc and Lhc morc inLcrcsLing iL bccomcs. c
immensity of the space can astound you, as well as
the fact that there are no locked doors anywhere.
Anyone can enter, nothing is secret. ere are mil-
lions and millions of participants. You recognize a
cw old classmaLcs. A saLishcd cusLomcr givcs you a
pat on the back. A business relation shares what real-
ly makes him tick, you learn what his hobbies are,
and what his children do. You can read stories, watch
clips, become a member of any social network you
likc: Lhc Wcb is swarming wiLh acLiviLy.
Sometimes, you come across real streets running
through this space. ere is the neighborhood you
livc in, wiLh LhaL nicc liLLlc rcsLauranL around Lhc
corner. You decide to go inside. It has a new owner.
Seven Highlights
For the rst time in 1.
history, everyone
individuals, organiza-
tions, brands or ob-
jectscan use simple
and inexpensive tools
to broadcast to all
other identities exist-
ing throughout the
world and to establish
contact with them.
Of everything that is 2.
broadcast on the new
Me-Media, businesses
are most interested
in the experiences,
encounters, emotions,
opinions and jokes of
ordinary people. This
e menu appeals to you and, fortunately, the interior has not changed. Out-
sidc again, you run inLo avaLars and discovcr LhaL your ncighbor is a guild
leader in World of Warcraft.
A young man is, just like you, extremely enthusiastic about what he is see-
ing. Hc has bccn coming hcrc or a whilc. NoL jusL or Lhc plcasurc o iL buL Lo
gaLhcr inormaLion or a cw corporaLc invcsLors. c word is LhaL Lhcrc arc a
cw bugs in a ncwly launchcd and highly laudcd producL. Hc musL hurry now,
as Lhc invcsLors nccd Lo unload Lhcir sharcs bcorc Lhc rcsL o Lhc sharchold-
crs bcgin Lo rcacL. Whcn lcaving, hc apologizcs or Lhc acL LhaL hc is noL a
rcal pcrson buL an inLclligcnL avaLar, in oLhcr words a soLwarc program in
human form that you can send on errands in the Virtual World.
e new Me-Media space is only half nished, but you can already set up resi-
dcncc Lhcrc. To bc absoluLcly clcar, you havc Lo bc Lhcrc. aL is whcrc your
customers are, where the stories are and where, if you dont watch out, your
busincss will bc ushcd down Lhc Lubc. As a virLual Mc-Mcdia rcsidcnL, you
are there to listen, answer questions, and display understanding. And to try
in this way to steer discussions in the direction you want. Which by the way
new content affects product
choice, brand experiences
and purchasing decisions.
A large portion of all prefer- 3.
ences, knowledge and ideas
is shared over the new net-
works. For instance, knowl-
edge systems have emerged,
ranging from Wikipedia to
TripAdvisor. They are used to
share private and commercial
information and to increase
knowledge for such pur-
poses as the creation of new
products and services or the
updating of existing ones.
Just as the Internet gave rise 4.
to hypercompetition in the
nineties, modern Web media
is empowering individuals,
organizations and brands,
transforming them into so-
called Hyperegos (identities
whose characteristics and
deeds are interwoven through
hyperlinks into a single large
Me-Media Mass).
Organizations have to deal 5.
with a communication
explosion that, for the most
part, occurs outside of their
control. For this reason, it has
become more difcult to keep
things secret. Everything has
become more visible and
The intimacy among Hyper- 6.
egos is a distinctive charac-
teristic of the new Me-Media.
Within social networks and
other communities, ad hoc
power blocks can make or
break a brand or organiza-
Everything within the new 7.
media mass has been estab-
lished on the Internet and
everything has an equally
serious status. Errors and in-
decent intentions are difcult
to clearly indicate to others.
Organizations are therefore
required to conduct an open
policy and ensure that they
have an untarnished reputa-
tion insofar as their products,
services and treatment of
people are concerned.
will happen more and more from your brand-new physical Me-Media center:
Lhc onc you coincidcnLly also sLill conducL dirccL voicc convcrsaLions wiLh.
e one we still tend to call the telephone, albeit mobile these days.
The Telephone: From Intimate Dialogue to Media Center
e rst telephones were little more than a couple of tin cans connected by
a wire: a childish physics experiment by which schoolchildren learn that
sound can Lravcl along a sLrcLchcd linc. c hrsL Lclcphoncs soundcd Linny
and lacked modern keypads. In eect, they only diered from the tin can
and string model in that their operation was based on electricity rather than
From the rst use of the rst instrument, up
until the present day, the telephone has primar-
ily bccn uscd Lo LransmiL a voicc rom scndcr Lo
rcccivcr: aciliLaLing simulLancous rcmoLc com-
munication. e ability to conduct a person-to-
pcrson dialoguc ovcr grcaL disLanccs was morc
than enough to make the telephone a resound-
ing success throughout all of that time.
Empty Room.
Borrowed from www.
under CC license
c vidcophonc, in opcraLion bcLwccn Bcrlin and Munich as long ago as
l03S, has ncvcr rcally caughL on commcrcially, buL Lhis is noL surprising. I
we are not together in one room and wish, metaphorically speaking, to un-
derstand each other properly, a picture on a screen only distracts us from the
convcrsaLion wc arc having. FnLcring inLo an inLcnsc dialoguc wiLhouL sccing
The telephone of Antonio Meucci. In 2002, the American House of Representatives
recognized Meucci as the inventor of the telephone: If Meucci had been able to pay
the $10 fee to maintain his caveat after 1874, no patent could have been issued to Bell.

Science ction in 1914.
Source: paranoiastrikesdeep.
1938: Television by
phone was achieved
in Germany. On the
wall is the received
picture of the Munich
operator; to the right
the round eye picks
up the image of the
Berlin speaker and
sends it to Munich.
cach oLhcr cvidcnLly cnhanccs communicaLion. is has noL changcd Lo
date, despite all of the bells and whistles to be found on cell phones. In
comparison Lo gcncral phonc usc, Lclcconcrcncing or vidco concrcnc-
ing seems hardly worth mentioning. e communication enhancer that
is the telephone functions best between two people based on language.
is was iniLially prcdominanLly spokcn languagc, howcvcr Lhc cmcr-
gence of SMS has extended it to written language as well; the former
works best as a type of direct instantaneous communication (and not
as voicc mail), whilc SMS is mosL suiLably cmploycd or mcssaging.
Nowadays, MP3 audio, InLcrncL and Lclcvision on a ccll phonc sccm Lo
bc whaL cvcrybody wanLs. 1usL likc Lhc vidcophonc, nonc o Lhis is ncw.
As far back as 1938, there were telephone handsets containing small
scrccns, and Lhc vision o Lhc Lclcphonc bcing uscd Lo lisLcn Lo avoriLc
music sLcms rom Lhc vcry bcginning o Lhc dcvicc in Lhc nincLccnLh ccn-
tury. Todays multimedia Internet adds a large helping of extras; speci-
cally, it ensures the integration of content and communication: e-mail,
chaL, wcbsiLcs, social ncLworks, CPS locaLion scrviccs, cL ccLcra.
When considering the integration of content and communication, of
mcdia and Lclccom, iL is viLal Lo rccognizc LhaL Lhc invcnLion o Lhc Lclc-
graph, Lclcphonc, gramophonc, radio and Lclcvision arc closcly connccL-
cd. All involvc scnding and rccciving (insLanLancous) mcssagcs, bridging
distance, and time or, in modern terms, to facilitate mobility, real-
time interaction and on-
dcmand scrviccs. Fxpcri-
menting with coils, cores,
magnetism and mem-
brancs lcd Lo Lhc invcn-
Lion and improvcmcnL o
elementary components
such as the microphone
and loudspeaker. As exem-
plied by the gramophone
rccord, Lhc vacuum Lubc
and other electronics, all
of these elements could
be produced on assembly
Tomorrow in 1956.
lines, and the nal products made
aordable to the consumer. e tele-
graph, telephone, gramophone, radio
and Lclcvision havc many Lhings in
common, and their specic function-
alities would be combined throughout
e miniaturization resulting from
the emergence of transistors and
computer chips, and the continuous
dcvclopmcnL o daLa carricrs and
data processing up to and including
Lhc immaLcrial lcvcl o soLwarc codc
now cnablc us Lo acccss audiovisual
computers that t into the palm of
our hands but which are still called
telephones. eir multifunctionality
has dcvclopcd rom Lwo-way com-
munication to Tainment (entertain-
ment, edutainment, infotain ment, et
cetera). As a result of the Tainment
factor, the modern cell phone has be-
come a desirable personal media cen-
ter for modern homo ludens, the hu-
man being at play.
e further adornment of our cell
phones with social network functions,
locaLion scrviccs, Lclcvision and mul-
Limcdia InLcrncL mcans LhaL Lhc vi-
sion of media as extensions of man
is becoming further realized. Sophis-
ticated cell phones oer us increased
mobility within a new Virtu-Reality,
focusing on the meaningful enrich-
mcnL o cxpcricncc Lhrough various
forms of enticement and ecstasy, and
Lhcsc omniprcscnL, cvcrywhcrc and
on demand.
Find Friends, Find
Places, Find Your
Way: Tomorrows
Mobile Augmented
Johan Huizinga,
Homo Ludens: A Study
of the Play Element in
Culture. Haarlem, 1938;
Boston, 1955.
e power of the spoken and written word remains the tele-
phones killer app, but it is supplemented by the sounds and
imagcs hrsL broadcasL Lo us via Lhc mass mcdia o Lhc lasL
ccnLury, and Lhcn narrowcasL via Wcb mcdia on Lhc PC.
e personal experience of the all-in integrated media across
Lhc Wcb has broughL abouL Lhc dawn o a ncw cra. FvcryLhing
has become I and You. Print media, radio and TV are going
through tough times. It is only now that we are experiencing
the initial consequences of this new dynamic accompanying
the rise of the personal media center. In terms of form and
uncLion, Lhis ncw dcvicc rcprcscnLs a usion o PC, Lhc Wcb
and Lhc morc advanccd broadband ccll phoncs.
Convergence of Telecom and Media
c convcrgcncc o Lclccom and mcdia hails back Lo Lhc pio-
neering period at the end of the nineteenth century and at
Lhc bcginning o Lhc LwcnLicLh ccnLury. I Lhcrc was cvcr an
agc o mcdia convcrgcncc, Lhcn iL was during Lhis Limc pc-
riod. IniLially, Lhc dominanL ocus involvcd making Lhc Lclc-
graph spcak, as iL was dcscribcd aL Lhc Limc. Howcvcr, phoLo-
graphy was also on the rise; the magic lantern was gradually
Marshall McLuhan,
Understanding Media:
The Extensions of Man, 1964.
Source: www.collections
html and
bcing Lransormcd inLo Lhc moving picLurc, and Lhc phonograph dcvcloping
into the gramophone, despite originally being intended as a peripheral de-
vicc or Lhc Lclcgraph and Lclcphonc.
FvcryLhing was an cxcrcisc in applicd clccLromagncLism. Pcoplc such as
Hcin rich HcrLz laid Lhc groundwork or Lhis dcvclopmcnL. HcrLz was hon-
ored posthumously in 1930, when it was decided to name the unit of fre-
qucncy aLcr him. From radio and Lclcvision wavcs Lo Lhc proccssor spccd in
compuLcrs, cvcryLhing is mcasurcd in Hz.
VibraLions and wavclcngLhs wcrc Lhc
ccnLral ocus o all o Lhis acLiviLy. In
1929, Louis de Broglie was awarded
the Nobel Prize for his hypothesis
LhaL cvcryLhing involvcs wavcs. Ra-
dio and TV already existed by this
time, and it was not unreasonable
at the end of the 1930s for people
to imagine that we would soon be
transmitting all types of matter.
e use of a scanning tunneling mi-
croscopc Lo movc a cw aLoms aL Lhc
bcginning o Lhc l000s could cvcn bc
rcgardcd as Lhc hrsL LcnLaLivc proo
of concept (
pd) or Lhc SLar Trck vision in which
matter is simply teleported across
intergalactic distances.
Pcrhaps an cvcn a biggcr brcak-
through was Innocenzo Manzettis
idea of the talking telegraph, rst
built by him as a prototype in 1864.
Only l4 ycars laLcr, Lhc invcnLion o a
good quality microphone by omas
Edison facilitated the launch of qual-
ity telephony based on Alexander
Bcll's ImprovcmcnL in Tclcgraphy
patent, which described the method


300,000 km
30,000 km
3,000 km
300 km
30 km
3 km
300 m
30 m
3 m
10 GHz
1 GHz
100 MHz
10 MHz
1 MHz
100 kHz
10 kHz
1 kHz
10 Hz
100 Hz
AC current
1 Hz
with submarines
with mines, geophysics,
avelanche beacons
LF radio
(time signals, navigation,
AM longwave broadcasts)
MF radio
(AM medium-wave broadcasts)
HF radio
(AM shortwave broadcasts,
amateur radio, police,
FM broadcasts, aviation,
television (Band I-III)
70cm band
2m band
4m band
8m band
Television (Band IV-V), microwave,
aviation, cellphone, GPS,
wireless LAN, Bluetooth
Radar, radio astronomy
Infrared, visible, ultraviolet
(>10 THz)
30 cm
3 cm
3 mm 100 GHz E
o, and apparaLus or, LransmiLLing vocal or oLhcr sounds Lclcgraphically."
Bcll considcrcd LhaL his invcnLion would mainly bc uscd Lo lisLcn Lo ncws
and symphonics. In bric, hc cnvisioncd rich sLrcaming mcdia avanL la lcLLrc:
Lhc convcrgcncc o Lclccom and mcdia. For a whilc, prior Lo Lhc arrival o
radio, the phone was in fact used for such purposes, but only to an extremely
limited extent. e Italian telephone newspaper LAraldo
Telefonico had 1300 subscriptions in 1914.
Bells farthest-reaching and, in his eyes, most important
project was the photophone, a way of transmitting sound
wirelessly using sunlight. In 1880, Bell succeeded in bridg-
ing 213 meters in this way. Although the method only
worked in clear weather conditions, it cannot be denied
that the photophone was a signicant historical experi-
ment in wireless communications.
In a period of just forty years (from 1890 to 1930), the
worlds media sector was completely transformed by
an clccLromagncLic, and Lhcn an clccLronic, rcvoluLion. is Lcchnological
trans formation was well-suited to the use of components as practiced in
clockworks. IL also ran parallcl Lo an clccLrical rcvoluLion, along wiLh radical
changes in motorized production, consumer products and transportation,
Lhc laLLcr involving Lravcl by land, sca and air. Cars, sLrccLcars, Lrains, air-
planes, tanks, submarines, lm, photography, telegraphy, telephony, radio,
TV, radar, washing machincs, razors, among oLhcr innovaLions, all markcd
the explosion of modernism, a social transformation that inspired Aldous
Huxlcy Lo wriLc Brave New World.
Bchind Lhc sccncs, scicncc camc Lo acccpL Lhc principlcs o rclaLiviLy in
maLhcmaLics and physics, whilc naLional cconomics cvaporaLcd aL Lhc cnd o
this age, disintegrating into the Great Depression, followed by the entrench-
ment of ideologies that lead to the Second World War. Consumerism and the
power of the mass media subsequently reached their pinnacles in post-war
America, Western Europe and Japan.
Bricy puL, Lhc dcsignaLion mulLi" was in cvcry way morc aL homc Lhan cvcr
in Lhc pcriod rom lS00 Lo l030. c dcvclopmcnL o Lcchnologics and in-
frastructures dominated the media world, facilitating the wide-spread use of
Lclcphoncs, radios and Lclcvisions. NcvcrLhclcss, Lhc ulLimaLc convcrgcncc
and inLcgraLion o various Lypcs o mcdia only bccamc possiblc oncc Lhc mul-
Limcdia World Widc Wcb cmcrgcd. SLandardizaLion and convcnicnL inor-
Source: history.
mation exchange and usage, along with speed, oceans of free personal space,
mobile access and the wireless connection of rich media, all combined to
establish the dominion of a new multimedium: a worldwide social network.
is hypcrmcdium accommodaLcs all LradiLional mcdia and cvcryonc who
wishcs Lo usc iL wiLhin Lhc conLcxL o Lhcir own choosingpassivcly or ac-
Livcly, anonymously or wiLh a clcarly dchncd prohlc.
is new way of life was undeniably conrmed by the
arrival o Lhc YouTubc vidco plaLorm in 2005, ol-
lowcd by Lhc cxLcnsivc populariLy o social ncLwork-
ing and new mobile media centers such as the iPhone,
which was launched in 2008. e result was the full
realization of streaming rich multimedia, along with
all of its social ramications, which had been a prom-
iscd LransormaLion hanging ovcr Lhc markcL sincc
1890. is apparent imminence is exemplied by the
cvoluLion o Lhc Lclcphonc rom an insLrumcnL cx-
clusivcly uscd or inLimaLc dialogucs Lo Lhc inLcracLivc pcrsonal mulLimcdia
ccnLcr o Loday, a dcvclopmcnL LhaL can bc brokcn down inLo Lhc ollowing
hvc sLagcs:
1844: Phone 0.0
e rst stage is one of experimentation, intended to make the telephone
the speaking telegraphinto a properly functional instrument. Innocenzo
Manzetti, Antonio Meucci, Graham Bell, omas Edison and Wilhelm Reiss
number amongst the great telephone pioneers.
1908: Phone 1.0
e telephone comes to be regarded as a new social medium. Telephony maga-
zine publishes the following anecdote in which an enterprising boy succeeds
in having a Lclcphonc opcraLor puL his aLhcr on Lhc linc, a busincssman who
is hard a work in his oce. e story is later echoed by the 1910 lm called
e Telephone in which Dolores Costello, grandmother of actress Drew Bar-
rymore, plays the role of a girl who is alone at home with her mother when a
re breaks out. She then calls her father to come rescue them.

1973: Phone 2.0
Nearly a century after the rst telephone communication between Graham
Bcll and his assisLanL omas WaLson, MoLorola invcnLor MarLin Coopcr
called his co-workers at Bell Labs. e people at Bell had been busy thinking
abouL Lhc bcsL way o achicving mobilc Lclcphony sincc l047. c convcrsa-
YouTube on the
Apple iPhone
Lion in l073 bcgan in a sLandard ashion. Hcy MarLin! Whcrc arc you`" is
what the people at Bell Labs reportedly said. And Martin replied, Well, I am
now visiLing my barbcr. Hi Ambrosio. and now I am going Lo Lhc buLchcr
Lo gcL a pound o pork. Hi Shcila, how arc Lhc kiddics doing`" MarLin was
known for his practical jokes, but this was going too far. It was April 3, 1973,
so was this a delayed joke for April fools day? e staid eggheads at Bell
Iabs could noL havc bccn Laking him scriously. Cuys, I can hcar you Lhink,"
MarLin musL havc glccully rcmarkcd. IisLcn, Lhis is no jokc aL all. 1usL rcad
Children Cry for It
A BUSY Lawrencian recently added
a telephone to the modern improve-
ments at his home, says the Lawrence
(Mass.) Tribune. He has four happy
children, all of them young, to whom
the telephone was new and who
regarded it with awe. One of the kids
is a boy of four. He watched the older
people call up Central and commu-
nicate with friends at distant points
and yearned to do likewise.
His mother chanced to be absent from
home for an hour or so on a recent af-
ternoon. The other children were out
somewhere. He was alone. For a half
hour he watched the telephone, then
climbed up and took the receiver of
the telephone off the hook just as he
had seen older people do. By this time
he was trembling, but his courage was
as strong as chilled steel.
Number? he heard a sweet voice in-
quire. For a moment he was startled,
but he conquered a desire to drop the
receiver and run and shouted bravely,
I want my pop!

Central must have recognized the
voice as that of a child. She promptly
inquired, Who is your papa?
The little fellow knew enough to tell
her, and it was but a matter of a few
moments to ascertain the number of
the busy Lawrencians business tele-
phone and connect the four-year-old.
Hello? answered the busy citizen,
turning away from a desk overbur-
dened, with papers and things.
Oh, pop, I kin work it! was the joy-
ful little shout that answered him,
and the busy citizen was just as proud
and as pleased as the four-year-old
at the other end of the line when the
brief conversation ceased and the
boy, obeying instructions given over
the wire, hung up the receiver and
awaited the home-coming of mamma
to tell her of his conquest.
Telephony, March 1908, page 177.
tomorrows newspapers: Mobile Martin Calling Ma Bellbrouhahathis is
world news!
2008: Phone 3.0
e emergence of the cellular telephone technically brought about the fu-
sion of radio and telephony for the consumer. e social function of the cell
phone based on spoken and written language is unequalled nowadays. A cen-
tury earlier in 1909, the radio pioneers Gulielmo Marconi and Karl Braun
rcccivcd Lhc Nobcl prizc or Physics in rccogni-
Lion o Lhcir conLribuLions Lo Lhc dcvclopmcnL o
wireless telegraphy.
At the beginning of 2009, four billion people on
this planet owned a cell phone. Integration with
Lhc InLcrncL and Lclcvision is sLcadily incrcasing.
Broadband via UMTS (3C or 3rd CcncraLion) is
such an established trend that, by the beginning
of 2009, there were 350 million 3G subscribers
2020: Phone 4.0
e comparison with 100 years ago will continue to hold true. In 1920, the
world was entering the technological, social, artistic and cultural dynamic of
the Roaring Twenties. Cars, radio, lm, music and consumerism dominated
the cities of America and Europe. Phone 4.0, the integration of the social
wcb and lic-logging wiLh lic-likc avaLars and mirror worlds such as Cooglc
Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth, will lead to a new experience of reality,
a digiLaliLy" in which Lhc virLual will bccomc impcrccpLibly mixcd wiLh Lhc
physical world in which wc livc.
Morc now Lhan cvcr bcorc, ncw gcncraLions o Lclcphoncs
functioning as personal media centers will take center stage;
these may take the form of notebooks, or multifunctional com-
binations of handset and glasses, or both. By 2020, the inter-
acLivc mulLimcdia Phonc 4.0 will rcach iLs complcLion in c
Cloud," buL Lhc physical prosLhcscs" LhaL will providc us wiLh
access to this realm will be childishly simple, just as the tele-
phone has always been.
Morph is a vision of the future produced by cell
phone manufacturer Nokia focusing on media,
the extensions of man (McLuhan, 1964). The
multifunctionality of Morph is ingeniously
linked to futuristic material properties and a so-called haptic interface. All this is
contained within a fold-out apparatus that is partly worn around the wrist and partly
around the neck, and which is available in various designs.
Source: www.
Web Media:
Business Heart Attack or
3.1 Surprise! 65
3.2 ConvcrsaLions aL Lhc HcarL o Busincss 66
3.3 Communication Plain and Simple 68
3.4 Do Not Conceal Who You Are 70
3.5 Blogging Can Be Fatal 72
3.6 Abovc All, CranL CusLomcrs cir Forum 75
3.7 Socializing Banks: Cup of Cha and Stage Coach Island 76
3.8 Frankly and Freely Following the Rules 79
3.9 Two Dot Zero Rushes to Aid of Public Transit 80
3.10 Primark and AlbcrL Hcijn S2
3.11 Experimenting with Web Media 83
3.12 Fivc QucsLions abouL CorporaLc Wcb ConvcrsaLions S5
Chapter 3 will use a number of examples to examine the business impact of the new
Me-Media Mass. Transparency and busy two-way trafc are its common denomina-
tors. They turn the traditional relationships involving brands, organizations, politics
and public on their heads. Open conversations with a human face are now the norm
for the media mass on the Internet. The anonymous public has emerged and is now
calling the shots for brands, organizations and politicians. Ultimately, everyone can
prot from the frequent and personal multimedia contacts that Me-Media makes
possible. Without doubt, the media mass can sometimes cause organizational
hearts to race and even drive organizations crazy. But it is a reliable pacemaker for
anyone who knows how to communicate on the right wavelength.
Onc cvcning, you dccidc all o a suddcn Lo Lypc Lhc namc o your company
into a browser. e second hit is an unknown weblog containing the latest
news: your organization has won a prize for a certain tech-
nique. You wonder about what your own organization has to
say about this and surf to the homepage. No mention can be
found there or on the company intranet. Curious about the
person or people behind the blog who brought you the good
news, you click the About button. In front of you appears a
phoLo o Lcch bloggcr Vcc1ay Burns, an avaLar rom Sccond
Vcc1ay Burns is an avaLar rom Lhc McLavcrsc, our digiLal
univcrsc (scc ChapLcr S). Wc all havc Lo dcal wiLh Lhc McLa-
vcrsc, cvcn Lhough wc may noL always bc ully awarc o iL. Fv-
idently, Internet citizens or netizens sometimes learn about
the latest news earlier than, in this case, your own company.
InLcrcsLingly, noL cvcryLhing in Lhc McLavcrsc is posiLivc. c
ncxL day you rcccivc a phonc call rcqucsLing you Lo immc-
diately attend a meeting with the Board of Directors. ere,
you arc shown a YouTubc clip, an amaLcur vidco by somconc
who phoned the Call Center for which you are responsible.
e man is passed back and forth and is clearly taking pleasure in the com-
motion that he is causing. For you and your collegues this is certainly noth-
ing Lo laugh abouL. is Company Sucks" is Lhc LiLlc o Lhc vidco. c cnLirc
sccnc is cxLrcmcly painul, cvidcnLly iL is incrcasingly morc diculL Lo kccp
something out of the media.
Conversations at the Heart of Business
Wcb convcrsaLions changc rclaLionships. Abovc all, Lhcy cnablc pcoplc Lo
publicly cxprcss Lhcir uninhibiLcd opinions abouL ccrLain cvcnLs or cxpcri-
cnccs involving producLs and scrviccs. Such cxprcssions parLially orm Lhc
basis for new decisions to purchase or not. All types of stories are exchanged
in Lhc McLavcrsc by mcans o orums, wcblogs and oLhcr mcdia.
OrganizaLions Lhcmsclvcs arc Laking sLcps in ordcr Lo rcspond Lo Lhcsc cir-
cumstances. ey initiate corporate blogs, open customer forums and may
cvcn csLablish a company prcscncc in a popular VirLual World likc Sccond
Life. ere they can acquire what they long for: the attention and commit-
mcnL o individuals and communiLics on Lhc World Widc Wcb, and o coursc
a ncw bond wiLh cusLomcrs and cmployccs. Howcvcr, Lhis public Lwo-way
communicaLion Lhrivcs bcsL undcr a ncw scL o playing rulcs LhaL dcmand
Since the late 80s Ive been in-
volved with the Internet and 2006
saw my virtual birth in the Meta-
verse. In real life (in Meatspace
so to speak) Im a professional
project manager in charge of many
crowdsourcing and Web 2.0 projects.
VeeJay Burns, Metaverse citizen
opcnncss. AdmiLLcdly, you ncvcr know as a company i, whcn you makc a
mistake, it will be regarded as a sign of weakness or of sincere commitment.
To survivc in such a sLaLc o unccrLainLy, you nccd Lo communicaLc wiLh a
sense of humor, as this may defuse any situation that has become unexpect-
edly frosty.
is chapLcr will cxaminc a numbcr o such cascs in a posiLivc and ncgaLivc
lighL involving Alaska Airlincs, Dcll, Ford, INC, KrypLoniLc, MicrosoL, Wal-
Mart and the Toronto public transit system. ey all relate to experiences
wiLh ncw wcb convcrsaLions.
We will rst begin with the case of Robert Scoble at Microsoft. eir Chan-
ncl 0 is a hnc cxamplc o Lhc orm LhaL ncw wcb convcrsaLions mighL Lakc.
e web medium Channel 9 is owned by employees, open to the public and
involvcs a hcalLhy dosc o good-humorcd scl-rcccLion. IL is imporLanL Lo
surrcndcr as much conLrol as possiblc, as a LighLly govcrncd corporaLc wcblog
or orum obviously is ncvcr vicwcd as a LrusLworLhy discussion parLncr.
Are Corporate Blogs to be Trusted?
e Blogstudie 2007 rom Lhc UnivcrsiLy o Icipzig, Ccrmany rcvcalcd LhaL
pcoplc misLrusL corporaLc blogs Lhc mosL. Ovcr a quarLcr o parLicipanLs
cxprcsscd rcscrvaLions abouL such blogs, whilc only 7 pcrccnL objccLcd Lo
press weblogs. Independent bloggers benet from a great deal of trust. In-
formation from consumers on blogs and other sites was trusted as much as
a ncwspapcr arLiclc. SlighLly lcss LrusLworLhy was advcrLising, and rcporLs
by company dirccLors wcrc rcgardcd as Lhc lcasL LrusLworLhy. is vicw was
reiterated in the IPSOS report e Power of Blogs in Europe. (IPSOS is a market
research group incorporating major research companies around the world.)
As many as onc-hLh o Furopcans havc changcd Lhcir minds abouL producLs
and companies after reading about them in a blog. Around 26 million Euro-
pcans havc dcvclopcd a lcsscr opinion abouL a company aLcr rcading wcblog
postings. And 40 million Europeans ultimately did not purchase a product
aLcr survcying uscr opinions. Blogs and consumcr rcvicws clcarly havc in-
creasingly more to do with purchasing decisions.
On avcragc, a quarLcr o all pcoplc LrusL Lhc inormaLion ound on wcblogs.
A rcvicw wcbsiLc scorcs highcr: 35 pcrccnL.
Comparing that with the trust enjoyed by the press in each European coun-
try, we come up with an interesting top three. Occupying rst place in Brit-
ain, Lo sLarL wiLh, is Lhc rcvicw wcbsiLc, ollowcd by blogs and only Lhcn Lhc
newspaper. Anyone who knows anything about the British tabloid press will
likely be able to understand this ranking. e French and Spanish trust their
prcss a grcaL dcal morc. Rcvicw siLcs also cnjoy Lhc grcaLcsL LrusL in Francc,
followed by the newspaper and nally the company site. Germans place the
ncwspapcr in hrsL placc, Lhc rcvicw wcbsiLc sccond and Lhc wcblog Lhird.
SignihcanL dcLail: Lhc vicws o company dirccLors or a busincss c-mail arc
misLrusLcd Lhc mosL cvcrywhcrc. cy scorc cvcn lowcr Lhan TV commcr-
Is the corporate blog consequently doomed to failure? Not if employees write
the postings. e public can better identify with them than with the higher-
ups on account of such factors as their plain-speaking manner of communi-
cating without slippery rhetoric and stodgy formulations.
Communication Plain and Simple
RobcrL Scoblc, in his inormal rolc as Chic Humanizing Occr," has man-
agcd Lo givc MicrosoL a human acc. In spiLc o all MicrosoL's PR, Lhc com-
pany had ailcd Lo improvc iLs rcpuLaLion, according Lo e Economist in
Fcbruary 2005. TradiLional PR dcparLmcnLs sLill havc a loL Lo lcarn rom ac-
LiviLics such as Lhosc pcrormcd by Scoblc. Scoblc oLcn judgcd his cmploycr
harshly, but his message was certainly clearly communicated to indepen-
dcnL soLwarc dcvclopcrs. On Lhc Wcb Scoblc dcmonsLraLcd or cvcryonc Lo
see that within Microsoft passionate professionals obtained the most from
Lhcmsclvcs, buL also LhaL misLakcs wcrc madc, which is quiLc normal and
need not be hidden.
Scoblc's Channcl 0 plaLorm sLill cxisLs. IL is an opcn cnvironmcnL in which
cmployccs arc rcc Lo cxprcss Lhcmsclvcs. Channcl 0 conLains saLirical vid-
eos, including one by bad boy Rory Blyth, who explains how awful it is to at-
Before Robert Scoble was given his own Web media show on, he
was probably the best known employee blogger in the world. He rst estab-
lished a web presence at tech company NEC, where he provided customer
support and communicated with customers via his blog. His activity attracted
the attention of Vic Gondrotta, who offered him a contract at Microsoft. From
May 2003 to June 2006, Scoble was involved with the new Microsoft Chan-
nel 9 medium. In July 2004, he began his own site: Scoble is
regarded as an authority on web conversations. With Shel Israel he co-au-
thored a book entitled Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way
Businesses Talk with Customers. This authoritative work on business blogging
stood at sixth place on the 2006 Amazon hit list.
tend employee meetings. Rory says, ey concern career, skills and all types
o Lhings LhaL havc Lo do wiLh mc, buL I don'L undcrsLand onc biL o whaL gocs
on. And now Lhc Limc has comc Lo lcL o a liLLlc sLcam." c rcsL o Lhc vidco
then shows a scene in which bullets are red from an imitation handgun at
a hclmcLcd cmploycc. UndoubLcdly, Lhc avcragc YouTubc bar room humor.
Anyone wanting to keep up to date with how things are with Rory, who is
now aliaLcd Lo Channcl 0 as a poscr locaLcd in Bcllcvuc WA," can rcad
an example of his postings at Blyth also has his own
channel on YouTube:
Tcns o Lhousands o pcoplc chcck ouL Channcl 0 cvcry day. Bcsidcs popu-
lar entertainment, there is a whole range of important content for software
dcvclopcrs. Channcl 0 clcarly displays LhaL MicrosoL is a hip and dynamic
company to work for and with.
Basic Tips for Corporate Blogs
c advicc or busincss blogs ocrcd by Scoblc and Isracl in Naked Conversa-
tions is LhaL Lhcy musL abovc all bc sinccrc," noL includc any salcs piLchcs,
honestly report both good and bad news, tell a story, and much more...
ink of a good name: e blog name can help your placing in the top of search
lists. Try googling names that you come up with yourself and see what comes
out of it.
Read a few blogs: Rcad hLy blogs cvcry wcck and you will hnd ouL morc. Do
you rcally havc somcLhing Lo add or has cvcryLhing alrcady bccn said`
Keep it simple: Rcadcrs scan blogs vcry rapidly. crcorc ocus on Lhc mcssagc.
Display passion and authority: Displaying authority without passion is boring.
So is passion wiLhouL auLhoriLy. How do you cxhibiL passion` By posLing cv-
cry day, or cxamplc. How do you cxhibiL auLhoriLy` Blog abouL Lhings LhaL
you know about.
Permit commentary: A blog is a convcrsaLion. Bc always poliLc yourscl and
deny anonymous commentary.
Be accessible: Make it easy for readers to contact you; clearly indicate your
telephone number and e-mail address on the site. Unexpected things can
Tell a story: Corporate blogs must tell a story and not sell any marketing
pitches. Good sources for a story can be a conict, an encounter, and a few
exemplary cases.
Provide links to other sites: A good blog has links Lo rclcvanL siLcs, cvcn Lo
pagcs wiLh criLicism or Lo Lhc compcLiLion. As a rcward, you also rcccivc links
to your own blog in return.
Engage with the real world: e blogging world is one-dimensional. Make con-
LacL wiLh Lhc pcoplc who rcad your blog, acccpL inviLaLions Lo discuss your
postings and make sure that you know what others are saying about you.
Do Not Conceal Who You Are
I company cmployccs wish Lo qualiy whaL is in Lhcir cycs an ovcrcxaggcr-
ated blog posting, it would be better if they did not pretend to speak as or-
dinary outsiders when making such a contribution from an oce location,
as the IP address will of course betray where they are located. It was in this
way that Alaska Airlines employees were exposed when they were trying to
discredit an emotional passenger.
AL Lhc cnd o Dcccmbcr 2005, 1crcmy Hcrmanns and his hanccc wcrc ying
home when aircraft cabin pressure suddenly dropped in mid ight. Oxygen
masks wcrc rclcascd and 1crcmy smclL gas and burning plasLic. Hc grabbcd
his Lclcphonc and bcgan Lo Lakc phoLos. His hanccc saL our rows bchind
him, near to the location where Jeremy had heard a bang (Alaska Airlines
ighLs arc always ovcrbookcd, so you arc oLcn noL scaLcd bcsidc cach oLhcr).
Jeremy has a pilot license and was especially concerned about the fear that
his hanccc musL havc bccn cxpcricncing. ForLunaLcly, Lhc aircraL landcd
safely, but the rst thing that Jeremy did was to place his experiences and
emotions on his weblog.
1crcmy rcccivcd cxprcssions o supporL buL also rcacLions o Lhc sorL don'L
bc such a baby" and you wcrc ncvcr a piloL, I'vc chcckcd iL ouL." cy wcrc
rom various pcoplc buL camc rom Lhc samc IP addrcss: bclonging Lo Alaska
Jeremy had been afraid for his life and later re-
ceived the following remarks from a John:
Do me one favor. I know you were involved in a
terrible event, but dont make more out of it than
it was. Lying about the smell of gas and burn-
ing anything in your blog only serves your own

e story then ended up in USA Today, one of the best-known newspapers in
America. Alaska Airlines said that it did not place any old ocial response on
Jeremys weblog, that employees are not permitted to respond on their own
accord and no invcsLigaLion was madc Lo dcLcrminc i somcbody aL Alaska
Airlincs mighL havc rcspondcd. NcvcrLhclcss, Lhcrc was aL lcasL a sysLcmaLic
attempt to ridicule Jeremys posting coming from the oces of Alaska Air-
lincs and, in Lhis way, Lo Lonc down any ncgaLivc cccL.
Everything is Rosy at
In the Fall of 2006, customers were singing the
praises of Wal-Mart on the Wal-Mart Facts site
and employees were writing about their wonderful
life at Wal-Mart. It all seemed somewhat false:
not a single bit of criticism, no links to competi-
tors and only a few messages. Not too long there-
after, the truth came out by means of testimony
from none other than CEO Richard Edelman from
the renowned PR agency of the same name.
In any cvcnL, iL was clcar LhaL, in 2006, Wal-MarL
FacLs was inLcndcd as a vchiclc or boosLing Lhc
company imagc, which had rcccivcd a hcavy blow
as a result of public perceptions that the company
was underpaying its employees.
At present, still only reports posi-
Livc iLcms, buL Lhcy arc likcly quiLc auLhcnLic and noL copy LhaL has rollcd
o Lhc kcyboards o Fdclman cmployccs. A paLcnLly obvious anLi-Wal-MarL
campaign is being conducted on All this is
extremely uncomfortable.
Social Media Primarily Intended to Inuence the Public
FvcryLhing involvcd in blogs and social (wcb) mcdia was urLhcr claboraLcd
upon in a report issued by Edelman employee Jonny Bentwood in mid-Jan-
uary 2008 under the title of Distributed Inuence: Quantifying the Impact of
Social Media. Bentwood ends his white paper with the following words:
e future of communications is in the mixing of these quadrants [i.e. open, con-
trolled, communication and collaboration] and understanding how they work to-
gether to inuence the public.
Nice speech on, but
Richard had no other option than to
make a public apology:
I want to acknowledge our error in fail-
ing to be transparent about the identity
of the two bloggers [on] from the outset. This is 100%
our responsibility and our error, not the
Molding public opinion to suit your purposes is what is plainly being said.
How propaganda and advcrLising goL o Lhc ground aL Lhc bcginning o Lhc
twentieth century will be outlined in Chapter 5, but actually there is hardly
anything new about this. All the 2.0 sincerity, transparency, openness and
whaLcvcr clsc LhaL mighL bc proclaimcd in a similar ashion simply rcmains
in Lhc scrvicc o cconomic gain. AL Lhc vcry lcasL, Lhis should bc rcasonablc
gain, a fair share, but preferably as large as possible, of course. In this re-
spect, there are two basic rules: the demographically-segmented public must
enthusiastically demonstrate of its own accord that it is being fantastically
pampered and, at the same time, the price it is paying must be experienced
as justied.
e enticement and inuence resulting from good marketing and communi-
caLions arc dcLcrminaLivc o Lhc maximum rcvcnuc Lo bc aLLaincd. FcaLurcs,
scrviccs, dialoguc and oLhcr pcrks musL build up Lhc grcaLcsL possiblc public
trust at the lowest possible cost. e true prot margin must be kept hidden
from the customer. As long as the latter does not feel exploited, the trick
works and there is nothing to worry about. Being clear on this point is per-
haps the most crucial element of 2.0 transparency.
Blogging Can Be Fatal
Oops! aL jusL slippcd ouL!" How oLcn docs Lhis occur aL homc, aL work,
on the telephone, in an e-mail or during a chat session? at is one thing,
but dealing with sincerity on such a rapid and impactful media as weblogs is
an arL in iLscl. Formcr U.N. Hcad o Mission in Sudan 1an Pronk ound Lhis
ouL in Lhc Fall o 2006. On his wcblog, hc rcpcaLcdly rcvcalcd how Lhc Su-
dancsc armcd orccs and govcrnmcnL wcrc opcraLing. Pronk, a U.N. spccial
cnvoy, was noL Lhankcd or Lhcsc pronounccmcnLs, insLcad, Lhc auLhoriLics
insLrucLcd him Lo lcavc Sudan immcdiaLcly. A drivcn man such as 1an Pronk
may havc dclibcraLcly broughL Lhings Lo boiling poinL buL Lhc chancc LhaL a
person lets something slip in an impetuous moment of rashness is of course
not improbable on a weblog.
On a microblog such as TwiLLcr, iL is cnLircly conccivablc LhaL you spcak
rankly in a manncr LhaL you laLcr rcgrcL. Takc Lhc Fdclman hoLshoL SLcvc
Rubel, for example. In April 2007, he informed his Twitter friends that the
popular computer publication PC Magazine to which he had a free subscrip-
tion was immediately chucked into the recycled paper bin at home. Manag-

ing Editor Jim Louderback then politely reminded Rubel of the fact that,
among Lhc clcvcn million cnLhusiasLic PC Magazine readers, there were likely
to be more than a few Edelman customers, who would now feel that they
were being made out to be PC Magazine reading suckers.
Rubcl, who o coursc could havc kickcd himscl, could noL do anyLhing clsc
than kowtow. In his defense, he added that he read PC Magazine articles re-
ccivcd as an RSS ccd, LhaL hc had includcd links Lo Lhc magazinc on his
blog on scvcral occasions, as wcll as Lo arLiclcs rom Lhc aliaLcd magazinc
I learned a valuable lesson. Post too fast without providing context and it can elicit
an unintended response. While the item is true, it does not reect my full media
consumption habits. I subscribe to PC Mag RSS feeds and have linked to several of
your publications online articles over the three years I have been writing this blog.
Further, I have linked to articles from eWeek, your sister site.
ings blcw ovcr buL o coursc iL was noL plcasanL. Always rcmcmbcr LhaL
these sorts of things remain in existence on the Internet.
Kryptonites Blogging was Lame
Kryptonite locks are named for a ctional substance from the planet Kryp-
ton, Supermans home planet. Kryptonite therefore stands for something
unbreakable. In 2004, postings and clips caused great embarrassment at the
Kryptonite Company because the popular large U-lock could be opened with
a BIC pcn. is sccuriLy aw had, howcvcr, bccn cxposcd carlicr, in l002,
only then no Me-Media Mass existed. e Kryptonite case is a textbook ex-
amplc o how powcrul ncgaLivc advcrLising can work on Lhc Wcb.
To cut a long story short, the entire commotion lasted ten days. At the end
of that period, Kryptonite could do nothing else but to relent. e game was
ovcr in hvc scLs:
FirsL, Lhcrc was a blog posL abouL Lhc dcccLivc naLurc o Lhc U-lock. 1.
Clips then appeared showing how anyone could pop open the lock with a BIC 2.
Kryptonite stubbornly maintained its position that the story was nonsense. 3.
e 4. New York Times and Associated Press then published it.
Four days later, Kryptonite promised to replace the locks in question, which 5.
mcanL paying cosLs o $l0 million as wcll as sucring damagc Lo iLs rcpuLa-

Only Lcn monLhs aLcr Lhc incidcnL, KrypLoniLc rcprcscnLaLivc Donna Tocci
hnally conLacLcd Lhc bloggcrs. Shc did Lhis on Lhc advicc o Shcl Isracl and
Robert Scoble, who were then working on their book Naked Conversations.
In 1uly 2005, Isracl and Scoblc publishcd Lhc c-mail convcrsaLion LhaL Lhc
two had with Tocci and asked their readers to respond. In one of her e-mails,
Donna wrote:
In the rst two-three weeks we worked 18-20 hour days, every day, to formulate a
plan regarding the locks and reply to the folks that were coming to usconsumers,
dealers, distributors and media. Again, not being able to rewrite history, we just
didnt have the man or woman power to go and answer every forum question or
blogger commentand there were quite a few, as you know. As the weeks went on
and I did comment on some inaccuracies, we were blasted for not getting it.
Making such, in principle, understandable remarks to bloggers and blog
rcadcrs is likc waving a rcd ag in ronL o a bull. cy rcad inLo Lhis com-

Days in September 2004
12 11
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Number of blog readers (x1,000)















































ment only that Kryptonite was busy with its own concerns. And therefore a
grcaL dcal morc ncgaLivc publiciLy was gcncraLcd:
Puh-lease! If Kryptonite spoke to their audience in a human voice and stuck with
it, they wouldnt have been singled out as the acks they are. Seriously. ey could
have responded MUCH dierently. ey are just still avoiding responsibility on
this issue. Entirely. Not once did she say, We fucked up, our lock sucked. Instead,
she hides behind corporate bureaucracy and PR babble. Blech. Write your chapter.
e problem wasnt that they didnt do anything; the problem is that they didnt
really communicate to the masses in an eective way that they were doing some-
thing and that they were sorry that customers were going through pain. ey didnt
control the conversation by being proactive. Instead they were reactive and only
responded to requests made to them. is is why they took such a hit on the issue.
A clcar moral: KrypLoniLc should havc immcdiaLcly plcadcd mca culpa" and
made a proposal. Instead of that, the company reacted in a way that was, in
Lhc cycs o bloggcrs, inadcquaLc, dccnsivc and arroganL. is madc pcoplc
incrcasingly angry. AL Lhc bcginning o April 2007, KrypLoniLc cvcn bcgan
a weblog on a simple blogger account ( in
which iL hnally cnLcrcd inLo convcrsaLion wiLh cusLomcrs in an opcn and
posiLivc manncr, ocring Lhcm a plaLorm as wcll.
Above All, Grant Customers Their Forum
e stories of Alaska Airlines, Wal-Mart, Kryptonite and many others are
sLill availablc on Lhc Wcb. c InLcrncL is Lhc ncw worldwidc digiLal jukcbox
in which cvcryLhing is sLorcd and in which scarch cngincs can immcdiaLcly
nd any track on any record. An organization may unwillingly run the risk of
being a climber in the browser hit parade, especially when discussions are
up dramaLically. Rcmarks by individuals can casily comc Lo Lhc aLLcnLion o
a public of millions.
is happened to companies such as Dell, the computer hardware supplier.
For somc whilc Dcll had opcraLcd cusLomcr orums, buL aL a givcn momcnL
Lhcy wcrc closcd as Lhc company prccrrcd Lo providc supporL or cusLom-
crs iLscl raLhcr Lhan havc all kinds o problcms and rumors aircd in public.
Emotions ran high after a posting in June 2005 on, the
wcblog o wcll-known Amcrican journalisL 1c 1arvis. 1arvis paid or sup-

port at home but when something went wrong with his new laptop, Dell told
1arvis LhaL iL would bc bcLLcr i hc scnL Lhcm Lhc compuLcr, as Dcll Homc
SupporL did noL havc Lhc righL parL availablc.
ALcr a grcaL dcal o commoLion involving blog mcssagcs and clips
and a grcaL dcal o Dcll sucks" in Lhis Dcll Hcll" incidcnL, Dcll
reopened its customer forum. As a right-minded web intellectual,
1arvis had orcsccn LhaL Lhc popular ConvcrsaLion Fconomy book
e Cluetrain Manifesto (see Chapter 4) had certainly made the inter-
ests of customers in support and marketing suciently clear.
Dcll rodc Lhc wavc cvcn morc by csLablishing Lhc crowd-sourcing
innovaLion plaLorm IdcaSLorm (Whcrc Your Idcas Rcign"), as wcll
as SLudio Dcll, whcrc pcoplc can upload vidcos, and Bazaarvoicc,
whcrc pcoplc can publish producL cvaluaLions. 1arvis rcmarks on
this point:
Welcome to the age of customer control. is isnt just crowdsourcing. is is crowd-
managing. But hell, if even Dell can lean back and let its customers begin to take
charge, anyone can.
In the eyes of many, Dell is the prodigal son who has seen the error of his ways
and has fortunately again become best in class. e lesson: the redeemed al-
ways perform well and to err now and then is only human. Two years after
Lhc bcginning o Lhc Dcll Hcll incidcnL, Lhc company is again bcing laudcd:
Its a great story about how being open, honest and responsive to a problem has
helped to earn back the trust of its user base. If any company needs to do that, Dell
is a poster boy.
1c 1arvis' arLiclc Dcll Icarns Lo IisLcn" appcarcd in BusinessWeek in mid-
OcLobcr 2007. IL markcd Lhc dchniLivc cnd Lo Lhc Dcll Hcll aair.
Socializing Banks: Cup of Cha and Stage Coach Island
1acqucs Kcmp, CFO rom INC Asia Pacihc, and David Carccran Nicuwcn-
burg ran the ING weblog in Asia that is appropriately called My Cup of Cha.
O coursc, INC would havc likcd Lo bc cvcryonc's cup o Lca (or cha) in Lhis

rcgion o Lhc world. INC wanLcd Lo bccomc Lhc avoriLc h-
nancial web node worldwide, and weblogs were part of this
strategy, as was a presence in the Virtual World of Second
Life, for example. e Cha theme also occupied a central
role there.
INC's My Cup o Cha blog soughL discussion abouL scvcral
issues. Should a bank help customers obtain a better deal
from the competition? Should a type of open lending con-
cept be something for ING? e company site therefore in-
dicaLcd compcLiLor raLcs and providcd links Lo Lhcir siLcs.
Among those participating in the discussion was Charles
Green, business consultant and author of e Trusted Advi-
sor and Trust-Based Selling.
On a wcblog David Nicuwcnburg was askcd i INC also had plans Lo providc
its bloggers with sales techniques. Nieuwenberg answered this as follows:
Sales technique instruction would be a whole new chapter for a blog environment.
Old sales techniques (foot in the door, pop-ups) do not of course work online. Per-
haps the conclusion is that sales techniques might shift the emphasis from product
features or even customer needs to voluntary and interesting relationships. Typi-
cally Web 2.0, where pleasure, hobby and interaction without commercial objec-
tives (Wikipedia, Apache, et cetera) are seriously used as eective tools.
David Nicuwcnburg also said LhaL Lhc blog had cnablcd INC Lo climb high-
er in the search-result statistics. at bank now popped up in response to
search inquiries that, until quite recently, did not yield any link to ING.
We found it very interesting to see how the blog would t into our search engine
optimization strategy. e articles that we write are mostly current, likely a re-
quirement for every blog, and we have noted that ING is now appearing on the
rst search results page of Google and Yahoo searches in which we otherwise nev-
er would appear, for example for search queries about the Nobel Prize, Taiwan
earthquake or e-Business Asia. But searches for pensions in India, CEO Hong
Kong, nancial advice Asia Pacic will also lead to our blog. Although we have not
done an ROI, it is readily apparent that this increases our reach substantially.
David Nicuwcnbcrg saw Lhc Cha blog primarily as an insLrumcnL Lo makc
ING more personal:
The logo for the ING Cha
Lounge on Second Life for
which Darkharmony Dingson
won the competition for best
design in September 2007.

I dare not look three years ahead but, if I were to hazard a forecast, I would hope
that our blog might have helped ING display its human personal side. No matter
if someone is a customer or not, it has to be interesting to learn about what a com-
pany like ING is experiencing and forced to make decisions about. Secondly, I would
hope that the blog helps to speed up responses to issues that we hear about from our
blog readers. eir ideas, concerns, complements or negative experiences entered
on the blog or received from other blogs must then be dealt with by an organization
capable of responding to them.
Stagecoach Island
Wells Fargo, the rst major bank to capitalize on the new marketing possi-
biliLics prcscnL in Sccond Iic, crcaLcd Lhc virLual SLagccoach Island in Scp-
Lcmbcr 2005. IL is an ouLsLanding cnvironmcnL in which Lo cxpcrimcnL.
Stagecoach Island is an online virtual world created by Wells Fargo. You can explore
the island and its hidden secrets, connect with friends and make new ones, and at
the same time learn smart money management. You can earn virtual money by
visiting the Learning Loungea virtual Wells Fargo ATMand answering ques-
tions about money management. With our introduction of the building function-
ality, you can now use what you earn to buy land and start building your dream
home... Weve also introduced virtual jobs, credit cards, and home loans so that you
can learn, earn, build and play more in-world.
My Cup of Cha sold nothing except opinion and was merely a platform for
discussion. It was therefore non-commercial in terms of the traditional sales
concepts but certainly commercial for anyone who believes in the power of
voluntary relationships and conversations. The blogging policy of My Cup of
Cha comprised the following seven rules, which were inspired by the insights
of former Forrester Research analyst Charlene Li:
We will tell the truth. We will acknowledge and correct mistakes promptly. 1.
We will not delete comments unless they are spam, off-topic, in bad taste or 2.
We reserve the right not to comment on particular responses in line with 3.
our disclosure requirements.
We will reply to comments when appropriate as promptly as possible. 4.
We will disagree with other opinions respectfully. 5.
We will link to online references and original source materials directly. 6.
We will keep private issues and topics private. 7.

Frankly and Freely Following the Rules
DcvclopcrWorks is an IBM porLal wiLh ovcr sixLy dicrcnL blogs: company
blogs by big guns such as Crady Booch and Davc BarLlcLL arc inLcrspcrscd
wiLh communiLy blogs such as Lhc onc on WcbSphcrc. IBM dcvoLcdly bc-
licvcs in Lhc posiLivc impacL o IBMcrs who acLivcly cngagc in discussions in
orums likc HcalLhNcx: IBMcrs and Fricnds on NcLworkcd, PaLicnL-CcnLric
HcalLhcarc. IBM cncouragcs cmployccs Lo publish on Lhc Wcb. Blogging cm-
ployccs acquirc knowlcdgc abouL all Lypcs o dcvclopmcnLs rclcvanL Lo Lhc
company. In addiLion Lo Lhc lcarning cccL, IBM would likc Lo makcs iLs voicc
heard and to contribute to public discussion.
When employees blog, they must be aware of the rules of the IBM Blogging
Policy and Guidelines. e full text ends with the warning intended to some-
what dampen enthusiasm during working hours:
Dont forget your day job. You should make sure that blogging does not interfere
with your job or commitments to customers.
e guidelines are set up on the basis of a wiki on blogging established by a
number of IBM bloggers. IBMers and non-IBMers responded to it. IBM blog-
ger Koranteng Ofosu-Amaah felt the use of a disclaimer to be nonsense:
A weasely concession by overly freaked-out folks to keep lawyers employed.
A livcly discussion on Lhis subjccL can bc ound on Lhc blog o IBMcr Sam
Ruby. Hc proposcs Lhc ollowing playul disclaimcr:
e opinions expressed here represent the thoughts of 0.0003% of the employees
of IBM. Before taking it as anything more than that, you might want to consider
checking with the other 99.9997% of the employees rst.
Sometimes, Korantengs manager puts substantial pressure on him con-
ccrning his blog acLiviLics. BuL hc says LhaL hc nccds his blog Lo lcarn abouL
technology and to maintain his sanity in the midst of the madness that a
large bureaucracy imposes daily. Koranteng writes on weekends, in the early
morning and laLc in Lhc cvcning. BuL oncc in a whilc o coursc hc may also
prepare texts during working hours.
Two Dot Zero Rushes to Aid of Public Transit
In the Canadian city of Toronto, public transit organization TTC (Toronto
TransiL Commission) was surpriscd by an iniLiaLivc insLigaLcd by bloggcrs.
IL bcgan wiLh a public lcLLcr ocring TTC commissioncrs hclp in improving
their website and information architecture. e oer was made in response
Lo a RcqucsL or Proposal LhaL TTC had prcviously issucd. c bloggcrs had
liLLlc conhdcncc LhaL Lhc RFP would rcsulL in Lhc rcquircd improvcmcnLs.
The Essence of IBMs Blogging Policy and Guidelines
Become familiar with our general rules of behavior and behave accordingly.
Blogs, wikis and other forms of online communication are individual actions and
not company statements. IBMers are personally responsible for their postings.
Understand that what you write will remain available for a long time. Think about
your own privacy.
Make yourself known (name and, if relevant, your role at IBM). Make clear that
you are speaking on your own behalf and not in the name of IBM.
When you publish something on a blog that involves your work or subjects affect-
ing IBM, make a clear disclaimer.
Respect copyright, fair use and rules concerning the disclosure of nancial infor-
Do not disclose condential information about IBM or anyone else, or for which
others have property rights.
Do not quote customers, partners or suppliers without their permission. The same
applies to references.
Respect your public. Do not use any obscene text, ethnic and personal insults.
Show respect for each others privacy and be careful about sensitive issues such
as politics and religion.
Seek out anyone who is blogging more on the same subject and cite them.
Never engage in confrontation but be the rst to correct your own mistakes.
Do not revise any previous postings without indicating that you have made the
Try to add value.

At the beginning of February 2007, web designers, Web 2.0 specialists and
artists came together to form their own TTC (Toronto Transit Camp) to
conLribuLc Lo Lhc uLurc o public LransiL in ToronLo in an opcn and crcaLivc
manner characteristic of the blog world or blogosphere.
Transit Camp is about creating space for play. It is about leaving our organization-
al roles and business cards at the door and entering an open space that has been
carved out for play, interaction, meaning-making and collaboration. It is a new
way of working, for social goals as well as for market activity. It is about creating
abundance from scarcity.
Marc Kuznicik, one of the Transit Camp organizers
One month later, recommendations were ready for submission to the Toronto
TransiL Commission. cy varicd rom Lips abouL uscr ricndlincss and ar-
chitecture to the future functionality of the site and required applications.
Much can bc accomplishcd or limiLcd cosLs: Lhis was an imporLanL discovcry.
Community Recommendations
to the TTC Toronto Transit Camp,
February 4th, 2007

Report Submitted: March 5th, 2007
Vision: A website for the future TTC needs to fulll some core functionality requirements. It is
also an opportunity for improving the user experience of the system itself and improving the
relationship between the TTC and its passionate communities of interest. In order to fulll this
vision, and considering the budgetary constraints and competing priorities for funding at the
TTC, a new approach is recommended to achieve these goals utilizing the passion, creativity and
spirit of the Toronto-Transit-Camp community.
Staying on the edge of innovation using internal and major consulting company resources is a
very expensive proposition, while the world of Google maps mashups and Open Source tools
development show the agility and innovation that is available in the wider transit technology
community for very low cost. The Toronto Transit Camp community recommends that the TTC
embrace this vision for the future in its web strategy.
Visit and
FOO Camps and BarCamps
e Toronto Transit Camp was a so-called BarCamp. BarCamps, which are
now being organized all around the world, are counterparts of the FOO
Camps of Web 2.0 guru OReilly, in which FOO stands for Friends of OReilly.
In their original usage, foo, bar, and foobar are all designations known to
cvcry soLwarc dcvclopcr.
// PHP code
$foo = Hello;
$bar = World;
$foobar = $foo . . $bar;
// $foobar now contains the string Hello World
FOO Camps and BarCamps are informal meetings and conferences attended
by an extremely enthusiastic public. For this reason, they are also known as
Primark and Albert Heijn
ere are other organizations besides the public transit commission in Toron-
Lo LhaL havc rcccivcd sponLancous posiLivc aLLcnLion rom uscrs by mcans o
Web media. Facebook is home to thousands of spontaneous groups dedicated
Lo various companics. WiLh ovcr 05,000 mcmbcrs, Lhc Primark ApprcciaLion
SocicLy scrvcs as a hub o discussion on ncw ashion lincs and Lips on whcrc
to buy hot products. Primark is a large and popular clothing retailer based in
the United Kingdom.
c mosL imprcssivc aspccL o Lhc Faccbook group is LhaL Primark docs noL
appcar Lo bc involvcd wiLh Lhc group aL all. IL did noL sLarL Lhc group, nor
docs iL havc cdiLorial conLrol ovcr conLcnL. PhoLos o producLs on Lhc siLc
oLcn caLurc individual cosLumcrs showing o Lhcir ncwly purchascd mcr-
chandise. Many of the pictures are also out of focus or the product is o cen-
ter. e amateur nature of the pictures and occasionally critical commentary
lend to the authenticity of the group.
A similar phenomenon occurred in online communities on the Dutch social
ncLworking siLc Hyvcs (rom Lhc Fnglish word or a communiLy o bccs,
hivc" buL Lranscribcd hyvc" Lo suiL DuLch pronunciaLion). Among oLhcr
Lhings, uscul suggcsLions havc bccn madc or sLorc improvcmcnL and
cxpansion o Lhc producL sclccLion. c downsidc is LhaL lcss aLLracLivc

items are sometimes made public. But if you respond well, any company can
reap prot from such exposures.
I Lhc managcr o a spccihc AlbcrL Hcijn sLorc rcads Lhcsc hyvcs," hc can
learn that rsti (a traditional hash brown like dish from Switzerland) is fre-
quently sold out, that no ordinary frozen sh is on oer and that Almhof
mild creamy yoghurt with lemon must be immediately added to the product
lisL. CusLomcrs o anoLhcr AlbcrL Hcijn sLorc, a cw hundrcd mcLcrs away,
arc unhappy LhaL Lhcy cannoL buy vacuum clcancr bags, Pcllcgrino mincral
waLcr and insLanL gravy.
Besides the useful tips, there is of course the necessary bar room humor
abouL Lhc aLLracLivcncss o cashicrs, or cxamplc, or Lhc qucsLion o whcLhcr
or not there should be purple shopping baskets, which would be handy in
indicating that you are single.
It is downright unpleasant when former employees feel their dismissal to be
unjustied. Jerey was fed up with being strung along for years only later to
lcarn LhaL hc did noL havc any carccr prospccLs aL AlbcrL Hcijn. O a vcry di-
ferent kind, but just as unpleasant, is the following message in which Pascal
urgcs pcoplc Lo placc sLorics abouL micc aL AlbcrL Hcijn on Lhc Hyvcs social
Today was hilarious! Sat down to eat in the cafeteria. All at once, the store man-
ager comes running upstairs with a 2 liter milk bottle and a look on his face of you
all have to see this. What was hanging there? A dead mouse! With its tail stuck to
the label. Dead from the cold, it seemed. What are the weirdest places where you
have ever found a mouse?
In Lhc NcLhcrlands Lhc AlbcrL Hcijn Hyvcs communiLics arc cxLrcmcly popu-
lar. Pcoplc usc Lhcm Lo wriLc abouL anyLhing LhaL Lhcy havc on Lhcir minds:
rom aLLracLivc cashicrs and working condiLions Lo Lhc bcsL sLorc and crrors
in the order process.
Experimenting with Web Media
Many companies want to be part of web communications but want to remain
in conLrol o iL Lhcmsclvcs. A good cxamplc o such a casc is Lhc Kodak cor-
porate blog.

A Thousand Words has been operating since September 2006. With a
nod to the old phrase a picture is worth a thousand words, corporate blog-
gers share their stories with all the photography fans around the world. Any-
onc can rcspond, buL should givc Lhcir rcsponscs propcr considcraLion: don'L
make them too indecent, and no harping on about Kodak products is permit-
ted on A ousand Words.
is is not a place for o-topic, oensive or inappropriate comments, and we will
be vigilant in removing them. Inquiries that are unrelated to this blog related ques-
tionswill be redirected to an appropriate resource.
Ford Boldmoves
Ford Boldmovcs was a complcLcly dicrcnL cxpcrimcnL. Boldmovcs op-
craLcd rom 1uly 2006 Lo 1anuary 2007 as a scrvicc by mcans o which
sLakcholdcrs wcrc involvcd in Lhc car makcr's uLurc. c siLc consisLcd
o LhirLy candid vidcos abouL Lhc acLiviLics and conccrns o Ford dircc-
tors and was launched on American Idol. Ford did noL cvadc criLicism and
did noL hidc iLs insccuriLics. crc was a dcsirc or consLrucLivc conicL,
which was exactly what Ford got. e nal posting in the experiment
contained the following:
As we were honest with you from the beginning, you, in turn, were honest with us.
Sometimes brutally so, but thats OK, we asked for it! We heard your comments on
the employee buyout plans, the design of the latest versions of the Mustang and
even what colors you liked for the Edgeand we all thank you for your spirited
participation. We took you through a major product launch from the inside out and
you let us know what you thought about it. Never before has there been a conversa-
tion quite like this.
Corporate Blogging: Is It Worth the Hype?
AlLhough Lhc Boldmovcs siLc is no longcr prcscnL on Lhc Wcb, Lhc ollowing
blog posLing sLill rcmcmbcrs iL:
2006/06/ordboldmovcsco.hLml. is immcdiaLcly raiscs a vcry imporLanL
qucsLion: CorporaLc Blogging: Is IL WorLh Lhc Hypc` AparL rom all Lhc daLa
in the similarly named report, the three ways of operating in Section 1.1 are
cxLrcmcly rclcvanL. On Lhc ncxL pagc wc havc inscrLcd Lhc logos o Lhc LcxL-
book examples representing each position.
In Lwo siLuaLions, corporaLc blogging is morc or lcss risk-rcc. cy involvc
Lhc LhoughL-lcadcrship acLiviLy LhaL IBM parLly chooscs Lo cmphasizc and Lhc
acLiviLy rcprcscnLcd by Kodak's usc o
a corporate blog. Responses from out-
siders are permitted there but almost
entirely under open censure.
Anyone seeking openness and trans-
parency, such as Ford did with its
Boldmovcs and MicrosoL is sLill doing
in another manner with Channel 9,
runs the greatest risk. Dell can be
placed between Kodak and Ford, and
INGs My Cup of Cha leans slightly
more toward IBMs position. e Ford
approach may bcar producLivc ruiL,
but a company rst has to make sure
LhaL iL docs noL havc Loo much dirLy
laundry and that it is not about to slip
up. e same of course applies to thought leadership: a company might want
to do this, but it has to be absolutely certain that it can pull it o.
e similarity between Kodak and IBM is that, in both cases, they lay down
clcar rulcs wiLh which bloggcrs havc Lo comply. In all cascs, anyonc who has
to seek publicity and interaction on the Web realizes that the competition is
ccrLainly waLching, LhaL Lhcrc is a risk o ncgaLivc PR and LhaL Lhcrc arc lcgal
conscqucnccs. Howcvcr, all Lhosc who arc awarc o Lhcsc issucs, who Lakc in
Lhc cxamplcs and Lips providcd in Lhis chapLcr, and givc scrious considcr-
aLion Lo Lhc hvc basic qucsLions wiLh which wc now concludc Lhis chapLcr,
will at least be well prepared.
Five Questions about Corporate Web Conversations
is chapter has examined a number of much discussed mistakes and suc-
ccsscs involving Lhc usc o wcb convcrsaLions. Bclow arc hvc undamcnLal
questions about communication in the Me-Media Mass on behalf of an or-
1 Must There Be Rules?
IL gocs wiLhouL saying LhaL Lhcrc havc Lo bc somc rulcs. To bc clcarcr, rulcs
always cxisL, cvcn i Lhcy arc noL havc bccn madc public. Fvcryonc undcr-
stands that some things are not permitted and that open communication
The report Corporate Blogging: Is It Worth the Hype?
can be downloaded from
is dcsirablc. crc is, howcvcr, a dcgrcc o qucsLioning abouL Lhc cxLcnL Lo
which a codc o bchavior can rcmain unwriLLcn or has Lo bc madc cxpliciL.
You may not be blogging ocially on behalf of the company, but you will
indeed be recognizable as one of its members, and anything you write will
probably remain on the Web for a long time. Of course, it depends on who
takes part in a corporate weblog. Often, a small group of people create the
postings and the rest of the company and the outside world are left to re-
spond. In Lhis casc, common scnsc gcncrally prcvails. c bcsL sccnario is
whcn you can lcavc as much as possiblc Lo Lhc scl-clcaning capaciLy o Lhc
ecosystem. Organizational culture is an important factor in this respect.
Amcrican companics and mulLinaLionals oLcn issuc cxLcnsivc scLs o pro-
cedures that also apply to corporate weblogs. e IBM solution of allowing
bloggers to establish their terms of use is extremely elegant, not so much
bccausc iL makcs cvcryonc awarc o and amcnablc Lo Lhc rulcs o conducL,
but because it encourages open communication right from the start. Compa-
nies that want to build in further restrictions can do something similar or
cvcn idcnLical Lo IBM's soluLions. O coursc, Lhc rulcs o cLiqucLLc govcrning
lcLLcrs submiLLcd Lo qualiLy ncwspapcrs also always apply. Howcvcr, anyonc
who has to monitor weblogs in order to ensure that such rules are respected
is facing a tough task.
2 Do I Come Across Well?
All those who are anxious about not coming across well should perhaps not
gcL involvcd. And an individual wiLh a pcrsonal sLylc musL ccrLainly makc
use of it. e point here is quite simple: blog specically on things that you
know abouL. In addiLion, cccLivc communicaLion is primarily a qucsLion o
writing in an appealing manner. Many people therefore use a colloquial and
pcrsonal Lonc o voicc. IL also dcpcnds on whcLhcr or noL a blog posLing is
intended to inform or to obtain as many responses as possible. e combi-
nation of interesting writing, personal style and expertise is undoubtedly a
crucial succcss acLor or cvcry wcb convcrsaLion. Finally, Lhc Lip abouL im-
mcdiaLcly admiLLing Lo misLakcs is sound advicc, unlcss o coursc iL is Lhc
inLcnLion Lo provokc or polcmicizc. BuL in corporaLc blogging, such rabblc-
rousing will seldom be desirable.
3 What Are Web Conversations Good For?
Talking with (potential) customers always leads to something; in this sense,
the question is meaningless. Still, if you are afraid that Web media will de-
LracL rom or conicL wiLh oLhcr communicaLion objccLivcs, Lhc qucsLion is
Lhcn vcry apL. c cxpcricncc o INC wiLh Lhc wcblog My Cup o Cha poinLs
Lhc way hcrc. c bank was rcwardcd wiLh highcr scorcs on scarchcs involv-
ing ccrLain kcywords. c wcblog Lhcrcorc conLribuLcd Lo Lhc aims involv-
ing search engine optimization. Less tangible, but as least as interesting, is
the fact that Microsoft has become a more human company as a result of
iLs blog acLiviLics. And i wcb convcrsaLions gcncraLc concrcLc idcas such as
in Lhc casc o Dcll's IdcaSLorm, Lhcn Lhc bcnchL can bc jusL onc innovaLivc
4 Is The Escalation of Web Conversations a Serious Matter?
I a wcb convcrsaLion wiLh cusLomcrs or Lhc ouLsidc world gcLs ouL o hand, iL
is not the end of the world. It entirely depends on what has instigated the af-
fair, how you react and how strongly something has escalated. In general, cor-
porate front runners are easy targets, but additionally anyone whose weblog
stands a little apart from the crowd will run extra risks. Search engines now
function as reputation management systems; unpleasant messages remain
Lraccablc or a long whilc. I wcb convcrsaLions happcn Lo cscalaLc, iL may bc
best for you to plead mea culpa and air the issues as far as possible in the
opcn. Dcll, PR agcncy Fdclman and KrypLoniLc had Lo cavc in, buL ulLimaLcly
camc away rom Lhc hghL sLrongcr. ConLrovcrsy is good, as iL puLs you in Lhc
spoLlighL and givcs you Lhc opporLuniLy Lo makc Lhings righL. RcdcmpLion is
noL always casy, buL a gcnuinc pcniLcnL oLcn gains public avor.
5 Can You Control Web Conversations?
Wcb convcrsaLions arc ccrLainly con-
trollable through the manner in which
Lhcy arc conducLcd and, abovc all, by
Lhc choicc o subjccL. Ford's Boldmovcs
project is a good example of such con-
trol. But you should note that being
open to the exchange of ideas with em-
ployees and customers is something
other than faking openness. Deception
is sooner or later exposed. An impor-
LanL bcnchL o wcb convcrsaLions is dc-
rivcd rom Lhc uncxpccLcd, Lhc uncon-
Lrollablc and Lhc vulncrablc. is,
combined with the standing that you
hold as an organization, produces con-
dence and credibility. Entering into
wcb convcrsaLions as such can Lhcn
havc a posiLivc cccL on imagc. How-
cvcr, cnorccd conLrol o Lhc spccihc
conLcnL o wcb convcrsaLions musL bc avoidcd. AcLing in a disarming man-
ncr, mainLaining a undamcnLally posiLivc aLLiLudc and cxcrcising a good
sense of humor are all the best principles of control.
Pimp Your Brand
Due to the mixture of such websites as Google, eBay, Digg and,
along with social networks, weblogs, wikis and Internet forums, it is very
easy to drag out the past of people, companies and brands. Many signicant
items in both a positive and a negative sense are magnied in the display
window of the Internet. This fact may be pleasant or discomforting, but you
can also play around with it. In particular, companies are making increasing
use of the services of PR agencies in order to polish their reputations. SEO,
SEM, SMO and SMM are all abbreviations designating the same activities. They
stand for Search Engine Optimization/Marketing and Social Media Optimiza-
tion/Marketing. To a certain extent, this occurs automatically, but you can
also hire in personnel who mingle with the Internet public on certain sites.
When a discussion arises somewhere, they speak positively about a product,
service, brand or company. In the light of his boss blunder (see Section 3.4),
Steve Rubel at the Edelman PR Agency sounded more Catholic than the pope
when he gave evidence of his abhorrence for this sort of practice:
Search engine optimization professionals of late seem poised to take over
blogs, Digg, StumbleUpon and other sites with a range of tactics, some legiti-
mate, others more questionable with the intent of building Google Juice and
nothing more. This represents a clear and present danger to the fabric of the
community. If you care about the Social Web, then you should be alarmed.
NB: Digg,, StumbleUpon and eBay are discussed in Chapter 7.
An Economy of
New Conversations
4.1 e Era of the Economy 89
4.2 ConvcrsaLions in Lhc Fconomy 01
4.3 Crowdsourcing with Web Media 95
4.4 Arc Wc CcLLing Back WhaL Wc Havc IosL` 07
4.5 Doing Business in the Media Mass 99
Our economy has always consisted of conversations which usually contained few
wasted words. There was the striking of a bargain, supply and demand, later
supplemented by after sales, customer support and the helpdesk. Chapter 4 dem-
onstrates that multimedia web conversations propel the traditional economy into
a new phase that, in so many words, may be called the Conversation Economy.
Chapter 5 will take this paradigm even further by proclaiming the rise of a true
Conversation Society on the basis of the Me-Media Mass that we created.
The development of the Conversation Economy was already anticipated a few
years ago, but now something is actually happening. Reactive and proactive web
conversations not only ensure that clients are more satised but that adequate
products, services and even laws can be made more quickly.
The Era of the Economy
Anyonc rcvicwing indicaLors rom Lhc lasL hundrcd ycars will immcdiaLcly
note that despite the worldwide recession the present time represents the
grcaLcsL bursL o cconomic growLh LhaL has cvcr occurrcd. A logariLhmic scalc
o gross world producL immcdiaLcly rcvcals LhaL growLh in Lhc LwcnLicLh ccn-
Lury makcs Lhc cconomic dcvclopmcnL o Lhc prcvious millcnnia sccm almosL
negligible. Not only has growth been exponential but the rate of growth has
increased exponentially as well.
If we project the trend from 2000 to 2050, we can see that gross world prod-
uct will be six times greater again. Apart from any other qualication one
might wish to add, this one-hundred-and-fty-year period, of which now
onc ccnLury lics bchind us, is abovc all Lhc cra o Lhc cconomy, dcspiLc Lhc
dire condition it has slipped in since 2008.
A century of
outrageous growth
The era of the economy

Visit futurist.typepad.
Number of years before 2000
Gross world product per capita
[in 2000-$]
1,000 100
10 1 10,000
Number of years before 2050
Gross world product per capita until 2050
[in 2000-$]
1,000 100
10 1 10,000
Such cxplosivc progrcss is unprcccdcnLcd in Lhc hisLory o humaniLy.
roughouL hisLory, Lhcrc havc o coursc bccn pcriods o boom: Lhc AzLccs,
Greeks, Chinese and Romans, to name but a few, all experienced and cul-
LivaLcd luxury and progrcss, buL noL aL Lhc raLc, cxLcnL and disLribuLion o
well-being that we are now enjoying. In the past, only a minority elite ben-
eted from economic progress, while colonization and exploring the earth
wcrc Lhc main acLiviLics. Ordinary pcoplc, no maLLcr i Lhcy wcrc Romans or
AzLccs, havc ncvcr cxpcricnccd much o Lhc good lic LhroughouL hisLory.
We are therefore in the era of the economy. is began at the beginning of the
prcvious ccnLury and rcsulLcd aL Lhc cnd o LhaL ccnLury in Lhc hopcs o a so-
called New Economy. e new order was to be characterized by continuous
annual 4 percent growth. e Internet was the magic wordthe e-this-or-
that was what the age was clamoring for (consider for example, e-commerce,
e-Business, e-tailing, e-marketplaces), and all this alleged benecence com-
ing ouL o Lhc UniLcd SLaLcs. On March l0, 2000, Lhc NASDAQ closcd aL an
all Limc high o 504S.62 poinLsLwicc as much as Lhc prcvious ycar. ALcr
that it went downhill; the Internet bubble burst.
WiLh hindsighL, cvcryonc could havc orcsccn LhaL Lhc downward Lurn was
bound Lo happcn, as Lhc Amcrican Fcdcral Rcscrvc had raiscd Lhc primc
interest rate six times in order to slow down irrational exuberance. e
downward slidc was painul, alLhough noL as dcvasLaLing as Lhc rcccssion
that started in 2008.
is gap in American superiority was subsequently widened, specically by
terrorism (9/11), unprecedented book-keeping scandals (Enron, Worldcom
among others), faulty intelligence about weapons of mass destruction, the
economic emergence of India and China, and the recession that started in
2008 as a subprime mortgage crisis. After the euphoria surrounding the New
Fconomy, iL bccamc clcar cvcrywhcrc LhaL cconomics is only an absLracLion
of reality.
Conversations in the Economy
e economy is based on a few simple ground rules. It is the place where sup-
ply meets demand, where trading occurs as part of the talk between buyer
and scllcr, and whcrc advcrLising promoLcs salcs.
Somc movcmcnLs in Lhc cconomy arc bcyond our conLrol, such as Black Mon-
day in October 1987 when automatic trading on nancial markets had to
bc suspcndcd in ordcr Lo prcvcnL somcLhing morc scrious rom happcning.
Howcvcr, Lhc cconomy is csscnLially an inLcrconnccLion o inLcrpcrsonal
convcrsaLions. And Lhc cra o Wcb mcdia is bulging wiLh such human-bascd
inLcracLions as ncvcr bcorc. c cxamplcs in Lhc prcccding chapLcr havc
made this point suciently clear.
In addition to a lightning-fast, hot-money economy, we are also currently
cxpcricncing an incrcasc in ncw convcrsaLions on Lhc InLcrncL among rcal
pcoplc. csc convcrsaLions drivc supply and dcmand, cspccially as Lhcy
rcqucnLly involvc advcrLising or ncgaLivc opinion. is c-mancipaLion has
grown into a supplement of e-trading and e-Business.
E-mancipation based on Web media diers from the Mass-Media Age of a
cw dccadcs ago jusL as day dicrs rom nighL. I wc arc ablc Lo spcak o convcr-
sations occurring then between supplier and consumer, they were one-sided,
to say the least. e emphasis was placed entirely on the messages dispersed by
companics Lhrough mcdia and dirccLcd aL various dcmographic scgmcnLs.
Consumcr organizaLions and ombudsmcn had Lo conducL Lhc convcrsaLions
on our bchal. As ar as Lhis siLuaLion was conccrncd, Lhc arrival o call ccn-
ters and customer contact centers was already an enormous step forward.
Communities Dominate Brands
Eighty percent of 18- to 26-year-olds are cur-
rently actively involved in Web media such
as blogs, clips and social networks. This new
generation of employees is changing the
ways in which companies operate, just as The
Cluetrain Manifesto predicted in 1999. Alan
Moore, the author of Communities Dominate
Brands: Business and Marketing Challenges for the 21
Century, has
the following to say on the subject:
The companies that dont understand the new media empowered con-
sumer will not survive. Companies have to empower their network,
build advocacy, learn to give up control and understand that it is not
about persuasion anymore.
The Cluetrain Manifesto
c rcalizaLion LhaL markcLs arc convcrsaLions and LhaL boLh arc alLcrcd
by the new media was noted in an intriguing way as early as 1999 by Rick
Icvinc, ChrisLophcr Iockc, Doc Scarls and David Wcinbcrgcr in e Cluetrain
Manifesto. is ncw mcdia manicsLo, o which a book vcrsion was publishcd
in 2000 wiLh Lhc provocaLivc subLiLlc e End of Business as Usual, came out
prior to the age of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Twitter. In 1999, Google
was jusL onc ycar-old, and Lhc avoriLc scarch cnginc o Lhc Limc was AlLa-
Vista. In those days, thousands of people wrote in the manifestos guestbook,
pcoplc rom IBM and Ogilvy, cclcbriLics such as Davc Wincr and opcn-sourcc
guru Fric Raymond, and vcry many ordinary wcb dcvoLccs o Lhc Limc.
e Cluetrain Manifesto focused on the media qualities of Information Tech-
nology (IT): in oLhcr words ITainmcnL. IL is rclaLivcly ar-rcaching, going so
ar as Lo prcdicL Lhc cnd o advcrLising. ALcr all, wc would raLhcr lisLcn Lo
each other on the Internet than to what companies throw at us in their ad-
vcrLiscmcnLs. David Wcinbcrgcr laLcr admiLLcd LhaL Lhis was in acL a mis-
Lakc. c InLcrncL is bursLing wiLh advcrLising mcssagcs, and radio and Lclc-
vision sLill cxisL as wcll. c LradiLional mass mcdia havc ccrLainly losL Lhcir
absolute power; they are now all just elements of the new media mass.
Although e Cluetrain Manifesto occasionally ovcrshoL Lhc mark in proclaim-
ing Lhc rcvoluLion, iL was undoubLcdly Lhc documcnL LhaL sLarLcd somcLhing.
As the following summary of key passages from the original manifesto re-
vcals, Lhcrc was an cmcrging ncw (wcb) mcdia mass bascd on human acLiv-
ity. e Cluetrain Manifesto dcscribcs Lhis dcvclopmcnL as a libcraLing c-man-
cipation of humanity, while romanticizing it as a kind of homecoming.
Conversations are (again) the norm
Old markets were lled with the sounds of life: conversations. ese markets were
places for trading traditional products in which the hand of the maker was recog-
nizable. Subsequently, we were presented with mass production, mass marketing
and mass media. Interchangeable employees, products and consumers came into
being, together with the hierarchical bureaucracies needed to command and control
them. But the Internetuncontrolled and full of the sound of the human voice
demonstrates that the Industrial Age was nothing more than a temporary inter-
ruption of the conversations of a bygone age. is time, they are going on all around
the world. e voicethe forthright expression of craftsmanship present in our
handmade products and wordsis again rising on the Internet.
Hierarchies are subverted
Just like their counterparts in the market, employees are now able to contact each
other and are consequently learning to speak with their own voices. Traditional
organizational structures are therefore being overturned. People are telling each
other and their customers the truth. e direct contact between employees over
the Web undermines the old management pyramid, breaking down the walls seg-
regating the workspace by engaging in open conversations. From the bottom up,
companies are beginning to accept openness, decentralization, incompleteness, dis-
array, context-rich information, narrative and the sound of the authentic voices of
Communication is forthright
Almost everyone online expresses a playful attitude; a shared ironic intelligence
that undermines the basic assumptions of traditional institutions. e Internet is
for fooling around, and companies would do better to take this play seriously. When
this paradox has become a paradigm, then it will be too late to go looking for a
magic potion to cure empty organizational speech. Instead, it is time to get familiar
with new roles, new reasoning, new worlds.
Its the Conversation Economy, Stupid!
e Cluetrain manner of thinking is the yardstick and often the inspiration
or Lhc cxamplcs in Lhc prcvious chapLcr. In April 2007 David Armano placcd
a strong exclamation mark after this fact in BusinessWeek: IL's Lhc Convcrsa-
tion Economy, Stupid! e Cluetrain Manifesto is perfectly in tune with the
currcnL Lrcnd o involving cusLomcrs in Lhc dcvclopmcnL o producLs and
scrviccs. Such inLcracLion occurs in Lhc casc o opcn-sourcc soLwarc, opcn
innovaLion and, bricy puL, in all orms o crowdsourcing among organiza-
Lions, knowlcdgc insLiLuLcs, individuals and communiLics.
Fivc ycars aLcr publicaLion o e Cluetrain Manifesto, the landscape of the
Internet had a radically changed appearance: the era of Google, YouTube,
MySpace, LinkedIn, Virtual Earth, Flickr, et cetera, had dawned. New so-
cial soLwarc plaLorms or conducLing convcrsaLions wcrc springing up likc
wccds. FvidcnLly, cvcryonc had simulLancously bccomc convinccd o Lhc
powcr o Lhc InLcrncL Lo csLablish dialogucs abouL cvcryLhing. c ow o
web communications by e-mail, instant messaging, blogs and wikis fueled
Lhis Lrcnd and, o coursc, Lhc applicaLion o simplc wcb convcrsaLions in Lhc
dcvclopmcnL o opcn-sourcc soLwarc such as Iinux, Apachc, and Lhousands
of other applications.

When open-source guru and author of the seminal work e Cathedral and
the Bazaar Eric Raymond signed the Cluetrain guest book, he added the fol-
lowing comment:
e Cluetrain is to marketing and communications what the open-source move-
ment is to software developmentanarchic, messy, rude, and vastly more pow-
erful than the doomed bullshit that conventionally passes for wisdom.
is remark is rich in irritation and irony. is is the manner of straightfor-
ward communicaLion LhaL Icvinc, Iockc, Scarls and Wcinbcrgcr havc Lalkcd
abouL and which was alrcady wcll-known in Lhc opcn-sourcc movcmcnL. c
orLhrighL Lonc o wcb convcrsaLions is a complcLc conLrasL Lo Lhc cmpLy or-
ganizaLional spccch o which wc saw cxamplcs in Lhc prcvious chapLcr.
While writing Me the Media wc cxpcricnccd Lhis oursclvcs, during our visiLs
Lo scvcral companics around Lhc globc. In rcsponsc Lo a qucsLion probing
car abouL whaL mighL happcn Lo brands, wc wcrc Lold in scvcral cascs LhaL
fear was not the right word:
Afraid? No, we are not afraid. We are absolutely terried. ats why we experi-
ment like hell.
ForLunaLcly, Lhc dcsLrucLivc humor and pranks o Wcb mcdia uscrs
only rcprcscnLs onc sidc o Lhc coin. c oLhcr morc consLrucLivc
sidc is Lhc valuc crcaLion o crowdsourcing: Lhc usc o Wcb mcdia Lo
mobilizc cvcryonc onlinc. is acLiviLy, which bcgan wiLh soLwarc
dcvclopmcnL, is now pcrmcaLing all oLhcr cconomic sccLors.
Crowdsourcing with Web Media
In cccL, Lhc Wcb ConvcrsaLion Fconomy bcgan in l0S5 wiLh Lhc
establishment of the Free Software Foundation by Richard Stall-
man. is act of deance against the established software com-
panies has had substantial economic consequences. Stallman felt
LhaL cvcry programmcr had Lhc righL Lo parLicipaLc in wriLing Lhc
soLwarc LhaL cvcryonc works wiLh. is principlc bccamc Lhc ba-
sis for a new production method, which was ultimately also em-
braced by the establishment when it became apparent how suc-
cessful the open-source approach was.
Download Open for Business:
Open Source Inspired In nov-
ation at
Twenty-one years after the establishment of the Free Software Foundation,
Opcn Sourcc rcccivcd a ncw namc rom Wired cdiLor 1c Howc. In 1unc
2006, he wrote the article e Rise of Crowdsourcing dealing with the
use of Web media to engage outsiders in production and marketing in the
mosL divcrgcnL scgmcnLs. As a conscqucncc, Lhcsc acLiviLics poLcnLially in-
volvc morc Lhan a billion pcoplc, Lhc onlinc populaLion Lhcsc days. AircraL
manuacLurcr Bocing, shoc makcr Flucvog, NASA, Coldcorp, Icgo, ProcLcr 8
Camblc, Unilcvcr and many oLhcr organizaLions arc making grcaL corLs Lo
Lakc advanLagc o Lhc crowdsourcing phcnomcnon.
c rcvoluLionary mcssagc LhaL, as a rcsulL o
such Social Web media as YouTube and My-
Space, the consumer will be in charge rather
than companies, authorities, traditional
media and politicians must therefore be ex-
tended. Web media are also of great interest
to organizations, as they can ultimately enter
into direct one-on-one contact with the, until
vcry rcccnLly, anonymous public. c hypcr-
linkcd cgos o Loday arc morc involvcd Lhan
cvcr and in addiLion havc a sLrongcr Lcndcncy
to communicate.
Wired editor Jeff Howe, who mid 2006 coined the
term crowdsourcing, in August 2008 published a full
book on the topic, entitled: Crowdsourcing. Why the
Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business.
This of course is quite a claim. However, the subject
of crowds, which has been with us throughout his-
tory and especially during the past century, these
days draws a lot attention. For instance through yet
another recent book: Crowd Surng. Surviving and
Thriving in the Age of Consumer Empowerment. The
authors are David Brain, CEO of Edelman Europe,
and Martin Thomas, who has run a variety of
marketing communications agencies over the past
twenty-ve years (see
Obviously, crowdsourcing means that the cards are
re-shufed and new relationships created. Take
for example CrowdSpirit. The founders began this
enterprise because they could no longer stand the
old-fashioned product development of multibillion
dollar businesses. CrowdSpirit is a communication
platform in which everyone can participate and
still earn some good money.

An ovcrly cxccssivc cmphasis on Lhc incrcasing powcr o Lhc individual ovcr-
looks the fact that organizations can make excellent use of the accessibility
and communication skills of all Web media users for their own benet. By
using Lhc cscalaLing populaLion o individuals as Lhc bcsL buL undcrpaid or
unpaid employees, organizations can make windfall prots from the new
ConvcrsaLion Fconomy. On Lhc condiLion LhaL Lhcrc arc rcqucnL and clcar
interactions, the lock-in of the consumer can be highly organic and stronger
Lhan was cvcr prcviously possiblc. Wcb mcdia can bc uscd Lo bind Lhc hcklc
cusLomcr rom Lhc mass mcdia cra much morc sccurcly Lo producLs, scrviccs
and brands. Consumcrs should ccl LhaL Lhcsc producLs, scrviccs and brands
are ultimately theirs and not only intended for them but also created by
Are We Getting Back What We Have Lost?
e authors of e Cluetrain Manifesto havc unambiguously cxprcsscd Lhcir
romanLic vision:
e long silencethe industrial interruption of the human conversationis com-
ing to an end. On the Internet, markets are getting more connected and more pow-
erfully vocal every day. ese markets want to talk, just as they did for the thou-
sands of years that passed before market became a verb with us as its object.
is notion is widely spread; in the 1960s, media philosopher Marshall McLu-
han spokc abouL a global villagc" o inLcrconnccLcd Lribcs" and in l003,
Howard Rhcingold uscd Lhc noLion o rcal-Limc Lribcs." Wcb mcdia allcg-
cdly cnablc us Lo rccovcr Lhc communiLy rc-
lationships that we had long since lost. But
is this re-tribalization actually happening?
Wc poscd Lhis qucsLion Lo WouLcr van Bcck,
Professor of Religious Anthropology at the
UnivcrsiLy o Tilburg, Lhc NcLhcrlands.
No, answers Van Beek, our modern soci-
ety is now structured completely dierently
from what it once was or from a tribal cul-
ture. To begin with, we are all much better
o in the era of the economy. Furthermore,
the dynamics of communication in small
ccnLcrs around a spccihc scL o valucs and
To experience community spirit, you can now go to
Africa and ght on behalf of a tribe
norms such as existed in tribal culture are fundamentally dierent from the
virLual wcb world."
TribcsincidcnLally, a word ouL o avour by many anLhropologisLsarc
scaLLcrcd socicLics LhaL arc liLLlc accLcd by Lhc Lwo mcgaLrcnds o advanc-
ing economic progress: globalization and Information Technology. Tribal so-
cicLy and iLs convcrsaLions arc ocuscd on Lhc villagc, disLricL, hcriLagc and
clan. ese are atoms of the community as a whole.
WhaL wc havc losL as a rcsulL o cconomic progrcss and whaL Lribal culLurcs
havc rcLaincd is Lhc scnsc o communiLy aL Lhc ccnLcr o all acLion. In Lribal
lic, Lhcrc arc no lcasc cars in which Lo drivc Lo work, no hLncss rooms in
which to keep in shape and no billboards full of temptation. No newspa-
pers and magazines to read when riding a public transit or no LinkedIn with
which Lo hnd old school ricnds who wc havc losL Louch wiLh. Pcoplc work
LogcLhcr, Lravcl LogcLhcr, drink bccr, go Lo parLics and LcmpL cach oLhcr. In-
terpersonal relationships are put together dierently in tribes than in mod-
ern society. ey are multi-stranded: each connection of person to person
has scvcral sLrands. You somcLimcs Lravcl wiLh your broLhcr-in-law, you do a
little trade with him, and you are married to his sister. In contrast, modern
socicLy Lcnds Lo involvc singlc-sLrandcd rclaLionships. You know somcbody
at work, play tennis with somebody else, and run into yet another person at
Lhc school grounds whcn you pick up your child. In addiLion, Lhcrc arc vir-
tual strands as well: sometimes with hundreds of people in the new Social
Web networks. But they also are primarily single-stranded relationships.
Wc havc Lhcrcorc losL Lhc LighLly-bound scnsc o communiLy or good. Wc
are busy busy busy and must multitask to an extreme degree in order to
deal with all these single-stranded relationships. ere is no longer any real
Limc lcL ovcr, dcadlincs and qualiLy Limc havc Lakcn iLs placc. cy charac-
terize our Continuous Partial Attention, mentioned in Chapter 1.
A second important dierence is that tribal culture has much less to do with
modern digital Virtual Worlds, worlds in which you can only reside tempo-
rarily. In a tribal culture, there is in fact only one important Virtual World:
Lhc world o rcligion. OLhcrwisc, cvcryLhing clsc primarily involvcs acc-Lo-
face contact, dancing, feasting, eating, drinking and working; in brief, life it-
scl. c modcrn world is much morc inundaLcd wiLh virLualiLy, or cxamplc
in advcrLising.
Returning to tribal culture is therefore quite absurd. e modern world has
increasingly more technology, and returning to tribalism would take us back
to a time in which no technology existed. Furthermore, a return to tribal
life is essentially a mistaken romanticism. Of course, the loss of deep-rooted
rclaLionships is noL a posiLivc dcvclopmcnL. Howcvcr, i a choicc has Lo bc
madc bcLwccn cconomic progrcss and povcrLy, Lhcrc arc cw pcoplc who
would choose the latter. It would unquestioningly be best if a both/and situ-
ation could be created permitting economic progress and multi-stranded
Doing Business in the Media Mass
c cconomy is a convcrsaLion and convcrsaLions changc. c ird Mcdia
RcvoluLion Lhcrcorc has proound cconomic conscqucnccs. RclaLionships
between organizations and customers are changing and the economic game
is increasingly being played out in the open. is means that organizations
musL adapL Lo Lhc morcs o a ncw virLual rcaliLy. As in Lhc prcvious cra, Lhc
customer remains key, but we might add that only now is that real. Contact
with others within a network is something new, along with the opportunity
or cvcryonc Lo acLivcly parLicipaLc. c dicrcncc bcLwccn Lhc mass mcdia
era and the new media mass can be categorized as follows:
How Lhc ncw convcrsaLions arc bcing conducLcd, is a kcy issuc. WhaL docs a
cusLomcr say` WhaL do you say` How do you rcspond Lo cach oLhcr` csc arc
csscnLial issucs, as cvcryLhing on Lhc Wcb can bc chcckcd. A singlc convcrsa-
tion with a specic customer can become a group discussion in no time.
OrganizaLions will havc Lo changc Lhcir Lunc. ConLrol o Lhc mcdia is slip-
ping ouL o Lhc hands o organizaLions and inLo Lhc hands o individuals.
c rclaLionship bcLwccn organizaLions and Lhc ouLsidc world is cvolving.
Mass Media Media Mass
The anonymous client All hyperlinked customers
E-business E-mancipation
An individual website The Web in all its forms
Customer database Communities
Reacting Interacting
Return On Investment Return On Involvement
Professionalism Humor and irony
Individuals arc pooling Lhcir orccs and advising cach oLhcr abouL whaL Lhcy
should buy: the best car, the best hotel room, the best book, et cetera. Com-
plaints about your organization quickly appear on the Web. Search engines
do noL only dig up nicc sLorics, buL also cusLomcr cvaluaLions and complainLs
from fussy egos.
Howcvcr, wcb convcrsaLions arc noL a complcLc powcr shiL buL a mcans o
cnsuring a bcLLcr alignmcnL o wishcs and scrviccs. cy arc abovc all a qucsL
or a ncw cquilibrium. Pcoplc havc mulLiplc cxpcricnccs rcgarding brands
and products. ey are proud of them and show them o. Brands are state-
mcnLs and a parL o individual idcnLiLy. Powcr is undoubLcdly shiLing, buL
commiLmcnL Lo organizaLions and producLs is morc prcvalcnL Lhan Lhc urgc
to destroy.
Fncouraging cvcryonc onlinc Lo bccomc acLivcly involvcd in your organiza-
tion is one of the new business strategies of the twenty-rst century. is
so-called crowdsourcing creates opportunities. On the one hand, you can
make use of ideas owing from existing and
potential buyers; on the other, you create
commitment and are marketing the product
long before it appears on the market. e
ncw ConvcrsaLion Fconomy makcs organi-
zaLions ablc Lo rccovcr pub sLaLus, whcrc you
can havc a long Lalk ovcr a cw drinks.
On top of the Conversation Economy in the
Obama era a new Conversation Society will
unfold, as was pointed out on the
The Obama Moment:
From Conversation Economy
to Conversation Society
Peter Leyden
5.1 Americas Moment 102
5.2 e Great Global Reframe 103
5.3 Obama and the New Politics of the Web 105
5.4 c PaLLcrn o Prcvious Progrcssivc Fras l06
5.5 e Political Paradigm Shift in Technology 108
5.6 c Ncw Progrcssivc PoliLical CoaliLion ll3
5.7 e Coming Paradigm Shift in the Ideas Business 114
Leyden is founder and CEO of Next Agenda, a startup that is a cross between
a policy think tank and a new media business leveraging new technologies to
help solve Americas biggest challenges. Next Agenda gets extraordinary people
outside of Washington D.C. involved in policy-making by using both new tech-
niques for facilitating physical gatherings and new technologies for collabora-
tion online. Leyden recently nished a period as the Director of the New Politics
Institute, a think tank helping people in politics understand and adapt to the
huge changes in technology and new media. NPI built a network of private
sector experts in tech and new media who helped Democrats re-strategize and
take advantage of the new tools. Leyden previously worked as the managing
editor at the original Wired magazine, which helped drive the digital revolution
and create the early online new media of the Web. After that he worked as a
director of Global Business Networks think tank on the future that pioneered
the use of diverse networks of talented individuals to help corporations and
governments solve difcult problems. Leyden has been a journalist, a special
correspondent for Newsweek in Asia, and is co-author of The Long Boom, which
was translated into half a dozen languages, and Whats Next, which was based
on deep interviews with 50 remarkable people from diverse elds impacting
the future.
The support attracted by Ba-
rack Obama during the primary
and general U.S. presidential
elections in 2008 marked a new
conversational phase in the use
of Web media. Obama and his
campaign team took methods
seen in the Conversation Econ-
omy and elevated them to a
true Conversation Society level.
However unique this may have
been, Obamas achievement
had its structural precedents in
politics before now. American
politics periodically undergoes an intensive period of innovation based partly
on the rapid adoption of new media technology. This time it was the adoption of
powerful web tools for communication, coordination, and cooperation.
Americas Moment
America, this is our moment. Barack Obama used this phrase again and
again LhroughouL his succcssul campaign or PrcsidcnL. Hc rcqucnLly Lalk-
cd abouL Amcrica coming Lo an hisLoric juncLurc, and cnLcring a vcry dicr-
cnL hisLoric pcriod. YcL whaL is iL LhaL makcs Lhis pcriod wc livc in poLcnLially
so historic? A strong argument can be made that America is about to begin a
rarc pcriod o rapid poliLical innovaLion, onc LhaL will spur a LransormaLion
of the American economy and society to t the new realities of our global-
ized twenty-rst century world. Obama is not the cause of this, yet he has
played a large role in helping to catalyze it. In this sense, it could be called
c Obama MomcnL." Howcvcr Lhis pcriod is ar grcaLcr Lhan Obama, iL is
ar grcaLcr Lhan any singlc individual. IL involvcs all o us, noL jusL all Amcri-
cans, but ultimately people across the world.
Amcrica has cnLcrcd Lhcsc cxplosivc pcriods o poliLical inno-
vaLion only a handul o Limcs during iLs hisLory. For cxamplc,
around Lhc Limc o Lhc Civil War, Abraham Iincoln was Lhc caLa-
lyst; at the beginning of the twentieth century, Republican Teddy
RooscvclL iniLiaLcd anoLhcr pcriod, wiLh DcmocraL Woodrow Wil-
son bringing it into fruition. Following this was the more familiar
pcriod o Lhc l030s and l040s lcd by Franklin Dclano RooscvclL, From the homepage
FDR. ese periods are usually prompted by huge structural changes to the
economy and society, such as the shift from an agrarian economy to an in-
dustrialized one, or by the appearance of unprecedented challenges that the
former politics and policies are utterly unable to addresssuch as the Great
In terms of a solution, these periods are almost always marked by three cru-
cial clcmcnLs LhaL combinc Lo hclp rcsolvc Lhc crisis: cy
usually encompass new technologies and new media as core
Lools allowing Lhings Lo happcn likc ncvcr bcorc. (Considcr
how broadcast radio helped FDR lead Americans during the
1930s.) ese periods also entice huge numbers of new peo-
ple into political process, often through immigration or gen-
erational change, and often using the new media. ese peri-
ods are also accompanied by an explosion of new ideas about
how socicLy could bc rcinvcnLcd across a widc spccLrum o
elds. ese elements combine and, historically, create a pe-
riod of roughly 15-20 years of widespread experimentation
and innovaLion in policy and govcrnmcnL, as wcll as in Lhc
larger social and economic spheres. roughout American
hisLory, Lhcsc pcriods havc oLcn bccn callcd progrcssivc"
as opposcd Lo conscrvaLivc" cras, as Lhc spiriL o Lhc Limcs is
geared towards change, new approaches, and the future. In
essence, they are all about progress as opposed to looking
Lo Lhc pasL, rcviving LradiLional approachcs, and conscrving" Lhc old ways.
The Great Global Reframe
Amcrica is cnLcring onc o Lhcsc hisLoric progrcssivc pcriods righL now.
All the pieces are in place for Obama to catalyze a long run of widespread
poliLical and govcrnmcnLal innovaLion LhaL has Lhc poLcnLial Lo rc-invcnL
Amcrica and, in Limc, cvcn Lhc world. Amcricans Loday acc a undamcn-
Lal rcsLrucLuring o Lhc world on a par wiLh any o Lhc prcvious pcriods o
change faced by their predecessors. We are only just beginning to see the
great global reframing of all systems in response to the globalization of the
cconomy and, incrcasingly, Lhc globalizaLion o almosL cvcryLhing. As i LhaL
werent enough, Americans today face an array of twenty-rst century chal-
lcngcs jusL as daunLing as Lhosc accd by Amcricans in prcvious cras. An cx-
amplc o Lhis is climaLc changcLhc mosL complcx problcm cvcr accd by
human beings. It is just one of a dozen or so perplexing challenges ranging
Phone campaign wallpaper
rom global pandcmics, Lo dcccnLralizcd Lcrrorism, Lo providing hcalLhcarc
for all in a time of genetics and biotechnology, to dealing with the impending
rcLircmcnL o Lhc Baby Boomcrs in a Limc o lic cxLcnsion, Lo rcvamping an
educational system still modeled on nineteenth century methods. It is clear
LhaL Lhcsc problcms arc daunLing, howcvcr Lhcsc challcngcs also havc Lhcir
c samc Lhrcc kcy clcmcnLs LhaL camc LogcLhcr during prcvious cras Lo hclp
solvc problcms arc also coming LogcLhcr Loday, in abundancc. c counLry is
undergoing the biggest technology and media transformation in its history,
boLh in Lcrms o iLs widc scopc and Lhc rclaLivcly compacL LransiLional Limc
frame. e full emergence of computer technologies and telecommunica-
tions infrastructure oers us capabilities that simply blow away the means
of the past. ere is the tendency to underestimate the power that is literally
at our ngertips. Imagine if someone had told FDR about a machine on his
dcsk LhaL, in rcsponsc Lo a qucsLion, would insLanLancously dclivcr all o Lhc
rclaLcd inormaLion in Lhc world. Hc would havc callcd iL magic. Wc call iL
Cooglc, and cvcry hvc-ycar-old in Lhc counLry knows how Lo usc iL.
e United States is also undergoing one of the biggest population transfor-
maLions in iLs hisLory. c lcvcls o immigraLion in rcccnL dccadcs havc bccn
almost the same as those in the heyday of Ellis Island in the early twentieth
century. America is now on track for so-called minorities to become the ma-
joriLy o Lhc populaLion by 2050. In addiLion Lo Lhis comcs clcar cvidcncc
o Lhc impacL o Lhc arrival o Lhc biggcsL gcncraLion in Amcrican hisLory,
Lhc Millcnnial CcncraLion: Lhosc now in Lhcir Lccns and LwcnLics who havc
greater numbers than the Baby Boomers (the parents of many Millennials)
and who comc o agc using Lhcsc ncw mcdia. c ncw pcrspccLivcs, ncw ca-
pabilities, new talents and new ideas that these newcomers bring, will be
critical in refashioning the old system.
Finally, the third critical element is emerging right on trackthe explosion
of new ideas on how to take on these unprecedented challenges. It is not that
no one knows how to deal with climate changethere are a profusion of fan-
LasLic idcas coming rom many quarLcrs o Amcrican socicLy and Lhc privaLc
sccLor. c problcm now is hguring ouL Lhc righL soluLions and moving Lhcm
inLo poliLics and govcrnmcnL in ordcr Lo makc Lhcm work aL largc scalc. is
brings us back to Obama and his emerging role in catalyzing political and
govcrnmcnLal changc.
Obama and the New Politics of the Web
Obama, more than any one person at the current time, holds the potential
Lo iniLiaLc Lhis hisLoric momcnL, Lo ushcr in Lhc ncxL progrcssivc cra. Morc
than any other political leader, he and his team understand the power of the
new toolsthe new technologies, the new media, the Internet. ose new
Lools wcrc insLrumcnLal in dccaLing Hillary ClinLon in Lhc primary clccLion
or Lhc DcmocraLic nominaLion. Obama would noL havc bccn ablc Lo dccaL
her had he not had the new tools of the new politics. Clinton had all the
LradiLional advanLagcs, and Obama, likc oLhcr ouLsidc rcorm candidaLcs bc-
orc him, could noL havc ovcrcomc Lhosc advanLagcs wiLhouL Lhc Lools LhaL
ocrcd him an cvcn morc powcrul sLraLcgic advanLagc. In acL, whaL Obama
did was create a paradigm shift in politics.
Hillary ClinLon was a masLcr o Lhc old paradigm o poliLics, which has bccn
Lhc rulc o Lhumb sincc 1ohn F. Kcnncdy and Lhc arrival o carly broadcasL
Lclcvision. Fundraising rcquircd wcalLhy donors and spccial inLcrcsL big
money. Organization required the party establishment from federal through
Lo sLaLc lcvcls. And mcdia rcquircd you Lo masLcr Lclcvision. ClinLon did all
Lhrcc as wcll as any DcmocraL cvcr hasycL shc losL.
How Web 2.0? Obama vs. Clinton in the 2008 Election Primaries
20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0%
Channel views
Channel views
These new tools were instrumental in defeating Hillary Clinton in the primary election for the Democratic nomination.
Clinton lost because Obama relied on a new model of politics powered by new
technologies. For fundraising, he tapped into countless middle-class people
who were able to use the Internet to donate small amounts that aggregated
into huge sums. For organization, he skillfully used new technologies to reach
vasL numbcrs o parLy ouLsidcrs, i.c. ordinary pcoplc who could producLivcly
gcL involvcd in Lhc campaign, noL as spccLaLors or occasional donors, buL by
rolling up Lhcir slccvcs and doing work via a compuLcr or on Lhc ground. And
as for media, Obama and his team mastered the new media better than any
candidaLc ycL. His vidcos wcnL viral, his social ncLworks hummcd, his LcxL
messages really connected with people, particularly young people.
Obama still competed with Clinton in the traditional TV media and in the
arcas o Lhc old paradigm, buL whaL gavc him his sLraLcgic advanLagc was
the new paradigm in which he was master and the others lagged far behind.
Later, when campaigning against John McCain, Barack Obama was almost
four times as popular on the Web than his contender. Obamas new approach
Lo poliLics simply ovcrwhclmcd McCain's old-sLylc mcLhods LhaL wcrc sLuck
in the past.
WhaL ollows is an cxplanaLion o how Lhcsc hisLoric momcnLs havc workcd
in the past, and could potentially work now. Its an argument describing the
poliLical paradigm shiL alrcady madc by Obama, wiLh a vicw Lo how a simi-
lar paradigm shift might come about in how we set the national agenda, cre-
aLc policy, and rcshapc govcrnmcnLall using ncw Lools and Lcchnologics.
csc govcrning Lools arc noL ncccssarily Lhc samc oncs bcing uscd so c-
ccLivcly in poliLics. c Lools nccdcd Lo Lransorm govcrnmcnL and solvc Lhc
grcaL challcngcs o our agc will nccd Lo bc morc collaboraLivc in naLurc. NoL
one-to-many, or many-to-one, but many-to-many. Fortunately for us, those
many-to-many social technologies are all ready for prime time too.
The Pattern of Previous Progressive Eras
How docs Lhis all work` How has iL workcd bcorc` Considcr Lhc classic Pro-
grcssivc Fra o Lhc carly LwcnLicLh ccnLury LhaL gocs by LhaL namc in Amcri-
can history textbooks; it is a textbook case, so to speak. e background to
Lhis cra involvcd Amcrica undcrgoing a undamcnLal rcsLrucLuring o iLs
economy: from that of an agricultural one to that of an industrial one; and
of its society, from that of a rural one to that of an urban one. e results of
this were not good. e raw industrial capitalism of the time had concen-
LraLcd anLasLic wcalLh inLo Lhc hands o Lhc cw, lcaving Lhc vasL majoriLy o
avcragc workcrs wiLh a prccarious sLandard
o living. csc workcrs, including womcn
and children, worked extremely long hours,
oLcn in dangcrous working cnvironmcnLs,
powerless to challenge business owners and
Lo improvc Lhcir loL in lic. c ncw urban
centers had become public health hazards
with dangerous tenement housing subject
to frequent res, poor sanitation leading to
disease and illness, and no social infrastruc-
ture to replace the family and community
structures of the small towns left far behind.
e old politics, the laissez-faire conscrva-
Livc poliLical idcology, only lcd Lo morc o Lhc
same concentration of wealth and power and
Lo Lhc impovcrishmcnL o Lhc masscs. IL was
inadcquaLc Lo Lhc Lask o Lransorming socicLy ancw. Howcvcr, Lhc Lhrcc
forces were in motion, pointing the way towards better times.
c Lcchnology and mcdia rcvoluLion o LhaL Limc pcriod was bascd on ncw
methods to scale up urban newspapers to reach mass audiences. Break-
Lhroughs in prinLing Lcchnology allowcd publishcrs Lo producc prcviously
unheard of numbers of newspapers within the daily news cycle time. e
army o ncwsics" (Lhc boys hawking papcrs on Lhc sLrccLs, as sccn in movics
dcpicLing Lhosc Limcs) wcrc ablc Lo rcach vasL numbcrs o rcadcrs who wcrc
conccnLraLcd wiLhin urban ncighborhoods as ncvcr bcorc. Amcrica had long
had ncwspapcrs, buL Lhcy had ncvcr bccn a mass mcdium o signihcanL scalc
and reach. It did not take long for such tools to be used to new ends. is
was the period of the rise of the great national newspaper empires of Joseph
PuliLzcr and William Randolph HcarsL who had Lhc musclc Lo Lakc on Lhc
titans of industry. It was also the period of the great muckrakers such as Lin-
coln Steens and Upton Sinclair, the bloggers of their day. ese muckrakers
exposed the sordid underbelly of raw capitalism (lthy meatpacking plants,
ovcrcrowdcd LcncmcnLs) Lo appallcd audicnccs.
America was also going through a transformation in its population that al-
lowed a reconguration of its political coalitions, particularly for those in-
terested in change. e muckrakers were typically members of what became
known as the Missionary Generation, a huge generation of idealistic young
people committed to righting the many societal wrongs they saw around
them. Of course those years around the turn of the twentieth century were
Source: farm1.
markcd by massivc wavcs o Furopcan immigranLs ooding Lhc urban ccn-
Lcrs, whcrc Lhcy wcrc cngagcd by cvcryonc rom ward bosscs Lo socialisL
organizers. e other new entrant to politics consisted of half of the pop-
ulaLionwomcn. c Progrcssivc Fra was markcd by Lhc spiriLcd poliLical
participation of women, culminating in the nineteenth amendment to the
ConsLiLuLion, cxLcnding womcn Lhc righL Lo voLc in AugusL l020.
c womcn's righL Lo voLc was by no mcans an isolaLcd accomplishmcnL. c
Progrcssivc Fra was markcd by an cxplosion o social and poliLical innova-
Lion LhaL crcaLcd many clcmcnLs o Lhc sysLcm wc livc wiLh Loday. c a-
mous LrusL-busLing o Lhc Robbcr Barons scL up laws prcvcnLing monopolics.
c progrcssivc conccpL o incomc Lax did noL cxisL unLil a consLiLuLional
amendment in 1913. e federal Food and Drug Administration, created
in response to the horrors of the meat packing industry, still monitors our
food today. Child labor ceased, workplace safety and limits to working hours
wcrc scL, and workcrs bcgan Lo bc givcn Lhc righL Lo organizc Lhcmsclvcs
wiLhin unions. crc was also a wavc o rcorm rclaLcd Lo Lhc insLiLuLions
o dcmocracy, parLicularly in highly progrcssivc sLaLcs such as Caliornia.
CiLizcns wcrc givcn Lhc righL Lo rccall clccLcd ocials and proposc Lhcir own
rccrcndums, Lo circumnavigaLc corrupL lcgislaLurcs and Lo pass laws. All o
Lhis happcncd wiLhin a rclaLivcly bric Limc in hisLorical Lcrms. is Progrcs-
sivc Fra is considcrcd Lo havc bcgun wiLh Lhc inccpLion o Lhc prcsidcncy o
Rcpublican Tcddy RooscvclL ollowing Lhc assassinaLion o William McKin-
lcy in l00l, and Lo havc cndcd shorLly aLcr World War I, whcn DcmocraLic
President Woodrow Wilsons idealistic attempt to create the League of Na-
tions was rejected by an exhausted public in March 1920.
The Political Paradigm Shift in Technology
Fast forward a century to today. New technologies and new media are again
transforming the way to do politics. e Obama campaigns use of the In-
ternet and new media in the 2008 Presidential cycle has created nothing
short of a paradigm shift by reshaping how to do the three basics of politics:
undraising, organizing and mcdia. In undraising, Obama, Lhc rclaLivc ncw-
comer to politics with little access to those patrons with deep pockets, used
an InLcrncL sLraLcgy Lo counLcr ClinLon's moncy advanLagcs. For cach o Lhc
four quarters of 2007, Clinton and Obama were neck-and-neck in fundrais-
ing; then came the early primaries of 2008 and the groundswell of support
or Obama. In 1anuary hc almosL Lriplcd hcr hgurc, raising $36 million in a
singlc monLh comparcd Lo hcr $l3.0 million. In Fcbruary, hc Loppcd $55 mil-
lion, an astounding sum for a primary candidate. In March he more than
doublcd hcr hgurc, raising ovcr $40 million. c LoLal hgurcs or Lhc hrsL
quarLcr o 200S wcrc: Obama $l32 million, ClinLon $60 million. His hgurc
for that whole quarter quadrupled his (and her) number from the fourth
quarter of 2007, normally a big fundraising quarter leading into the pri-
maries. Obamas breakaway fundraising in the early primaries set the stage
or cvcn morc asLounding caLs LhroughouL Lhc campaign. By Lhc cnd o Lhc
primarics, Obama had raiscd $3S0 million comparcd Lo ClinLon's $235 mil-
lion. And by Lhc cnd o Lhc Ccncral FlccLion, Obama had raiscd $630 million,
dwarhng McCain's $360 million pull.
The Half-Billion-Dollar Man
Time, July 15, 2008
As the public face of the party, Obama is responsible for both
his own campaigns fundraising and for that of the Democratic
National Committee (DNC)a combined estimated goal of
$450 million.
The Billion-Dollar Man
Politico, December 2, 2008
When the 2008 campaign books are closed, the Democratic
President-elect will shatter the fundraising record by coming
close to, or capturing, the title of the rst billion-dollar candi-
date. Thats roughly how much the Obama nance team has
raised for his campaign, convention, transition and January 20
Inauguration events.
Photo: Exhibition: Billion Dollar Man, by Artist Papa G
e only way Obama was able to raise so much money so fast around the
critical early primaries of 2008 was by using the new technologies. With the
new campaign nance rules, there is simply no way to raise that amount
of money through the traditional means of meeting with or calling on rich
donors or spccial inLcrcsL rcprcscnLaLivcs and by gcLLing Lhcm Lo donaLc Lhc
lcgal limiL o $2300. A quick way was nccdcd Lo rcach many morc pcoplc and
Lo gcL Lhcm Lo donaLc $50 or $l00. WhaL was nccdcd was Lhc scalabiliLy o
computer technology.
e paradigm shift in organization is similarly powered by new technologies,
particularly social networking technologies. Politics has always been about
social networking, albeit in a low-tech way. e whole idea of electoral poli-
Lics is Lo gcL your supporLcrs Lo gcL Lhcir ricnds and amilics moLivaLcd and
to the polls. In the old days this was facilitated by the ward heel mobilizing
the neighborhood, or the union boss making sure that all union members
goL Lhcir cxLcndcd amilics Lo voLc. c Obama campaign has donc a Lcrrihc
job melding good-old-fashioned on-the-ground organizing techniques with
the new online organizational tools. It is not that all organization is done
cxclusivcly in onc way or in Lhc oLhcr, buL LhaL Lhc Lwo approachcs blcnd Lo-
gether creating an end result greater than the sum of its parts. For example,
organizers on the ground are able to use online tools to draw out the best
practices from organizers in other states or headquarters. is allowed the
Obama organizaLion Lo movc rapidly inLo ncw sLaLcs during Lhc primary sca-
son and caLalyzc producLivcly uncLioning local organizaLions LhaL scalc up
quickly Lo includc largc numbcrs o pcoplc. cy scalc bccausc noL cvcryonc
working for them was hired paid stafar from it. ey were able to quickly
absorb ouLsidc volunLccrs by plugging Lhcm inLo Lhc Lcch LcmplaLc raLhcr
Lhan having Lo rcinvcnL cvcry local opcraLion rom scraLch.
c cvcn morc radical movc is Lo placc Lhc Lools on Lhc campaign wcbsiLc
and essentially tell your supporters to go nuts. In so many words, that is
what the campaign website did. It allowed ordinary
people to download campaign material and walk through neighborhoods,
to organize a house party to proselytize about the campaign, to use their
mobile phone to make campaign telephone calls, or to build up their own
fundraising circle. ey could join myriad local groups of like-minded sup-
porters, or blog their own ideas about why Obama should win. e campaign
also actually encouraged you to draw in your extended social network by eas-
ily connecting to all the social media websites from Facebook to Digg. In es-
sence the Obama campaign used new social media techniques to extend the
rcach o Lhc ormal campaign Lo ar grcaLcr lcngLhs Lhan cvcr bcorc, i noL
to outsource it entirely to people at large. is approach opens the door to
Lhc possibiliLy o a naLional prcsidcnLial campaign LhaL mighL havc ar morc
than the 500 sta people or so traditionally found on the payroll, to as many
as a couplc o million unpaid volunLccrs acLually involvcd in day-Lo-day cam-
paign work. By the end of the primaries in June 2008, 800,000 users had
created accounts on
e nal paradigm shift is between the old and new media. For the last
40 ycars or so, poliLics has bccn primarily conccrncd wiLh Lclcvision, spc-
cihcally broadcasL Lclcvision. c vasL majoriLy o moncy spcnL in major
political campaigns goes to 30-second TV commercials. In 2006, out of the
$2.6 billion spcnL on all poliLical advcrLising in all raccs o boLh parLics, a ull
$2.4 billion o iL wcnL Lo TV. aL amounL has gonc up, noL down, in rcccnL
ycars. In 2004, a PrcsidcnLial ycar, Lhc LoLal o all poliLical advcrLiscmcnL
spcnding was only $l.7 billion, and cvcn during Lhc 200S cyclc, Lhc LoLal TV
advcrLiscmcnL spcnding o Lhc Lwo prcsidcnLial candidaLcs Lhrough laLc Oc-
Lobcr was $205 million wiLh only a racLion o LhaL dcvoLcd Lo InLcrncL ads.
(AlLhough analysLs prcdicL LhaL up Lo $ll0 million could ulLimaLcly bc spcnL
on Internet ads during 2008about half coming from the presidential race.)
Howcvcr, Lhis discrcpancy in advcrLiscmcnL spcnding masks Lhc acLual mc-
dia paradigm shift that is taking place.
e new media numbers are starting to add up. For example, the total num-
bcr o vicws o Obama's YouTubc vidcos LhroughouL Novcmbcr 200S was
approximately 113 million (compared to McCains 25.7 million), and the
avcragc numbcr o vicws o Obama's Lop l0 vidcos was 2.6 million. Somc
might say that those numbers are small compared to the eyeballs reached
Lhrough TV ads. is is, howcvcr, likc comparing
applcs Lo orangcs. c avcragc length of Obamas top
l0 vidcos was l4.7 minutes long, not 30 seconds. In
fact, Obamas speech on race was 37 minutes long
and has bccn vicwcd 5.4 million Limcs (as o Novcm-
ber 2008). Included among the fantastic features of
wcb vidco is Lhc acL LhaL you can run or as long as
you or the audience wishes. Another distinguishing
caLurc is LhaL Lhc vicwcrs o wcb vidco arc acLivc
noL passivcvicwcrs. cy want Lo waLch Lhc vidco.
ey clicked on the link to specically in order to see
iL. is cngagcd vicwcr is much morc likcly Lo wanL Lo
do somcLhing aLcr Lhcy scc Lhc vidco. A smarL cam-
paign will havc a big buLLon righL Lhcrc on Lhc scrccn
Lo push Lo hclp Lhc vicwcr Lo conLribuLc moncy or bccomc morc involvcd in
Lhc campaign, or Lo pass Lhc vidco along Lo all o Lhcir ricnds and amily so
that the whole engagement process can begin again.
is is a paradigm away rom broadcasL Lclcvision's 30-sccond ad, which
all vicwcrs almosL univcrsally haLc, will do cvcryLhing Lo avoid, and rarcly
(or barcly) pay aLLcnLion Lo. Fvcn i Lhcy pay aLLcnLion, Lhcy arc hardly ablc
Lo lcarn anyLhing uscul in Lhc spacc o 30 scconds, and Lhcy havc no way
Lo do anyLhing wiLh whaL Lhcy havc lcarncd. How do Lhcy donaLc moncy`
Well, they might call a telephone operator to nd the campaign headquar-
ters phone number or nd a computer and search the Web to nd the right
website and webpage to pitch in. Or, they could go to the refrigerator and get
another beer.
c paradigm shiL bcLwccn wcb vidco and Lclcvi-
sion is cvcn sLarkcr Lhan Lhis. To bcgin wiLh, much
o Lhc wcb vidco supporLing a candidaLc can bc, and
often is, produced for free. e plummeting cost of
vidco camcras and vidco cdiLing soLwarc allows
supporters to produce compelling, high quality
vidco o Lhcir own. In acL, iL is gcncrally rccog-
nizcd LhaL Lhc mosL mcmorablc and cccLivc ads"
of the 2008 primary season were not produced by
the campaigns but by their supporters, beginning
in early 2007 with the famous remake of the Ap-
plc CompuLcr l0S4 ad wiLh Hillary ClinLon as Big
Brother, to the Black-eyed Peas will.i.ams tribute
to Obamas Yes We Can speech. Neither of these,
or Obama Cirl's vidcos or many oLhcrs, cosL Lhc
Obama campaign a dime.
c paradigm shiL in disLribuLion is cvcn morc dramaLic. Wcb vidco is dis-
LribuLcd or rcc and can bc simulLancously vicwcd aL local, naLional and
global lcvcls. No nccd Lo buy airLimc locally, or spcnd cvcn morc or a na-
Lional buy, lcL alonc a global buy, which is cccLivcly impossiblc as cosLs arc
so prohibiLivc. A good wcb vidco can go a long way and, as a bonus, ncvcr has
Lo go away. IL can livc orcvcr, or rcc. aL is a paradigm shiL. aL shiL has
only just begun, and so it still has a long way to go. Obama, and others, will
conLinuc Lo usc Lclcvision or quiLc somc Limc ycL. Howcvcr, Lhc aLLracLivc-
ncss and ulLimaLc supcrioriLy o wcb vidco will incrcasingly makc iL Lhc mc-
dia o choicc or poliLics in Lhc long run. Morcovcr Lhosc who lcvcragc iL carly
will gain a sLraLcgic advanLagc ovcr Lhosc who do noL. aL is whaL Obama
did as he built his new majority coalition.
The New Progressive Political Coalition
Widcsprcad poliLical innovaLion and LransormaLivc changc docs noL comc
easily. A majority coalition is required to hold fast when the going gets tough.
So at an historic juncture, we need to look at what large and emergent con-
stituencies could be used to capture and maintain power. Today there are
Lwo subsLanLial oncs: Hispanics and Lhc young Millcnnial CcncraLion, and
Lhcy arc boLh Lrcnding Loward progrcssivc DcmocraLs. Hcrc wc will ocus on
the Millennials, those whomore than any other groupuse the new tools
and new media.
e Millennial Generation are those born from 1978, when the birthrate in
America nally began to climb again, to 1996. (e endpoint for this gen-
craLion is noL univcrsally agrccd upon, howcvcr Lhc Ncw PoliLics InsLiLuLc,
of which I was the former director, marked the endpoint as being 18 years
after the beginning, the same span as the Baby Boom from 1945 to 1964.)
e Millennials now span from 29 years old all the way down to 11 years old,
in which Lhcy ovcrlappcd wiLh Lhc youLh voLc (lS-20) or Lhc 200S clccLion
cyclc. By 20l5 all Millcnnials will bc ablc Lo voLc (agcs l0-37) and Lhcy will
bc Lhc largcsL gcncraLion in Amcrican hisLory, largcr Lhan cvcn Lhc amcd
Baby Boomers, who will begin to fade from the national stage (ages 51-69).
e Millennials will be 83 million strong, compared to an estimated 74 mil-
lion Boomers.
e Millennials are an unusual generation compared to the other genera-
Lions wiLhin Amcrica Loday. cy arc Lcchnologically savvy, vcry comorL-
ablc wiLh Lhc ncw Lools and Lhc ncw mcdia wc havc discusscd, which mcans
that they are easily integrated into a new politics built with those tools. Each
gcncraLion has a disLincL pcrsonaliLy shapcd by Lhc cvcnLs and cxpcricnccs
during their own period of coming of age. e Millennials tend to be a can-
do, group-oriented generation that is optimistic about the future. Unlike the
more cynical and disengaged Generation X before them, the Millennials are
civic-mindcd, wiLh high raLcs o volunLccrism and voLing. (For morc inor-
mation and greater details check out two excellent recent books: Generation
We, by Eric Greenberg with Karl Weber, and Millennial Makeover, by Morley
Winograd and Michacl Hais, as wcll as rcporLs rom Lhc Ncw PoliLics InsLi-
LuLc.) Many o Lhc bclics and valucs o Lhc Millcnnials arc progrcssivc: cy
are tolerant of dierences in race, gender, and sexual preference (partly be-
causc Lhcy arc Lhc mosL racially divcrsc gcncraLion in Amcrican hisLory, wiLh
about 40 percent being part of minority groups.) ey appear to be more
concerned than other generations about social inequalities, and they are
morc opcn Lo using govcrnmcnL Lo rccLiy Lhc balancc. cy arc cxLrcmcly
conccrncd abouL Lhc cnvironmcnL, wiLh 60 pcrccnL in a rcccnL survcy sLaL-
ing Lhcy would choosc Lo proLccL Lhc cnvironmcnL cvcn i iL harmcd Lhc
cconomy. As wcll as Lhis Lhcy arc vcry globally mindcd, wiLh, or cxamplc,
20 pcrccnL o Lhosc now in collcgc or univcrsiLy parLicipaLing in somc kind
o sLudy abroad program. ConscqucnLly, Lhcy arc morc likcly Lo avor mul-
LilaLcral diplomacy (57 pcrccnL) ovcr miliLary sLrcngLh (37 pcrccnL) in Lhc
pursuit of national security.
e numbers also show that this generation is clearly trending Democrat.
In 2004, 1ohn Kcrry would havc won by a landslidc (375 clccLoral voLcs
compared to 163 for Bush) if only young people under age 30 (mostly, but
noL all, Millcnnials) could havc voLcd. In Lhc 2006 Congrcssional clccLions,
young pcoplc voLcd or DcmocraLs ovcr Rcpublicans wiLh a 22 pcrccnL mar-
gin (60 percent Democrat and 38 percent Republican), an almost unheard
of generational gulf. In the 2008 primaries, people under age 30all Mil-
lcnnials Lhis Limcovcrwhclmingly avorcd DcmocraLs ovcr Rcpublicans.
In California, Republicans attracted roughly one third as many young peo-
plc. Fvcn in Ohio (a much morc Rcpublican sLaLc) Rcpublicans only broughL
out one-third of that of the Democrats. is trend continued in the general
clccLion wiLh Millcnnials voLing or Obama by a ncarly 2 Lo l margin: 66 Lo
32 percent.
c gcncral rulc o Lhumb in poliLics is LhaL i a gcncraLion voLcs or onc
parLy or Lhrcc clccLions in a row, Lhcy Lcnd Lo voLc LhaL way or Lhc rcsL o
Lhcir livcs. I so, Lhc DcmocraLs havc onc o Lhcir poliLical cngincs or Lhc
twenty-rst century.
The Coming Paradigm Shift in the Ideas Business
e Millennial Generation, among other constituencies, are really looking
or morc LransormaLivc idcas abouL how Lo Lakc on Lhc widc array o Lwcn-
ty-rst century challenges. Fortunately, the ideas business of Washington
D.C., Lhc world o policy Lhink Lanks, is abouL Lo go Lhrough a Lcch-drivcn
paradigm shift as well.
CurrcnLly, iL is sLill vcry much Lrappcd in Lhc old paradigm o Lhc LwcnLi-
eth century, similar to the old paradigm of electoral politics. Funding comes
from wealthy people and special interest corporations with an agenda. Or-
ganizaLions arc hllcd wiLh poliLical insidcrs who roLaLc in and ouL o govcrn-
ment, and the technology and media used by current D.C. think tanks are
essentially the same as those used throughout most of the twentieth cen-
tury. ey work on white papers and come together in physical meetings and
cvcnLs. cy do usc Lhc Wcb, buL iL's Wcb l.0. cy broadcasL" Lhcir papcrs
ouL Lo cvcryonc wiLh no dialoguc or collaboraLion.
c ncw paradigm applicd Lo Lhc idcas busincss would crcaLc a vcry similar
shiL as LhaL alrcady applicd Lo doing poliLics. In hnancing, divcrsiy unding
sources, ultimately heading towards wide support from low-dollar donors
with no special interest in promotion. As for organization, use technology
Lo scalc up Lo a much largcr ncLwork o pcoplc who can makc valuablc policy
conLribuLions. csc could bc cxpcrLs wiLhin Lhc privaLc or non-prohL scc-
Lors who havc cogniLivc surplus," cxccss inLcllccLual capaciLy or brainpowcr
that could be applied outside of their day jobs and normal line of work to
issues directed at the common good.
FurLhcrmorc, Lhc ncw paradigm applicd Lo Lhc idcas busincss would involvc
ncw mcdia and many morc ncw Lcchnologics. AL Lhc vcry lcasL, iL would
shiL rom Wcb l.0 broadcasL Lcchnologics Lo morc collaboraLivc Wcb 2.0 ap-
proachcs. Hcrc Lhc Lcchnological paradigm shiL applicd Lo idcas mighL go
beyond that applied to electoral politics. e political paradigm shift used
onc-Lo-many" Lcchnologics, such as wcb vidcos rom Obama and his corc
Lcam Lo vasL numbcrs o supporLcrs. IL also wcnL many-Lo-onc," as all Lhcsc
people were able to independently do things to support Obama, the One.
Howcvcr, Lo Lruly hgurc ouL Lhc ncw challcngcs o our cra and dcvisc com-
prchcnsivc soluLions or Lhcm, many-Lo-many" Lools and Lcchnologics musL
be implemented.
c ulLimaLc LransormaLion o how wc movc ncw policy idcas inLo govcrn-
mcnL dcmands LhaL wc Lakc advanLagc o Lhrcc corc characLcrisLics o com-
puter technologies. One of the features of networked computer technologies
in general is the ability to parallel process. ere was a time in which in-
creasing the processing power of a computer meant increasing the internal
processing power of that one computer. is approach worked until some-
one gured out that the power of the most powerful supercomputer could
be surpassed by taking a totally dierent approach. It was possible to con-
nect up many regular personal computers through lightning-fast telecom-
munications. Just break down the problem into smaller sub-problems, let
the smaller computers gure out a piece of the puzzle, and then reassemble
Lhc rcsulLs Lo solvc Lhc iniLial ovcrall problcm. Civcn proccssing spccds and
modern telecommunications, this could be done in a ash and faster than
the one central computer churning through the problem by itself.
Such an approach o disLribuLcd problcm-solving could also bc applicd Lo
our LwcnLy-hrsL ccnLury challcngcs, wiLh Lhc hclp o cxisLing collaboraLivc
Lcchnologics. I Amcrica wishcs Lo simulLancously solvc anywhcrc closc Lo
Lhc mulLiplc challcngcs skcLchcd ouL abovc, Lhcn Lhcrc will bc Lhc dcmand
or disLribuLcd problcm-solving mcchanisms LhaL can managc high lcvcls o
complcxiLy. c ncxL wavc o collaboraLivc Lools, such as wikis and group-
ware, can do that in ways that the old analog methods cannot match.
A second characteristic of technology is its ability to scale. Apply that to the
ideas space and new possibilities open up. In the old analog think tank world,
a largc policy organizaLion mighL havc l00 ullLimc cllows, and mosL havc
ar cwcr, closcr Lo hal a dozcn or so. A Lcchnologically cnhanccd virLual
Lhink Lank would bc ablc Lo lcvcragc hundrcds or cvcn Lhousands o cxpcrLs
and oLhcr valuablc pcoplc. Oncc Lhc Lcchnological inrasLrucLurc had bccn
designed and built and the mental shift made to a new kind of distributed,
collaboraLivc policy-making proccss, adding ncw pcoplc would bccomc rcla-
Livcly casy. corcLically, Lhcrc is noLhing Lo say LhaL l0,000 conLribuLors or
more could not be tapped into.
Our Eras Top Ten Twenty-rst Century Challenges
A 10 to 20 year project to solve any and all of them
The Globalization of the Economy
Climate Change
Clean Energy Shift
Global Terrorism
Universal Health Care
Education Overhaul
Baby Boom Aging
Global Pandemic
Mass Migration
Sustainable Living
Today we begin in earnest the work of making sure that the
world we leave our children is just a little bit better than the
one we inhabit today.
Why is this important? Barack Obama alone is not going to be able to gure
out climate change, nor the dozen other challenges of that scale. Obamas
brain-trust of his cabinet and top administration ocials are not going to do
it either. e 100 or so fellows at the Brookings Institute or their colleagues
at a handful of other think tanks are not up to the task either. e only way
to redesign American society on the historic scale that Obama himself talks
abouL is Lo involvc hugc numbcrs o Amcricans.
Further Reading
Peter Leyden speaking on The Obama Moment and Americas Coming
Transformation. See video and other material at
Peter Leyden on Obamas understanding of technology at Tech for Obama,
Renee Feltz in Columbia Journalism Review: Blogged Down in the Past,
Liam Maxwell: How the Internet took Obama back to the 1950s, conser-
Edelman: Barack Obamas Social Media Toolkit,
is brings up Lhc hnal rclcvanL Lcchnology characLcrisLic. InLcrncL Lcchnol-
ogies essentially lead to the collapse of space. e history of telecommunica-
tions has been one long story of helping people who are far apart become
closer. As broadband Internet becomes faster, so richer forms of communica-
Lion, such as vidco, bccomc chcap and incrcasingly common. is opcns up
interesting possibilities for the world of Washington D.C.
Pcoplc living ouLsidc o WashingLon arc incrcasingly ablc Lo play Lhc policy-
making and agenda-setting game. e group of people that helps gure out
Amcrica's upcoming agcnda docs noL havc Lo rcsidc wiLhin a 50-milc radius
o Lhc CapiLol. For LhaL maLLcr, Lhcrc arc brillianL pcoplc all ovcr Lhc world
who could conLribuLc Lo hclping solvc Amcrica's problcms, mosL o which arc
also world problems, just as Americas solutions can also be world solutions.
People outside of the United States can contribute if only the people of our
era nd a way to work together and nd a way to plug them in. Now, we can.
Yes, we can.
Electronic Mass Media
6.1 Newspaper and Multimedia 119
6.2 Fighting and Playing 122
6.3 e First Radio War 124
6.4 c World Iivc in Your Iiving Room l26
6.5 Recording and Playing Back 128
6.6 650 Billion Lo Harass Fvcryonc l31
6.7 Propaganda and PR 133
6.8 A World o Fussy Individuals l35
Life was completely transformed in the rst half of the previous century. Street-
cars and automobiles gave cities a modern face. Trains began to transport us back
and forth across great distances. Tanks and aircraft appeared on the battleeld.
Radio and TV broadcasted news and entertainment, propaganda and advertising,
narcissism and conversations. For the rst time we were really dealing with me-
dia, and the impact of it all was enormous. The electronic mass media accompa-
nied and shaped the transformation, together with newspapers and magazines.
Once and for all segmentation and individualization became the norm. Inside our
new global village, we traded the close ties of the past for hectic multitasking
and quality time. Against this background, a digital
dematerialization of being began to take hold around
ten years ago, and the phenomenon has now expand-
ed into a complete mediatization of ourselves.
Newspaper and Multimedia
What has a newspaper got to do with multi-
media, you might ask. Well, a newspaper is
a form of multimedia and, for that matter,
has always been such. It contains pictures;
it has text; the frequency of publication is
In 1605, Abraham Verhoeven
produced the rst newspa-
per to strengthen the morale
of the Antwerp residents
during the siege of the city.
synchronous wiLh cvcnLs, wc Lurn Lhc pagcs Lo movc rom ronL-pagc ncws
Lo opinion, cnLcrLainmcnL, licsLylc and sporL, comic sLrips add urLhcr va-
riety; the future is predicted in horoscopes; work is done at night in order
to be current at the crack of dawn. Nothing is therefore missing from such
a multimedia newspaper, and Metro or any number of the free dailies that
havc ollowcd in iLs wakc dcmonsLraLc LhaL Lhc public sLill placcs a grcaL dcal
o valuc on ncws in prinL. To Lhc cxLcnL LhaL mulLimcdia Loday arc dicrcnL
rom Lhc ncwspapcr, acLors such as hypcrlinks and vidco makc Lhis dicr-
ence. Clips, cross-references, text and information automatically popping
up: LhaL is Lruc, digiLal mulLimcdia. Ovcr Lcn ycars ago, Lhc CD-I (CompacL
Disk InLcracLivc) and Lhc CD-ROM wcrc Lhc ulLimaLc in mulLimcdia. is
posiLion is now occupicd by Wcb mcdia and Lhcir cndlcss varicLy o unc-
tionality. e digital Media Mass is the multimedia of today.
e rst medium with audience potential, the newspaper, began to appear
rcgularly in l605, our ccnLurics ago. c annivcrsary was cnLhusiasLically
celebrated in Belgium, since the publication of the rst regular newspaper
is oLcn aLLribuLcd Lo AnLwcrp rcsidcnL Abraham Vcrhocvcn, alLhough Lhc
World Newspaper Association awards the honor to the German Johann Caro-
lus who also published a newspaper in 1605, the Relation aller Frnemmen und
gedenckwrdigen Historien (Account of All Important and Commemorable
SLorics). IL docs noL rcally maLLcr i Lhc innovaLor was Vcrhocvcn or Caro-
lus, jusL as in Lhc casc o Lhc FirsL Mcdia RcvoluLion, insoar as Lhc prinLcrs
KosLcr or CuLcnbcrg arc conccrncd, or laLcr wiLh rcgard Lo Lhc invcnLion o
the thermometer by Celsius, Ramur and Fahrenheit.
In his Nieuwe Tijdinghe (Ncw Tidings), Vcrhocvcn laudcd Lhc couragc and
determination of the Catholic residents of the city being besieged by the
Geuzen (ProLcsLanL rcbcls). Vcrhocvcn unvcilcd his journalisLic acLiviLy un-
der the patronage of archduke and duchess Albrecht and Isabella of Austria.
His hrsL rcporL conccrncd a baLLlc aL Fkcrcn won by Lhc CaLholic Spaniards.
Vcrhocvcn's Nieuwe Tijdinghe was publishcd as a rcsulL o Lhc invcnLion o
Lypc lcLLcrs and Lhc prinLing prcss scvcnLy-hvc ycars bcorc. Taking placc
during Lhc RcormaLion, Lhc FirsL Mcdia RcvoluLion produccd a convcnicnL
tool to facilitate the distribution of pamphlets for and against the opposing
parLics' poinLs o vicw.
UndcrsLandably, in gcncral cspccially dramaLic cvcnLs bcing covcrcd, com-
mcnLcd and Lhus rcmcmbcrcd. Iong ago, Lhc Crcck hisLorian HcrodoLus rc-
ported on the Persian Wars, and ucydides on the Peloponnesian. Caesar
recorded his conquest of Gaul in a book, and on a daily basis had senate reso-
lutions and other information of interest to the citizens of Rome published
in Acta Diurna. OraLors likc Ciccro and pocLs likc CaLullus and Horacc wcrc
high prole gures in ancient Rome. e Romans had sewers and aqueducts
that are still in use today. eir architecture was partly made possible by
Lhc invcnLion o concrcLc in many orms. YcL or somc rcason Furopc had Lo
wait an extra fteen hundred years for type letters and the printing press to
bc invcnLcd. In Korca a prinLing prcss had alrcady bccn consLrucLcd aL Lhc
beginning of the thirteenth century.
PrinL is sLill an cccLivc manncr o gcLLing pcoplc's aLLcnLion. Wc lcarn
rom books, around Lhc globc rcc ncwspapcrs arc ourishing as ncvcr bc-
orc, and bill-boards, posLcrs and advcrLising oldcrs compcl us Lo purchasc
by stimulating our appetite. e dierence from 1605 is that print has now
been incorporated in an electronic multimedia mix based on a combination
o broadcasL and cablc communicaLion or abouL scvcnLy ycars, in Lhc casc
o radio, hLy or Lclcvision and jusL ovcr Lcn ycars insoar as Lhc InLcrncL is
WiLhin Lhis ncw mulLimcdia mix, inLcracLion is morc imporLanL Lhan cvcr
before. e range of participation runs from calling into TV and radio game-
shows, Lo choosing your avoriLc sLar pcrormcr on a TV program or a ncw
musical; from participating in Internet forums set up by manufacturers
abouL Lhcir producLs and scrviccs, Lo cxchanging idcas and cxpcricnccs on
blogs and wikis. And of course the social networks, such as MySpace, Face-
book, YouTube and LinkedIn.
Back in 1997, Berkeley re-
scarchcr Marc Davis uscd Lhc
occasion of the ftieth an-
nivcrsary o Lhc AssociaLion
of Computing Machinery
the oldest computer club in
the worldto predict that
the media landscape would
dcvclop inLo hundrcds o
millions of channels when
digital resources were made
availablc Lo Lhc public aL
largc ovcr Lhc InLcrncL. Da-
vis madc Lhis commcnL in
the article Garage Cinema
Today people speak of the
New Hollywood and refer
to the merger of Hollywood
and Silicon Valley. When
the tools and infrastruc-
ture are in place to enable
cheap and effective home
use of video annotation,
retrieval, and repurpos-
ing tools, the garages of
the world will be the sites
of the New New Hollywood creating hundreds of millions of
channels of video content.
From Marc Davis, Garage Cinema and the Future of Media
Technology, 1997, ma/pubs/
and the Future of Media Technology. Ten years later, we
hnd oursclvcs prcciscly in Lhc prcdicLcd siLuaLion.
Just like the printing press at the time of the Reformation,
Lhc dcvclopmcnL o pcrsonal Wcb mcdia occurrcd aL a vcry
opportune moment, this time in the context of e ird
Great Awakening foreseen by Tom Wolfe in 1976. Its rhythm
is Me, Me, Me, the words with which Wolfe ended his essay.
Hc prcdicLcd a Mc Dccadc LhaL, raLhcr Lhan cxpiring somc
Limc ago, cvolvcd inLo an Agc o Individualism o which Lhcrc
is no end in sight. Emerging at this time, web e-mancipation
not only feeds this narcissism but has a strongly socializing
eect as well.
c ird Mcdia RcvoluLionLhc onc involving Wcb mc-
diais characterized by an unprecedented increase in in-
teraction among people, organizations and systems. Our
rcaliLy is conscqucnLly cvolving urLhcr inLo a virLual rcal-
iLy, inLo a world in which all conccivablc kinds o inorma-
tion are presented graphically so that we can function more
easily. It started rather basically with GPS inside cars, an application that not
so long ago was only found as a simulation in computer games. Nowadays,
such carLographic imagcs arc an indispcnsablc rcsourcc or many drivcrs
around the world, and it will not be much longer before most mobile phones
are equipped with this feature.
Fighting and Playing
c dramaLic and Lragic naLurc o wars and Lhc propaganda abouL Lhcm havc
always bccn an imporLanL subjccL or Lhc mcdia. c invcnLion o Lypc lcL-
ters and the printing press made it possible for the Reformation to become
known as a war o pamphlcLs. Fvcn in Lhc prcscnL day, iL rcmains common
practice to use pamphlets in an attempt to demoralize an enemy. e rst
ncwspapcr by Abraham Vcrhocvcn had a similar purposc in sLrcngLhcning
the morale of the Catholic population of Antwerp by portraying the prob-
lcms in Lhc bcsicgcd ciLy in a avorablc lighL. In Lhc nincLccnLh ccnLury, Lhc
BriLish wcrc ablc Lo closcly ollow Lhc cvcnLs o Lhc Crimcan War Lhrough
ncwspapcrs. anks Lo Lhc invcnLion o Lhc Lclcgraph, rcporLs could bc scnL
ovcr grcaL disLanccs in Lhc blink o an cyc.
Me-Media and Our Health
The coming decades will see particu-
lar developments in health care, lead-
ing us to accept electronic interaction
with our physical well-being as some-
thing normal and welcome. Think
about the remote and rapid data that
a Nike shoe is already able to send
to an iPod, allowing us to complete a
training program. Similarly, all kinds
of data can be sent via sensors and
mobile phones to a central computer,
which then provides us with informa-
tion and makes adjustments when
necessary. Some feel such a future
scenario should be quickly imple-
mented as a cost-saving measure to
cope with the aging population.
It is understandable that the impact of a new medium will be at its highest
during Limcs o war. Tclcvision is parLicularly associaLcd world-widc wiLh
the Vietnam Conict; the two World Wars with newspapers, but the Second
World War was also oughL on Lhc radio and in cincmas. Radio and Lclcvision
enormously heightened the sense of reality and played a great role in the
biascd and graphic rcporLing. Whcn Orson Wcllcs rcad ouL H.C. Wclls' War
of the Worlds as a radio hoax, people ran in panic into the streets in the belief
that the Martians were attacking.
As Orson Welles hoax was only a
matter of triing with feelings of
anxicLy, iL scrvcs as an cxamplc o
propaganda. Howcvcr, Lhc arrival o
computer media turned the element
of play into something extremely real,
as cvidcnccd by an arLiclc rom e
Washington Post entitled Virtual Re-
ality Prepares Soldiers for Real War.
O coursc, wc havc now all sincc sccn
images from both Gulf Wars and the
attack on Bin Ladens hiding place
Tora Bora, in which simulation and
camcras placcd on bombs and in oLhcr dcviccs prcciscly illusLraLcd how an
attack was carried out. Good and accurate was the impression that it was in-
Lcndcd Lo makc: a clcar conLrasL wiLh Lhc primiLivc, unguidcd Scud missilcs
hrcd aL Isracl somc ycars carlicr by dicLaLor Saddam Husscin.
NoL surprisingly, Lhis war acLiviLy had a posiLivc cccL on salcs o so-callcd
rst-person shooter computer games, as well as on participation in popular
onlinc gamcs such as World o WarcraL. Ncvcr bcorc havc ITcch and ITain-
mcnL bccn so sLrongly inLcrwovcn as in Lhc currcnL Wcb mcdia cra. 1usL Lhink
about GPS and the simulation techniques on spectacles, contact lenses, and
mobile phones and examples of military equipment gone public.
Once, radar, sonar and night glasses were the basis of this new Virtu-Real-
ity or Augmented Reality. Today, soldiers can look through walls to see the
structure of a building. Nothing is left to the imagination. In fact, imagina-
tion in warfare is a handicap that leads to errors in judgment, and these are
absoluLcly unncccssary givcn Lhc currcnL sLaLc o ITcch and ITainmcnL.
Visit See www.
The First Radio War
Fvcry ncw mcdiumncwspapcr, radio, Lclcvision, mulLimcdiaprovidcs
valuablc cxLra inormaLion and, in Lhis way, considcrably rcduccs siLuaLions
and cvcnLs wc prcviously could havc only imagincd, gucsscd or simply could
noL havc known. c Spanish Civil War, which acLually was Lhc hrsL radio
war, clcarly rcvcalcd how grcaL Lhc impacL could bc o lisLcning Lo cyc wiLncss
accounLs and rccciving on-Lhc-spoL commcnLary o cvcnLs. Radio promoLcd
involvcmcnL and, as a rcsulL, hordcs o pcoplc rom numcrous counLrics dc-
cided to join the ght against the fascists. At the same time, the authori-
Lics uscd brochurcs Lo inviLc disasLcr LourisLs Lo cxpcricncc Lhc conicL or
Lhcmsclvcs, parLicularly as a war-Limc advcnLurc could bc combincd wiLh a
visiL Lo a picLurcsquc rcgion.
IL was ncarly Lhrcc-quarLcrs o a ccnLury ago LhaL Lhis bloody civil war bc-
tween the fascists and their opponents raged in Spain. Within just three
ycars (rom 1uly l7, l036 Lo April l, l030), 350,000 pcoplc losL Lhcir livcs.
On Lhis sad basis, or Lhc hrsL Limc cvcr, Lhc world had bccomc onc Lhrough
the mass media combination of newspapers and radio. Shiploads of Rus-
sians, British, Dutch, Germans, and Frenchmen, among others, fought in
the international brigades against Francos army, which was supported by
Mussolini and HiLlcr.
c anLi-ascisL camp was lcd by such individuals as Frcnch inLcllccLual An-
dr Malraux, while French President Lon Blum remained strictly neutral,
as did the leaders of Great Britain
and the Netherlands. In addition to
Andr Malraux, people like George
Orwell enlisted in the anti-fascist di-
visions, whilc oLhcrs such as FrncsL
Hcmingway and Willy BrandL, Lhc
future Chancellor of Germany, were
prcscnL as journalisLs. Fvcn RobcrL
Capa, the renowned photographer
who would subscqucnLly covcr Lhc
Second World War in North Africa,
Sicily and Normandy, began his ca-
rccr in Lhc Spanish Civil War.
When the Spanish Civil War
broke out in July 1936, Andr
Malraux was purposefully en-
gaged in Spain less than a week
after the rebel up-rising of July
17. He organized a foreign volun-
teer air force for the Loyalists,
assumed its command in battle,
collected French bombers for the
Espanha Squadron, and person-
ally ew sixty-ve missions.

In Lhc arLiclc Iooking aL War: PhoLography's Vicw o DcvasLaLion and DcaLh"
(e New Yorker, 2002), American writer and lmmaker Susan Sontag puts it
as follows:
e Spanish Civil War was the rst war to be witnessed (covered) in the modern
sense: by a corps of professional photographers at the lines of military engagement
and in the towns under bombardment, whose work was immediately seen in news-
papers and magazines.
e famous Guernica painting that Pablo Picasso made in response to the
German carpet bombing of the town, and which is based on a bull-ght
sccnc, adorncd Lhc pavilion o Lhc Spanish rcpublic aL Lhc world cxhibiLion
of 1937 in Paris.
AL Lhc Limc, cvcnLs could bc closcly ollowcd in ncwspapcrs, magazincs and
ncwsrcclsLclcvision was noL ycL a mass mcdium. For Lhc hrsL Limc, radio
was also involvcd, Lhc Spanish Civil War was Lhc hrsL radio war, and Lhcrc-
fore the rst true mass media spectacle. Radio broad-
cast played an important role in propaganda, both in
and outside the trenches, and these radio news reports
could, in principlc, cvcn bc hcard in Amcrica. Radio
technician omas Gootte made this point back in a
1938 edition of the American magazine Radio News.
c war conscqucnLly aLLracLcd mcdia aLLcnLion cvcry-
whcrc. In acL, Lhc Spanish Civil War was so popular"
that the newly established national Spanish tourism
agcncy cvcn Lricd Lo cash-in on iLs populariLy.
is hectic period of technology, transport and war
was vcry closcly ollowcd in Lhc mcdia by a largc group
of engaged intellectuals, a set of disaster tourists and
ordinary people all around the world. On the Spanish
battle elds, and in French, German, Russian, British,
Italian and American metropolises the world had be-
comc onc villagc or Lhc hrsL Limc. Fvcn or Lhc man in
the street, who was the intended audience of the new
mass media. ese nal years before the Second World
War were a uniquely fertile age for ideology, spontane-
ous commitment, action and collaboration.
From: Radio and the Spanish War,
Thomas E. Gootte in Radio News,
May1938. Read the entire article at
The World Live in Your Living Room
A century ago, there were still no modern media: no radio, no TV, no fancy
avaLars. Our world was much smallcr. c dinncr Lablc was Lhc mosL impor-
tant medium. A family would sit around it, joined by neighbors and some-
Limcs Lhc minisLcr or pasLor. Discussions involvcd Lhis or LhaL, as wcll as
gossip and scandal. c Lablc was Lhc mcdium, cvcn in a liLcral scnsc, as iL
stood in the midst of a group. e content was us. We talked about our sto-
ries, experiences, things we felt to be important, and how they were all inter-
connected. In fact, it was a multi-stranded situation, as described by Van
Beek in Section 4.4.
e dinner table was the most prominent media location in most households
for centuries. In the kitchen or dining room, we wrote letters, read the Bible
or browscd Lhrough Lhc ncwspapcr. Homcwork was donc, drawings madc
and later the radio was listened to. People chatted, played games and insofar
Spanish Tourist Brochure from April 1938
National Spain Invites you to visit the War Route of the North (San Sebastian,
Bilbao, Santander, Gijon, Oviedo, and the Iron Ring). See history in the making
among Spanish scenery of unsurpassed beauty.
as Lhc dinncr Lablc scrvcd all Lhcsc unc-
Lions, iL mighL cvcn bc said LhaL iL was Lhc
rst multimedia, multi-user and multitask-
ing cnvironmcnL. Fvcn Mc-Mcdia would bc
appropriate, the only dierence being that
no one could tune in remotely. For larger
manifestations, we had to go to the town
hall, the pool hall or the market. e latter
was the most prominent place for town cri-
ers, proclamations, trade, and enjoyment,
as well as podiums and pillories.
Spanning distances with media was successfully accomplished for the rst
Limc during Lhc Frcnch RcvoluLion. Usc was Lhcn madc o Lhc opLical Lclc-
graph to make the world a smaller place. Using ags, sticks and semaphore,
reports were transmitted, just as the American Indians worked with smoke
signals. is form of messaging was much faster than sending a messenger
on horseback. e rst trans-Atlantic telegraph transmission only became
a reality in 1866, using electrical equipment to send Morse code back and
forth along an undersea cable. e Victorian Internet was born, but it cer-
tainly was not a mass medium comparable to radio, TV and later the real
c Lclcgraph involvcd Lhc Lransmission o LcxLs, raLhcr Lhan Lhc mulLi mcdia
inLcgraLion o LcxL, imagc, sound and vidco which is pcrccLly common Lo-
day. e interface for telegraph messages was the newspaper. A delay of
only one single day meant that many readers were informed about the lat-
csL dcvclopmcnLs clscwhcrc in Lhc world in almosL rcal Limc. For insLancc,
British readers learned the latest about the Crimean War and the care of
the wounded by Florence Nightingale. For the sake of our historical under-
standing: the Crimean War lasted from 1854 to 1856 and set an alliance of
Lhc Fnglish, Frcnch, OLLomans and Sardinians againsL TsarisL Russia. Fvcn
Lhcn, Lhc issuc conccrncd conLrol o Lhc Holy Iand.
Radio conLacL was originally uscd Lo scnd mcssagcs in Morsc codc. Howcvcr,
as liLLlc as hvc ycars laLcr, Rcginald Fcsscndcn, a Canadian, succccdcd in pcr-
orming voicc Lransmission in l000. By l006, Lwo-way Lrans-ALlanLic radio
and Lhc broadcasLing o cnLcrLainmcnL and music was a rcaliLy. Howcvcr,
no onc had any idca o Lhc dirccLion in which radio would dcvclop in Lhcsc
initial years. One idea was that people might use the telephone, which had
Trans-Atlantic telegraph lines in 1880.
been in existence for some time, to call radio stations in order to reach the
cnLirc world livc.
ese days, it is perhaps dicult to understand what the radio meant to peo-
ple in the rst half of the last century. Contemporary metropolitan urban
culture did not yet exist at that time, except perhaps among intellectuals in
world cities such as Berlin, Paris and New York.
Recording and Playing Back
Sound rom Lhc radio silcnccd Lhc convcrsaLion around Lhc Lablc. Ncw au-
thorities such as reporters and politicians began to grab peoples attention.
And of course, there was the Charleston, music by Gershwin, Schubert,
MozarL, Tchaikovsky, big bands, IaLin music, jazz, and laLcr Flvis Prcslcy,
MoLown, c BcaLlcs and c Doors. By providing acLual inormaLion, in-
oLainmcnL, cduLainmcnL and cnLcrLainmcnL, radio broughL rcal lic livc
inLo pcoplc's homcs. BroadcasLing livc was iniLially an
essential point for the BBC, as the power of radio came
from its sense of immediacy. With radio, the outside
world pcncLraLcd Lhc privaLc sphcrc or Lhc hrsL Limc.
As a rcsulL, Lhc world bccamc a global villagc", Lo quoLc
Marshall McLuhan.
c global villagc orccd Lhc BriLish BroadcasLing Corpo-
raLion Lo abandon Lhc livc naLurc o radio, whcn Lhc BBC
Fmpirc Scrvicc was scL up in Dcccmbcr l032. Usc Lhcn
had to be made of the rst reel-to-reel recorders in order
to store radio programs so that they could be broadcast
in Lhc various Limc zoncs in which BriLish subjccLs livcd.
ese Blattnerphones worked with long metal tapes,
which were capable of recording good quality sound and
could bc rcplaycd rclaLivcly quickly, howcvcr cdiLing was
cumbersome. At the time, a soldering iron was required
for the cut & paste process. Storage and processing were
still in their infancy, and there is simply no comparison
bcLwccn Lhcsc proccsscs and Lhc obvious aciliLy wiLh
which digiLal mulLimcdia can bc manipulaLcd by cvcry-
one nowadays.
At an early stage, consideration was
already being given to the future of the
radio as a fashion statement; take a
look as this radio hat which graced the
cover of Radio Electronics in 1949.
Whilc Lhc BBC rcmaincd commiLLcd Lo rccording wiLh Lhc provcn Lcchnol-
ogy o Lhc BlaLLncrphonc, Lhc radio sLaLion ncvcrLhclcss joincd orccs carly
on with e Gramophone Company in order to make higher-quality record-
ings o hisLorical cvcnLs. c hrsL bcing Lhc opcning o Lhc Iondon Naval
Conference by King George V in January 1930. e pressing of the nal
gramophone records cost 50,000 pounds per hour and required a half day
bcorc Lhcy wcrc rcady or usc. For Lhis rcason, BlaLLncrphoncs wcrc givcn
prccrcncc. Wax disks rcprcscnLcd anoLhcr alLcrnaLivc givcn considcraLion.
Although recording time with them was only nine minutes, they were im-
mediately destroyed when played back. For this reason, a number of them
were always played at the same time. In 1934, the last year in which the BBC
used this system, six hundred wax disks were recorded, half of which were
convcrLcd Lo pcrmancnL disks.
Musician and businessman Cecil Watts introduced changes in the recording
proccss, which would havc long-lasLing conscqucnccs. By applying a laycr o
lacquer, he succeeded in making disks that could be played twenty times.
ey are comparable to the oppy plastic 45 RPM records of musical frag-
mcnLs and commcnLary, which wcrc disLribuLcd rcc up Lo Lhc scvcnLics
in order to introduce people to gramophone record collections. Marguerite
Sound Studios, Watts company, used this technology to supply commercials
in Europe to stations like Radio Luxembourg, a station that wanted noth-
ing to do with Blattnerphones and made early use of audio tape (lm sound
track) for recordings. e BBC rst ordered a Watts Disk in the mid thirties
and subsequently a Recorded Programs Mixer, which could handle six gram-
ophonc rccords. During rccording, Lhcrc was a synchronizcd groovc counLcr,
so that a channel could be opened and closed at precisely the right moment.
is technology meant the birth of the modern recording studio.
Anyone wanting to compare the multimedia Internet with something from
Lhc pasL should go back Lo Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhc gramophonc. is is a
claim made by Lisa Gitelman in her book Always Already New: Media His-
tory and the Data of Culture, which she published in 2006. e gramophone
rst made it possible to record and play back sound. During the phonograph
parties organized by George Gouraud in 1888 around the Edison Perfected
Phonograph, of which Gouraud had two examples shipped to England, pho-
nograms were played back with music, and some guests made a podcast for
omas Fdison. c wcll-known BriLish composcr ArLhur Sullivan, whosc
Lost Chord is one of the rst recorded pieces of music, spoke the following
into the phonogram:

Dear Mr. Edison,
If my friend Edmund Yates has been a little incoherent it is in consequence of the
excellent dinner and good wines that he has drunk. erefore I think you will excuse
him. He has his lucid intervals. For myself, I can only say that I am astonished and
somewhat terried at the result of this evenings experiments: astonished at the
wonderful power you have developed, and terried at the thought that so much
hideous and bad music may be put on record for ever. But all the same I think it is
the most wonderful thing that I have ever experienced, and congratulate you with
all my heart on this wonderful discovery.
Arthur Sullivan
It seems just like a blog post. If we had to explain the
modern Internet to men like Edison, Gouraud and Sulli-
van, Lhcn a comparison wiLh onc big long rccord on which
cvcryonc can placc Lhcir sLorics, songs and clips, would
havc bccn cccLivc. c InLcrncL vicwcd in Lcrms o Lhc
rccording and playing back o sound (Lhough involving
mulLimcdia) would bc vcry wcll undcrsLood by pcoplc
rom Lhc Limc o Lhc invcnLion o Lhc gramophonc.
e use of the gramophone was not restricted to what
invcnLor and busincssman omas Fdison had originally
LhoughL up. Hc bclicvcd iL Lo bc a dcvicc wcll suiLcd or
linguisLics and anLhropology in ordcr Lo rccord voiccs
and languages of the nearly extinct American Indian
tribes. Just as in the present with the Internet, it took a
whilc bcorc Lhc gramophonc dcvclopcd rom wax roll Lo
record and turntable, and consequently into home enter-
tainment equipment.
e same applies to the Internet. In the e-Business peri-
od of ten years ago, we thought that the Web had already
ully maLurcd. Howcvcr, only now is Lhc much discusscd
e-mancipation taking place. e Internet is changing
into a personal infotainment, edutainment and enter-
tainment machine, one immense Wurlitzer jukebox ac-
ccssiblc Lo cvcryonc. PoinL 8 click: on Lhc InLcrncL rc-
cording and playing back can be done in split seconds.
In 1901, the rst gramophone record
came on the market, 23 years after the
invention of the phonograph. It would
take another six years before a gramo-
phone player would begin to threaten
Edisons phonograph. The apparatus
was affordable and did not require
people to leave home in order to hear
chosen pieces of music. The rst pho-
nographs were displayed to the public
in concert halls and theaters. In these
locations, people could pay admission
to have their own voice recorded and
stored on a wax roll. At the end of
the evening, the wax rolls were taken
home as relics. In general, the record-
ings contained childrens songs and
animal imitations.
MounLains o rccords wcrc madc or Lhc gramophonc, and cvcryonc had Lhc
opportunity to play them, and to do so alone, without interruption, or at a
parLy. PrivaLc gramophonc usc mainly broughL Lhc cnLcrLainmcnL o music
and Lhc singing voicc inLo Lhc homc. BuL radio and Lclcvision, Lhc oncs wc
call electronic mass media, accomplished something else. ey let people
from dierent places tune in to the same experience, but only at the time a
program was broadcasLcd. In Lhc scvcnLics rccording music rom Lhc radio
on tape at home briey was a hype among pop-chart addicted youngsters,
and only in Lhc nincLics vidco rccording gaincd somc populariLy. RcnLing
prcrccordcd vidco Lapcs howcvcr bccamc a booming busincss wiLh sLorcs in
ciLics and villagcs in many counLrics around Lhc world. Copying cxpcnsivc
gramophonc rccords Lo compacL casscLLcs bccamc popular in Lhc scvcnLics
and boomcd in Lhc cighLics wiLh Lhc advcnL o Lhc Sony Walkman and copy-
caL dcviccs. IaLcr such pracLicc was rcplaccd by copying audio compacL discs,
and DVDs. Today wc scc Lhc convcrgcncc o audio and vidco rccording and
playback capabilities in compact Web-enabled multimedia centers that we
still simply call telephone.
650 Billion to Harass Everyone
Ncwspapcrs, magazincs, advcrLising brochurcs, posLcrs and oLhcr prinL work
arc Lhc mass producLs crcaLcd by Lhc FirsL Mcdia RcvoluLion. cir aLLracLion
involvcs a combinaLion o hcadlincs, LcxL, imagcs, color, papcr qualiLy and
coaLing. WiLh Lhc advcnL o radio and Lclcvision, audio and vidco conLcnL
wcrc addiLional ingrcdicnLs in Lhc mix, rcsulLing in an cvcn morc inLcnsc
cxpcricncc. c Sccond RcvoluLion involving clccLronic mass mcdia provid-
cd a complcLcly dicrcnL Lypc o scnsory and cogniLivc cvcnL, onc LhaL was
shared and therefore also established a basis for communication with others.
is parLicularly applicd Lo Lclcvision, as wc all waLchcd Lhc samc programs.
Now with YouTube, Facebook, MSN and MySpace, as well as a large number
of TV channels, this situation has completely changed.
In the sixties, TV took us away from the dinner table and into armchairs and
couchcs. Tclcvision programs bccamc incrcasingly morc rcqucnL subjccLs
o our convcrsaLions. Mom, dad, broLhcrs, sisLcrs and oLhcrs sharcd Lhcir
opinions about the Evening News, Sixty Minutes or Bonanza, popular game or
varicLy show hosLs, sporLs, poliLics and cvcn Lhc laLcsL aLLcnLion-grabbing
commercial spot. Sometimes it seemed that life mostly consisted of stars,
audicncc, candidaLcs, prizcs, prcscnLcrs, lovcly assisLanLs and a cw winncrs.
is vision was a consLanL Lhorn in Lhc sidc o many inLcllccLuals and rcli-
gious lcadcrs. Prcviously, Lhc masscs had bccn ignoranL bccausc Lhcy wcrc
barely informed about things. But now they were plagued by banal inuenc-
cs. From Lhc cighLics, TV cvcn appcarcd Lo LhrcaLcn Lhc lasL rcmaining biL o
culture. Narcissism, commercialism and materialism corrupted all sense of
communiLy. Howcvcr, wc wcrc cmancipaLcd aL Lhc samc Limc.
Advertising Works Wonders
Whcrcvcr pcoplc arc, Lhcrc is Lradc, so mass mcdia, mass producLion, ad-
vcrLising and public rclaLions all wcnL hand in hand. c vcry hrsL TV com-
mercial was shown in America in 1941, barely twenty years after the rst
radio commcrcial. IL cosL Lhc Bulova WaLch Company jusL 0 dollars Lo say
LhaL Amcrica runs on Bulova Limc." c virLucs o Lhc brand wcrc cxLollcd
during a break in the baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the
Philadelphia Phillies. Just fourteen years later, ITV began its programming
as Lhc hrsL advcrLising-undcd Lclcvision broadcasLcr in Furopc wiLh a Lcascr
announcing commcrcial Lclcvision is hcrc." Sincc Lhcn, Lhc advcrLising in-
dusLry has cnjoycd grcaLcr rcvcnuc Lhan Lhc cconomy o Brazil. In 2007, Lhc
industry passed the 650 billion U.S. dollar mark in sales.
It is quite simple really. Leonard Dreyfus stated it clearly in An Idea that Saved
a Business, his book o l0lS: Makc surc LhaL you advcrLisc whcrc Lhcrc arc
Lhc grcaLcsL numbcr o pcoplc. You can ccrLainly advcrLisc in Lhc ncwspapcr,
buL hanging up posLcrs ouLsidc Lhc righL locaLions is much morc cccLivc, as
LhaL is whcrc cvcryonc passcs by. Rcach-
ing people became crucial for expanding
a business.
e electronic mass media radio and
Lclcvision broughL Lhc ouLsidc world in-
side, and managed to reach the people
whcrc Lhcy arc: aL homc. Fvcry cvcning,
we sat on the couch watching what
broadcasLcrs scrvcd us. InsLcad o posL-
ers, companies had to buy prime-time
spots in order to promote their products
in an aLLracLivc and cccLivc way. is
advcrLising cosL a grcaL dcal o moncy,
but it built up the economy, changed
dreams and desires, and manipulated
our existence.
Propaganda and PR
c ccnLury prcccding Lhc vision o Lhc Ncw Fconomy and Lhc cxplosion o
Wcb mcdia was dominaLcd by Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhc mcans o LransporL,
computer applications, the Internet, warfare and the consumer society. Na-
tional conicts ared up in Europe, resulting in the
FirsL World War and Lhc Russian RcvoluLion. Amid Lhc
decadent Roaring Twenties and the historical stock-
market crash of 1929, followed by the Great Depres-
sion, an unparalleled ideological struggle between po-
liLical parLics cmcrgcd. UlLimaLcly, iL lcd, via a dcLour
Lhrough Lhc Spanish Civil War, Lhc hrsL radio war, Lo a
new World War against the German-Italian-Japanese
ascism LhaL ovcrLook Furopc and parLs o Asia.
e history of political ideology and mass consump-
tion runs hand in hand. In both cases, something (a
product or idea) has to be sold to as many people as
possiblc and, prccrably, whilc convincing Lhc grcaLcsL
possible number of its merit. Now that the control of
mass media is subject to a great deal of discussion
partly because of the shift in attention to multimedia
crcaLcd by pcoplc LhcmsclvcsLhc acLual qucsLion is
if this existing model of mass manipulation and mass
marketing can continue in the current Me-Media Web
e industrialization that increased in momentum at
Lhc bcginning o Lhc lasL ccnLury was wcll scrvcd by
clcvcr mass markcLing in which pcoplc clL Lhcmsclvcs
be personally addressed. Better ways of selling prod-
ucLs hclpcd Lo avoid problcms o ovcrproducLion. And
up-to-date sales statistics made it possible to manu-
acLurc improvcd producLs aL a asLcr raLc.
e manipulation of audience by mass producers took
o to great eect at the beginning of the last century.
Edward Bernays was the rst person to call himself
Public RclaLions Counscl." Bcorc LhaL, Lhc scrviccs
he oered were called propaganda, but the term was
Bernays encouraged women to
smoke by extolling cigarettes as
Torches of Freedom, alluding to
the Statue of Liberty and cleverly
implicating the growing womens
movement. Over thirty years later,
Bernays took up the struggle
against the dangers of smoking.
He wrote: Had I known in 1928
what I know today, I would have
refused Hills offer. At the time,
George Washington Hill was the
head of the American Tobacco
Company, the maker of the Lucky
Strike brand.
besmirched by the Second World War and subsequently associated with the
arousal of mass hysteria.
Edward Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud, is a central gure in the fas-
cinating BBC program on consumerism, ideology and mass manipulation,
e Century of the Self. Bernays was the father of PR; he wrote a book on pro-
paganda, adviscd companics and would laLcr providc inspiraLion or 1oscph
Goebbels, the Minister for Propaganda in Nazi Germany.
In Lhc l020s, mass manipulaLion was vicwcd dicrcnLly rom how iL is Loday.
What we would now frequently describe as the seduction or temptation of
the consumer was then much more ideologically loaded. e crowd had to be
Lamcd by Lransorming Lhcm inLo civilizcd consuming pcoplc.
Edward Bernays successfully applied some of Sigmund Freuds
theories. In fact, Freuds ideas began the Century of the Self.
Suddenly, it was possible to talk about feelings, fear and grief.
FmoLions wcrc a rich sourcc o inspiraLion or advcrLising and
PR professionals to play with when manipulating public opinion
and selling products.
Edward Bernays best-known book was published in 1928 and
is simply entitled Propaganda. Bcrnays Lhcn opcraLcd a vcry suc-
cessful PR consulting business, with a magnicent suite in a luxu-
rious New York hotel, so large that he could organize parties for
high govcrnmcnL ocials, hlm sLars and capLains o indusLry.
Bernays established an imposing track record in the eld of
mass manipulaLion. His clicnLs includcd ProcLcr 8 Camblc,
the American Tobacco Co., Cartier, General Electric, the Pub-
lic HcalLh Scrvicc and Dodgc MoLors. Bcrnays was himscl in-
spircd by Lhc work o CusLav Ic Bon, whosc lS05 book Crowd:
A Study of the Popular Mind portrays the masses as dangerous
and ignorant. In the media-poor times in which it was written,
people were also rather less well educated. A large proportion of
the population could not read, and it was mainly the elite who
wcrc knowlcdgcablc abouL world cvcnLs. c populaLion aL largc
was rcgardcd as a mob whosc collccLivc mind was Lo bc moldcd
before it would start pursuing its own goals. Le Bon regarded
ordinary mcmbcrs o Lhc crowd as an undcrdcvclopcd accumu-
lation of mediocrity.
Edward Bernays, the man and his
book. The BBC program The Century
of the Self can be viewed in its
entirety at

c masscs, Lhc provcrbial sow's car" rom which you could ncvcr makc a
silk purse, were not just ignorant but dangerous. Forming a mob caused
qualities to arise in people that were simultaneously heroic and dangerous.
e conclusion was clear: take the boorish hooligans in hand; the masses
must be kept under the thumb.
In 1928, the year that Propaganda was publishcd, U.S. PrcsidcnL HcrbcrL
Hoovcr addrcsscd a group o advcrLising and PR cxccuLivcs. Hc Lold Lhcm
that they had built a new economy. Not one based on the necessity of prod-
ucts, but an economy that created need by addressing subconscious desires.
Consumcrism had bccomc Lhc cnginc o cconomic acLiviLy.
You have taken over the job of creating desire. And you have transformed people
into constantly moving happiness machines. Machines have become the key to eco-
nomic progress.
PrcsidcnL HcrbcrL Hoovcr, l02S
Transorming pcoplc inLo happy consuming machincs LhaL drivc cconomic
progress was, unfortunately, only one side of the coin. e ipside became
apparcnL whcn Lhc l020 sLock-markcL crash ovcrLurncd such idcas abouL
nccd-crcaLion. Mass uncmploymcnL, povcrLy, insurrccLion and rioLs bccamc
Lhc acLors govcrning Lhc ncw dynamic.
Such cvcnLs providcd ncw grisL or Lhc mill o Lhosc claiming LhaL Lhc masscs
had to be tamed. Joseph Goebbels read Bernays book and put the population
in Germany under the hand of National-Socialism. In America, President
Franklin RooscvclL LighLcncd Lhc rcins by abandoning Lhc idcology o con-
sumerism. Corporate America grumbled, as the business community wanted
Lo bc givcn rcc rcign. c disconLcnL playcd righL inLo Bcrnays' hand, as hc
iniLiaLcd a campaign againsL govcrnmcnL inLcrvcnLion.
A World of Fussy Individuals
Propaganda and PR havc Lakcn on hugc dimcnsions in our modcrn agc. c
advcrLising on ocr is largcr Lhan cvcr and biascd rcporLing is o Lhc ordcr
o Lhc day. is dcvclopmcnL has cvcryLhing Lo do wiLh Lhc cmancipaLion
LhaL populaLion groups and individuals havc cxpcricnccd around Lhc world
Lhanks Lo Lhc collccLivc mcdia. c masscs arc no longcr ignoranL, Lo puL iL
morc sLrongly, Lhc masscs havc noL cxisLcd or around LhirLy ycars. In Lhc
idcal casc, companics arc involvcd wiLh scgmcnLcd markcLs and, in Lhc worsL
casc, wiLh a largc collccLion o hcadsLrong individuals who would swiLch Lo
the competition in a moment after running a price comparison on the Inter-
ncL and rcading a cw producL rcvicws.
c narcissisLic Mc Dccadc o Lhc scvcnLics launchcd an agc o scl-absorp-
tion and self-promotion that has not diminished today in the current era
of American Idol and MySpacc, on Lhc conLrary. NcvcrLhclcss, conLcmporary
web multimedia also has a strong socializing eect, communities of all kinds
and all sizcs arc ourishing as ncvcr bcorc. c apparcnL conLradicLion is
somcwhaL undcrsLandablc, as cvcn Lhc mosL blaLanL narcissisLs sLill rcquirc
an audicncc and, as wc havc prcviously noLcd, Lhc public is oLcn rcgardcd as
something to be conned, bamboozled and manipulated.
Howcvcr, in addiLion Lo such sLraighLorward dcccpLion, dcrauding and
manipulaLion o oLhcrs, Lhc obvious rcsulL o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion
is unquestionably the emergence of web multimediain particular insofar
as this change imposes a new openness and transparency as the proclaimed
cLhical norm. Wc now cvcn spcak o Social Mcdia, a changc in pcrccpLion
LhaL noL only has conscqucnccs or individuals buL, in parLicular, or compa-
nies, as we noted in Chapter 3.
Expressions such as the customer is always right suggest that companies
havc ound a ncw rcspccL or Lhc consumcr. O coursc, Lhis is parLly happcn-
ing in rcsponsc Lo vicious compcLiLion, buL iL is also occurring bccausc Lhc
consumers of today are no longer completely ignorant. ey may allow them-
sclvcs Lo bc Lakcn in oncc in a whilc and arc ccrLainly susccpLiblc Lo pcrsua-
sion (if perhaps only when something especially substantial is at stake). Yet,
unsatised customers are a disaster for a company. Before you know it, you
havc noL jusL losL Lhcm or good buL dissaLisacLion has lcL an ink-bloL on
the company name, whose reputation is then simply blown away in a torrent
of blogging, chatting and online public denunciation. In the age of Social
Media, an enormous quantity of social control is aimed at the ways in which
companies deal with the public, the latter no longer being an anonymous
mass buL an asscmbly o sLrong-mindcd and opinionaLcd individuals.
Me, Me, Me
Fnough has bccn wriLLcn abouL cgo Lrips ovcr Lhc lasL LhirLy ycars sincc Lhc
Mc Dccadc launchcd a ncw Agc o Individualism. c rhyLhm o Lhis cra rolls
along: Mc...Mc...Mc...Mc. So cnds Tom Wolc's pcrccpLivc cssay c 'Mc' Dc-
cade and the Great ird Awakening (we emphatically refuse to become en-
tangled in the discussion about what such Awakening might actually entail:
see In 1976, no one
could havc prcdicLcd whaL Lhc awakcning I's would mcan or Lhc communiLy,
busincss and individual conLacLs.
MarkcL rcscarch mcLhods originaLcd in Lhc scvcnLics (scc
com/vicw/HisLory+o+MarkcL+Rcscarch/id=0S323). ALLcmpLs wcrc madc Lo
manuacLurc producLs LhaL scrvcd Lhc concrcLc and morc rchncd nccds and
wanLs o Lhc consumcr. ALcr all, cvcry houschold alrcady had a radio, wash-
ing machine and TV. Consequently, more luxury goods had to be sold to fussy
individuals by companics, Lhc numbcrs o which wcrc growing sLrongly.
c proLcsLs o Lhc sixLics, sLudcnL rcvolLs, womcn's lib, Lhc Ncw IcL, coun-
LcrculLurc acLivism, Flowcr Powcr wcrc noL jusL cxLrcmc rcacLions Lo con-
sumcr socicLy. crc was morc: Lhc rccovcry in Furopc aLcr l045 was com-
plete, a new generation, the Baby Boomers, was becoming more self-aware
and asscrLivc, and Lhcrc was a ncw horriying conicL bcing shown daily
in Lhc ncwsVicLnam. Such cvcnLs as Lhc assassinaLion o U.S. PrcsidcnL
1ohn F. Kcnncdy wcrc scrvcd up on Lclcvision scrccns and madc largcr Lhan
life by the media.
A few years later, the American TV series Peyton Place was a worldwide smash.
Pcoplc cvcrywhcrc wcrc waking up in Lhcir CrcaL ird Awakcning (scc Lhc
wcbsiLc LvhisLory.Lv).
Narcissism as a Norm
Philosopher Christopher Lasch recognized that egocentrism increased after
Lhc dccadc o Lhc scvcnLics. Hc wriLcs abouL Lhis rcalizaLion in CulLurc o
Narcissism RcvisiLcd," an cssay LhaL was includcd as a posLscripL Lo Lhc l00l
reprinting of his book e Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Di-
minishing Expectations.
We now ride like a roller coaster down the path of the twenty-rst century.
ere are nearly one-hundred million weblogs, and microblogs or nanoblogs,
short reports about what you happened to be doing, are the latest rage. In
ChapLcr 3, wc saw Lhc cxamplc o Lhc TwiLLcr posLing by SLcvc Rubcl, cm-
ployee of the Edelman PR Agency, which resulted in an unpleasant clash be-
tween the agency and PC Magazine.
Narcissus and Social-Network Anna
Narcissus was an attractive youth who lived to
hunt. So very beautiful, he had already caused
more than a few hearts to utter. He, on the
other hand, wanted nothing to do with love
and rejected everyone. Only hunting interested
him. Continuing in his pursuits, the youth one
day happened upon a sacred pool of crystal-
clear water where no herdsman ever brought
his ock and from which no mountain goat or
other animal ever drank. Even the leaves and
branches of the trees dared not disturb the
waters serenity. All around grew grass that
was more beautiful here than anywhere else,
the location being encircled by rocks protect-
ing it from the sun. Exhausted from hunting,
Narcissus decided to rest for a while on the
bank and to quench his thirst by drinking from
the pool. Bending over the surface, he saw his
reection in the water. Thinking it was a beau-
tiful spirit who lived in the pond, he remained
seated there, staring in wonder at the gure
with its lovely eyes, curly hair, powerful chin,
ivory neck, slightly parted lips, brimming good
health and impeccable tness. He fell instantly
in love, while still not realizing that the vision
was of his own reection.
He lowered his lips in an effort to kiss the appa-
rition and opened his arms in order to embrace
it. Of course, his coy beloved vanished at once,
only to reappear when the water returned to
Narcissus could not turn his gaze away from the
gure in the pool. He no longer thought about
eating, drinking or sleeping, only about the
watery vision. He tried speaking to it, receiving
no reply. He began to cry, his tears rippling the
enchanted presence, whereupon he implored
the apparition to forsake him no longer. So it
went on, Narcissus withering away until all that
was left of him was a ower.
Obviously, such prolicraLion raiscs Lhc qucsLion o why wc cxposc oursclvcs
so much. Why do wc paradc cvcryLhingor aL lcasL a grcaL dcalabouL our-
sclvcs in ronL o Lhc cycs o Lhc world` Onc cxplanaLion can bc ound in
Lhc dcvclopmcnL o mcdia and Lcchnology. Wc aLLribuLc incrcasingly morc
mcaning Lo imagcs o oursclvcs in Lhc mcdia. Sincc Lhc advcnL o Lclcvision,
wc arc accusLomcd Lo vicwing pcoplc, Lhcir bchavior and Lhc commcnLary
on boLh. Wc havc bccomc obscsscd wiLh oursclvcs. Big Brother is a perfect
example of this, as are our weblogs.
Cary CarLcr is Lracing Lhc mcdia consciousncss o our gcncraLion. Hc is Lhc
prcsidcnL o FrcmanLlc CrcaLivc NcLworks and Chic CrcaLiviLy Occr o
Fremantle Media, known from such programs as American Idol and e X
Factor. is mcdia company makcs ordinary pcoplc largcr Lhan lic, scrving
a mass public that is eager to nd celebrity status and world fame on one of
Lhc many rcaliLy shows. Hc indicaLcs LhaL his own gcncraLion (Cary is wcll
inLo his orLics) has sccn Lhc rolc o Lclcvision cvolvc. Prcviously, TV was Lhc
mirror to the world, showing us how things were to be understood and what
was good or bad. Nowadays, TV has cvolvcd inLo a window in Lhc world LhaL
allows us Lo vicw ordinary Lhings and pcoplc. c laLLcr arc quiLc aL homc in
front of the camera, because they are the generation that has grown up with
TV and vidco Lapcs o Lhcmsclvcs sLorcd in Lhc aLLic.
When Lasch calculated the outcome for the Age of Narcissism, he came to
a shocking conclusion. Craftsmanship and trust in a company are being re-
placcd by visibiliLy, pcrsonal charm, momcnLum and imprcssion managc-
ment. e contemporary organizations in which we work reward narcissistic
bchavior. How wc comc across Lo oLhcrs is moniLorcd wiLh LrcpidaLion.
Wcb mcdia arc dirccLly ablc Lo scrvc narcissism wcll and cncouragc Lhc ur-
Lhcr dcvclopmcnL o propaganda and advcrLising. rough digiLal dcmaLc-
rializaLion, Lhc mcdiaLizaLion o oursclvcs and o our cconomic acLiviLics is
givcn an cnormous boosL. c cxLcnL o Lhc LransormaLion will bc discusscd
urLhcr in Lhc ollowing chapLcr, Hypcrcgos in cir Social NcLworking Fn-
Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or 265 with a webcam. 1.
The PC will link the image it sees to specic Augmented Reality content via previ- 2.
ously downloaded software from
The additional Augmented Reality content will be displayed on top of the trigger 3.
page: in this case a robot holding a postcard with a welcome video.
Make Me the Media Pop
with Augmented Reality Tech
Hyperegos in Their Social
Networking Environment
7.1 From a Fcw Supcrcgos Lo All Hypcrcgos l42
7.2 Friends and Other Relationships:
Friendster, MySpace, Facebook, Bebo, Ning, LinkedIn, Plaxo, Cyworld 145
7.3 is Is Really Something:
Digg,, StumbleUpon, Wakoopa 155
7.4 Online Shopping: eBay, Amazon, Craigslist 158
7.5 Identity and the Social Graph: OpenID, OpenSocial, DataPortability 162
7.6 A Large Socio-Economic Impact 166
The stage on which Hyperegos act is so large that we would never be able
to discuss it fully here. That is why we made an overview of the most im-
portant examples of social Web initiatives. For the sake of historical un-
derstanding we will begin with the rst mass medium by means of which
identity was broadcast. Portraits of emperors on Roman coins made it
clear to everyone within the Empire just who was in charge. Social Web net-
works have made us very familiar with similar proles, at least in a meta-
phorical sense. They also shape our identity and have value: $15 billion in
the case of Facebook. An overexaggeration? Then consider that, in terms of
residents, MySpace was the eleventh largest country in the world when
it was taken over by News Corporation in 2005. At the beginning of 2008,
MySpace had moved up to the fourth place in terms of world population.
The acquisition of the MySpace social network by Rupert Murdochs News Corpo-
ration touched off an explosion in the development and use of these sorts of ego
display cases. It is not just shared friends lists, but also content oriented websites
such as Digg and that are prospering like never before. The popularity
of all these Social Web initiatives has created a greater need for one central loca-
tion where users can register themselves and combine the possibilities of various
social structures. The practice of establishing all kinds of social digital islands is
Hyperegos are
hyperlinked indi-
viduals, organiza-
tions and objects
that will soon, in
a socio-economic
sense, become more
strongly interwoven
within the Metaverse
(see Chapter 8) than
they are in existing
social networks on
the Web.
no longer acceptable. Hyperegos want to be able to make the best possible use of
the infrastructure that they themselves have built into social networks.
From a Few Superegos to All Hyperegos
Coins wcrc Lhc vcry hrsL mass mcdium Lo bc issucd in millions. c porLraiL
of Caesar on the denarius, the coin with which he paid his soldiers, made
iL uncquivocally clcar who was calling Lhc shoLs. IaLcr, Roman cmpcrors
were portrayed on the aureus, the gold coin then being issued. On the re-
vcrsc, Lhcrc was a shorL and powcrul rccrcncc Lo whaL Lhc cmpcror had
donc and whaL hc sLill had up his slccvc. c aurcus LclcporLcd" Lhc impcri-
ally crowned superego to all corners of the empire. e eect of the aureus
was, so to speak, a golden glimmer emitted from the emperors personal
antennato paraphrase a famous radio jingle. With the aureus, the Roman
emperors literally capitalized on their ideas and deeds.
Duc Lo Lhcir valuc and durabiliLy, coins wcrc and arc cxLrcmcly wcll-suiL-
cd or broadcasLing idcnLiLy. Spccial commcmoraLivc coins or pcoplc and
cvcnLs sLill scll wcll. ImmcdiaLcly aLcr Cacsar's murdcr, BruLus had Lhc
cvcnL rccordcd in imagc and LcxL on his own coins. c Fnglish cxprcssion
to coin a phrase recalls this practice. Besides a means of payment, the Ro-
man coins wcrc Lhcrcorc an cccLivc propaganda mcdium rom ovcr Lwo
Lhousand ycars ago. As cvcryonc nccdcd Lo havc coins and as Lhcy wcrc con-
stantly changing hands, their circulation was an ancient means of transmit-
ting identity to as many people as possible.
Today, coins play a marginal rolc as convcyors o mcssagcs duc Lo Lhc much
greater impact of mass media. ere are endlessly new things to hear and
scc on radio and Lclcvision, in ncwspapcrs, magazincs, and givcn Lhc spccd,
Lhc volumc o inormaLion and Lhc inLrusivcncss o such Lcchnologics, coins
and banknoLcs arc clcarly alling by Lhc waysidc. AL bcsL, coins havc bccomc
similar to stamps in portraying a part of folklore. Not least because physical
moncy is incrcasingly lcss involvcd in paymcnL LransacLions. Howcvcr, up
until the introduction of the Euro, portraits of queens and national gures
sLill gavc ciLizcns in Lhc various counLrics o Lhc Furozonc Lhcir own impc-
rial experience.
In Lhis cra o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, mass mcdia arc conronLcd wiLh
sLrong compcLiLion rom Lhc millions o privaLc individuals and markcLing
Lcams LhaL now work on Lhcir own dynamic mulLimcdia monumcnLs via
websites, social networks, weblogs and wikis. is chapter will be dominat-
ed by social digital networks such as Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn and
by Lhc incalculablc valuc LhaL Lhcir individual prohlcs now havc. Whcrcas
media tycoon Rupert Murdoch was able to buy the social network MySpace
or jusL" $5S0 million in 2005, iLs compcLiLor Faccbook was valucd aL ovcr
$l5 billion in 200S, judgcd by Lhc amounL o moncy MicrosoL paid or a
small stake in the company. Broadcast Yourself, the slogan of the YouTube
vidco siLc, is undoubLcdly Lhc ncw big busincss on Lhc InLcrncL.
IL is now possiblc or cvcryonc Lo cxhibiL Lhcir idcnLiLy on Lhc Wcb by pub-
lishing Lhcir namc, phoLo, achicvcmcnLs, cducaLion, hobbics, and Lhc likc,
and hypcrlinking such a prohlc Lo ricnds, music, books, clips and whaLcvcr
else that may seem appropriate.
c cmoLional and cconomic valuc o prohlcs on Lhc InLcrncL can rclaLc Lo
individuals in any o Lhc various social ncLworks or Lo anyLhing clsc, bc iL a
company, brand, producL, scrvicc or oLhcr Lypc o iLcm LhaL wc buy and scll.
Broadcast Yourself
First Century before Christ
In ancient Rome, Julius Caesar (left) was the
rst living person to have his likeness imprinted
onto a coin. Caesar deliberately used the coin
as a mass medium in a manner that had never
previously been done. After Caesars murder,
Brutus had his death portrayed on a coin. On
the right, we see the weapons that were used,
under which the date of the assassination is
indicated: 15 March, the ides (ID) of the month
of March (MAR).
A certain Leonard Caesar on a social net-
work, in this case Friendster, which is very
popular in Asia. His prole along with those
of millions of others on similar digital net-
works is of great economic and emotional
c signihcancc (i.c. rccognizabiliLy) o a givcn idcnLiLy on Lhc Wcb dcpcnds
on a combinaLion o dcscripLion, conLcnL, Lags, hypcrlinks, ricnds," vicws
and clicks.
is new set of rules by which the media game is being played lays the foun-
dation for a new form of broadcasting. anks to the hyperlinks of the World
Widc Wcb, Hypcrcgos and hypcridcnLiLics havc now bccomc Lhc mosL nor-
mal Lhing in Lhc world. Fvcryonc and cvcryLhing is in conLacL wiLh cach oLh-
er and is, in principle, only a few searches and clicks away. Such proximity
has become well known as Six Degrees of Separation.
Six Degrees of Separation
In l020, Hungarian wriLcr Frigycs KarinLhy publishcd his shorL sLory col-
lection Everything is Dierent. One story, called Chains, deals with the Six
Dcgrccs o ScparaLion Lopic: Lhc claim LhaL anyonc can conLacL any prcvi-
ously unknown person in just six steps. You begin within your own circle
of acquaintances with someone who knows another person who you do not
know. e process continues in this manner until a chain of contacts is built
bcLwccn you and Lhc prcviously unknown pcrson.
WiLhouL cvcr having hcard o Lhc sLory bchind Six Dcgrccs o ScparaLion, a
psychologist named Stanley Milgram tested this theory in practice. Begin-
ning in l067, hc ran a numbcr o cxpcrimcnLs Lo invcsLigaLc Lhc numbcr o
connections linking two people chosen at random. Milgram wrote a letter
and addrcsscd iL Lo a ccrLain individual. Hc scnL Lhc lcLLcr Lo a random sclcc-
Lion o pcoplc living in various sLaLcs wiLhin Lhc U.S., insLrucLing Lhcm Lo
orward iL Lo Lhc addrcsscc. I Lhcy could noL makc Lhis dclivcry, Lhcn Lhcy
wcrc Lo sclccL anoLhcr individual rom among Lhcir acquainLanccs who was
clL Lo bc bcLLcr ablc Lo dclivcr Lhc lcLLcr. IL Lranspircd LhaL Lhc lcLLcrs arrivcd
at their destination within six steps.
Milgram demonstrated that the world is in fact much smaller than we had
prcviously LhoughL and callcd Lhis rcaliLy Lhc Small World Phcnomcnon. So-
cial Web networks put this principle into practice. It all began with Friend-
sLcr, buL many oLhcrs havc ollowcd.

Friends and Other Relationships: Friendster, MySpace,
Facebook, Bebo, Ning, LinkedIn, Plaxo, Cyworld
Social ncLworks havc cxisLcd rom Lhc bcginning o Lhc Wcb. In Lhc pasL, wc
left messages on electronic message boards called Bulletin Board Systems
(BBSs). Now, advanccd plaLorms cxisL LhaL arc casy Lo usc and LhaL you can
personalize further with photos and functionality. To date, thousands of so-
cial networks are spread around the world, each diering from the other. It
is virLually impossiblc Lo drcam up somcLhing so ouLragcous LhaL no social
ncLwork has bccn dcvclopcd or iL. Takc or cxamplc Doods, a social Wcb ap-
plication on the Ning platform, where Dads of Only Daughters meet.
c world map abovc clcarly shows Lhc counLrics in which Lhc largc ncLworks
havc csLablishcd Lhcmsclvcs. A numbcr o Lhings arc worLh noLing abouL Lhis
c mosL inLcrnaLional communiLy is, which can bc ound in Pcru,
Colombia and Central America, but also in countries such as Mongolia, Ro-
mania and Tunisia.
From an inLcrnaLional pcrspccLivc, Faccbook is morc widcsprcad Lhan My-
Once a social network is established in one country, it is not easily ousted by
anoLhcr ncLwork. is applics, or cxamplc, Lo OrkuL in Brazil and Hyvcs in
the Netherlands.
Popularity of social networks around the world. Source:
e Friendster website was one of the rst social networks that we would still
recognize as such today. It was founded in March 2002 by Jonathan Abrams,
who ultimately did not prot from it. Originally, he regarded Friendster as a
way to meet women, but the concept had more wide-ranging repercussions.
Croups o virLual ricnds wcrc csLablishcd by sharing lisLs wiLh rcal ricnds
and acquaintances. By the end of 2008 Friendster had more than 90 mil-
lion rcgisLcrcd uscrs. In 2003, Cooglc ocrcd $30 million or FricndsLcr, buL
Abrams did not accept the oer. Since that time Friendster has become in-
creasingly popular in Asia.
MySpace was originally a place where people could exchange les. It was
unsuccessful, and the site was closed in 2001. In July 2002, Tom Anderson
purchased the domain name and set up one of the worlds largest social net-
works. e growth of MySpace can be explained by its strong association
wiLh music. Many musicians and bands havc crcaLcd prohlcs and usc Lhcm Lo
communicate with their fans. At the beginning of August 2006, the one hun-
dred millionth MySpace member was welcomed. By February 2008, MySpace
announccd LhaL iL had ovcr 300 million uscrs, aL a Limc whcn Lhc UniLcd
States had 303,361,000 residents, and at the end of 2008 the site still grew
by more than 230,000 new members a day. At the beginning of 2008, the
numbcr o MySpacc rcsidcnLs gavc iL a ranking o ourLh placc on Lhc lisL
o Lhc world's mosL populaLcd counLrics, howcvcr in April 200S Faccbook's
monLhly uniquc visiLors ouLpaccd Lhc MySpaccans. MySpacc is a division
of News Corporation, the largest media company in the world, originally
founded in 1954 by Rupert Murdoch. With a total of 53,000 employees, this
company has daily contact with a billion people through its newspapers, TV
channels and Internet enterprises.
In 2005, Ncws Corp acquircd MySpacc or $5S0 million. AlLhough, aL Lhc
time, many were amazed by the gure, this amazement has now been trans-
formed into admiration for Murdochs foresight. e social network Face-
book was valucd in Lhc Fall o 2007 aL $l5 billion, and MySpacc had alrcady
bccn appraiscd aL LhaL lcvcl a ycar carlicr. FxLrapolaLing rom Lhc $l5 billion
of Facebook and applying the results to MySpace, the latter social network
would Lhcn havc had a valuc o $65 billion. AL Lhc Craphing Social PaLLcrns
Concrcncc in OcLobcr 2007, Faccbook was, in acL, csLimaLcd Lo havc a valuc
o $200 billion. Mahalo CFO 1ason Calacanis madc a morc conscrvaLivc cal-
culaLion and camc up wiLh an csLimaLcd $2.5-5 billion, an amounL which
givcn Lhc currcnL rcccssion is wildly cxaggcraLcd.
MySpacc announccd a ncw advcrLising modcl in Novcmbcr 2007. Bascd on
Lhc inormaLion in uscr prohlcs, advcrLising could rom now on bc madc Lo
LargcL spccihc individuals. c pracLicc was callcd hypcrLargcLing," which
hLs niccly wiLh Hypcrcgos."
Facebook was started in February 2004 by Mark
Zuckerberg. e site name alludes to the paper
facebooks that are produced in many organi-
zations and educational programs. Originally,
the website was intended for the students of
Harvard UnivcrsiLy buL quickly cxpandcd Lo
includc Lhc surrounding schools and univcrsi-
Lics. c siLc was opcn Lo cvcryonc wiLh a valid
e-mail address from September 2006.
Facebook experienced extraordinary growth,
and Mark Zuckerberg decided to construct the
News Feed mini application. e News Feed
inorms cvcry visiLor on Lhcir own pagc o Lhc changcs LhaL ricnds and
acquainLanccs havc implcmcnLcd on Lhcir pagcs. IniLially, Lhis crcaLcd a
grcaL dcal o proLcsL againsL such a brcach o privacy, buL Lhc applicaLion
was quickly embraced by the majority, and distinguished Facebook from the
In May 2007, Facebook opened its programming platform so that other de-
vclopcrs could dirccLly communicaLc wiLh Lhc Faccbook daLabasc. In shorL
ordcr, ovcr 5,000 ncw applicaLions maLcrializcd. cy wcrc sharcd amongsL
friends, enormously increasing the popularity of Facebook.
Facebook aims to be A Social Utility that
Connects You with the People Around
Youwith people you already physically
know that is. On that basis your friends of
friends of course still can be only digital

Zuckerberg makes a distinction between two large information ows. e
established media keep us informed about day-to-day news. On the Internet
such information is oered for free. All other news (for example the name
o Lhc bcsL hairdrcsscr in Lown) is providcd by ricnds, acquainLanccs and
amily. Zuckcrbcrg bclicvcs LhaL Lhis sccond inormaLion ow will bccomc
incrcasingly morc imporLanL, and hc would likc Lo channcl iL via Faccbook.
Were not trying to help you make new friends online. Were just trying to help you
digitally map out the relationships you already have.
Zuckcrbcrg would likc cvcryonc in Lhc world Lo havc a Faccbook prohlc com-
prising all their desires and thoughts. Such a database, which John Batelle
in his bestseller Search labels the Database of Intentions, would represent an
cnormous cconomic valuc. In 1anuary 2000, l50 million pcoplc in all conLi-
ncnLs wcrc acLivcly using Faccbook, almosL hal o Lhcm cvcry day, making
it the fastest growing social networkof real relations, not just of digital
ricnds," as Mark Zuckcrbcrg lovcs Lo poinL ouL. I Faccbook wcrc a counLry,
iL would Lhcn havc bccn Lhc cighLh mosL populaLcd in Lhc world.
In OcLobcr 2007 MicrosoL Look a l.6 sharc in Faccbook or $240 million.
On Lhis basis, Faccbook aL LhaL Limc musL havc had a LoLal worLh o $l5 bil-
lion. Surprisingly Faccbook's cosL sLill cxcccds iLs rcvcnuc. Zuckcrbcrg how-
cvcr is conhdcnL LhaL in a cw ycars his company will bc prohLablc:
One group is very focused on targeting; another part is focused on social recom-
mendation from your friends. In three years from now we have to gure out what
the optimum model is. But that is not our primary focus today. Growth is primary,
revenue is secondary.
So, lets wait and see. At the start of 2007, Zuckerberg discussed Facebooks
social markcLing sLraLcgy aL Lhc Faccbook Social AdvcrLising FvcnL in Ncw
York. In his opcning addrcss, hc combaLivcly sLaLcd:
Once every hundred years, media change. e next hundred years will be dierent
for advertising, and it starts today.
c sLraLcgy ocuscs on Lwo ronLs. FirsL o all, companics wcrc givcn Lhc
opporLuniLy Lo crcaLc a prohlc pagc jusL likc oLhcr uscrs, only Lhcirs involvc
brands or products. Users subscribe to these company prole pages, and fa-

voriLcs arc sharcd wiLh ricnds by mcans o ncwsccds, which sLimulaLcs Lhc
viral cccL o a company prohlc.
Secondly, companies can place scripts (beacons) on their own websites. When
Facebook users buy products on these sites, this information is recorded in
the Facebook newsfeed. us, brand experience will be directly linked to an
individual's idcnLiLy and prccrcnccs. As a rcsulL, uscrs bccomc Lhc ambas-
sadors of brands and products. Mark Zuckerberg puts it as follows:
Nothing inuences a person more than the recommendation of a trusted friend.
Referring to e Cluetrain Manifesto (see Chapter 4) and Marshall McLu-
han (see Chapter 2), Nicholas Carr, the author of Does IT Matter and e Big
Switch, wrote in his weblog the following about Facebooks
new marketing strategy:
ere is no intimacy that is not a branding opportunity, no friendship that cant
be monetized, no kiss that doesnt carry an exchange of value. e cluetrain has
reached its last stop, its terminus, the end of the line. Editorial is advertorial. e
medium is the message from our sponsor.
Davc Wincr, Lhc invcnLor o RSS ncwsccds, cvcn proclaimcd Lhc cnd o ad-
vcrLising on his wcblog:
In the long-term, advertising is on its way to being obsolete. Facebook is just an-
other step along the path. Advertising will get more and more targeted until it dis-
appears, because perfectly targeted advertising is just information.
c inLcrcsLing poinL abouL Bcbo is LhaL iL has passcd Lhrough scvcral phas-
es. In 2003, Michael Birch came up with Ringo, which he sold after 400,000
mcmbcrs had joincd. Bcbo, a rchncmcnL o Ringo, was inLcndcd Lo scrvc Lhc
ovcr-LhirLy crowd, buL sLruck a chord wiLh an cnLircly dicrcnL LargcL group:
Lccnagcrs. c powcr o Bcbo is iLs simpliciLy: cvcryonc can do iL.

Bebo is especially popular in English-speaking countries, such as Great Brit-
ain, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States. It is cur-
rently the sixth most popular site in the U.K., bigger than AOL, Amazon and In 200S, Bcbo was sold Lo AOI or $S50 million.
e Ning website oers users the opportunity to set up their own social net-
work. Ning was founded in October 2005 by Marc Andreessen, one of the
dcvclopcrs o Lhc Mosaic browscr and joinL oundcr o NcLscapc, along wiLh
Cina Bianchini. Ning is Chincsc or pcacc." In ScpLcmbcr 200S, ovcr a hal
million social networks were built on the Ning platform.
When he was asked whether LinkedIn would pursue a similar open strategy
Lo Faccbook, oundcr Rcid Homan sLaLcd Lhc ollowing:
While Facebook is used by bloggers to push out their own media to as wide a circle
as possible, most professionals dont want an open door policy. In Web-based social
networking, six gure Fortune 500 execs seek the discretion and condentiality
that LinkedIn uniquely oers. While bloggers may extol the virtual sociability of
anything and everything goes open blogosphere atmosphere, a professionally run,
online gated referral network is invaluable in the real world of high-stakes busi-
c hrsL vcrsion o IinkcdIn was builL in 2002 by sLudcnLs Rcid Homan
and KonsLanLin Cucrickc along wiLh Lhrcc oLhcr dcvclopcrs. is social ncL-
work, which is specically aimed at professionals, was launched in 2003. Ini-
tially, the database was lled with 350 contacts from the personal networks
o Homan and Cucrickc, buL Lhc ncLwork subscqucnLly cxpcricnccd cxplo-
sivc growLh.
e most prominent goal of LinkedIn is the formation of an online network
of your own immediate contacts. ey should assemble a network as well, and
the people in that network do the same. e second- and third-line networks
cannot be approached directly but can only be accessed by obtaining a referral
rom your hrsL-linc ncLwork. is sysLcm o rccrrals is inLcndcd Lo prcvcnL
people from being harassed by requests to initiate a relationship, although
this now appears to be happening all the same. e network of LinkedIn is
based on mutual trust among associates.
c privacy policy o IinkcdIn sLaLcs LhaL Lhc ncLwork Lakcs parL in Lhc FU
Sac Harbor Privacy Framcwork (scc
mcnLs.asp). is guaranLccs LhaL dispuLcs conccrning Lhc privacy o Lhc uscr
will bc rcsolvcd in accordancc wiLh Lhc Sac Harbor Privacy Framcwork.
LinkedIn proles are plain CV descriptions without ashy backgrounds. is
Lrimmcd-down sLylc has Lhc advanLagc o cnsuring LhaL IinkcdIn is uscd
only or busincss conLacLs. Howcvcr, whcn Faccbook was opcncd Lo dcvclop-
ers, a large group of people left the LinkedIn network, including such promi-
ncnL bloggcrs as RobcrL Scoblc and David Wcinbcrgcr. c cxodus was duc Lo
Facebook oering more opportunities for contacting others, combined with
the fact that duplication among social networks is gradually becoming irri-
tating to many (see the Social Graph in Section 7.5).
Despite this, LinkedIn continued to grow. In 2006, American professionals
bccamc convinccd o Lhc nccd Lo mainLain a prcscncc on IinkcdIn. c num-
ber of registrations increased enormously: in October 2008 there were more
than 30 million registered users from 150 economic sectors.
Many people use LinkedIn to nd new jobs. Recruiters scan the network dai-
ly and incrcasingly morc cmploycrs lisL vacancics Lhcrc. Uscrs can now also
makc inquirics via Lhc ncLwork.
LinkedIn is free, but you can also purchase a subscription, which lets one
c-mail pcoplc dirccLly wiLhouL having Lo bc rccrrcd. A paid subscripLion also
bcLLcr cnablcs you Lo Lrack pcoplc who visiL your prohlc.
Any uscr can havc an unlimiLcd numbcr o conLacLs. As soon as somconc
cxcccds hvc hundrcd, IinkcdIn marks Lhc numbcr as 500+. In Lhis way,
Iinkcd In aims Lo prcvcnL Lhc ncLwork rom bccoming a compcLiLion in mak-
ing conLacLs. Howcvcr, Lhc wcbsiLc kccps a rccord o IinkcdIn
top scorers, and reported that at the start of 2009 Ron Bates topped that list
with more than 40,000 connections.
November 2008 November 2007 YOY Growth (%)
Classmates Online
Windows Live Spaces
Club Penguin
AOL Community
My Yearbook
Gaia Online

per Person

per Person


per Person
Top-20 Social Network Sites (November 2008)
Source: Nielsen Online
Blue data represent sample sizes below reporting cut-off
Plaxo and Pulse
Plaxo is an online address book. e website was started in July 2001 by
Sean Parker, one of the founders of Napster, along with Minh Nguyen and
Lwo sLudcnLs aL SLanord UnivcrsiLy, Tod Masonis and Camcron Ring. Plaxo
makcs iL possiblc Lo usc a plug-in Lo synchronizc various dcskLop applica-
tions, such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla underbird. When someone
changes the data of a contact, this is automatically communicated to all reg-
istered applications.
Plaxo Pulse was launched in August 2007, an application that keeps users
updated on any changes to their contacts. ere is also the option to keep
Lrack o oLhcr social iniLiaLivcs in Lhis licsLrcam, such as blogs and wikis.
Plaxo Pulsc is Lhc hrsL applicaLion Lo supporL an cccLivc implcmcnLaLion
o Lhc OpcnSocial iniLiaLivc, or cxamplc (scc SccLion 7.5). As a conscqucncc,
Lhc numbcr o visiLors Lo Plaxo incrcascd dramaLically.
Up Lo now, wc havc discusscd a varicLy o inLcrnaLionally LrcndscLLing social
ncLworks. BuL in Lhc digiLal arcna, Asia is dchniLcly a vcry imporLanL parL
of the world. e largest social network is South Korean Cyworld, which is
particularly popular among young people. Cy is Korean for relation.
Cyworld combincs a social ncLwork wiLh a VirLual World. Fach visiLor rc-
ccivcs a prohlc pagc (MiniHompy) on which his or hcr digiLal idcnLiLy (Mini
Mc) can bc crcaLcd. c MiniHompy ocrs Lhc uscr a numbcr o sLandard
functionalities, such as a photo album, a diary and a guestbook.
c MiniRoom, a virLual living room, dicrcnLiaLcs Cyworld rom mosL oLh-
er social networks. Users can furnish this MiniRoom by acquiring all types
o virLual objccLs. csc objccLs arc paid or using Cyworld's own moncLary
uniL: Lhc doLoris. Uscrs can cvcn sclccL music or Lhcir living room.
Fach day morc vidcos arc placcd on Cyworld Lhan on YouTubc. In Lcrms o
music salcs, Cyworld is Lhc sccond largcsL scrvicc in Lhc world aLcr Applc's
Cyworld has had a large impact on South Korean culture. e introduction of
MiniRooms lead many women to use the Internet for the rst time in their
Ovcr 20 million pcoplc visiL Cyworld cvcry day. Ovcr 00 pcrccnL o SouLh
Korcan Lccnagcrs havc a Cyworld accounL. In LoLal, Lhcy consLiLuLc a quarLcr
of the population.
Frcd Cavazza o Lhc wcbsiLc FrcdCavazza.ncL has comc up wiLh a diagram
ploLLing Lhc lic spans o Lhc various social ncLworks againsL cach oLhcr on
a hype cycle:
In ScpLcmbcr 200S Bill Tanccr, hcad o rcscarch aL HiLwisc and wriLcr o
the book Click: What Millions of People are Doing Online and Why It Matters,
announccd LhaL social ncLworks havc bccomc morc popular on Lhc InLcr-
ncL Lhan adulL siLcs. Analysis o inormaLion rom ovcr Lcn million uscrs rc-
vcalcd a noLablc Lrcnd:
Peak of
Trough of
Slope of
Plateau of

As social networking trac has increased, visits to porn sites have decreased. My
theory is that young users spend so much time on social networks that they dont
have time to look at adult sites.
This Is Really Something:
Digg,, StumbleUpon, Wakoopa
To put it bluntly, many social networks are little more than dressed-up friends
collections. Friend me has become a fashionable phrase. An emphatically
morc subsLanLial manncr o cngaging in social ncLworks on Lhc Wcb involvcs
Lhc sharing o avoriLc wcbsiLcs, arLiclcs, and so on. c mosL promincnL ini-
LiaLivcs in Lhis arca arc Digg,, SLumblcUpon and Wakoopa.
c Digg wcbsiLc is an cxpcrimcnL by Kcvin Rosc, Owcn Byrcn, Ron Coro-
detzky and Jay Adelson. e site was ocially launched in December 2004.
You can place short documents on Digg that refer to material you nd to be
worthwhile (to dig rather than to diss). Top ranked articles make it to the
ronL pagc o Lhc Digg siLc, whcrc Lhcy aLLracL Lhc aLLcnLion o all visiLors.
In this way, the public contributes to what becomes hot or not. ere is no
journalistic editing.
Frequently, websites carrying top ranked stories go down, as they cannot
handlc Lhc numbcr o visiLors. is is callcd bcing dugg Lo dcaLh": buricd
alivc as a rcsulL o a aLal cmbracc by Digg. Digg aLLracLs morc Lhan a million
uniquc visiLors a day.
In the past, Digg has had to endure a great deal of criticism, as for instance
only a quarter of all Diggers determined the content of the front page, so it
sccmcd. Also, Digg camc undcr hcavy hrc on May l, 2007, whcn somconc
publishcd an arLiclc conLaining Lhc kcy Lo Lhc copy proLccLion or HD DVD.
ALcr having consulLcd Lhcir lawycrs, Lhc Digg managcmcnL had Lhc arLiclc
rcmovcd. is lcd Lo a grcaL commoLion abouL rccdom o spccch bcing vio-
lated. Diggers rebelled and the website was ooded with articles containing

Lhc kcy in qucsLion. Kcvin Rosc ulLimaLcly capiLulaLcd and sLaLcd Lhc ollow-
ing on his weblog:
After seeing hundreds of stories and reading thousands of comments, youve made
it clear. You d rather see Digg go down ghting than bow down to a bigger company.
We hear you, and eective immediately we wont delete stories or comments con-
taining the code and will deal with whatever the consequences might be.
In 1uly 200S rumor had iL LhaL Cooglc would acquirc Digg or $200 million,
howcvcr a cw wccks laLcr Cooglc anounccd LhaL Lhcrc would bc no dcal aL
all. In December 2008 CEO Jay Adelson announced that news aggregator
Digg was no longer for sale, and instead would aim at reaching protability
as quickly as possible.
In conLrasL Lo Lhc broad-bascd cvaluaLion o arLiclcs on Digg, o-
crs an abbrcviaLcd survcy o any kind o avoriLcs. was launchcd
in 2003 by 1oshua SchachLcr. c siLc lcLs you sLorc avoriLcs in a ccnLral
location and share them with others.
Using features (tags), it is easy to nd similar types of information in the network. It is also possible to form a small network around cer-
tain tags, allowing you to share the latest information on the subjects in
which you arc inLcrcsLcd. anks Lo, Lags havc bccomc a ocus o
attention to the public at large.
In Dcccmbcr 2005, Lhc wcbsiLc was sold Lo Yahoo or $30 million, hal o
which went to founder Joshua Schachter.
FavoriLcs on somcLimcs lcad Lo surprising discovcrics. InLcrcsL-
ing sLu pcoplc havc run inLo on Lhc Wcb is whaL Lhc SLumblcUpon scrvicc
oers. Users refer each other to the most exciting new sites they happen to
By means of a browser plug-in, users, known as Stumblers, can click on the
Stumble button when they want to share an article, photo, clip, or something
clsc. OLhcrs can Lhcn voLc which idcally would causc an URI Lo appcar on
the StumbleUpon homepage. Communities are formed around subjects by
mcans o collaboraLivc hlLcring."
In May 2007, SLumblcUpon was sold Lo cBay or ovcr $75 million. c siLc
exceeded 4 million members by December of the same year. In September
200S, subscqucnLly rcvcalcd LhaL cBay was looking or a
buyer for StumbleUpon. Only 1.3 million Stumblers were still using the ser-
vicc in 1uly 200S.
Wakoopa was founded by Wouter Broekhof and Robert Gaal in May 2007 as
a free social network for software users and gamers. A small tracker is used
Lo moniLor how long somconc is using a parLicular piccc o soLwarc. Fvcry
fteen minutes, the data is uploaded to a persons prole and shared with the
rest of the world on the Wakoopa site. Based on your prole, you can contact
As well as tracking and tracing desktop software, Wakoopa also keeps track
o various wcb applicaLions. c Wakoopa communiLy primarily uscs Lhc
Fircox and Opcra browscrs. FxLra uncLionaliLy has bccn cspccially dcvcl-
opcd or Lhcsc plaLorms in ordcr Lo discovcr who is using which wcb applica-
tion in the CrunchBase of
BusinessWeek praiscd Lhc conccpL by placing Wakoopa in Lhc Lop hvc o Fu-
Online Shopping: eBay, Amazon, Craigslist
As carly as ScpLcmbcr l005 Picrrc Omidyar kickcd o AucLionWcb. Hc cn-
visioncd a LransparcnL onlinc markcL placc, whcrc pcoplc rom allc ovcr Lhc
world could trade all kinds of goods. Omidyar had already become a multi-
millionairc as a soLwarc archiLccL or various InLcrncL sLarLups. Probing
Lhc viabiliLy o AucLionWcb hc ocrcd a brokcn lascr pcn LhaL hc had oncc
bought as a toy for his cat. Within a few days, the item was sold to a collector
or $l4. Picrrc undcrsLood LhaL hc mighL bc siLLing on a goldminc.
In ScpLcmbcr l007, AucLionWcb was rcnamcd as cBay, an abbrcviaLion o
Pierre Omidyars own consulting company Echo Bay Technology Group. In
Lhc bcginning, Lhc siLc was primarily visiLcd by collccLors. rough word-o-
Object-Centered Sociality
Every social network focuses on a certain topic, or object about and around
which people communicate. Digg, and StumbleUpon are concerned
with favorites, Flickr with photos and with music. Jyri Engestrm, co-
founder of the service Jaiku, feels that this is often too easily overlooked. We
have the tendency to reduce social networks to the interpersonal relation-
ships resulting from communications. In emphasizing the importance of the
central object, Engestrm follows Karin Knorr Cetina, Professor of Sociology at
the University of Constance, Germany, in employing the term Object-Centered
Go to and take
a look at Jyris presentation at
jyri.ppt. The abbreviation YASNS used by Jyri stands for Yet Another Social
Networking Site. If you want to read more about the subject, surf to yasns. On this PeanutButterWiki, danah boyd is compiling a history of
social networks.
mouth, the site became increasingly more popular. Today eBay is the largest
online market place in the world.
Reputation Management and Power Seller Narro
To combaL raud, cBay ocrs Lhc opporLuniLy o cvaluaLing buycrs and scllcrs
aLcr a LransacLion. So pcoplc can dccidc Lo bccomc commcrcially involvcd
with a particular person based on reputation.
AL cBay so-callcd powcr scllcrs oLcn havc an unblcmishcd pcrsonal rccord,
which is Lo say a rcliabiliLy raLing o onc-hundrcd pcrccnL. Howcvcr, Lhis
must not always be taken too seriously, as the story of power seller Narro
rcvcals. Narro had Lcn Lhousand LransacLions Lo his namc, buL rcgularly had
Lo comc clcan whcn buycrs discovcrcd LhaL hc was sclling sccond hand iLcms
in ncw packaging. His priccs ccrLainly wcrc low, buL ncvcrLhclcss. Whocvcr
punishcd Narro by giving him a downgradc incviLably rcccivcd Lhc samc
treatment in return.
No matter how small the smear on Narros reputation may appear against
the background of his ten thousand clean transactions, this power seller
was eager to maintain his so-called one-hundred percent reliability. On the
other hand, a purchaser screamed blue murder about a downgrade from Nar-
ro, for Narros thumbs-down when weighted against, let us say, ten transac-
Lions rcprcscnLs a rcliabiliLy rcducLion o l0 pcrccnL. is sorL o rcLribuLivc
acLiviLy is complcLcly unair, as our purchascr has prompLly paid wiLhin Lhc
deadline, but the eBay rules do not prohibit such practice. Purchaser and
seller can atter or bully each other according to their own state of mind.
Power seller Narro will then propose to settle the reputation quarrel with
Lhc purchascr in qucsLion, who o coursc acccpLs, providcd having noL su-
crcd Loo hcavy a loss. ALcr all, Lhc pcrccpLion o a l0 pcrccnL lowcr rcliabil-
ity can then be wiped away. In this manner, a power seller can easily exploit
a sLaLisLical advanLagc Lo mainLain a spoLlcss rccord.
Wim BcnL o has dcvclopcd soLwarc LhaL rcvcals all Lhc dcals
and ncgaLivc cvaluaLions o Narro and oLhcrs. To scc how uscul Wim BcnL's
tool is, just try once to manually check the ten thousand transactions of a
powcr scllcr in ordcr Lo discovcr bad cxpcricnccs o oLhcr buycrs. Undcr Lhc
wcighL o such salcs volumc, any complainLs incviLably disappcar inLo noLh-
ing. BcnL's program rcLricvcs all Lhc ncgaLivc rcacLions and scLLlcd Lrans-
actions (which are therefore not included in the rating) and consequently
sheds an entirely dierent light on the high reputation of some power sell-
e eBay website appears regularly in the news on account of the strange
items that are sometimes on oer. For instance, an American once wanted
to buy a kidney online, a married couple oered a baby and a price tag of one
million dollars was hung on Britney Spears shorn hair. When articles placed
on salc do noL mccL Lhc cBay rulcs, Lhcy arc unapologcLically rcmovcd and
the seller is issued a ban.
c cBay wcbsiLc has, ovcr iLs bric cxisLcncc, pullcd o a numbcr o big ac-
quisitions. When the website became aware of the fact that the PayPal pay-
mcnL sysLcm was involvcd in hal o all LransacLions, cBay did noL hcsiLaLc
to reach deep into its pockets to acquire PayPal, shelling out one and a half
billion dollars in shares for PayPal in July 2002. In September 2005, eBay
bought the Internet telephony program Skype for 2.6 billion dollars. e rea-
son was LhaL buycrs and scllcrs could Lhcn conLacL cach oLhcr ovcr InLcrncL
Lclcphonc in ordcr Lo gain addiLional inormaLion abouL objccLs and scrviccs.
c vcnLurc has noL bccn a succcss, howcvcr.
AL Lhc Lop o iLs populariLy, cBay was visiLcd by ovcr 700 million dicrcnL
pcoplc in 2007, and Lhc LoLal valuc o mcrchandisc sold in 2006 rcachcd
$4S billion. c iLcms bcing sold, rangc rom jusL a cw ccnLs Lo $4.0 million
or a privaLc busincss jcLLhc mosL cxpcnsivc iLcm sold so ar.
Je Bezos founded the Amazon bookstore in 1994. Soon the website ex-
tended its scope to include CDs, software, furniture, food et cetera. Je was
onc o Lhc hrsL Lo havc a rcalisLic busincss plan, sincc hc had cxpcricnccd
LhaL Cadabra, Lhc prcdcccssor Lo Amazon, was noL prohLablc unLil aLcr hvc
For Amazon to be successful took a bit longer. Only in the fourth quarter of
2002 was Lhc company ablc Lo rcporL a posiLivc rcsulL Lo iLs sharcholdcrs. All
told, earnings were one U.S. cent per share. Subsequently, the company has
madc a dchniLivc brcakLhrough, hundrcds o millions o goods and scrviccs
now being sold each year.
Onc o Lhc disLincLivc caLurcs o Amazon is Lhc way in which Lhc auLomaL-
ic system directs users to comparable items of interest on the basis of meta
inormaLion and rcvicws. Whcn, or cxamplc, you arc inLcrcsLcd in a ccr-
tain book, Amazon is happy to pres-
ent writers and books of the same
genre as a list of recommendations.
is practice has now been adopted
or all producLs and has provcn Lo
be an important ingredient for suc-
cessful business operations on the
In March 2006 Amazon started to
oer its online Simple Storage Ser-
vicc (S3), which now bclongs Lo Lhc
biggcsL so-callcd Cloud iniLiaLivcs
Craigslist is the nal model of a successful Internet market place that we
will mention here. It was set up by Craig Newmark in 1995. Craig had just
movcd Lo San Francisco and was looking or an casy way Lo kccp up Lo daLc
on cvcnLs in his immcdiaLc localiLy. Word-o-mouLh advcrLising also playcd
a big role in this story. More and more people began to use Craigslist in order
to post messages for each other. Not just announcements about celebrations
and parties, but inquiries about work or residential spaces were also listed.
Craig quickly rcalizcd LhaL hc could carn his living rom CraigslisL. c siLc is
now operating in fty countries and four-hundred and fty cities. Nowhere
Cloud Computing
In 1999, Jeff Bezos was named Person of the Year
by Time magazine for his visionary ideas about web
sales. But this is not the only thing. The manner in
which Amazon deals with IT is much debated; the
company provides services of various sizes and
sorts, including Simple Storage Service and Amazon
Web Services. However, the same of course applies
to eBay, Yahoo, Facebook, My Space and without
doubt Google. It also applies to Cisco, Sun, IBM and
Microsoft. The question is when Cloud Computing
related developments will become truly reliable not
just for Aunt Emmys photos and Christinas online
friends, but also for businesses.
on Lhc siLc will you hnd ashy advcrLising banncrs. Craig carns his moncy
rom advcrLiscmcnLs in Lhc caLcgorics or work and living spacc, and Lhc siLc
yiclds an annual rcvcnuc o around $25 million. Craig surpriscd Lhc world in
2006 when he announced that he was not interested in optimizing the prot.
Hc would raLhcr spcnd his Limc hclping oLhcr pcoplc so LhaL Lhcy could hnd
what they were looking for on his site. is customer intimacy has been ef-
ccLivc: CraigslisL is incrcdibly popular.
Identity and the Social Graph: OpenID, OpenSocial, DataPortability
e number of social applications on the Web has increased tremendously
in recent years; consider such websites as YouTube, Flickr, Digg, MySpace,
LinkedIn, and eBay. Before these applications can be used, users must often
hrsL rcgisLcr as siLc mcmbcrs. A similar proccss musL bc complcLcd cvcry
Limc: rcgisLcr, crcaLc a prohlc, inviLc oLhcr pcoplc. Whocvcr rcccivcs an in-
viLaLion musL, in Lurn, also rc-rcgisLcr. Having Lo conLinuously rc-cnLcr all
Lhis daLa is annoying and has a ncgaLivc cccL on Lhc powcr o social applica-
Brad Fitzpatrick wrote about this problem in his August 2007 article
oughLs on Lhc Social Craph." FiLzpaLrick is Lhc crcaLor o Iivc1ournal,
a popular blog platform from Six Apart. A Social Graph is the structure of
someones social network, so the way in which people interlink with each
Fitzpatrick recognized that, throughout the world, there is not a single Social
Craph LhaL conLains all Lhc rclaLionships o an individual. All Social Craphs
are network specic and non-transferable. And this remains the case despite
the fact that social networks are fundamentally the same; they concern peo-
ple and interrelationships based on shared interests. is interaction may
involvc phoLos, as in Lhc casc o Flickr, music, as in Lhc casc o IasL.m, vidco
maLcrial, as on YouTubc or valuablc ncws aL siLcs likc Digg.
Fitzpatrick therefore proposes to create a central common database to en-
sure interchangeability. In this way, social networks will be able to recognize
individuals and sharc social sLrucLurcs. UlLimaLcly, Lhis will probably rcsulL
in only a few social networks continuing to exist.
In rcacLion Lo Brad FiLzpaLrick's idcas, Lhc iniLiaLivc A Bill o RighLs or Uscrs
of the Social Web was started in September 2007. e authors of this pam-
phlet, including Joseph Smarr from Plaxo, Marc Canter from PeopleAggrega-
tor, blogfather Robert Scoble and Michael Arrington from the Techcrunch
website all signed a statement indicating that users were the owners of what
Lhcy publish on Lhc Wcb, LhaL Lhcy havc Lhc righL Lo managc Lhis daLa, as
wcll as Lhc righL Lo givc somconc or somcLhing pcrmission Lo usc iL.
Tim Berners-Lee, the pioneer of the World Wide Web, also focused his atten-
tion on the notion of a Social Graph. For him, it is just another way of talk-
ing abouL Lhc ScmanLic Wcb. Alluding Lo Lhc abbrcviaLion WWW, Bcrncrs-
Icc suggcsLcd in Novcmbcr 2007 LhaL wc pcrhaps should bc Lalking abouL a
GGG, a Giant Global Graph:

LunarStorm (SNS relaunch)
MySpace, Open BC/Xing
Flickr, Piczo, Mixi, Facebook (only Harvard)
Orkut, Dogster
Dodgeball, Care2 (SNS relaunch)
Multyply, aSmallWorld
YouTube, Xanga (SNS relaunch)
Cyworld (China)
Cyworld (US)
MyChurch, Facebook (everyone)
Bebo (SNS relaunch)
Facebook (highschool/networks)
Facebook (business networks)
AsianAvenue, BlackPlanet (relaunch)
QQ (relaunch)
(SixDegrees closes)
Launch dates
of the biggest
social network

e Net links computers, the Web links documents. Now, people are making an-
other mental move. ere is realization now, Its not the documents, it is the things
they are about which are important. Obvious, really... Its not the Social Network
Sites that are interestingit is the Social Network itself. e Social Graph. e
way I am connected, not the way my Webpages are connected. We can use the word
Graph, now, to distinguish from Web. I called this graph the Semantic Web, but
maybe it should have been Giant Global Graph!
Brad FiLzpaLrick is Lhc driving orcc bchind dcccnLralizcd auLhcnLicaLion
mechanism OpenID. is system makes it possible to make yourself known
by mcans o a singlc sign-on ovcr Lhc InLcrncL. InsLcad o having Lo rcgisLcr
for each website, a simple registration using OpenID would be sucient.
At the beginning of 2007, Yahoo announced that it would also adopt OpenID.
UnLil Lhcn, roughly Lcn Lhousand siLcs had bccn using iL worldwidc, involv-
ing scrviccs or a LoLal o l20 million pcoplc. WiLh Lhc inclusion o Yahoo, Lhc
total number of OpenID users rose to 368 million.
In the meantime, Brad Fitzpatrick has elaborated
his ideas about the Social Graph at Google under
the name of OpenSocial. At the beginning of No-
vcmbcr 2007, Cooglc madc iL known LhaL iL was
entering into collaboration with a number of so-
cial ncLworks and dcvclopcrs, iniLially including
FlixsLcr, FricndsLcr, Hi5, iIikc, IinkcdIn, Ning,
Plaxo, Viadeo, Oracle, Orkut, Rock You, Salesforce
and Slide.
c Lhinking bchind OpcnSocial is LhaL Lhc cxisLing Wcb providcd Lhc idcal
dcvclopmcnL plaLorm raLhcr Lhan Faccbook, MySpacc or somcLhing clsc. Us-
ing a numbcr o ApplicaLion Program InLcraccs (APIs), iL is rclaLivcly casy Lo
unlock inormaLion conccrning prohlcs, ricnds and acLiviLics. In Lhis way, iL
musL Lhcn bc possiblc Lo dcvclop an applicaLion in which Lhc conLacLs rom
A Free and Easy Way to Use a
Single Digital Identity across the Internet
The Web is Better
When Its Social

LinkedIn can automatically be used in for instance Plaxo and Friendster. It
is no longcr ncccssary Lo compilc a ncw lisL o ricnds or cvcry applicaLion.
Should a contact change his or her data in the future, it should be sucient
for him or her to make these changes in only one application. ey would
bc auLomaLically implcmcnLcd in Lhc associaLcd ncLworks. Howcvcr, undcr
OpcnSocial iL is sLill impossiblc Lo mix Lhc daLa or various sourccs wiLh cach
In Fcbruary 200S, MySpacc csLablishcd iLs own dcvclopmcnL plaLorm in
compliance with OpenSocial. Just as with Facebook, MySpaceans can use
a number of APIs to build applications based on MySpace core data. Amit
Kapur, the COO of MySpace, indicates that the strategy of MySpace will, for
the time being, be focused on three factors:
Making the Web more personal, more portable (through both mobile and data por-
tability), and more collaborative.
In January 2008, Facebook announced that it would oer a client-side
1avaScripL library cnabling Faccbook applicaLions Lo run on oLhcr wcbsiLcs.
In Dcccmbcr 200S Lhc scrvicc cnablcd Lhis caLurc Lo dirccLly acccss Lhc so-
cial graph of Facebook and dubbed it Facebook Connect. Responding to Face-
book, Google introduced its Friend Connect, which is an OpenSocial applica-
tion. e battle for the control of online identities has only just begun.
At the start of 2007, Google, Face-
book and Plaxo indicated that they
were joining the DataPortability work
group. c aim o Lhis iniLiaLivc is Lo
cnsurc LhaL phoLos, vidcos and oLhcr
forms of data can be shared. People
must be able to carry their data with
them, so to speak. Yahoo, Dow Jones,
cHub, Zoomr and Lhc BBC arc alrcady
a parL o Lhis iniLiaLivc.
A Large Socio-Economic Impact
Social ncLworks arc orishing buL sLill in Lhcir inancy. Howcvcr, Lhcir social
and cconomic poLcnLial is immcnsc. Social Wcb ncLworks cccLivcly Lrans-
orm Lhc world inLo a crowdcd villagc. Fvcryonc can lcarn and gcL Lo know
whaL anoLhcr individual wanLs and docs. IL is undcrsLandablc LhaL compa-
nies try to gain the greatest possible share of the social network pie in one
way or another.
In Novcmbcr 2007, RobcrL Scoblc and Darrcn BarcooL inLroduccd Lhc Social
Media Starsh. It is a diagram displaying what were then the most popular
social networks. A great deal has changed since then. e number of Social
Wcb applicaLions has grown cxplosivcly. SomcLhing has bccn dcviscd or
cvcry nichc. In AugusL 200S, Brian Solis and 1cssc omas providcd somc
rcvcaling insighL inLo Lhis growLh by mcans o Lhcir ConvcrsaLion Prism.
Besides enormous growth, there are two things worth noting. e number
of social networks appears to be concentrated on the right side, in the areas
o microblogging and licsLrcams. is would suggcsL LhaL Lhc ConvcrsaLion
Fconomy has shiLcd Lo a ConvcrsaLion SocicLy.
White Label
Social Networks
Social Networks
The Social Media Starsh
Hyperegos: Ordinary People Are Becoming a Brand
A mcdia cgo biggcr Lhan Oprah Winrcy is barcly conccivablc. Shc docs noL
nccd Faccbook in ordcr Lo draw aLLcnLion Lo hcrscl. NcvcrLhclcss, shc is o
course a social network player and has had a channel on YouTube since No-
vcmbcr 2007. c Roman cmpcrors did noL havc TV or Faccbook, buL uscd
coins Lo makc Lhcmsclvcs morc amiliar Lo Lhc pcoplc LhroughouL Lhcir vasL
empire. Oprah on YouTube, imperial feats portrayed on the face of a coin, or
Lhc ordinary man or woman who makcs Lhc mosL o Lhcir own achicvcmcnLs
and ambitions on LinkedIn or Facebook: what is the dierence? Well, Oprah
and Julius Caesar were already substantial brands before they began their
acLiviLics. BuL conLcmporary orms o social soLwarc arc cxccpLionally wcll
Comment &
Blog Communities
Specific to
Social Networks
Niche Networks
Service Networks
Video Aggregation
Video & Audio
The Art of
Listening, Learning
& Sharing
Source: Brian Solis & Jesse Thomas
The Conversation Prism
suiLcd or anybody or any nobody wanLing Lo improvc his or hcr own rcpuLa-
Fvcryonc wiLh a pagc on MySpacc, IinkcdIn, Faccbook or anywhcrc clsc is
busy working on their own brand. With a good CV and the proper photos,
pcoplc makc Lhcmsclvcs morc visiblc Lo Lhc ouLsidc world. HcadhunLcrs
know where to nd you, but it goes much further. Information about what
people want and do is the key to a new socio-economic dynamic. is func-
tions as part of the computerized preparation for and conclusion of transac-
Lions LhaL arc Lransorming Lhc naLurc o LradiLional advcrLising, buL also
the way markets work. Time and again new research indicates that, online,
we place the most trust in friends and acquaintances.
Hypertargeting: Using Proles to Better Serve the Consumer
Commerce is out to appeal directly to the consumer hearts of all egos on
social ncLworks by making usc o Lhcir pcrsonal dcscripLions and avoriLcs.
Fvcryday Faccbook, MySpacc, and oLhcrs dcmonsLraLc LhaL hypcrLargcLing
is a reality.
e information on social networks forms one giant Database of Intentions,
the sum total of the hundreds of millions of people with their character-
isLics, avoriLcs, ricnds and bchaviors. Fvcry busincss opcraLor drcams o
bcing ablc Lo rcspond insLanLly Lo Lhc dcmands o consumcrs, who havc
Lhcmsclvcs indicaLcd LhaL Lhcy havc spccihc nccds. Howcvcr, an incrcasing
number of stimuli will likely mean that the consumer will become more dif-
cult to reach.
Hyperattention: Continuously Dividing Your Attention
e idea that we must continuously be linked to the network in order not to
miss out on anything causes our attention to be spread across an increasing
numbcr o sLimuli. c Social Wcb Lhcrcorc cnhanccs Lhc imporLancc o vir-
tual friends. Buzz marketing and mutual inuence accompany this trend.
inking through the causes, nature and consequences of Continuous Par-
tial Attention and Friendship, Linda Stone shows that we only partially fo-
cus our attention on any one thing these days. Paying attention to Social
Wcb ncLworks is bccoming an anywhcrc-anyLimc acLiviLy. Wc musL bc wcll
awarc o Lhis acL and makc propcr choiccs, oLhcrwisc our producLiviLy will
plummet, and feelings of stress will increase.
Virtual friendship, or what passes as such, is gaining in importance. is, of
coursc, raiscs Lhc qucsLion o whcLhcr virLual ricnds causc our rcal" social
lic Lo comc undcr cnormous prcssurc. WhaL has morc valuc: a digiLal conLacL
with someone on the other side of the world or engaging in a relationship
with someone of esh and blood? Anthropologist Ralph Dunbar has, in fact,
demonstrated that people are not capable of entering into more than one
hundrcd and hLy rclaLionships. WhaL valuc should wc Lhcrcorc aLLach Lo
hundrcds or Lhousands o virLual ricnds` To ask Lhc qucsLion is Lo answcr
iL: iL is obviously anoLhcr boLh...and" siLuaLion, and noL an ciLhcr...or". is
is how wc nccd Lo undcrsLand Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion. Wc havc Lo do iL
all, but set the right priorities at the right time. Accepting this responsibility
is also parL o Lhc c-mancipaLion involvcd in Lhc all ncw Mc-Mcdia.
How You Communicate Just Might Be the Most Relevant Business Factor
In 44 BC, Roman statesman, philosopher and rhetorician Marcus Tulius Ci-
cero wrote his famous essay De Ociis. In it, he included a code of conduct
LhaL is cnLircly applicablc Lo conLcmporary commcrcial wcb convcrsaLions.
FxLcnsivc cxamplcs o succcssul and lcss succcssul convcrsaLion wcrc dis-
cussed in Chapter 3. Of course, Ciceros rulesincidentally, Cicero was a
erce opponent of Julius Caesar, with whom we began this chapterdo not
only apply Lo blogs and InLcrncL orums buL also Lo our bchavior in social ncL-
works in gcncral. To havc a sLrong and cnduring busincss impacL, Lhc manncr
of communication is of crucial importance. More than two thousand years
ago, Ciccro gavc Lhc ollowing Lips, which you will yourscl
be able to apply to a multi-Me-Media Web setting:
Be clear and understandable
CommunicaLc wiLh casc buL noL Loo much: abovc all, lcavc
space for others
Do not interrupt others
Be respectful
Civc imporLanL issucs Lhc aLLcnLion Lhcy dcscrvc and dcal
apLly wiLh Lrivial Lhings
Do not criticize people behind their back
Do not get lost in insignicant detail
Do not put yourself in the foreground
Ncvcr losc your paLicncc and do noL bccomc angry
Go to www.iep.
htm: Section 7s (On
Duties), which discusses De Ofciis
At least use Ciceros rules as a mirror with which to oer your retrospec-
Livc apology abouL whaL you may havc oncc again donc wrong. Civcn Loday's
hcavy Social Wcb Lrac, Lhcsc ancicnL Lips arc, in any casc, noL a rcdundanL
luxury, and cvcryonc is rcc Lo play around wiLh Lhcm, dcpcnding on Lhc
cxibiliLy LhaL you bclicvc yourscl Lo havc.
The Metaverse:
Our New Virtual Universe
8.1 Ncuromanccr, Snow Crash and Lhc McLavcrsc Roadmap l72
8.2 c McLavcrsc: IicsLrcams l77
8.3 c McLavcrsc: Mirror Worlds l84
8.4 c McLavcrsc: AugmcnLcd and VirLual RcaliLy lS8
8.5 c McLavcrsc: VirLual Worlds lS9
8.6 c Ncw Univcrsc is Big Busincss 200
The growing importance of social networks has been outlined in detail above. But
these networks do not of course exist in isolation. They are an important ingredi-
ent of what can elegantly be termed the Metaverse, the digital fulllment of the
physical universe in which we live. The qualication Meta indicates that the Meta-
verse is an add-on for the universe. On the way to a new Metaverse, we discover
completely new worlds. Consider, for example, a virtual world such as Second Life,
as well as the mirror worlds of Microsoft and Google (Virtual) Earth.
The purpose of the Metaverse is to digitally expand our physical reality, creating
a new Virtu-Reality that adds socio-economic value to individuals and organi-
zations. This value ex-
presses itself in further
development of their
status as Hyperegos.
Digital innovators such
as Google, IBM, Micro-
soft and many other
companies on the user
side regard the Meta-
verse as an extremely
serious opportunity. A
great deal of money is
being poured into it.
The Universe as the World of Human Experience
The principle meaning of the term universe is the cosmos, every-
thing considered as a whole, both the very far and very near. It is
therefore not just a term that describes distant heavens, but also the
immediately accessible (everything around us); both the vastness of
deep space and the world of human experience (Merriam-Webster).
And it is this view of a proximate universe that you have to keep in
mind when reading this chapter: the universe anchored in human
experience. In this context, the digital Metaverse (here a mashup of
meta and universe) is a logical term describing a world beyond the
immediacy of human reality. Intriguingly the Metaverse enriches our
everyday universe, and thus transforms it into a new Virtu-Reality.
Neuromancer, Snow Crash and the Metaverse Roadmap
WhaL happcns whcn Lhc rcal and Lhc virLual world arc mashcd LogcLhcr`
When Google Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth are linked to any arbitrary
inormaLion sourcc on Lhc Wcb` Whcn avaLars arc auLhorizcd Lo makc dcci-
sions or Lhcir rcal alLcr cgos` Whcn cvcryonc has a camcra and broadcasLs
clcmcnLs o Lhcir own livcs` Whcn Lhc worlds o vidco gamcs orcLcll how
social interaction will occur in the future? What happens when no distinc-
Lion is madc bcLwccn onlinc and oinc` Whcn work and privaLc lic arc
ully inLcrLwincd` Whcn individuals, companics and objccLs consLanLly
communicate with each other?
Such a usion will rcsulL in a ncw cquilibrium. Various Lypcs o virLual lincs
will inhlLraLc our physical univcrsc Lo dicring dcgrccs. To providc an iniLial
example of how that might appear, we will discuss two science ction books:
Neuromancer from 1984 and Snow Crash from 1992, while noting that the
McLavcrsc is, aL prcscnL, no longcr scicncc hcLion.
In l0S4, William Cibson madc his publishing dcbuL wiLh Lhc nighLmarc nov-
el Neuromancer, the book that introduced the terms Cyberspace and Matrix.
In Neuromancer, the Internet is a three-dimensional space in which data les
arc visualizcd as concrcLc objccLs. is Cybcrspacc was noL inLcndcd or Lhc
avcragc uscr, only Lcchnical cx-
perts were capable of nding their
way around Lhis virLual world.
Gibson described a world in which
multinationals hold power; an-
archy runs riot because articial
intelligence, robots and humans
constantly battle each other; most
pcoplc havc rcplaccd a body parL
with an implantation, articial
limb or arLihcial organ and havc
therefore become Cyborgs: cyber
organisms. IL is a dysLopic vision
of progress echoed in lms such
as Blade Runner and e Matrix
From the book: Program a
map to display frequency
of data exchange, every
thousand megabytes a
single pixel on a very large
screen. Manhattan and
Atlanta burn solid white.
Then they start to pulse,
the rate of trafc threaten-
ing to over-load your simu-
lation. Your map is about
to go nova. Cool it down.
Up your scale. Each pixel a million megabytes. At a hundred
million megabytes per second, you begin to make out certain
blocks in midtown Manhattan, outlines of hundred-year-old
industrial parks ringing the old core of Atlanta.
The Metaverse
In 1992, Neal Stephenson elaborated
the idea of a three-dimensional Vir-
tual World into which people can ex-
Lcnd Lhcir livcs. In Lhc classic Snow
Crash, Stephenson introduced the so-
callcd McLavcrsc. c book dcscribcs
a virLual carLh LhaL is l.6 Limcs larg-
er than the original, with a gigantic
road running all the way around the
equator. Digital reproductions of
oursclvcs, LhaL arc hardly disccrniblc
from reality, communicate and trade.
e majority of the people would
rather pass time on this geosynchro-
nous plane than actually remain in
the real world.
The Metaverse Roadmap
Now LhaL wc havc acquircd an iniLial
idca abouL whaL Lhc McLavcrsc and
parallcl conccpLs wcrc cnvisioncd Lo
be, some of us may, in fact, dismiss them as pure science ction. e story of
Lhc McLavcrsc and iLs dcvclopmcnL is, howcvcr, morc inLricaLc Lhan Neuro-
mancer, Snow Crash and e Matrix might suggest.
e Metaverse Roadmap appcarcd in 1unc 2007. IL cxplains Lhc dcvclopmcnL
o Lhc McLavcrsc by rccrring Lo Lhc our caLcgorics LhaL 1amais Cascio o Lhc
Open the Future weblog rst used. In following Cascio, we can use compass
poinLs Lo ploL Lhc McLavcrsc. InsLcad o norLh, souLh, casL and wcsL, Lhcrc is
intimate, extimate, augmentation and simulation. ese categories do not
exclude each other. ey are the principle directions on a co-ordinate system
mapping ouL cvcryLhing possiblc. Cascio's compass cnablcs us Lo cohcrcnLly
charL Lhc McLavcrsc, Lhc digiLal cxLcnsion o our physical univcrsc.
WhaL bcgan wiLh lic-likc advcnLurcs such as Icisurc SuiL Iarry, social ncL-
works such as Our World rom CompuScrvc, virLual worlds such as Worlds-
Away rom CompuScrvc and FujiLsu, ighL simulaLors, CPS in our cars, digi-
Lal baLLlc supporL and saLclliLc phoLos, is gradually bccoming availablc Lo
cvcryonc wiLhin onc singlc univcrsc-cnriching McLavcrsc, madc up o our
From the book: A globe
about the size of a
grapefruit, a perfectly
detailed rendition of
Planet Earth, hanging in
space at arms length in
front of his eyes. [...] It
is a piece of CIC [Central
Intelligence Corporation]
software called, simply,
Earth. It is the user
interface that CIC uses
to keep track of every
bit of spatial informa-
tion that it owns [...]
Its not just continents and oceans. It looks exactly
like the Earth would look from orbit directly above L.A,
complete with weather systemsvast spinning galaxies
of clouds, hovering just above the surface of the globe,
casting gray shadows on the oceans and polar ice caps,
fading and fragmenting into the sea.
Intimate means: aimed at
the identity and actions of
an individual or object. The
epitome of this activity is
lifelogging, recording (some
of) the events of our lives
in so-called Lifestreams.
Social networks such as
MySpace and Facebook,
in combination with
blogs and micro blogs, are
beginning to head in this
Extimate is the opposite
of intimate and personal.
It is epitomized by Mirror
Worlds such as Microsoft
Virtual Earth.
Augmentation is the use
of digital applications and
systems to add extra visual
and textual information,
and associated functional-
ity on a screen. All extras are related to a given location in physical reality (Location-Based Services)
or to a specic context, for instance an advertisement in a magazine, which a device can recog-
nize via a webcam. The latter is how the Me The Media Augmented Reality application works (visit: The information is visible on a screen sensitized to location and
direction. This path of development is called Augmented Reality.
Simulation mainly refers to Virtual Worlds but involves digital variants of socio-economic reality like
Second Life, or ctional scenarios ranging from The Sims to World of Warcraft.
The combination of Lifestreams and Mirror Worlds forms the basis of an integrated Metaverse in which
all four quadrants meet and ultimately overlap. Virtual Worlds and Augmented Reality will eventually
become the most meaningful in a socio-economic sense, a point demonstrated by the tens of billions
of dollars that the big social networks are now worth. GPS provides the link between Mirror Worlds and
Augmented Reality.
A hyperlinked identity within the Metaverse is called a Hyperego, regardless of whether it identies an
individual, brand, organization, and so on. Each identity will mostly consist of a number of subidenti-
ties. This segmentation is already discernible online.
multimedia info
and simulation
Our digital
3D planet
All digital
In the nine-
ties, when Neal
Stephenson had
introduced the
notion of the
Metaverse in
the science c-
tion best seller
Snow Crash, our
existing views of
the Metaverse
were still poorly
Howcvcr, Lhc McLavcrsc is an inLcrmcdiary sLagc. UlLimaLcly, Lhc ncw Vir-
Lu-RcaliLy will bccomc as normal as our univcrsc. Comparc iL Lo c-Busincss,
which was an important concept from 1996 to 2002, the years in which the
idca was Laking shapc. Whcn subscqucnLly cvcry organizaLion was cngagcd
in c-Busincss, Lhc c" vanishcd, and iL bccamc busincss as usual.
The Metaverse Then and Now
Alrcady back in Lhc nincLics, David CclcrnLcr, Fric Frccman and ScoLL FcrLig
dcvclopcd IicsLrcams, as a sLoragc modcl or pcrsonal daLa. Fach IicsLrcam
was a long series of portrait-format letter-size pages containing browsable
and scannable multimedia material, just as the colorful Lifestreams logo in
the illustration suggests. Gelernter and his associates tried to commercially
cxploiL IicsLrcams via Lhcir sLarL-up MirrorWorlds Tcchnologics. BuL iL was
much too early for a public application at that time.
Mirror Worlds Or the
Day Software puts the
Universe in a Shoebox:
How It Will Happen and
What It Will Mean
(Gelernter, 1992)
Mscape is a good
example of the new
ITainment: simultane-
ous info, edu and en-
tertainment. Read HP
Turns Downtown San
Francisco Into Virtual
Gameboard (
html) and watch the
mscape video on You-
In l002, CclcrnLcr publishcd his vision in Lhc book Mirror Worlds. Or the Day
Software Puts the Universe in a Shoebox: How It Will Happen and What It Will
Mean. Mirror Worlds and Augmented Reality, then often called Virtual Real-
ity, were military and academic concerns. It would still take years before GPS
would bccomc commonly uscd. In Lhc virLual world o Worlds Away (now
V-Zoncs), you could noL do much morc wiLh your avaLar Lhan chaL and play a
gamc. BuL Lhc hrsL sLcps wcrc bcing madc down Lhc road Lo a McLavcrsc. An
integration of all the possibilities was still purely science ction in the nine-
Lics, as was Lhc conccpL o Lhc Hypcrcgo. c ncLwork, Lhc hardwarc and Lhc
programming languages were simply not ready at that time.
csc days, Lhis has complcLcly changcd. In May 2007, HcwlcLL-Packard
launched mscape, short for mediascape. Mscape is the rst combination of
Virtual Worlds, Mirror Worlds and Augmented Reality. It functions on any
mobile phone, but unfortunately a link with user proles does not yet exist.
Virtual Worlds

What we can expect of mscape and other comparable platforms is explained
by Phil McKinncy, VP and CTO o Lhc Pcrsonal SysLcms Croup aL HP:
Mscape matches digital media with the physical world, providing an immersive and
location-aware experience. Mobile devices will increasingly incorporate context
and location awareness in the coming years, and mscape helps us better under-
stand how associating digital media with physical locations can not only be fun and
informative, but also useful in our personal and professional lives.
For Ncal SLcphcnson, Lhc McLavcrsc was simply a world in which our digi-
Lal idcnLiLics dwcll. CurrcnL idcas conccrning Lhc McLavcrsc arc morc mul-
Liorm. Physical rcaliLy and digiLal virLualiLy bclong Lo Lhc samc conLinuum:
it is not either...or but both...and.
c ollowing our sccLions dcal wiLh Lhc applicaLions LhaL currcnLly givc
LcnLaLivc orm Lo Lhc our abovc-mcnLioncd quadranLs and LhaL can bc ur-
Lhcr inLcgraLcd wiLhin Lhc McLavcrsc. AL prcscnL, IicsLrcams arc Lhc mosL
dcvclopcd arca and ull-blown AugmcnLcd RcaliLy Lhc lcasL. Howcvcr, Lhcrc
are many players hard at work on catching up within the latter domain, par-
Licularly wiLh locaLion and conLcxL-bascd scrviccs wiLhin hcalLh carc and
mobile information systems.
The Metaverse: Lifestreams
e Lifestreams concept was rst put into prac-
Licc in l006 by Fric Frccman and David CclcrnLcr.
Lifestreams is a metaphor for the storage of multimedia information in or-
ganic time ows, in contrast with the hierarchical directory structures of our
computers. In 2003, Gelernter explained the Lifestreams concept as follows:
I can imagine all the electronic information in my life collected into one beam, or
(equivalently) one owing stream. Every electronic document: every e-mail, photo,
draft, URL, audio, video, calendar or address note, and so on. Life is a series of
events in timea timeline with a past, present and future. e events of your life
and the memories in which theyre recorded arent parceled out into directories, or
typed shoeboxes. An information beam incorporates documents of all types into
one (focussable) beam. e question where did I put that piece of information?
always has exactly one answer: its in my beam. e stream has a past, present and
future. e future ows into the present into the past. If Ive posted an appoint-
ment or reminder in the future part of the stream, eventually it ows automati-
cally into the present where I ll notice it and be reminded, and then into the past
where its part of the permanent, searchable, browsable archive. When I acquire
a new piece of real-life (versus electronic) informationa new memory of (lets
say) talking to Melissa on a sunny afternoon outside the Red ParrotI dont have
to give this memory a name, or stu it in a directory. I can use anything in the
memory as a retrieval key. (I might recall this event when I think about Melissa,
or sunny afternoons outside the Red Parrot.) I shouldnt have to name electronic
documents either, or put them in directories. And I ought to be able to use anything
in them as a retrieval key.
In our view of the future, users will no longer care about operating systems or com-
puters; they ll care about their own streams, and other peoples. I can tune in my
stream wherever I am. I can shue other streams into mineto the extent I have
permission to use other peoples streams. My own personal stream, my electronic
life story, can have other streams shued into itstreams belonging to groups or
organizations Im part of. And eventually I ll have, for example, newspaper and
magazine streams shued into my stream also. I follow my own life, and the lives
of the organizations Im part of, and the news, et cetera, by watching the stream
is normalizaLion" is now bcginning Lo Lakc shapc. Fvcry day, Lclcvision,
newspapers, radio, blogs, podcasts, SMS, MSN, et cetera, discharge an enor-
mous quanLiLy o inormaLion Lo us, and Lhis will only incrcasc in volumc.

Did You Know 2.0 (Excerpt)

Todays 21-year-olds have played more than 10,000 hours of computer games.
Todays 21-year-olds have talked 10,000 hours on the phone.
And theyve sent/received 250,000 e-mails or instant messages.
More than 50% of U.S. 21-year-olds have created content on the Web.
More than 70% of U.S. 4-year-olds have used a computer.
Years it took to reach a market audience of 50 million:
Radio: 38 years. Television: 13 years. The PC: 4 years.
Number of Internet devices in 1984: 1,000.
Number of Internet devices in 1992: 1,000,000.
Number of Internet devices in 2006: 600,000,000.
Did you know?
Source: and

c inormaLion gcncraLcd in 2007 cxcccdcd, or Lhc hrsL Limc cvcr, all o Lhc
inormaLion gcncraLcd ovcr Lhc lasL our-Lhousand ycars sincc Lhc invcnLion
of writing.
OuL o ncccssiLy, wc havc Lo dccidc which inormaLion is rclcvanL or irrcl-
cvanL. c rcsulL is a ccling o crisis, as wc do noL wanL Lo miss anyLhing
happcning in Lhc world around us. HasLily giving cvcryLhing a liLLlc biL o
our attention often will be the best that we can do.
MySpacc, Faccbook, IinkcdIn, Hi5, FricndsLcr, Flickr, Bloggcr, Wikipcdia,
and Digg are all examples of websites that we use to publicize our ideas. In
using IicsLrcams, wc display Lhc cvcnLs o our livcs, no maLLcr i Lhc vchiclc
used is Twitter, Jaiku, Pownce, Friendfeed or Each of these are an
cxamplc o licsLrcam acLiviLy.
Twitterers use text messages of 140 characters to inform family and friends
about what they are up to. ese short updates are known as tweets. Some
people call it microblogging, others call it lifestreaming.
e goal of lifelogging: to record and archive all information in ones life. is in-
cludes all text, all visual information, all audio, all media activity, as well as all bio-
logical data from sensors on ones body. e information would be archived for the
benet of the life-logger, and shared with others in various degrees as controlled by
him or her.
Kcvin Kclly, 2007
TwiLLcr was launchcd in March 2006 by Obvious, a company bclonging Lo
Fvan Williams, Lhc man who prcviously sold Bloggcr Lo Cooglc. Onc ycar
later, Twitter won the South By Southwest (SXSW) Web Award in the Blog
category. From that moment on, the use of Twitter took o.
InLcrcsLcd individuals can acccss a TwiLLcr IicsLrcam by SMS, MSN, RSS or
by means of a badge on a webpage. e creator of a Twitter feed can keep
Lhc ccd privaLc, or opcn iL up Lo Lhc public.
Opinions abouL TwiLLcr vary rom rcgarding iL as poinLlcss Lo dccming iL
brilliant. In a number of cases, Twitter has demonstrated its usefulness, for
cxamplc in providing inormaLion abouL carLhquakcs, ooding, LcrrorisL aL-
Lacks and so on. Concrcncc rcporLing via a so-callcd TwiLLcr backchanncl is
also now common. Twitter can help keeping people informed about upcom-
ing cvcnLs and cngaging in social discovcry".

2 hours 0 sec
Time between breaks
Pain threshold
The Asymptotic Twitter Curve, or the history of text-message chatting.
Worldwide there are now millions of people who are passionately using Twit-
Lcr. Howcvcr, Lhc company is noL prohLablc ycL. Co-oundcr Biz SLonc prom-
ised that in 2009 exciting new ways of making money will be introduced.
e power of Twitter is its simplicity, plus the open API on which other ap-
plications can be built. One of the best known is TwitterVision, a mashup
of Google Maps. A map of the world shows where the Twitter messages are
coming from.
Twitter reinforces the small town feeling of the global web world and has
completely changed the way in which some people communicate.

This is how e-mail, texting, instant messaging, microblogs and weblogs are
common and how they differ. The high frequency and the Broadcast Yourself
nature is the characteristic combination.
Courtesy: Raimo van der Klein
c manncr in which wc iniLiaLc a convcrsaLion has noL changcd much sincc
Lhc inLroducLion o Lhc Lclcphonc. Wc inLroducc oursclvcs and inquirc i wc
are interrupting something important and, in the era of the mobile phone,
we often ask where the person is at the time, as a telephone number no
longer tells us much about a persons whereabouts. is is strange, as MSN,
Gtalk, Skype and similar applications immediately indicate the presence of
individuals by rcporLing LhaL Lhc pcrson is onlinc, on lunch brcak, cL ccL-
era. Combining presence information with a mobile phone is a new trend.
c mosL imporLanL cxponcnL is callcd 1aiku, an onlinc scrvicc similar Lo
Jaiku was launched in 2006 by Jyri Engestrm and Petteri Koponen, who
were seeking a better method for keeping friends informed about what was
happcning in Lhcir livcs. Bric mcssagcs had Lo bc disLribuLcd ovcr Lhc Wcb
and by means of mobile telecommunication. e name Jaiku alludes to the
brcviLy o 1apancsc haikus.
Jaiku is a presence aggregator. As well as posting messages, Jaiku is also
able to integrate RSS feeds from other applications. e goal is to establish
a ccnLral cnvironmcnL in which cvcryonc can placc Lhcir publishcd inor-
maLion and pcrsonal inLcrcsLs. In Lhis way, wcblogs, avoriLcs, phoLos and
locations are linked together, creating a rich Lifestream that Jyri Engestrm
calls a social pcriphcral vision." Fvcryonc who wanLs or has Lo know abouL
whaL somconc clsc is doing can subscribc Lo Lhis scrvicc.
According to the originators of Jaiku, we will be in increasingly more fre-
quent constant contact with each other in the future. e number of mes-
sages will consequently increase enormously.
In October 2007 Google acquired Jaiku. Many were puzzled because Twitter
is many Limcs biggcr. Howcvcr, 1aiku aL LhaL Limc was clL Lo bc bcLLcr hLLcd
or an inLcgraLion wiLh mobilc LclccommunicaLions, and had a gcnuinc vi-
sion. At the start of 2009 Google abandoned Jaiku and made it open source.
In 1unc 2007 Kcvin Rosc, Lhc oundcr o Digg, inLroduccd his ncw brainchild,
Pownce. In December 2008 it was acquired and integrated by blog platform
company Six Apart. Pownce was a social network and microblogging site for
sharing mcssagcs, hlcs, cvcnLs, and links wiLh ricnds.
Following iLs inLroducLion, Lhcrc was a vcriLablc run on Powncc. c Lool was
strongly promoted on the Digg website. Just as Twitter and Jaiku, Pownce
also had an opcn API, cnabling dcvclopcrs Lo build applicaLions on Lhc plaL-
c Fricndccd wcbsiLc was csLablishcd by Paul BuchlciL, 1im Norris, Sanjccv
Singh and Bret Taylor, all former Google employees. Friendfeed is a social
aggregator. It makes it possible to integrate and aggregate RSS feeds as well
as Lhc ccds o pcoplc you ollow and cvcn Lhcir ricnds' ccds. In Lhis way,
discussion topics are easy to monitor without requiring you to jump from
website to website. Friendfeed has enjoyed immense success as a result of
its pure RSS character. Friendfeed already has been called the Wikipedia of
social networking.
AnoLhcr microblogging scrvicc is is siLc is consLrucLcd com-
plcLcly wiLh Iaconica, Lhc opcn sourcc dcvclopmcnL cnvironmcnL or mi-
croblog plaLorms. rcccivcd a grcaL dcal o aLLcnLion dirccLly aLcr
iLs launch, cnabling iL Lo boasL o ovcr S,000 uscrs in iLs hrsL 24 hours. NoL
surprisingly, has its own jargon as part of the eort to dierentiate
itself: updates are called dents as opposed to Twitters tweets.

The Metaverse: Mirror Worlds
What has to be done to create a detailed working model of a city? To begin with,
we require a model: a detailed map on which we can begin to build, layer by layer,
houses, roads, parks, cars, et cetera. It very rapidly becomes apparent that a great
deal of work is involved. People have to be included. We place them at strategic loca-
tions, each with a telephone, so they can quickly report the latest information. is
works. To nd out what is happening, you only have to consult the model.
AlLhough, in l0S2, Lhis was jusL a LhoughL cxpcrimcnL by David
Gelernter, today we can choose from many Mirror Worlds. We will
discuss the most well-known ones here: Google Earth, Microsoft
VirLual FarLh, PhoLosynLh, FvcryScapc and NASA World Wind.
Increasingly more companies are seeing the benets of using a
microblog, such as Twitter, Jaiku or For instance, NASA
posted a microblog announcement indicating that the landing of
the latest Mars probe, Phoenix, had gone well and that water had
been found (see: The Mars probe com-
municated in the rst person, as if Phoenix was entering into a
conversation itself. Of course, the Mars probe did not really com-
municate. The tweets were sent by Veronica McGregor, the news
services manager at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena.
She was hugely surprised by the large number of followers that
subscribed to the tweets.
Atmospheric entry has started. Time to get REALLY nervous. Now Im in the seven
minutes of terror.
Peak heating will hit in 40 seconds. The heat and energy generated during atmo-
spheric entry would be enough to power 280,000 homes.
parachute must open next. my signal still getting to Earth which is AWESOME!
parachute opening is scariest part for the team.
parachute is open!!!!!
come on rocketssssss!!!!!
Ive landed!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Cheers! Tears!! Im here!
Large software companies have also become deeply involved in the microblogging
phenomenon. IBM now offers Blue Twit, Oracle has Ora Tweets and SAP is busy ex-
perimenting with various tools.
Cooglc FarLh 4 was launchcd in ScpLcmbcr 2006. c uscr is ablc Lo y abovc
an FarLh composcd o saLclliLc and acrial phoLographs. Zooming in, Lhc lcvcl
o dcLail is cxccllcnL. Sincc AugusL 2007, iL has also bccn possiblc Lo obscrvc
stars and solar systems using the Sky application. Not all satellite images
can bc displaycd. Somc phoLos conLain scnsiLivc inormaLion, such as Lhc
amous Arca l5, a scalcd arca in Lhc Ncvada dcscrL whcrc, rumor has iL, Lhc
U.S. govcrnmcnL conducLs cxpcrimcnLs on cxLra-LcrrcsLrial bcings. In Lhc
Sky application also some parts are not accessible.
Google Earth also makes it possible to incorporate specic layers of informa-
tion within photos. At the end of 2006, Google Earth included two additional
layers in its standard package: Panoramio (user photos) and Wikipedia. Royal
Dutch Airlines, KLM, for instance, mapped all of its ight destinations from
Amsterdam on an extra Google Earth layer. It is possible to use this informa-
Lion Lo chcck Lhc availabiliLy o ighLs and makc rcscrvaLions. PrivaLc uscrs
can also add Lhings Lo Lhc virLual plancL by mcans o Cooglc SkcLch Up. In
Google 3D Warehouse creations can also be shared.
Google Earth has to be downloaded and installed on to a computer. is is
noL rcquircd or Cooglc Maps, Lhc wcb varianL, buL iLs imagcs arc o a lowcr
resolution. Users can also make additions to the images produced in Maps
and Lhc rcsulLing mashups can Lhcn bc savcd onlinc and sharcd. A Cooglc
Maps widgcL was inLroduccd aL Lhc bcginning o 2007. 1usL likc YouTubc vid-
eos, a simple piece of programming code can be used to copy the maps and to
insert them in all types of social tools.
Cooglc Maps is also availablc or mobilc phoncs. is applicaLion has a uscul
gimmick: pressing the 0 key shows the phones present location, determined
by measuring the distance from three aerials. e result is a rough estimate
and is not as accurate as GPS.
In July 2007, Google began extending its arsenal of Mirror Worlds with
Street View. For months, cars with cameras on top crisscrossed the large cit-
ies of the United States, while constantly taking photographs. As a conse-
qucncc, iL is now possiblc Lo virLually Lravcl along a rouLc prior Lo making
the trip in reality. Street View stirred up a great deal of commotion. It was
possible to see into the rooms of houses and also to clearly make out the faces

o passcrs-by. Privacy was bcing LhrcaLcncd and, as a rcsulL, accs wcrc madc
Many people now access Google Maps on their cell phones as a free route
planner for the car. Since July 2008, it has also been possible to mark out
walks and hiking routes.
Googles biggest competitor has also not been idle. Microsoft spends hun-
drcds o millions annually on Lhc dcvclopmcnL o VirLual FarLh, which is a
componcnL o MicrosoL Iivc and, in conLrasL Lo Cooglc FarLh, is availablc
onlinc. ILs uncLionaliLy is providcd by a browscr plug-in. An API can bc uscd
Lo dcvclop mashups or VirLual FarLh. In comparison Lo Cooglc FarLh, Mi-
crosoft Virtual Earth oers an additional functionality: Birds Eye View.
As well as Virtual Earth, Microsoft has also introduced another Mirror World
called Photosynth. is application allows users to merge photos on the Web
into a single picture that a person can walk through. Photosynths tagline
What if your photo collection was an entry point to the world, like a wormhole that
you could jump through and explore?
One of the rst Microsoft products to use Photosynth is Microsoft WorldWide
Tclcscopc. Uscrs can uLilizc Lhis applicaLion Lo navigaLc Lhrough Lhc univcrsc
based on precisely-detailed satellite photographs that are seemlessly pieced
together. Microsoft wants to use this program to transform astronomy into
a pcrsonal cxpcricncc. Uscrs can cvcn undcrLakc inLcrgalacLic voyagcs along
various rouLcs or in linc wiLh Lhcir pcrsonal whims. cy can also sharc spacc
Lravcl wiLh Lhird parLics.

Right before the introduction, Robert Scoble, co-author of the book Naked
Conversations, said that he spontaneously shed some tears when seeing the
I cried because I imagined all the kids, like my sons, who will be inspired by what
they see. It took me back to the days when John Kennedy wanted us to go to the
moon. Hint: theres a lot more out there to explore.
We had to put up with a rickety telescope in our bedroom, todays youth can
immediately launch this application and drag and drop parts of outer space
into their personal computers.
FvcryScapc is a clcvcr combinaLion o uscr phoLos and Cooglc Maps. 1usL
likc PhoLosynLh, FvcryScapc wcavcs uscr phoLos LogcLhcr and Lhc uscr sccs
an authentic street scene. Users can add commentary that others can consult
in ordcr Lo amiliarizc Lhcmsclvcs wiLh Lhc arca. c applicaLion wcnL livc aL
the end of October 2007. Four areas were then being supported: Boston, New
York, Miami and Aspen.
NASA World Wind is an application from the NASA Ames Research Center
LhaL makcs iL possiblc Lo display a virLual plancL FarLh. Iikc Cooglc FarLh
and Microsoft Virtual Earth, the user is able to zoom in on the globe. It is
also possiblc Lo supcrimposc all Lypcs o laycrs ovcr Lhc saLclliLc imagcs, cn-
abling the construction of mashups. e best part of this tool is that the
source code has been released to the public.
The Metaverse: Augmented and Virtual Reality
Fvcryonc knows abouL Lhc LransparcnL Hcad-Up Displays (HUD) LhaL pro-
vidc hghLcr piloLs wiLh addiLional inormaLion wiLhouL impairing Lhcir vi-
sion. is augmcnLcd-rcaliLy Lcchnology, which has bccn availablc Lo Lhc
miliLary or ycars, is incrcasingly making iLs way inLo civilian lic. In Lhc
ncar uLurc, cxLra inormaLion abouL Lhc world around us will bc providcd
via glasscs and mobilc phoncs. c daLa can bc providcd on Lhc basis o CPS
and dirccLion-scnsiLivc scnsors. Bccausc AugmcnLcd RcaliLy is cxpccLcd Lo
undergo a breakthrough in the near future, we will discuss this phenomenon
in detail in Chapter 9.
Key to Augmented Reality is therefore the serious digital embellishment
and enrichment of the real world. Our reality is supplemented by additional
Lopic and locaLion-spccihc inormaLion. A urLhcr cxamplc involvcs rccciv-
ing extra information on our mobile phones about composer, orchestra and
conductor while listening to a classical music performance in a concert hall.
c Lransmission o locaLion coordinaLcs makcs iL possiblc Lo rcccivc such
location-specic data. Time and location are linked to the concert halls per-
ormancc calcndar, which is also madc availablc as a mcnu iLcm. Such scc-
narios arc conccivablc or a givcn siLc, cvcnL or cxpcricncc.
Commercially speaking, Augmented Reality is a very interesting application,
as for instance it will enable us to keep track of everything on offer.
Consider books, for example. In the future, it will not only be possible to read
Lhcm buL also Lo usc Lhcm Lo acccss a complcLc virLual world. FnLirc baLLlcs
could be played back before the readers eyes, creating the sense of participat-
ing in the actual reality. Multimedia experiences are becoming increasingly
morc imporLanL. Wc did noL prcviously havc Lhc rcsourccs Lo Lurn rcading
into a multimedia experience, but it has now become possible.
The Metaverse: Virtual Worlds
2006 was reputed to be the year in which Virtual Worlds nally made a break-
through. e hype around Second Life was immense. If you wanted to create
publicity, you only needed to indicate that you were the rst at something or
oLhcr in Sccond Iic. BuL VirLual Worlds havc cxisLcd or much longcr.
c hrsL vcrsions o VirLual Worlds wcrc Lhc MulLi-Uscr Dungcons (MUDs)
daLing rom Lhc nincLics, in which scvcral pcoplc could parLicipaLc aL Lhc
same time and that primarily consisted of text commands guiding players
Lhrough ccrLain rooms. ALcr l005, audiovisual maLcrial was addcd Lo Lhis
LcxL cnvironmcnL. c bcsL known cxamplcs o Lhis sLagc o virLual cvolu-
Lion arc Habbo HoLcl, World o WarcraL and Sccond Iic. Broadband conncc-
Lions havc madc iL possiblc or millions o pcoplc Lo cnLcr a VirLual World.

Worlds begin to
WorldsAway (1995) (1996)
MUDs (1978)
Concept of Virtual
Worlds known in SF:
Tron (1982)
Snow Crash (Neal
Neuromancer (William
The Three Stigmata of
Palmer Eldritch (Philip
K. Dick,1965)
Phantasy Star
Online (Sega
Dreamcast, 1995)
Habbo Hotel
HiPiHi (2006)
Twinity (2008)
Spore (2008)
PlayStation Home
The super serious
Virtual World
approach of
Dassault Systmes
is discussed in
Section 10.8
Second Life
Entropia Universe
The Matrix
Ultima Online
Final Phantasy XI
World of
Development of Virtual Worlds guided by some main examples
Virtual Worlds come in all shapes and sizes. A world such as Second Life does
noL scrvc anoLhcr purposc Lhan Lo sLroll around, parLicipaLing in a virLual
cvcnL and mccLing oLhcr avaLars or un. In World o WarcraL on Lhc oLhcr
hand, you ght with and against others and must be constantly on guard to
avoid bcing bchcadcd. c mcdium convcying a VirLual World can bc any-
thing: TV, computer, games console or mobile phone.
As well as Second Life and World of Warcraft, we will also discuss the Vir-
Lual Worlds o MTV's Iaguna Bcach, Habbo HoLcl, Lhc Chincsc HiPiHi and
Novo King, Halo 3 Fvc Onlinc, Cooglc Iivcly and Sporc. c supcr scrious
Virtual World approach of Dassault Systmes is discussed separately in Sec-
tion 10.8.

Virtual World Online game
Time spent/
of visits to
Virtual Worlds
Online game worlds Social network worlds
Traditional MMORPG worlds Free-form Virtual Worlds
Guild Wars
Habbo Hotel
City of
Star Wars
World of
Final Fantasy
Final Fantasy
The Sims
Second Life
In a report entitled The Real Business Of Virtual Worlds, Forrester Research
distinguishes between online games and Virtual Worlds. Further detail is
added by examining the amount of time that people spend in these worlds.
Second Life is a three-dimensional Virtual World that is, in a certain sense,
a copy of real life in which digital city districts, landscapes and buildings are
auLhcnLically rcproduccd. c world o Sccond Iic is hosLcd on ovcr Lhrcc
Lhousand scrvcrs LhaL, LogcLhcr, arc known as Lhc Sccond Iic Crid. Sccond
Iic is noL a gamc buL a virLual lic: a parallcl world in which gamc clcmcnLs
such as lcvcls, obsLaclcs and dcaLh arc abscnL. Individuals havc Lo hnd Lhcir
own way as wcll as Lhcir rolcs in Lhis univcrsc.
Sccond Iic was dcvclopcd in 2003 by San Francisco bascd Iindcn Iab.
Sccond Iic is a so-callcd Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc Rolc Playing Camc
(MMORPC), a gamc in which scvcral playcrs arc involvcd in ncLwork gamc
acLiviLics. Popular MMORPCs arc c Sims Onlinc (2002) and World o War-
craL (2004). OLhcr wcll-known VirLual Worlds arc AcLivc Worlds (l005),
Habbo HoLcl (2000), FnLropia Univcrsc (2003), Worlds (2003), crc (2003),
VirLual Iaguna Bcach (2006) and PlaySLaLion Homc (200S).
Sccond Iic has an cxLcnsivc Lool scL wiLh which Lo crcaLc avaLars as wcll as
all kinds o virLual objccLs. crc arc no limiLs Lo whaL can bc builL. Sccond
Iic avaLars havc also bccn ablc Lo spcak Lo cach oLhcr sincc AugusL 2007.
Prior to that, communication was only possible by means of text messages
and body language.
Participating in Second Life does not cost anything, but a Basic Member can-
not earn any money, whereas a Premium Member can. Earning money (Lin-
dcn dollars) can occur in scvcral ways: by lcasing propcrLy, sclling cloLhcs or
crcaLing virLual (animaLcd) objccLs or oLhcrs.
A numbcr o amous companics bccamc involvcd in Sccond Iic. c laLcsL
update at the Second Life Business Communicators Wiki dates back to De-
ccmbcr 3l, 2007 (scc`Rcv
isionsFor=Companics+in+Sccond+Iic). In AugusL 2006, Suzannc Vcga bc-
camc Lhc hrsL big-namc musical arLisL Lo givc a virLual conccrL.
Some business highlights from the top of the Second Life hype:
IBM invcsLcd $l0 million inLo Sccond Iic aL Lhc Lop o Lhc hypc in 2007. c
computing giant mainly uses the Virtual World to train and hold meetings.
In October 2007 IBM and Linden Lab announced that they would continue
Lo collaboraLc in, among oLhcr Lhings, making surc LhaL avaLars can movc
easily from one Virtual World to another. One digital identity should be suf-
hcicnL Lo movc Lhrough all Lhc rcalms o virLualiLy.
Wells Fargo launched its Second Life presence Stagecoach Island in Septem-
ber 2005. e goal was to help impart nancial wisdom to the young Second
Iic visiLors. Ncw visiLors Lo Lhc Island wcrc givcn 30 virLual dollars which
Lhcy could usc Lo cxpcrimcnL wiLh various hnancial scrviccs (likc dcposiL
Pontiac rclcascd MoLoraLi Island in Novcmbcr 2005 as a way o crcaLing a
vibranL car culLurc" in Sccond Iic. InsLcad o scrving as jusL anoLhcr rc-
Lailcror in Lhis casc dcalcrship whcrc uscrs could Lakc virLual car ridcs
Pontiac sought to harness customer content by awarding free plots of land to
vcLLcd individual uscrs who crcaLcd car-Lhcmcd conLcnL.
Semper International was the rst real-world stang company (a temp
agcncy or various dcsign and prinL companics) Lo crcaLc an occ in Sccond
Iic. c Lhcory is LhaL Sccond Iic providcs a rcscrvoir o crcaLivc and moLi-
vaLcd individuals LhaL may noL normally rcspond Lo convcnLional job airs.
Viewed graphically,
Second Life is not
terribly enticing. There
are Virtual Worlds that
are much more visibly
attractive. In addition,
many visitors drop out
because it takes so
long before they can
do anything with the
virtual environment.

Playboy joined Second Life in early 2007 to mixed results. By late 2008, how-
cvcr, Playboy's island o virLual Bunnics (complcLc wiLh a virLual Hc!) and
livc pcrormanccs cxcccdcd cxpccLaLions. WiLh conLcsLs such as CybcrCirl (a
Second Life analog to real-world Playmates), Playboys Second Life is creating
rcal-world Lrac and a sLcady sLrcam o incomc rom virLual mcrchandisc.
Anshe Chung Studios is a company that buys up property from Linden Lab.
is propcrLy is Lhcn dcvclopcd and hnally lcascd or sold Lo inLcrcsLcd par-
ties. is enterprise has resulted in so many transactions that
Anshe Chung became the rst Second Life millionaire, in real
dollars that is.
In cvcryday lic, Anshc Chung is known as Ailin Crac. TogcLhcr
with her husband Guntram she runs Anshe Chung Studios, a
company LhaL now providcs work or ovcr sixLy pcoplc in Ccr-
many and China. In 2007 Lhc company sLarLcd Lo cxpand acLiv-
ity to other Virtual Worlds as well. e fact that Anshe Chung
spread the news about becoming the rst millionaire by means
of a press release stirred up bad blood among many residents.
For insLancc, pcoplc havc dug inLo Ailin's pasL and iL sccms LhaL
shc was oncc a virLual call girl ocring scrviccs or moncy. An
inLcrvicw wiLh Chung was disrupLcd by gricvcrs" who causcd a
ock of penises to y across the screen.
In an inLcrvicw wiLh Lhc ncwspapcr e Guardian in May 2008 Linden Lab
founder Philip Rosedale expressed his thoughts about the future of the web
and whether Second Life would be part of that future:
Yes. Not only do I think that, I think that it ll become more pervasive, especially if
we open it up and standardize it. Im not necessarily saying that this one company
will control all those servers. No. Were working on systems where you can have the
servers outside of our company. But, yeah, it will become the Web. I believe that
what were working on right now will become a more common way of using the
Internet to retrieve information essentially.
In July 2008 Linden Lab launched the Open Grid Beta, which is the rst step
Lo dcvclop VirLual World inLcropcrabiliLy. In Lhc ncar uLurc iL musL bc possi-
blc or avaLars Lo Lravcl bcLwccn VirLual Worlds wiLh all Lhcir bclongings and
moncy. Also in 200S Philips Dcsign's IdcaLion QucsL in Sccond Iic cxplorcd
how Lo cccLivcly combinc Lhc cmcrging Lcchnology o VirLual Worlds wiLh
a cusLomcr-ccnLric pcrspccLivc o opcn innovaLion.
Anshe Chung in rst and
Second Life
In ScpLcmbcr 2006 MTV, onc o Lhc world's bcsL known Lclcvision sLaLions,
wanLcd Lo givc iLs brand a similarly high prohlc on Lhc InLcrncL. VirLual Ia-
guna Beach was launched, built on the ere platform to extend and per-
sonalize the experience of the TV hit series. Laguna Beach fans could now
parLicipaLc as avaLars in Lhc TV scrics world and do Lhc samc Lhings as Lhcir
avoriLc Lclcvision pcrsonaliLics. MTV launchcd iLs sccond VirLual World in
1anuary 2007: c VirLual Hills. is world is also bascd on an cxisLing sc-
ries, e Hills. FvcryLhing rcvolvcs around gliLLcr and glamour. RcsidcnLs o
Virtual Laguna Beach can be teleported to this new world. In Virtual Pimp
my Ridc, avaLars can ouLhL Lhcir cars in an cxLravaganL way. AL Lhc sLarL o
2009, Virtual MTV consisted of six major Virtual Worlds, which are acces-
siblc via
c avcragc agc o Lhc VirLual MTV World uscr is 20. A visiL Lo onc o Lhc
worlds lasLs, on avcragc, 37 minuLcs. AL Lhc bcginning o 200S, MTV hopcd
Lo havc morc Lhan 3 million rcgisLcrcd uscrs. O Lhis numbcr, ncarly Lwo
Lhirds makc rcgular rcLurn visiLs.
Besides the Virtual Worlds
or adulL MTV vicwcrs, Lhc
TV station is also trying
Lo acLivcly cngagc youngcr
users with the introduc-
tion of Nicktropolis and
the acquisition of Neopets.
According Lo SLcvc Young-
wood, FxccuLivc Vicc Prcs-
ident of Digital Medial
MTVN Kids and Family
Group Nickelodeon, Nick-
tropolis has been the fast-
est growing Virtual World
since its inception in Janu-
ary 2007.
As Habbo HoLcl combincs a chaL room and an onlinc gamc, iL qualihcs as a
MMOCC, which is shorL or Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc ChaL CommuniLy.
c Habbo conccpL was dcvclopcd by Lwo Finns: Sampo Karjalaincn and
Aapo Kyrola. IniLially, back in l000, iL was noL callcd Habbo HoLcl, buL Mo-
biles Disco. e website was then intended as an online game to promote
the rock band Mobiles. e game, which allowed you to create a coarse-pixel
avaLar and Lhcn chaL aL Lhc bar, quickly bccamc cxLrcmcly popular.
Hangout for Teens
Hanging out at Virtual Laguna Beach, a personal account:
Soon I was talking to an attractive avatar, who invited me to join
her on a bench. After the usual hey and ru, the conversation
shifted to age. 42 I said in all honesty and good conscience. This
was followed by: Seriously?, and as I persisted, even more in
disbelief. I asked her how old she was. 17 was the answer. I can
still see us sitting on that bench for a while without saying another word. Suddenly she walked away.
No hard feelings on my side, since a minute and a half later, I was kissing a Japanese avatar aged 30,
who already felt herself to be rather old. She did not want any children yet and had no problem with
someone who was 42 years old. Quickly we added each other to our buddy lists.
Karjalainen and Kyrla further elaborated their concept in their next proj-
ccL, callcd IumisoLa (Finnish or snowsLorm"). As wcll as chaLLing, avaLars
could also throw snowballs. Next, there was MC Chat. ese projects formed
Lhc basis or Habbo HoLcl. AL hrsL, Habbo was an onlinc gamc callcd HoLclli
KulLakala (HoLcl Coldhsh), which was sold Lo Finnish Lclccom providcr Flisa.
is company scL up a scparaLc wcbsiLc and bcgan opcraLing Habbo HoLcl
in its current form. At the present time, the Finnish company Sulake owns
Habbo HoLcl, and Sampo Karjalaincn has bccomc Lhc Chic CrcaLivc Occr,
whilc Aapo Kyrola rcmains acLivc in Lhc background aL Sulakc.
Habbo HoLcl rcccivcd iLs currcnL namc whcn Lhc conccpL was launchcd in
Fngland. c Habbo chain now has ovcr LhirLy hoLcls sprcad ovcr a largc
number of countries.
Habbo HoLcl primarily gcncraLcs rcvcnuc rom salcs o virLual urniLurc.
Players can create their own rooms within the hotel. e greatest challenge
or playcrs is Lo urnish a room in Lhc mosL aLLracLivc way possiblc. In 1unc
2007, morc Lhan llS million Habbo avaLars had bccn crcaLcd, and ovcr S mil-
lion individual visiLors cnLcr Lhc various hoLcls LhaL monLh. Habbo HoLcl has
also gained popularity among businesses.
c VirLual World HiPiHi (a sorL o Sccond Iic, buL dcvclopcd indcpcndcnL-
ly rom iL) was scL up in OcLobcr 2005 by Xu Hui and Rao Xucwci in Bcijing.
HiPiHi was Lhc hrsL VirLual World on Lhc Chincsc markcL. c iniLial bcLa
vcrsion was rclcascd in March 2007. AlLhough Lhc plaLorm could accom-
modate ten thousand residents at that time, thirty thousand people had
registered by October 2007. e big dierence from Second Life is that each
HiPiHi uscr is givcn a piccc o propcrLy comprising onc hundrcd squarc mc-
Lcrs. crc is also a largc varicLy o rcady-madc objccLs LhaL uscrs can cmploy
A Brave New World and
Lifestyle Is Unfolding

In 1uly 200S CN Rcvicws publishcd an inLcrvicw wiLh HiPiHi oundcr and
CFO Xu Hui, in which hc cmphasizcd HiPiHi's inLcrnaLional ambiLion:
HiPiHi from the beginning was meant to be a global platform. People from over-
seas, even though they dont speak Chinese, can still have fun and meet people
inside our virtual world. When they speak English, they are usually understood by
the non-English speakers as well.
c VirLual World o NovoKing was also rclcascd in OcLobcr 2005, in Lhis
casc by PaLrick Zha. In conLrasL Lo HiPiHi, Lhis world is complcLcly dirccLcd
at the Chinese world.
AlLhough NovoKing grcaLly rcscmblcs HiPiHi, Lhcrc arc Lwo big dicrcnccs.
FirsLly, Lhc world o NovoKing has alrcady bccn parLially consLrucLcd. Shop-
ping centers, restaurants, et cetera, already exist. Secondly, the graphics are
much sharpcr and Lhc avaLars morc closcly rcscmblc rcal pcoplc.
World o WarcraL was inLroduccd in Novcmbcr 2004, and Lhc gamc quickly
became an inextricable feature in the world of online gaming. At the start of
2000 ovcr ll million pcoplc wcrc playing World o WarcraL, including morc
than two million Europeans. In excess of a half million people play the game
onlinc cvcry day. Fach monLh, gamcrs pay Blizzard, Lhc gamc's dcvclopcr,
bcLwccn $ll and $l5.
World o WarcraL is a Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc Rolc Playing Camc
(MMORPG) and is staged in the fantasy world of Azeroth, where eight dier-
cnL spccics o bcings rcsidc. Fach spccics is subdividcd inLo, aL mosL, ninc di-
crcnL classcs. A racc bclongs Lo ciLhcr Lhc Alliancc or Lhc Hordc, who musL
destroy each other.
Your Dream! Your Kingdom!
In conLrasL Lo Sccond Iic, World o WarcraL has a clcar narraLivc linc and
avaLars musL undcrLakc qucsLs in ordcr Lo bccomc sLrongcr. AL Lhc bcginning
of the game, you must indicate the race to which you wish to belong. You also
havc Lo idcnLiy Lhc procssion LhaL you wish Lo pracLicc.
Halo 3 is a hrsL pcrson shooLcr gamc and is cxLrcmcly popular on Lhc Mi-
crosoft Xbox platform. Players can engage each other in battle across the
ncLwork. Halo 3 gamc momcnLs can bc rccordcd. c vidcos can bc uploadcd
and shared with other Xbox players, who then express their opinions on the
recorded action.
In Lhc LwcnLy-sixLh ccnLury, Lhc FarLh is bcing ravagcd by an all-cngulhng
war. HumaniLy is baLLling Lhc CovcnanL, a varicd collccLion o cxLra-Lcrrcs-
trial beings. One player takes the role of the Master Chief, a genetically ad-
vanccd supcr soldicr cngagcd in combaL wiLh Lhcsc bcings.
Halo 3 was launchcd in ScpLcmbcr 2007, and iLs salcs cxcccdcd all cxpcc-
LaLions. Surpassing cvcn salcs o Lhc lasL book in Lhc Harry PoLLcr scrics,
Halo 3 was Lhc bcsL sclling cnLcrLainmcnL producL.
Fvc Onlinc is an onlinc gamc simulLancously playcd by mulLiplc playcrs: a
Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc Rolc-Playing Camc (MMORPC). c Fvc gamc
is set in outer space. e players are the pilots of spaceships that can be cus-
Lomizcd Lo suiL Lhcir individual LasLcs. In LoLal, Fvc Onlinc compriscs hvc
thousand solar systems. Players can jump from solar system to solar system
Lhrough various sLargaLcs.
In contrast to World of Warcraft, players do not earn points in order to
achicvc a highcr rank. Ovcr Limc, Lhc playcr lcarns ncw skills, cvcn whcn noL
loggcd on. For insLancc, you can always cngagc in urLhcr gamc acLiviLics,
such as mining, manufacturing, trade and combat.
The Worlds Largest Game Universe
Fvc Onlinc is inLcrcsLing as iL involvcs an opcn cconomy. Ovcr 300,000 rcsi-
dcnLs Lakc carc o a living and cvolving sysLcm o carnings, accumulaLion
and Lradc. c company bchind Lhc gamc has cvcn hircd a rcal cconomisL,
Dr Eyjol Gudmondsson, to issue reports. According to Gudmondsson, the
games economy is a perfect simulation of reality.
In 1uly 200S, Cooglc inLroduccd iLs own VirLual World: Cooglc Iivcly. Sincc
Iivcly didn'L livc up Lo Cooglc's cxpccLaLions iL was shuL down in Dcccmbcr
200S. InLcndcd as an cnrichmcnL o cxisLing wcbsiLcs, iL involvcd adding a
plug-in to your browser, enabling the Virtual World to run on an existing
wcbpagc as a rcal-Limc communicaLion cnvironmcnL.
Cooglc Iivcly consisLcd o rooms. Fvcryonc was ablc Lo crcaLc Lhcir own room
and furnish it with ready-for-use designs. Unlike Second Life, users did not
havc Lhc opLion o crcaLing Lhcir own conLcnL buL could dccoraLc Lhcir room
with YouTube clips or Picasa photos, for example.
AlmosL dirccLly aLcr iLs inLroducLion Cooglc Iivcly bcgan Lo oundcr. Visi-
Lors crcaLcd a room, buL Lhcn ncvcr rcLurncd. FxpcrLs aLLribuLc Lhc disinLcr-
csL Lo Lhc lack o a virLual cconomy and Lhc acL LhaL uscrs could noL build
anyLhing or Lhcmsclvcs.
Spore is quite possibly the most remarkable game of the past decade. e
gamc was dcvclopcd by Will WrighL, invcnLor o such popular gamcs as Sim-
City and e Sims.
Sporc is an cvoluLion gamc: a so-callcd god gamc." In Sporc, you bcgin as a
singlc ccll organism LhaL musL ulLimaLcly dcvclop inLo a complcx, inLclligcnL
bcing. You cvcn havc Lhc opporLuniLy Lo build up Lhc appcarancc and charac-
Lcr o your organism LhroughouL Lhc gamc. c gamc involvcs hvc dicrcnL

sLagcs (ccll phasc, crcaLurc sLagc, Lribal sLagc, civilizaLion sLagc and spacc
phase) but you are not required to pass through all the stages in succession.
Users are able to send their creations to Sporepedia, the central database, so
LhaL oLhcr uscrs can also parLicipaLc in Lhcir cvoluLion. AlmosL cvcryLhing
in the game is kept up to date in this database. Users can also monitor and
ollow Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhcir crcaLions.
Sporc has rcccivcd a grcaL dcal o mcdia aLLcnLion, primarily as iL Look a long
time to come onto the market. Much has also been written and said about the
games complexity. For instance, the initial stage (cell phase) has elements of
Pacman, whilc Lhc civilisaLion sLagc conLains ingrcdicnLs rom Risk.
Despite this mixed publicity, or perhaps because of it, Spore became the most
downloaded game of all time on the BitTorrent network almost immediately
after its introduction.
The New Universe is Big Business
Sur Lo and you will immcdiaLcly gcL a bcLLcr idca abouL
Lhc commcrcial valuc o VirLual Worlds. c VirLual Fconomy Rcscarch NcL-
work publishcs ncws, rcscarch and discussion on rcal-moncy Lradc o vir-
tual property globally. e point here is quite simple:
Online resources, such as domain names, virtual items in community sites, and
powerful characters in online games, are similar to physical goods in that only one
person can control the resource at a time. Today, this virtual property is being
bought and sold for real money by millions of people in numerous market places
around the world.
It does not take a genius to understand why this may be the case. All four
o Lhc McLavcrsc giga-Lrcnds in Lhis chapLcr (IicsLrcams, Mirror Worlds,
AugmcnLcd RcaliLy and VirLual Worlds) havc unqucsLionablc rclaLionships
with the ways in which we interact with companies. Due to the correspond-
ing convcrgcncc bcLwccn physical and digiLal rcaliLy, Lhc movcmcnL Lowards
a singlc McLavcrsc conLinuum is, in acL, synonymous wiLh Lhc cvoluLion o
Lhc privaLc and commcrcial Hypcrcgo. is mcans LhaL Lhc c-mancipaLion o
hyperlinked identities, as we know them in the present, will propel human-
iLy inLo a highcr lcvcl o dcvclopmcnL, or aL lcasL acLiviLy.
In a maLurc McLavcrsc, wc will havc grown" cnormously on accounL o all
Lhc addiLional mulLimcdia inormaLion and bc cvcn morc sLrongly inLcr-
connected with the world around us. In a well-known pyramid from psy-
chologisL Abraham Maslow, Lhis is an cnormous sLcp up Lowards Lhc lcvcl
o scl-ulhllmcnL, whilc simulLancously providing bcLLcr complcLion o all
Lhc lowcr lcvcls. is digiLal advanccmcnL o our world and our livcs has, o
course, economic consequences.
c our rcgions o Lhc McLavcrsc arc, aL Lhis Limc, sLill largcly individual
domains in dcvclopmcnL. c coming dccadcs will incrcasingly cradicaLc Lhc
distinctions between them. In contrast to the static billboards of today, com-
panics will bc cccLivcly broughL Lo lic as a rcsulL o Lhc Wcb and AugmcnL-
cd RcaliLy, and wc will bc ablc Lo shop in various Mirror Worlds. AnyLhing
boughL will bc physically dclivcrcd Lhc ncxL days.
A complete implementation of
the Metaverse will ultimately
result in mature Hyperegos,
a development that we can
relate to the top level of the
Maslow pyramid. Mature
Hyperegos will ultimately be a
physically and virtually em-
bodied combination of hard-
ware, software and wetware
(connecting biotechnology,
neurotechnology and nano-
technology) and consist of a
number of subidentities.
Need for value/
Need for
social contact
Need for safety/
Primairy physical needs
Need for value/
Need for
social contact
Need for safety/
Primairy physical needs
In Snow Crash, the 1992 science ction bestseller by Neal Stephenson, the
McLavcrsc was l.6 Limcs as big as Lhc rcal world. BuL Lhc virLual cconomy
may soon bc ovcr onc and a hal Limcs as big as Lhc physical onc. I wc con-
sider the media segment, this may not be too far away. Digital has become
the standard and physical carriers are now shrinking spectacularly in impor-
Lancc, cxccpL or Lhc rcc ncwspapcrs, whosc aLLracLivc wcbsiLcs oLcn makc
Lhcm inLo Lruc mulLimcdia companics. Morcovcr, Wcb mcdia now makc iL
possiblc or cach Hypcrcgocach organizaLion, brand and individualLo
bc a procssional mcdia company. Ncw plaLorms arc bcing dcvclopcd or
this purpose.
e combination of Lifestreams,
Mirror Worlds, Augmented Reali-
Ly and VirLual Worlds is giving Lhc
ird Mcdia RcvoluLion iLs Lruc
shape. A lot of structural work is
bcing donc and all Lhc Hypcrcgos
arc, in Lhcir various rolcs, busily
engaged in experiments. Anyone
who is sLill noL ycL involvcd in Lhis
acLiviLy musL immcdiaLcly makc a
start on it.
Five Industry Disruptions
and a Cultural One
9.1 From Newspaper to Paperless News 204
9.2 e Attack on the TV Empire 208
9.3 e Attack on the Music Industry 223
9.4 e Attack on the Telecom Industry 231
9.5 e Attack on Banking Institutions 232
9.6 e Wiki Way to Enterprise 2.0 235
9.7 Further Disruptions 238
9.8 Tcn QucsLions You Nccd Lo Ask Yourscl 239
Unsurprisingly, the web multimedia of the Third Media Revolution are disruptive
of the traditional mass media. To begin with, this is particularly the case for news-
papers, with some pundits even predicting the imminent death of the printed
newspaper as a result of digitalization. Whether or not such demise may be
taking place, a discernible fusion of newspapers, television, websites and social
networks on the Internet is clearly happening. On the Web substantial amounts
of news are already freely available. Many free newspapers are managing to stay
aoat, but are no longer independent operations. They have become part of the
pluriform pallets run by multimedia companies, telecom organizations and pub-
lishing conglomerates.
In addition to the newspaper front, free web initiatives are threatening other me-
dia strongholds, including television. This trend seems unstoppable. A YouTube-
like approach is what consumers want and are getting. In the case of the music
industry, Napster and Kazaa initially did not seem much of a threat. However,
peer-to-peer networks are now perniciously popping up everywhere. It is not
just record companies who are seeking new ways of directly contacting their
fans and distributing their music over the Internet, but recording artists too. A
fourth wave of assault is disrupting the telecom industry: free Internet telephony,
or Voice over IP (VoIP), has dramatically changed the revenue model of telecom
incumbents. Also, on the user experience side devices like Apples iPhone and
T-Mobiles G1, the rst phone featuring Googles Android OS, have been successful

in redening the look-and-feel of the new portable media center, formerly known
as cell phone. The main trends in the development of the telephone device and
functionality were discussed in Section 2.7: The Telephone: From Intimate Dia-
logue to Media Center.
To conclude our survey of the disruptions in various economic sectors brought
about by Web media, we will examine the banking sector, in which peer-to-peer
lending via Internet brokers is an upcoming trend.
The nal disruption we will discuss here does not involve the upheaval of an
economic sector but the change in traditional business culture by new forms of
collaboration and knowledge sharing, made possible by such Web media as blogs
and wikis.
From Newspaper to Paperless News
In 2007, Vcronis Suhlcr SLcvcnson prcdicLcd LhaL prinL ncwspapcrs, which
havc bccn around or our hundrcd ycars, wcrc in Lhcir hnal days. In iLs
opinion, digiLal mulLimcdia will, or Lhc mosL parL, Lakc ovcr Lhc rolc o
newspapers by 2011. At the same time, exible electronic media will replace
LradiLional papcr. Vcronis Suhlcr SLcvcnson is a rcscarch and consulLancy
agency specializing in media, communication, information and education.
IL is a vigorous ITainmcnL company LhaL conducLs analyscs and hclps Lo
close deals within America and Europe.
ere will be no media consumption left in ten years that is not delivered over an
IP network. ere will be no newspapers, no magazines that are delivered in paper
form. Everything gets delivered in an electronic form.
MicrosoL CFO SLcvc Balmcr in e Washington Post in June 2008
Many LradiLional ncwspapcrs havc alrcady
givcn way undcr Lhc ncw digiLal mulLimc-
dia onslaught and this trend will undoubt-
cdly conLinuc. Howcvcr, iL docs noL sccm
that newspapers will completely disappear
vcry soon. WiLh all Lhc rcc cdiLions around,
newspapers appear to be more popular
Lhan cvcr. In a small counLry likc Lhc NcLh-
erlands there is enough room for three free
dailies. Although less common in America,
More than 300,000 RSS
newsfeeds are avail-
able free of charge
for the iLiad of iRex
Technologies. You can
read and write with
these feeds. They also
offer a large selection
of books, newspapers
and comic strips.
free dailies such as the San Francisco and Washington Examiners havc a com-
bincd circulaLion o ovcr 2S0,000 as o mid-200S. Howcvcr, Lhc inLcgraLion
with the Internet is readily discernible: Metro is of Swedish origin, but has
grown inLcrnaLionally inLo Lhc largcsL rcc ncwspapcr. In 2007, ovcr lS mil-
lion people each day around the world read the 69 Metro editions published
in 20 countries and 18 languages. In the U.S., Metro is availablc in Ncw York,
Philadelphia and Boston as well as online at
In bric, wc livc in a world o all aL oncc" in which Lhc aLLcnLion and moncy
which traditional mass media such as the subscription newspaper, radio and
TV used to get now increasingly ows to free content, on paper and on the
Wcb. Wclcomc Lo Lhc cra o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion, Lhc cra o wcb mul-
Limcdia, and Lhc dcvclopmcnL o ITainmcnL ouL o Lhc ITcch, Lhc crcaLion o
infotainment, edutainment, entertainment, erotainment, consutainment,
LravclLainmcnL and you-namc-iL-LainmcnL. As Vcronis Suhlcr SLcvcnson
predicted in 2008, the sum spent on the communication mix, which is pre-
dominantly digital, for the rst time exceeded the astro-
nomical amount of one trillion dollars.
In his book Future Files: A History of the
Next 50 Years, Richard Watson has
indicated an extinction timeline
for familiar items that we will
see disappear within our life-
Limc. WaLson bclicvcs LhaL Lhc
printed newspaper may contin-
uc unLil almosL 2050. BuL Davc
Morgan, founder of the New
York-based Tacoda communica-
tion and media agency, thinks
LhaL cvcryLhing will bc com-
pletely digital by 2020 (see www.
c uLurc will rcvcal who is righL: Vcronis Suhlcr SLcvcnson (20ll), WaLson
(2050) or Morgan (2020). It is, in any case, clear that web multimedia will soon
bccomc cvcn morc dominanL Lhan Lhcy currcnLly arc.
Don Campbcll, Procssor o 1ournalism aL Fmory UnivcrsiLy in ALlanLa, and
aliated to the popular American newspaper USA Today, cannot say precise-
ly when the last print edition will appear, but thinks that newspapers will
rapidly become niche products for the elderly:
Andreas Pfeiffer, known
for The Pfeiffer Report:
Emerging Trends and Technologies, says the
following about the both/and continuum
characterizing the current web multimedia era:
Once we start thinking of media as a continuum or a cloud,
rather than focusing on individual instances, it all begins to
make sense. Forget about digital vs. analog, New Media
vs. old. All that matters is delivering perceived value to the
audience. And that value can come in many shapes and size.
Source: ACM Ubiquity, March 2007,
v8i09_pfeiffer.html, and take a look at

Newspapers [wont] disappear overnight. at might take 10 years; it might take
25. But traditional newspapers increasingly will become niche products for the
shrinking number of older readers who cling to the pleasure of sitting with a cup
of coee on the back deck on Sunday morning and perusing 5 to 10 sections of a
See Can Newspapers Weather the Techno-Storm? Source:
news/ opinion/editorials/2005-12-12-campbell-edit_x.htm.
Changes will occur extremely rapidly in the web multimedia era. At the Web
2.0 summit at the beginning of October 2007 in San Francisco, News Cor-
poration media tycoon Rupert Murdoch admitted that, two years before he
purchased MySpace, he had not anticipated that Social Web networks for in-
formation, communication and entertainment would reach such a peak in so
bric a Limc. Howcvcr, by mid 2006, hc was wcll awarc o whcrc Lhings wcrc
hcading. In an inLcrvicw wiLh Wired magazine, Murdoch said:
To nd something comparable, you have to go back 500 years to the printing
press, the birth of mass mediawhich, incidentally, is what really destroyed the
old world of kings and aristocracies. Technology is shifting power away from the
editors, the publishers, the establishment, the media elite. Now its the people who
are taking control.
In 200S, RupcrL Murdoch Look ovcr Dow 1oncs 8 Company, including e
Wall Street Journal, or $5 billion. is acquisiLion prompLcd Mark Bowdcn Lo
air his vicws abouL Lhc dcplorablc sLaLc o Lhc Amcrican prcss in e Atlantic
Newspapers are in a sad way in America. Readership continues to fall. Advertis-
ers are deserting them for newer forms of media. Revenues are plummeting, as the
costs of printing and distribution mount catastrophically. Faced with declining
prot margins, investors are eeing. Knight Ridder, once the largest newspaper
chain in America, has gone out of business. Stalwart family owners such as Dow
Jones Bancrofts are selling out. Reporters and editors are being bought out or
laid o in droves, and not just at small regional papers. e once-fat Los Angeles
Times has been dismantling itself. e New York Times and e Washington
Post are trimming their stas. In the eyes of many media experts, print journal-
ism, that stubborn fteenth-century technology, appears at long last to be on its
c ncwspapcr has bccomc progrcssivcly morc social." AL hrsL, Lhcrc wcrc
only lcLLcrs Lo Lhc cdiLor. Now, cvcryonc is involvcd cvcrywhcrc on orums,
blogs, microblogs, wiLh vidco clips, and so on. c modcrn ncwspapcr is a
conLinuum o papcr and inLcracLivc wcbsiLc. Insidc Lhc ood o rcc wcb
multimedia, the subscription-based approach is becoming increasingly more
diculL Lo mainLain. Many ncwspapcrs havc Lhcrcorc cmbraccd social ncL-
works, 95 of the top 100 newspapers making use of weblogs.
anks to Web media, continuum or cloud has become the new paradigm.
Now, wc no longcr havc Lo choosc rom Lhc ncwspapcr, TV or radio, wcbsiLc
or social ncLworks, rcc or paid, rcal or virLual, or cvcn scndcr or rcccivcr.
From individual mass mcdia, wc havc convcrLcd Lo onc largc mcdia mass and
Lhcrcorc a conLinuum consLrucLcd by Lhc convcrgcncc o LcxL, sound, imagc,
software and Internet. is is the contemporary media continuum: no longer
ciLhcr...or" buL morc Lhan cvcr boLh...and."
As a rcsulL, wc havc now a rchncd inLcrplay o supply and dcmand. A gamc
LhaL is hypcrindividual. In acL, hypcrlinks providc Lhc link o prccrcnccs,
proles and multimedia. e network media mass that is consequently cre-
Via the Internet people and companies are inundated with true information
but also with lots of half truths and false reports. In September 2008, Google
News automatically ran an old article (from 2002) about United Airlines that
speculated on the airlines bankruptcy. The news report was indiscriminately
picked up by large press agencies and led to a massive sell-off of United Air-
line shares, resulting in a $1 billion loss. Once it was revealed that this report
had an incorrect headline and should not have been run, the share price was
restored. Shortly after this event, CNNs iReport spread the rumor that Steve
Jobs, the CEO of Apple, had suffered a heart attack and was rushed to hospi-
tal. This also led to an abrupt drop in Apple share prices.
In October 2005 the American television comedian
Stephen Colbert used the word truthiness to describe
the dire quality of things we claim to know without
regard to evidence, logic, intellectual examination, or
facts. Besides for instance the decision to invade Iraq
in 2003 Colbert attacked the user-generated Wikipedia
with his denition of truthiness. Truthiness was named
Word of the Year for 2005 by the American Dialect Soci-
ety and for 2006 by Merriam-Webster.

aLcd ovcrows inLo Lclcvision, radio and Lhc ncwspapcr and is incrcasingly
supplanting them. e media mass is displacing the mass media and its spe-
In the past, all media were neatly arranged into broadcasting and publish-
ing companies. Software makers and web platforms were then added, but
all Lhis was iniLially noL Lcrribly compaLiblc. Wcb mcdia havc now rcvcrscd
the roles: software makers and web platforms are calling the shots, along
wiLh Lhc individuals LhaL ormcrly madc up Lhc audicncc. Indccd, scndcrs
sLill nccd rcccivcrs, buL Lhc laLLcr can now also Lurn Lhcir hand Lo anyLhing
using soLwarc, Lhc Wcb and, abovc all, mulLimcdia.
On Lhc Social Wcb, cvcryonc has Lhc opporLuniLy Lo makc Lhcmsclvcs Lruly
heard for the rst time and to form groups known as online communities.
is social mcdia movcmcnL is bringing abouL cnormous cconomic and so-
cicLal changc, as Lhc individual is now morc rcadily rccognizablc and ap-
proachablc Lhan cvcr bcorc.
The Attack on the TV Empire
Back in Lhc l030s pcoplc had no idca o Lhc rolc LhaL Lclcvision only a cw
dccadcs laLcr would play in modcrn lic. Tclling is Lhc vision LhaL DuLch TV
cvangclisL Frcck Kcrho had aL LhaL Limc:
Television has a future, likely a limited future. It may not grow to be as popular as
the radio has become; the range of possibilities is simply subject to certain limita-
tions. To take advantage of television requires real interest, be it in the technology
or the broadcasts. What often occurs in the case of radio, the set being left on all
day without devoting too much attention to it, would be absurd in the case of tele-
VisiL www.LvhisLory.Lv or morc on whaL Lclcvision was in Lhc pasL and how iL was
is vicw has bccn cnLircly ouLmodcd or somc Limc now. Fach houschold aL
lcasL has onc TV. OLcn, Lhc Lclcvision scL is on or Lhc cnLirc day, as is ccr-
tainly the case in bars, hotels and restaurants. TVs are equipped with timers
and with automatic recording equipment for the channels that we do not
watch for the express purpose of not missing any of the delights that the
screen has to oer. TV simultaneously became a mass-medium and the rst
multimedia, broadcasting picture, sound and text (subtitling and teletext).
AL prcscnL, Lhc uncLion o Lhc Lclcvision is incrcasingly bcing rcplaccd by
the possibilities that the Web oers, and TV and the Web are also becom-
ing common caLurcs on slick mobilc mcdia dcviccs, ormcrly known as ccll
phones. On the Internet we wholly determine the information, communica-
Lion or cnLcrLainmcnL LhaL wc rcccivc.
Tclcvision and Lhc InLcrncL havc bccn mcrging or somc Limc. To asccrLain
whaL Lhc conscqucnccs o Lhis usion will bc and whaL cccLs iL will havc on
existing media industries, we will rst examine what the Internet currently
has to oer. Analyzing this allows us to draw some conclusions about the
uLurc o whaL was ormcrly known as Lclcvision.
Our glimpse at the future will be based on the following (early) examples of
vidcos and Wcb plaLorm dcvclopmcnLs: Dancing Baby, SLar Wars Kid, Numa
Numa Cuy, FvoluLion o Dancc, Ionclygirll5, Fsmcc DcnLcrs, Obama Cirl,
Rickroll, YouTubc, Tudou, Ogrish, IivcIcak, 1usLin.Lv, MyIicBiLs, Hulu,
Joost, Seesmic, MeOnTV, and BitTorrent.
Dancing Baby
In 1996-97, a short clip of a dancing baby enjoyed immense pop-
ulariLy. c vidco showcd a baby animaLion hgurc pcrorming
dancc movcs Lo cha-cha music. c inanL bccamc popular whcn
iL was a rcpcLiLivc iLcm on Lhc Ally McBeal series. is clip was
also onc o Lhc hrsL viral succcsscs on Lhc Wcb.
Star Wars Kid
In Novcmbcr 2002, corpulcnL Canadian rcsidcnL Chyslain Raza madc a vidco
showing himscl sLriking imaginary cncmics wiLh a gol ball rcLricvcr. Hc
was pretending to be Darth Maul in the lm e Phantom Menace, the rst
part of the Star Wars trilogy.
Chyslain rccordcd Lhc vidco Lo scc how wcll hc could imiLaLc DarLh Maul and
then forgot about it. But his classmates found the clip and placed it on the
Kazaa network. Many people took the fragment as the raw material for their
own vcrsions, and Chyslain bccamc unwiLLingly amous, morc Lhan 000 mil-
lion pcoplc havc sccn him in acLion. IaLcr, Chyslain Look rcvcngc in a law-
suit. ree classmates had to pay him a sum of 350,000 Canadian dollars in
ordcr Lo compcnsaLc him or Lhc brcach o privacy.
Numa Numa Guy
In December 2004, an American, Gary Brolsma, posted a
parody o Lhc Moldavian smash hiL DragosLca din Lci" on
the Newsground website; again a clip of a fat teenager, but
this time mouthing the words to the song. e clip was imme-
diately picked up by hundreds of other websites and spread
like wild re. According to the BBC, more than 700 million
pcoplc havc vicwcd Lhc clip. IaLcr, Cary aLLcmpLcd Lo du-
plicate his success by launching the New Numa website on
which he organized a competition to nd a worthy successor
to his classic.
Evolution of Dance
is all-Limc mosL waLchcd vidco on YouTubc was
madc by 1udson Iaipply. In his cvcryday lic, hc
is a pcp-Lalk guru and comcdian. Hc shows how
dancc movcs havc changcd ovcr Lhc ycars. To dcm-
onsLraLc Lhc various orms o dancing, hc plays cx-
ccrpLs rom wcll-known hiLs such as Flvis Prcslcy's
Hound Dog", Chubby Chcckcr's c TwisL", Mi-
chacl 1ackson's Billy 1can" and MC Hammcr's U
Can'L Touch is." To daLc, ovcr 60 million pcoplc
havc vicwcd Lhc vidco.
In June 2006, a sixteen-year-old named Bree began her rise to YouTube star-
dom. Within the briefest period of time, she became enormously popular as
Ionclygirll5. Millions o pcoplc wcrc glucd Lo Lhcir moniLor cvcry wcck Lo cx-
perience the ups and downs of Bree. She came from a strongly religious family
and, whcncvcr shc had a liLLlc biL o sparc Limc, shc Lransormcd
hcr dccpcsL LhoughLs inLo audiovisual maLcrial or Lhc InLcrncL.
On September 12, Bree was unmasked by e New York Times in
Lhc arLiclc Ioncly Cirl (and Fricnds) 1usL WanLcd Movic Dcal."
Behind the gure of Bree was the young New Zealand actress
Jessica Rose. e whole project had consequently been faked.
Howcvcr, Brcc was vicwcd cvcn morc rcqucnLly ollowing Lhc
rcvclaLion. Ncw cpisodcs conLinucd Lo bc madc and broadcasL on
MySpaceTV and YouTube.
In LoLal, ovcr hvc hundrcd cpisodcs o Ionclygirll5 wcrc produccd. In Scp-
tember 2008, the makers began LG15: e Resistance, a new weekly series in
which a number of characters from Lonelygirl15 resurfaced.
Esme Denters
Esme Denters is a girl from the Netherlands who has become well known
on YouTubc. Shc had prcviously parLicipaLcd in a local LalcnL show, buL was
eliminated in the preliminary rounds. Esme did not throw in the towel and
bcgan Lo posL vidcos madc in hcr bcdroom on Lhc Wcb. Shc covcrcd songs by
wcll-known arLisLs such as Bcyoncc and Shakira. Hcr vidcos havc cnLhrallcd
millions o pcoplc and wcrc noLiccd by various largc rccord companics in
ALcr hvc monLhs, Fsmcc movcd Lo
America where she was welcomed by
Kelly Rowland from Destinys Child,
who guided her through music won-
derland. Videos of her still regularly
appear on the Internet, in a num-
ber of which she is accompanied by
famous artists, such as Justin Tim-
berlake and Natasha Bedingfeld. She
was also one of the supporting acts
for Justin Timberlake on his 2007
Furopcan Lour. In Novcmbcr 2007,
Esme appeared as a guest on the
Oprah Winfrey show. Esme Denters on Oprah Cam after the show.
Obama Girl
c vidco I CoL a Crush... on Obama" was launchcd
on YouTubc in 1unc 2007. c main rolc in Lhc vidco
was played by actress and model Amber Lee Etting-
er, who quickly became known as the Obama Girl.
c populariLy o Lhc vidco soon sprcad, and a num-
bcr o scqucls and rcsponscs havc also appcarcd. IL
cvcn cnLiccd Barack Obama Lo makc Lhc ollowing
remark: Its just one more example of the fertile
imagination of the Internet. More stu like this will
be popping up all the time.
In 2007, Web surfers were sur-
prised by a new type of joke.
Members of the 4chan forum
conducting a search for cars
wcrc linkcd Lo Lhc clip Ncvcr
Conna Civc You Up" by singcr
Rick Astley instead of the rele-
vanL inormaLion suggcsLcd by
Lhc link. A sLudy by SurvcyUSA
has rcvcalcd LhaL ovcr lS mil-
lion Amcricans havc now bccn
exposed to this joke of being
Rickrolled. For his part, Rick
AsLlcy o coursc vicwcd all Lhc
commotion around his old clip
with a great deal of amuse-
AL Lhc sLarL o 2005, Lhc onlinc vidco jukcbox YouTubc
initiated its triumphant emergence as a media force with
the slogan Broadcast Yourself. YouTube was founded in
Fcbruary o LhaL ycar by Chad Hurlcy, SLcvc Chcn and
Jawed Karim. e three had got to know each other on
Lhc work oor o PayPal, Lhc onlinc pay scrvicc LhaL was sold Lo cBay in 2002.
After dinner with friends in January 2005, they wanted to exchange each
oLhcr's vidcos o Lhc dinncr. BuL Lhc hlcs wcrc Loo largc Lo scnd by c-mail
and, at the time, publishing on the Internet was not easy to accomplish. ey
dccidcd Lo rcsolvc Lhc problcm Lhcmsclvcs in somc pracLical manncr.
1awcd Karim had alrcady LhoughL abouL how vidcos could bcsL bc uploadcd
and exchanged as a result of the commotion created when Justin Timberlake
rcvcalcd Lhc sLar-dcckcd brcasL o 1ancL 1ackson during Lhc hal-Limc show
at the 38
Supcr Bowl. Karim had noL vicwcd Lhis cvcnL livc and had ruiL-
lessly searched the Web for the famous scene. A second reason for Karim to
sLarL a siLc or vidco posLing was Lhc Lsunami in Asia on Boxing Day 2004,
which cosL Lhc livcs o around 225,000 pcoplc. Imagcs o Lhc dcsLrucLivc
wavc sprung up cvcrywhcrc on Lhc InLcrncL, buL aL LhaL Limc Lhc Wcb did
noL havc a ccnLral vidco siLc.
c namc was rcgisLcrcd on l5 Fcbruary 2005. Chad Hurlcy
was rcsponsiblc or Lhc dcsign o Lhc siLc. SLcvc Chcn and 1awcd Karim wcrc
joinLly conccrncd wiLh Lhc Lcchnology. IaLcr, Hurlcy bccamc Lhc CFO and
Chen the CTO. After coming up with the concept, helping to establish You-
Tubc and having parLly consLrucLcd Lhc wcbsiLc, Karim rcLurncd as planncd
to his computer studies at Stanford, but remained associated with the
company as an advisor. Whcn YouTubc was sold Lo
Google in mid October 2006, Karims shares were
worLh around $65 million. ALcr complcLing his dc-
grcc, Karim scL up YounivcrsiLy VcnLurcs, Lhrough
which hc is hclping sLudcnLs who havc good idcas Lo
start up companies.
1awcd Karim posLcd Lhc hrsL vidco on YouTubc in
April 2005. In Me at the Zoo, Karim tells how long
the trunks are of the elephants he sees. e rst
bcLa vcrsion o Lhc siLc was launchcd in May 2005.
AlmosL insLanLly, Lhc siLc aLLracLcd 30,000 visiLors a day. crc was a run on
YouTube because each day an iPod Nano could be won through points that
wcrc awardcd or rcgisLcring, uploading a vidco and so on. c iPod Nano
campaign lasLcd a LoLal o Lwo monLhs. In Novcmbcr, Lhc wcbsiLc rcccivcd
$3 million rom Scquoia CapiLal. AL LhaL Limc, Lhcrc wcrc morc Lhan 200,000
rcgisLcrcd uscrs and ovcr 2 million vidcos LhaL wcrc vicwcd daily. YouTubc
ocially wcnL livc in Dcccmbcr 2005.
By Lhc ncxL monLh, Lhc numbcr o vidcos vicwcd daily passcd Lhc 25 million
mark. In March 2006, it was announced that users were uploading 20,000
ncw vidcos cvcry day. In April, Lhc cosL or bandwidLh amounLcd Lo $l mil-

lion a monLh and YouTubc rcccivcd anoLhcr million rom Scquoia CapiLal. In
May, it became apparent that YouTube was responsible for 43 percent of all
wcb-vidco Lrac. In 1uly, morc Lhan l00 million vidcos wcrc vicwcd cvcry
day. In AugusL 2006, SLcvc Chcn announccd LhaL YouTubc had Lhc ambiLion
o hosLing all Lhc music vidcos in Lhc world wiLhin Lhc spacc o onc and a
half years.
YouTubc was sold Lo Cooglc on OcLobcr l6, 2006 or $l.65 billion. e Wall
Street Journal rcporLcd LhaL Chad Hurlcy had rcccivcd $345.6 million. SLcvc
Chcn and 1awcd Karim obLaincd rcspccLivcly $326.2 and $64.6 million rom
Lhcir advcnLurc. c rcsL wcnL Lo invcsLors.
e most striking point was that YouTube had still not earned a cent at the
time. e company had gigantically high costs due to the enormous band-
width required. Why then did Google pay such a large sum? Reach is the
answcr. Millions o pcoplc vicw YouTubc clips cvcry day. is cxposurc is
worLh moncy, and Cooglc only nccdcd Lo cxploiL Lhc valuc o bcing in Louch
wiLh all Lhcsc pcoplc. Halway Lhrough 2007, a sLarL was madc on placing
advcrLiscmcnLs in somc clips. is pracLicc has now bccn cxpandcd and You-
Tubc vidcos arc also includcd in Lhc Cooglc AdScnsc program. Pcoplc can usc
a simplc codc scripL Lo rclaLc rclcvanL vidcos Lo conLcnL on Lhcir siLc.
c populariLy o YouTubc conLinucd Lo incrcasc in 2007. Howcvcr, various
Lclcvision companics lodgcd complainLs againsL Lhc company or mulLiplc
transgressions of the copyrights for their programming. Viacom claimed the
biggcsL loss and dcmandcd $l billion rom parcnL company Cooglc. As a rc-
sulL, a largc numbcr o vidcos wcrc rcmovcd. In 1uly 200S, a disLricL courL
judgc rulcd LhaL YouTubc musL disclosc all daLa conccrning iLs vidco Lrac Lo
Viacom, including daLa involving Lhc namcs and IP numbcrs o iLs uscrs.
In ScpLcmbcr 200S, YouTubc CFO and joinL oundcr Chad Hurlcy issucd Lhc
following statement:
Today, 13 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute, and we believe the
volume will continue to grow exponentially. In ten years, we believe that online vid-
eo broadcasting will be the most ubiquitous and accessible form of communication.
e tools for video recording will continue to become smaller and more aordable.
Personal media devices will be universal and interconnected. Even more people will
have the opportunity to record and share even more video with a small group of
friends or everyone around the world.

Over the next decade, people will be at the center of their video and media experi-
ence. More and more consumers will become creators. We will continue to help give
people unlimited options and access to information, and the world will be a smaller
At the end of 2008 YouTube struck a deal with MGM, Lions Gate Entertain-
mcnL and CBS, Lo hosL complcLc movics and TV shows, and also Lo changc Lo
l6:0 widcscrccn. csc movcs wcrc madc as a rcsulL o compcLiLion wiLh Lhc
Hulu plaLorm, which will bc discusscd urLhcr on.
In China, which currcnLly counLs (only) slighLly ovcr 250,000 InLcrncL uscrs,
Tudou (mcaning poLaLo" as in couch poLaLo") is Lhc Lhird vidco siLc aLcr
MySpace China partner Youku (excellent & cool) and Ku6 (ku le, cool
8 happy"). c siLc was launchcd aL Lhc cnd o 2004 by Marc van dcr Chijs
together with Gary Wang. According to a report by Nielsen/Netratings pub-
lishcd aL Lhc cnd o AugusL 2007, morc Lhan 360 million vidcos arc vicwcd
wcckly on Lhc wcbsiLc by a LoLal o ovcr 20.0 million uniquc visiLors.
Tudou owncr Marc van dcr Chijs cxplains:
Since increasingly more Chinese have broadband access, online video is becoming
ever more popular in China. Undeniably, entertainment is the most important item
that people in China look for on the Internet. At present, we reach about 40 percent
of all Internet users in China every month. And because only 12 percent of the peo-
ple are online there, we expect to be able to grow still a great deal more. About 700
thousand new clips are added each month, which are viewed about 1.5 billion times
Unique hits (avg./day)
Web pages viewed (#/week)
Clips viewed (#/week)
Unique hits (#/week)
21-27 May (7 days)

17-23 August (7 days)
Difference (%)
Site visits to in May and August 2007
Bron: Nielsen Online
Everyone is the Director of Life

a month in total. Since YouTube is currently not growing any longer and, according
to insiders, the number of videos viewed per day there has in fact fallen sharply, it
is not inconceivable that we will eventually become bigger than YouTube. Tudou is
currently larger than YouTube was a year ago when it was taken over by Google.
c namc was rcgisLcrcd in 1unc 2000. Ogrish is dcrivcd rom
Lhc world ogrc," Lhc cpiLomc o a humanoid monsLcr LhaL kills iLs vicLims
in Lhc mosL grucsomc manncr. c conLcnL o Lhis shock siLc livcd up Lo iLs
namc, sincc iL conLaincd only horriying imagcs, phoLos or vidcos. IniLially
Ogrishs slogan was Can you handle life?, which later was changed to Un-
covcr RcaliLy."
IniLially, Lhc siLc was adminisLcrcd by somconc nicknamcd Fvil Kncvil."
Later, the site came into the hands of Dan Klinker. At its peak, Ogrish at-
LracLcd an avcragc o l75,000 visiLors a day. Whcncvcr a disasLcr occurrcd,
such as Lhc al-Qacda aLLack in Madrid or cxamplc, around 750,000 visiLors
vicwcd Lhc wcbsiLc. Whcn, in an inLcrvicw, Dan Klinkcr was askcd why hc
was publishing all this torment, he replied:
We do think that we are oering a service to the world by showing something the
regular news will not show. Ogrish does not provide a sugar-coated version of the
world. We feel that people are often unaware of what really goes on around us.
Everything you see on is reality, its part of our life, whether we like it
or not. e main reason for publishing this material is to give everyone the oppor-
tunity to see things as they are, so they can come to their own conclusions rather
than settling for biased versions of world events as handed out by the mainstream
Ogrish was cxLrcmcly conLrovcrsial. IL displaycd imagcs LhaL Lhc rcgular
ncws did noL obLain duc Lo iLs cxccssivcly shocking conLcnL. c siLc was criL-
icizcd in Lhc ncws on scvcral occasions. No considcraLion was givcn Lo ncxL
of kin, and this alleged disrespect resulted in legal action. On October 31,
2006, Lhc wcbsiLc ulLimaLcly ccascd iLs acLiviLy and was Lranscrrcd Lo Iivc-
Leak. e Ogrish forum is still accessible at
c cxccuLion o dicLaLor Saddam Husscin was rccordcd on a mobilc phonc
camera by a few of those in attendance. Within a couple of hours, the clips
wcrc availablc on Lhc InLcrncL, whcrc a public o millions wcrc horrihcd by
the last moments of the tyrant. Just a day later, traditional TV news pro-
grams showcd a ccnsurcd vcrsion o Lhc hanging.
Onc o Lhc hrsL siLcs on which Lhc Husscin clips wcrc displaycd was Iivc-
Icak, which carrics Lhc slogan Rcdchning Lhc mcdia." IivcIcak oLcn o-
crs shocking imagcs, buL iL is only onc o Lhc many shock siLcs visiLcd cvcry
day by hundreds of thousands of people. A prohibition or blockade of these
types of websites has, to date, not been of any use. It has only led to other
similar sites springing up like weeds.
In March 200S IivcIcak bccamc big ncws again whcn iL hosLcd Lhc anLi-
Qur'an hlm Fitna made by Dutch politician Geert Wilders.
1usLin.Lv wcnL onlinc in March 2007. On iL, you can conLinuously ollow Lhc
life of Justin Kan. Justin wears a cap on which a mounted camera constantly
transmits the images that he himself sees to his website. e only moments
when the camera is switched o is when he goes to the toilet, goes to sleep
or has intimate contacts. e concept therefore strongly resembles the lms
EDtv and e Truman Show. Justin himself calls it lifecasting.
One of the biggest start-up problems was the high cost of sucient band-
widLh. UlLimaLcly, Lhc Lcam bchind 1usLin.Lv ound an incxpcnsivc soluLion
in Amazon's Simplc SLoragc Scrvicc. 1usLin.Lv opcncd iLs plaLorm Lo Lhc
cxLcrnal world in OcLobcr 2007. Fvcryonc was givcn Lhc opporLuniLy Lo con-
Linuously broadcasL Lhcir livcs. c rcsulL was morc Lhan a hal million in-
dividual visiLors in Lhc hrsL hvc days ollowing Lhc opcning o Lhc plaLorm,
all o whom wanLcd Lo givc iL a Lry. Only a cw wcnL ahcad wiLh iL. Similar Lo
1usLin.Lv arc UsLrcam.Lv and KyLc.Lv.
Live Video
In Novcmbcr 200S 1usLin.Lv bccamc world ncws again whcn onc o iLs broad-
casters committed suicide in front of his webcam by taking pills. Many peo-
ple watched this happening and thought it was a joke, until someone called
Lhc policc. UnorLunaLcly iL was Loo laLc Lo savc Lhc kid.
MyLifeBits: The Life of Gordon Bell
It is likely that Gordon Bell, the famous Microsoft researcher, is still the only
pcrson who Lruly liclogs." Hc has digiLalizcd all his papcrwork and a cam-
cra around his ncck rccords any changc in his immcdiaLc viciniLy. IL is doubL-
ful that Bell will be the only one doing this for much longer. e number
o pcrsonal and commcrcial wcblogs, vidcoblogs, wiki cnvironmcnLs, You-
Tubc clips and MySpacc pagcs arc mulLiplying likc rabbiLs, and govcrnmcnLs
will soon wanL Lo givc us all our own wcbsiLcs aL birLh. So, whaL was alrcady
roughly demonstrated in the Lifestreams application of Da-
vid CclcrnLcr's MirrorWorlds company, is slowly bccoming
a rcaliLy: cvcryonc will placc a rccord o Lhcir lic, complcLc
with multimedia content, in a digital Mirror World.
Let us zoom in on the future, while remaining close to re-
ality by examining the groundbreaking MyLifeBits project
of Microsoft hotshot Gordon Bell. It is a pilot of what soon
might become completely normal.
MyLifeBits started in 1998, when Gordon Bell decided to
free himself from immense piles of paperwork: articles,
books, cards, letters, memos, posters, photos and more. Af-
Lcr LhaL, Bcll wcnL on Lo digiLalizc his hlms, vidcos o his
lectures and all his taped recordings as well. Bells assistant
had Lo slavc away or ycars in ordcr Lo hnish Lhc job. His
clccLronic archivc is now much casicr Lo mainLain, as mosL documcnLs, hlms,
photos and spoken texts are already digital.
Oncc cvcryLhing was scanncd in, Cordon Bcll noLcd LhaL his Lrcasurc chcsL
o inormaLion could noL bc casily acccsscd wiLh Lhc soLwarc availablc aL
the time. It was 2001 and this constraint resulted in MyLifeBits building
up steam. Full-text searches were implemented and metadata added to each
biL o inormaLion. AL prcscnL, Lhc sysLcm rccords Lclcphonc convcrsaLions
and insLanL mcssagcs, as wcll as radio and TV programs, along wiLh cvcry
wcbpagc LhaL Bcll visiLs, and o coursc, Lhc hlcs LhaL hc opcns, Lhc music LhaL
Gordon Bell with MyLifeBits camera. Source:
he clicks on and the searches that he conducts. GPS is used to update Bells
location, which is linked to the photos his SenseCam automatically takes.
is somcwhaL ovcr-Lhc-Lop implcmcnLaLion scicnLihcally dcmonsLraLcs
that technology is a far better memory aid than maintaining a diary each
cvcning, or cxamplc. ALcr six ycars o rcscarch, Cordon Bcll's pcrsonal
digiLal archivc has now grown Lo 300,000 daLabasc rccords wiLh a LoLal sizc
of 150 gigabytes. Of this amount, there are 60 Gb of lm, 25 Gb of photo
material and 25 Gb of audio, including 18 Gb of music. e remaining 40 Gb
consist of 100,000 webpages, along with 100,000 e-mails, 15,000 texts and
2000 slide presentations.
In the future, such systems will be indispensable. Not only on account of
Lhc pracLical advanLagcs wiLh rcgard Lo conLacLs in Lhc work domain, buL
specically because MyLifeBits can, for example, easily record the 3 billion
hcarL bcaLs LhaL occur in a human lic, as wcll as oLhcr viLal daLa abouL an
individual's hcalLh, and can prompLly dcLccL any possiblc changcs. In LwcnLy
years, we will be able to acquire 250 terabytes of memory for just a few hun-
dred dollars. is amount of memory will be enough for tens of thousands of
hours o vidco and Lcns o millions o phoLos.
c big Lclcvision companics arc closcly ollowing Lhc dcvclopmcnLs mcn-
Lioncd abovc. BiL by biL Lhc ground undcrncaLh Lhcir ccL is crumbling away,
as cvcryonc plays asL and loosc wiLh Lhcir conLcnL. RcacLion rom Lhc csLab-
lishcd companics cannoL bc ar o. In March 2007, NBC Univcrsal and Ncws
CorporaLion joincd orccs. TogcLhcr, Lhcy invcsLcd $l billion in Lhc Hulu ini-
LiaLivc LhaL bcgan Lo providc somc compcLiLion, parLicularly or YouTubc in
Lhc Fall o 2007. Howcvcr, alLhough Hulu is commiLLcd Lo making iLs conLcnL
availablc worldwidc, aL Lhc sLarL o 2000 Lhc vidco library sLill could only bc
streamed from within the United States.
c ncw siLc o NBC Univcrsal and Ncws CorporaLion allows on-dcmand
vicwing o complcLc scrics and hlms, such as 24, e Simpsons, Las Vegas, Borat
and e Bourne Identity. McLro-Coldwyn-Maycr and Sony PicLurcs Tclcvision
havc, in Lhc mcanLimc, also joincd Lhc Hulu iniLiaLivc. As a rcsulL, oLhcr shows
including Chapelles Show and I Dream of Jeannie havc also bccomc availablc.
Anywhere, Anytime

Hulu's providcs high picLurc qualiLy or cnLircly procssional producLions. ILs
biggcsL wcakncss is Lhc dclay LhaL Hulu has builL inLo iLs program schcdulc.
Ncw cpisodcs o popular scrics arc only disLribuLcd hvc wccks aLcr Lhcir
Lclcvision broadcasL.
Joost (pronounced as juiced) is the web TV enterprise of Niklas Zennstrm
rom Swcdcn and 1anus Friis rom Dcnmark. In Lhc pasL, Lhc Lwo havc al-
ready succeeded in launching two programs that completely turned indus-
tries upside down: rst the music exchange program Kazaa, which caused
turmoil throughout the music industry, and then Skype, by means of which
iL is possiblc Lo makc rcc phonc calls ovcr Lhc InLcrncL. WiLh 1oosL, Lhcy
now havc Lhc Lclcvision and hlm indusLry in Lhcir sighLs. 1usL likc Kazaa
and Skypc, 1oosL ocrs a pccr-Lo-pccr cnvironmcnL. c goal is Lo obLain Lhc
samc Lclcvision qualiLy ovcr Lhc InLcrncL as Lhc onc wc arc accusLomcd Lo
obtaining from cable or satellite TV.
1oosL was sLarLcd aL Lhc bcginning o 2006 and is bcing dcvclopcd in Lhc
NcLhcrlands. In an inLcrvicw, ormcr Lcchnological dirccLor Dirk Willcm van
Culik rcvcalcd:
Just like on existing TV, you will choose a channel and zap with your remote con-
trol. e process must be as close to watching ordinary TV as possible. In addition,
there are new extras. You will be able to rewind, pause and, if it is not a live broad-
cast, also fast forward. In principle, Joost will also be a kind of program on demand
online service, but then for everything and forever.
Joost adds yet another important noteworthy extra to the manner in which
wc currcnLly cxpcricncc Lclcvision. You can conLacL oLhcr vicwcrs o Lhc samc
program or scck conLacL wiLh vicwcrs who sharc Lhc samc inLcrcsL. 1oosL
Lhcrcorc combincs Lclcvision wiLh Lhc social-ncLwork conccpL.
Eighty percent of Joost consists of open-source software, such as Ubuntu
and Mozilla. Users will soon be able to use an open API to add their own
functionality to the program in the form of widgets.
200,000+ TV shows
400+ Channels
1oosL is rcc Lo cvcryonc. Rcvcnuc will bc obLaincd rom advcrLiscrs, as 1oosL
can obviously bc uscd or LargcLcd advcrLising, as Lhc pcrson siLLing in ronL o
Lhc compuLcr scrccn can bc prcciscly idcnLihcd. is possibiliLy is so aLLracLivc
LhaL various companics havc boughL advcrLising Limc.
Joost has learned from its predecessor Kazaa (see Section 8.3), and users will
noL bc ablc Lo upload maLcrial Lhcmsclvcs. is will avoid copyrighL claims.
All Lhc maLcrial on 1oosL will bc lcgal. Civcn Lhis policy, various largc hlm
and Lclcvision companics havc alrcady concludcd conLracLs wiLh 1oosL. c
scrvicc sLarLcd as a dcskLop applicaLion. In ScpLcmbcr 200S iL bccamc clcar
that Joost would be transformed into a browser plug-in, enabling users to
hnd conLcnL via oLhcrs.
Mobilc InLcrncL and Lclcvision arc slowly bcing
mcrgcd. WiLh an cyc on Lhis dcvclopmcnL, Frics-
son, Endemol and Triple IT jointly introduced the
ncw worldwidc scrvicc McOnTV in ScpLcmbcr 2007.
anks Lo McOnTV, pcoplc can scnd movics rccordcd
on a mobile telephone to a studio, where they can be
includcd in a livc program or sLorcd or laLcr usc. Rc-
gional stations in the Netherlands were the rst to
usc McOnTV, Lhrcc hundrcd pcoplc rcccivcd a vidco
phone by means of which they sent local news to a
daily prosumer news show.
Seesmic is the new company of Loc Le Meur, the founder of the famous
LeWeb symposia. e associated site is a mix of Facebook, YouTube and Twit-
Lcr. Uscrs can upload a vidco, oLhcr uscrs can Lhcn rcspond wiLh a homc-
madc vidco. Ic Mcur bclicvcs LhaL Lhc uLurc o onlinc vidco docs noL lic
wiLh YouTubc or livc vidco buL, hc Lhinks, wiLh vidco convcrsaLions in social
ncLworks. His vision is backcd by invcsLors, including AOI oundcr SLcvc
Casc, Niklas Zcnn sLrom and 1anus Friis rom Skypc and Rcid Homan, Lhc
founder of LinkedIn.
More information? Then watch the
MeOnTV clip on (ttessarolo. and surf to Erics-
sons Are you my Televisionary?
page (

c mosL noLcworLhy acLor is, howcvcr, Lhc manncr in which Ic Mcur has
scL up his company. RighL rom Lhc bcginning, hc posLcd a ncw vidco cvcry
day in which he talked about the problems that he encountered in setting up
Lhc company. Vicwcrs wcrc consLanLly askcd or advicc. is crowdsourcing"
inLcracLion cngagcd pcoplc in such acLiviLics as Lhc crcaLion o Lhc logo and
the hiring of personnel. Le Meur stated the following about this method:
e conventional wisdom in business is to keep your ideas secret, develop new
products in stealth mode, and make employees sign nondisclosure agreements. But
sharing is power. e more you share, the more opportunity and help you get.
To end this section and to smoothly enter the next one, which starts with a
discussion of peer-to-peer programs Napster and Kazaa, we present BitTor-
rent. It is a wild-running peer-to-peer protocol. In contrast with other P2P
communicaLion programs, BiLTorrcnL has no ccnLral scrvicc Lo sLorc sourcc
les and make exchanges among users. Downloading of les occurs in a de-
centralized manner between users who happen to be online at the same time.
cy cxchangc biLs o Lhc complcLc hlc dirccLly among Lhcmsclvcs. To makc
it easy to nd specic les, there are websites that distribute torrents, of
which the best known is the Swedish Piratebay.
Bram Cohcn is Lhc brains bchind Lhc BiLTorrcnL proLocol. Hc sLarLcd dcvcl-
oping his idcas in April 200l and unvcilcd Lhc producL Lo Lhc world aL a con-
ference that he organized under the title CodeCon.
Originally, Cohcn dcviscd BiLTorrcnL Lo cnablc Lhc rapid cxchangc o hlcs
among users. It has now become the worlds largest peer-to-peer network for
lms, software and music. Nearly half of all Internet trac is now caused by
people downloading BitTorrent les.
c Lclcvision mcdium is shiLing rom mass Lo nichc, and Lo a corrcspond-
ing micro scgmcnLaLion. In Lhc pasL, Lclcvision was spccihcally dcvoLcd Lo
scrving Lhc largc majoriLy. c InLcrncL is bringing abouL a complcLc changc
in Lhis rcgard. Uscrs wanL Lo dcLcrminc Lhcmsclvcs whcn, whcrc and on
whaL dcvicc Lhcy will waLch somcLhing, and wc havc bccomc accusLomcd

Lo cnLcring inLo convcrsaLions on social mcdia likc MSN, TwiLLcr, Faccbook,
MySpace, weblogs, wikis, and so on.
is dcvclopmcnL will Lransorm Lhc LradiLional TV cxpcricncc. Considcr Lhc
vidco clips on YouTubc Lo which uscrs can rcspond, or Lhc social clcmcnL in
Lhc 1oosL Lclcvision imagcs. Uscrs also wanL Lo bc ablc Lo dcLcrminc whaL
Lhcy will waLch and whcn. is ncw orm o Lclcvision will noL only bc morc
appealing to the public but will also be preferred by companies. Based on the
uscr prohlcs and inLcrcsLs, Lhcy will bc capablc o LargcLing Lhc individual
wiLh Lhcir advcrLising.
A sidc cccL o Lhc ncw Lclcvision is Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhc mcdium's hard
cdgc. c InLcrncL is ruLhlcss. All Lhc maLcrial LhaL was prcviously ccnsurcd
by broadcasLcrs is now vicwablc by cvcryonc. c grucsomcncss o siLcs such
as Ogrish and IivcIcak is noL kcpL bchind lock and kcy. CovcrnmcnLs warn
their citizens against the dangers of the Internet. A clip that your friend
or partner makes with a mobile camera may, if you are not careful, nd its
way on to the Internet once the relationship breaks down. Fewer and fewer
things can be kept secret.
Future TV will be made with simple equipment, unqualied people, small budgets
and bad taste.
Brian Eno, 1991. Source:
The Attack on the Music Industry
MozarL, Bach and BccLhovcn wcrc world amous amongsL Lhc cliLc. cy
were at home amongst royal families and aristocrats, but ordinary people
were totally unaware of their existence. In 1887, omas Edisons phono-
graph represented the rst step toward changing this lack of familiarity. Ini-
Lially, phonographs, and laLcr gramophoncs, wcrc dcviccs posscsscd only by
Lhc cliLc. BuL aL lcasL you did noL havc Lo always go Lo a conccrL hall. In Lhc
forties, radio became a big hit and, by the end of the fties, the gramophone
bccamc a consisLcnL domcsLic dcvicc. c Lccn pop idols in Lhc sixLics madc
the gramophone, then more commonly referred to as the record player, a
resounding success. Singles and LPs were played again and again until they
wore out.

Hundrcds o indcpcndcnL rccording sLudios shoL up likc mushrooms. Shrcwd
marketing campaigns enabled them to secure large sales of their artists
work. Music magnates emerged; if an artist or band wanted to make it big,
they had to sign a contract with one of the large record companies. ese
industry giants could make or break artists. In the United States, the four
largc rccord companics (Warncr Music Croup Corp., Vivcndi's Univcrsal Mu-
sic Group, EMI Group PLC and Sony BMG Music Entertainment) are respon-
sible for 88 percent of total album sales.
e shift in power away from the record companies to the consumers and art-
ists can be illustrated using the following examples: Napster, Kazaa, eMule,
BitTorrent, Sellaband,, Pandora, iTunes, Arctic Monkeys, Nine Inch
Nails, Radiohead, Prince and Madonna.
In September 1999, failing student Shawn Fanning jolted the music indus-
Lry awakc wiLh his pccr-Lo-pccr musical scrvicc NapsLcr. c consLanL com-
plaints from his roommate about all the dead MP3 links on the Web caused
Shawn to think about the situation:
I had this idea that there was a lot of material out there sitting on peoples hard
drives, and I had to gure out a way to go and get it.
Shawn had lcarncd how Lo program UNIX scrvcrs aL high school. Howcvcr,
cvcryonc was using Windows, so hc hrsL had Lo masLcr Lhis program. Whcn
his cousin dropped him o at his student residence in Boston one January
cvcning, Shawn, inscparablc rom his LrusLy lapLop, madc a big dccision.
From Lhcn on hc would ully dcvoLc himscl Lo Lhc dcvclopmcnL o NapsLcr.
John Fanning, Shawns uncle, made him a proposal. Shawn could continue to
work on Napster within his software company at uncle Johns expense. e
Lwo hnalizcd a 30-70 dcal and Shawn, who rcccivcd Lhc smallcr sharc, wcnL
to work.
NapsLcr was Lhc vcry hrsL program or pccr-Lo-pccr cxchangc o music. AL
Lhc pcak o iLs cxisLcncc in Fcbruary 200l, Lhcrc wcrc ovcr 26 million us-
crs around Lhc world. Howcvcr, NapsLcr could noL survivc or long, quickly
bccoming a vicLim o iLs own succcss. Various musicians, including McLallica
and Dr. Dre, condemned it as a pirating product that caused them to lose a
great deal of money. A series of lawsuits ensued, and Napster was declared
bankrupt in June 2003. In December 2003, Napster was nally sold in auc-
tion to Roxio Inc. Little has been heard of Shawn Fanning since. In 2007, he
resurfaced with Rupture, a social network for online gamers, which was sold
a year later to Electronic Arts for 15 million dollar.
Big shots within the recording industry were pleased, thinking that the end
of Napster would signal the return of power into their own hands. But things
did not quite turn out that way. Niklas Zennstrm and Janus Friis jumped
inLo Lhc void lcL by NapsLcr by launching Kazaa. In conLrasL Lo NapsLcr's usc
o a ccnLral scrvcr, Kazaa is complcLcly dcccnLralizcd. c uscrs Lhcmsclvcs
providc hardwarc supporL or Lhc Lranscr o daLa, making Kazaa much morc
dicult to ght on legal grounds.
NcvcrLhclcss, Lhc rccord indusLry also Look Kazaa Lo courL. Undcr Lhc prcs-
sure of looming court cases, Niklas Zennstrm and Janus Friis made the
best of a bad lot and sold Kazaa to Sharman Networks and, ultimately, this
AusLralian company scLLlcd Lhc courL casc and paid $l00 million Lo Lhc
four big record companies.
ALcr Kazaa, Lhings only dcLcrioraLcd or Lhc music indusLry. AlLcrnaLivcs
quickly appeared on the market, such as eMule and BitTorrent, with protocols
that only made it more dicult to trace end users. In the case of eMule,
Lhc program crcaLor is cvcn anonymous. FighLing P2P is ulLimaLcly a losing
Music consumcrs arc noL Lhc only oncs who havc Lricd Lo cxLricaLc Lhcm-
sclvcs rom Lhc powcr o Lhc rccording companics. In 2006, Pim BcLisL camc
up wiLh Lhc idca o Lurning Lhc conLrol o a wcbsiLc ovcr Lo musicians and
Lhcir ans. In AugusL 2006 hc, along wiLh 1ohan Vosmcijcr and Dagmar Hcij-
mans, scL up Lhc Scllaband wcbsiLc, whcrc visiLors can acquirc a sharc in an
arLisL or band. Whcn 5,000 sharcs arc sold, an amounL cqual Lo $50,000, Lhc
artist in question is then allowed to enter the studio and record an album
wiLh a procssional produccr. c invcsLors, who arc bclicvcrs" in Lhc arLisL
or band, are then oered the music online.
Incomc is gcncraLcd by sclling CDs and advcrLising spacc on Lhc siLc. c
prohL is dividcd bcLwccn Lhc bclicvcrs, Lhc Scllaband company, and Lhc pcr-
forming artist(s). At the start of 2009 the Sellaband site contained the music
of some 9,000 artists from 50 countries. e Dutch gothic rock band Nem-
csca was Lhc hrsL band Lo succccd in rcaching Lhc $50,000 mark. Ncmcsca's
album In Control was released at the end of June 2007. 29 Artists either were
recording or had published an album at the beginning of 2009.
e website is a radio station where you can indicate the music you
wanL Lo lisLcn Lo. WiLh Lhis daLa, Lhc wcbsiLc scarchcs in Lhc availablc prohlcs
Lo providc oLhcr music LhaL mighL appcal Lo you. c prohlcs arc, Lo a largc
extent, automatically set up by the Audioscrobbler plug-in. Information is
sent to only when a tune is listened to. In this way, the website gets
a better idea about the music that a person likes. Linked to a database com-
prising millions o lisLcncrs, Lhc accumulaLcd daLa providcs ncw Lips abouL
how to suit your preferences. In addition, you can label music and conduct
key-word searches for music that you and others would like to hear. As a re-
sulL, you gcL a radio sLaLion LhaL plays your avoriLc Lypcs o music.
At the end of May 2007, the website was sold to American media company
CBS or ovcr $2S0 million. AL Lhc sLarL o 2000 Lhc wcbsiLc had morc Lhan
2l million visiLors cvcry monLh rom ovcr 230 counLrics.
Pandora is comparable to, with one signicant dierence: Pandora is
not based on human intelligence but uses an algorithm that analyses music
les on the basis of around four hundred characteristics constituting the
Music Ccnomc ProjccL. c characLcrisLics vary rom Lhc gcndcr o Lhc sing-
cr Lo Lhc volumc o Lhc clccLrical guiLar. is analysis rcvcals Lhc music LhaL
the user prefers to listen to.
Sincc 1anuary 200S Lhc Pandora scrvicc is only availablc in Lhc UniLcd SLaLcs.,
because of increased fees and the need for licensing guarantees.
e record companies were able to take a breather at the beginning
o 200l. Applc hcadman SLcvc 1obs inLroduccd Lhc iTuncs program,
which enables users to manage their own music and lm catalogues
in a simple way.
In 1uly 2005 Lhc 500 millionLh music Lrack was sold or Lhc lcgcndary $0.00
standard price. At the beginning of 2009 the iTunes music pricing scheme
was extended. In April 2008 the iTunes Music Store surpassed Wal-Mart to
become Americas No. 1. For the rst time a seller of digital downloads had
beaten the big CD retailers.
Fvcry ycar in various caLcgorics, ranging rom music, hlm and podcasL Lo
applicaLions, rcc and paid, Lhc hnal iTuncs charLs arc a landmark cvcnL. O
course they are being compared to for instance the charts of as far
as music is concerned.
In January 2009 Apple announced that iTunes will no longer sell music with
DigiLal RighLs ManagcmcnL soLwarc. All our major music labcls, Univcrsal
Music Group, Sony BMG, Warner Music Group and EMI, agreed on this.
In 2002, four young men from Sheeld, U.K. came together to make music,
forming a band called Arctic Monkeys. People who came to their concerts
rcccivcd rcc CDs wiLh Lhc rcqucsL LhaL Lhcy disLribuLc Lhc music ovcr Lhc
Internet. Very quickly, a MySpace page was created from which the fours
music could be downloaded. eir songs spread like wildre and the group
was incrcasingly inviLcd Lo pcrorm ouLsidc Lhcir local arca.
At a certain point, radio stations began to pay attention to this phenomenon.
A small indie record label then oered to record a CD for the group. e rst
week sales of the album exceeded 360,000 copies. e bands second album
conqucrcd Lhc world, and rcccivcd Lop-billing in scvcral counLrics.
When the Arctic Monkeys are asked about the success behind their music,
Lhcy always poinL Lo Lhc InLcrncL. c viral powcr o Lhc Wcb is immcnsc and
madc iL possiblc or cvcryonc Lo bc amiliar wiLh Lhcir music.
Nine Inch Nails
Industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails em-
ploycd a clcvcr sLraLcgy whcn issuing Lhcir
album Year Zero. A T-shirt sold on the concert
tour came with a set of instructions. Printed
on Lhc back wcrc various daLcs and locaLions
for where the band was scheduled to perform
in 2007. Some of the letters indicating the
dates and locations were striking to the eye.
cy wcrc prinLcd scparaLcly, using vivid col-
ors. Together, the letters formed the sentence
I am Lrying Lo bclicvc." c phrasc lcd ans Lo
an identically named website on which they,
aLcr solving a numbcr o puzzlcs, wcrc linkcd
to a free track from the new album. USB sticks
on which a track from the new album was
stored, could also be found lying around dur-
ing concerts. e band also encouraged fans to
sharc Lhc music among Lhcmsclvcs.
is marketing campaign struck a tender spot
with the Recording Industry Association of
America (RIAA). Under pressure from this or-
ganization, Nine Inch Nails had to call a halt
to the campaign. A great deal of commotion ensued, as Nine Inch Nails and
their record company had decided to promote the music in this way. At the
beginning of 2007, Nine Inch Nails front man, Trent Reznor, announced that

the band was no longer contractually bound to a record company. In March
2008, part of the Ghosts album was placed on the Internet,
... because we believe BitTorrent is a revolutionary digital distribution method, and
we believe in nding ways to utilize new technologies instead of ghting them.
Radiohead and Prince
One of the stories in the book Freakonomics by
SLcvcn IcviLL and SLcphcn Dubncr dcscribcs
how a sandwich retailer no longer nds it
worLhwhilc Lo waiL cvcry day or cusLomcrs
to come along, pick up and pay for their sand-
wichcs. As a LcsL, hc lcavcs Lhc sandwichcs
at the back of the lunchrooms in the companies where his customers were
working. Next to the sandwiches was a sort of money box in which custom-
ers were supposed to place the money owed for the sandwiches they con-
sumcd. UlLimaLcly, iL Lurncd ouL LhaL cusLomcrs wcrc willing Lo pay $0.00 or
a sandwich. Of course, some people did not pay, but the retailer was better
o ovcrall. Hc rcccivcd morc moncy and iL cosL him lcss Limc.
is story was the source of inspiration for the U.K. band Radiohead in sell-
ing the album In Rainbows aL a pricc LhaL Lhc individual consumcr was rcady
to pay. At the start of October 2007, fans could register and had to pay a min-
imum of 45 eurocents (the cost of a credit-card transaction) for the album.
Radiohead did not expect to strike it rich with the sales of the new album;
howcvcr, Lhcy did scc iL as good markcLing or Lhc upcoming big conccrL Lour.
Prince had already demonstrated this when, in July 2007, he distributed his
new album Planet Earth or rcc via Lhc U.K. Daily Mail newspaper. e CD
popped through the letter box as an insert to a print run of 2.9 million news-
papers. As a result, 21 concert dates were sold out within a few days.
e Radiohead campaign has resulted worldwide in front page headlines.
Duc Lo Lhis Lhcir wcbsiLc bccamc Lhc mosL hcavily visiLcd in Lhc U.K. Fvcn
pcoplc who had ncvcr hcard o Radiohcad vicwcd Lhc siLc. Radiohcad's iniLia-
Livc has also lcd oLhcr arLisLs Lo considcr Lhis ncw busincss modcl.
On OcLobcr l2, 2007, iL was rcvcalcd LhaL Radiohcad had disLribuLcd ovcr
1.3 million copies of its album through its website in a couple of days. As a
sidc cccL o Lhis acLiviLy, Lhc wcbsiLc was inacccssiblc or scvcral pcriods

during LhaL Limc. c l.3 million hgurc could havc bccn scvcral Limcs highcr.
A third of the people downloading the album did not pay anything, many
paid $20 and Lhc avcragc was $S a copy. c album In Rainbows appeared
in sLorcs in 1anuary 200S. Morc Lhan hLy minuLcs o Lhc Ncw Ycar's Fvc
concert Scotch Mist was also released on YouTube (
Pop icon Madonna announced in October 2007 that she was ending her 24-
year relationship with the Warner Bros Record Company. Instead, she signed
a l0 ycar conLracL wiLh conccrL promoLcr Iivc NaLion. For a paymcnL o
$l20 million, Lhis company had purchascd Lhc righL Lo disLribuLc Lhrcc sLu-
dio albums, promoLc conccrLs and scll Madonna paraphcrnalia. Morcovcr,
Iivc NaLion had also acquircd Lhc righL Lo usc Lhc Madonna brand. In a sLaLc-
ment, the pop star explained:
e paradigm in the music business has shifted, for the rst time in my career, the
way that my music can reach my fans is unlimited.
c hcgcmony ormcrly cnjoycd by rccord companics appcars Lo havc bccn
ended by the Internet. Firstly, music fans are using P2P to exchange pro-
grams and, conscqucnLly, cuL Lhcmsclvcs a biggcr slicc o Lhc pic. is has
cxposcd Lhc wcakncss in Lhc valuc chain linking arLisL, rccord company
and consumcr. Sccondly, social iniLiaLivcs such as Scllaband arc Laking ovcr
the role of the record company. Finally, established artists are also turning
against their paymasters. ey also realize that record companies are no lon-
ger necessary in order to reach the public. e Internet makes it possible to
havc dirccL conLacL wiLh ans. Madonna, Princc and Radiohcad havc alrcady
provcn Lhcir populariLy in Lhc pasL and sold millions o albums via rccord
companics. csc arLisLs can allow Lhcmsclvcs Lo cxpcrimcnL wiLh anoLhcr
business model. Artists just starting out will nd this more dicult.
c acL LhaL Lhc music indusLry's valuc chain is now ully cxposcd will causc
the power of the big record companies to crumble. New business models are
bringing new challenges to an industry that has, in the past, brimmed with
prohLs. c ollowing diagram shows how Lhc music sccLor has dcvclopcd
from a decentralized into a centralized industry, and back to a decentral-
ized one. e gure is taken from the book e Starsh and the Spider by Rod
Beckstrm and Ori Brafman.

The Attack on the Telecom Industry
In 2003, Lhc Lclccom indusLry was surpriscd by Lhc Skypc iniLiaLivc rom
Niklas Zennstrm and Janus Friis. With the peer-to-peer technology of Ka-
zaa, Lhcy had alrcady shown Lhcmsclvcs capablc o adminisLcring a subsLan-
tial blow to the music industry. Zennstrm and Friis re-used the same tech-
nology in ordcr Lo accL a rcvoluLion in Lhc Lclccom sccLor. In an inLcrvicw,
Niklas Zennstrm stated:
We deliberately chose to disrupt the Telecom sector with our technology because it
looked very attractive.
Skype makes it possible for telephone
calls Lo bc madc ovcr Lhc InLcrncL, a unc-
LionaliLy known as Voicc ovcr IP and onc
for which, in principle, no money has to
be paid. Since its introduction in 2003,
(indie) record labels
Big Five
1890 1945 2000 2001 2006
Lets Talk

Skype has gained enormous popularity, 247.5 million people making use of
Lhc scrvicc in ScpLcmbcr 2007.
In mid September 2005, Skype was sold to the online market place eBay for
$2.6 billion in sharcs and cash. c owncrs also had Lhc poLcnLial Lo add
an cxLra $l.5 billion Lo Lhcir bank accounLs i Lhcy succccdcd in rcaching
ccrLain LargcLs wiLhin 200S. IL bccamc cvidcnL in Lhc Lhird quarLcr o 2007
that these goals would not to be attained. e number of Skype users has
continued to increase, but the money earned from each user is too low. CEO
Niklas Zennstrm was sent packing and indicated in a nal statement:
Some people may want to monetize faster, but the key is to gure out what is the
right speed of monetization. If you act too aggressively, there is a real risk you will
lose the huge active user base.
Skypc owncr cBay is now busy considcring how iL can rccovcr iLs subsLanLial
As early as 1995 a company called Vocaltec launched the rst Internet Te-
lcphony SoluLion: VoIP (Voicc ovcr IP) was born. For ycars Lhc poor qualiLy
and usability meant that VoIP simply was not ready yet to compete with
land lincs. FvcnLually, wiLh bcLLcr InLcrncL connccLions and low priccs o
equipment and calling plans Internet Telephony became increasingly popu-
lar and is now an embedded feature throughout the whole telecom industry.
Rcvcnuc rom cquipmcnL salcs rcachcd ovcr $S billion by Lhc cnd o 200S.
Modern Internet Telephony now comes with an abundance of useful audio,
daLa and vidco concrcncing caLurcs.
The Attack on Banking Institutions
e idea that a decentralized network is capable of undermining the power
o csLablishcd insLiLuLions has provcn iLs validiLy in Lhc ncwspapcr, music,
Lclcvision and Lclccom indusLrics. c hnancial sccLor was Lhc ncxL linc o
busincss Lo ccl Lhcsc cccLs, howcvcr pccr-Lo-pccr or pcrson-Lo-pcrson
lending is still a small niche.
Zopa was the worlds rst social nance company. In March 2005 Zopa pio-
neered a way for U.K. residents to lend and borrow directly with each other
onlinc. Sincc Lhcn Zopa has cxpandcd iLs scrvicc Lo ILaly, 1apan and Lhc U.S.
Due to regulations Zopa is a little dierent in each country, but its always
the same big idea.
A monLh bcorc Zopa wcnL livc, iL sLill did noL havc a namc. Upon rcccLion,
one of the founders recalled the term Zone of Possible Agreement. at
was cxacLly whaL Zopa is all abouL: Lo assisL individuals in lcnding moncy Lo
cach oLhcr in a sccurc cnvironmcnL, buL wiLhouL Lhc inLcrvcnLion o a hcLy
bank chargc or Lhc LransacLion. c domain was boughL vcry chcaply, buL
when the nance company made its rst steps on the Internet, an e-mail
was rcccivcd indicaLing LhaL Zopa in Russian mcans somcLhing likc son-o-
James Alexander, the co-founder of peer-to-peer lending company Zopa,
calls the people who take part freeformers. e increase in their numbers
ovcr Lhc lasL dccadc suggcsLs LhaL Lhc consumcr rcvoluLion o Lhc pasL LhirLy
ycars is convcrLing inLo a rcc orm rcvoluLion Lo lasL Lhc ncxL LhirLy, Alcx-
ander enthousiastically preached before the credit crunch. In 2000, eBay was
created for goods, in 2005 iTunes for music and in 2010 it will be the turn of
Zopa, which will shake the foundations underlying the nancial world. Such
free-form companies, including Wikipedia, YouTube and Flickr, are capable
of transforming economic sectors on the basis of technology. In 2006, the
Amcrican innovaLion magazinc Business 2.0 lisLcd Zopa among Lhc clcvcn
companies likely to economically turn the world upside down.
To rcLricvc Lhc crcdiL raLing o borrowcrs, Zopa noL only makcs usc o Lhc
rcgulaLcd bodics buL also social iniLiaLivcs such as cBay. A chcck is madc on
cBay Lo dcLcrminc how a moncy scckcr livcs up Lo his or hcr obligaLions: is
Lhc individual somconc who pays or dclivcrcd goods on Limc or noL`
Loans from People not Banks
One year after the British Zopa, Prosper was set up in America. is loan
site resembles Zopa in all its facets, but there is one big dierence. Prosper
is a combination of peer-to-peer and social network. Money seekers can post
cxLcnsivc prohlcs in ordcr Lo culLivaLc Lhc LrusL o moncylcndcrs.
e Wesabe website makes it possible to upload digital bank statements
so that the features of a persons spending habits can be analyzed. Wesabe
Lhcn makcs rccommcndaLions bascd on Lhis analysis. Wcsabc also providcs
pcoplc wiLh Lhc opporLuniLy o linking up wiLh pcoplc who havc Lhc samc
spcnding habiLs. csc individuals can Lhcn aLLcmpL Lo modiy Lhcir spcnd-
ing pracLiccs and cvcn Lo savc moncy. IL is as i collccLivc inLclligcncc is bcing
addcd Lo an individual's bank accounL.
Kiva was scL up in San Francisco by MaLL and 1cssica Flanncry. Kiva uscs Lhc
pccr-Lo-pccr principlc Lo assisL in supporLing small projccLs wiLhin dcvclop-
ing countries. Moneylenders can only lend a small amount, which in many
dcvcloping counLrics is largc cnough Lo movc mounLains. In Lhis way, Kiva
supports an economy of micro-transactions. ere is a risk that a project
may be unsuccessful and the project owner cannot repay the loan with in-
LcrcsL, buL sincc Lhc sLarL almosL all o Lhc projccLs havc bccn succcssul in
making such repayment.
Tne P2P Lending Marketplace
Get to Know Your Money
Tne P2P Lending Marketplace
The Wiki Way to Enterprise 2.0
c hnal disrupLion" LhaL wc will discuss hcrc docs noL involvc any uphcaval
of an economic sector but the thematic cultural disruption caused by the
new collaboration and knowledge sharing enabled by the introduction of
such Web media as blogs and wikis in organizations.
How will knowlcdgc work bc pcrormcd in Lhc inormaLion cra` FirsLly, gaLh-
er as much information as possible and then process it into usable informa-
Lion. On Lhis basis, wc acquirc knowlcdgc ovcr Lhc coursc o Limc. And i wc
can usc iL in an appropriaLc manncr, wc aLLain a ccrLain lcvcl o wisdom.
SchcmaLically, iL all sccms vcry simplc. c morc daLa you can acccss, Lhc bcL-
ter your information is and ultimately your knowledge is increased.
is would not be possible without Information Technology, but there are
Lwo largc, rclaLcd objccLions: inLclligibiliLy and involvcmcnL. ALcr all, an
uninLclligiblc inormaLion blob curLails involvcmcnL cnormously. And Lhc
cwcr pcoplc involvcd, Lhc biggcr Lhc chancc is LhaL inormaLion is complcLc-
ly uninLclligiblc Lo Lhird parLics. Working collccLivcly on knowlcdgc producLs
and Lhc proccsscs Lo which Lhcy givc risc is Lhcrcorc crucial. O coursc, Lhis
work involvcs Lhc compuLcr and is Lhcrcorc callcd CompuLcr SupporLcd Co-
opcraLivc Work (CSCW).
CollccLivcly building good daLa proccssing and inormaLion provision has
long been a question of groupware and workow. Unfortunately, in the nine-
teen eighties and nineties we had the idea that the corresponding knowl-
cdgc sysLcms would rcsolvc Lhc knowlcdgc managcmcnL challcngcs acing
us. In her paper Wiki and the Wiki Way: Beyond a Knowledge Management
SoluLion" (2005), 1cnnicr Conzalcz-RcinharL o Lhc UnivcrsiLy o HousLon
clearly explains what is going on. Gonzalez-Reinhart distinguishes the fol-
lowing four phases: proprietary solutions, open-source solutions, the rst
generation wikis and the second generation wikis.
A static manner of accumulating dynamic knowledge combined with poor
co-ordination on the work oor causes proprietary systems to explode. A
subsequent interlinking of a few such systems focusing primarily on tech-
nology then makes knowledge management failure complete. ings are
slightly better in the case of open-source systems. e cost of these for the
uscr is raLhcr lcss and Lhcy cncouragc a culLurc o involvcmcnL. A sysLcm
LhaL is builL collccLivcly by many pcoplc also insLills a wc" ccling and a wc"
Get to Know Your Money
pracLicc among uscrs. c subscqucnL sLcp Lo wikis is Lhcn a vcry casy onc
Lo Lakc. From Lhc sLarL, wikis havc bccn Lools dcrivcd rom Lhc opcn-sourcc
approach. ey are concerned with transparency: changes are easy to follow
and Lo rcvcrsc. Ward Cunningham, who dcvclopcd Lhc wiki conccpL, is vcry
modcsL abouL iL. Hc says LhaL a wiki is Lhc simplcsL daLabasc LhaL could cvcr
uncLion propcrly. A wiki is jusL a hypcrLcxL in a mulLi-uscr cnvironmcnL
in which pcoplciniLially programmcrscollccLivcly work LogcLhcr. Wikis
arc casy and asL (wiki-wiki" mcans asL" in Hawaiian) and cncouragc Lhc
involvcmcnL o Lhc individual in a social conLcxL (wiki" has also bccn inLcr-
preted as short for what I know is).
1cnnicr Conzalcz-Rcinhard dcscribcs wikis as a convcrsaLional" manncr
of working. Consequently, they belong to the same category as weblogs, al-
Lhough wikis havc morc sLrucLurc. As cxamplcs o Lhc sccond gcncraLion o
wikis, Gonzalez-Reinhart points to Socialtext and TWiki, the Enterprise
Wiki. csc producLs havc now bccn joincd by whaL wc mighL call Lhc Lhird
generation wikis, which include SuiteTwo from Intel, and such solutions as
Microsoft SharePoint. Wikis currently consist of complete software packages
including news feeds, weblogs and knowledge tracking software. In theory,
Lhcrc has always bccn a nccd or such inLcracLion and convcrsaLion in Lhc
pursuit and accumulation of knowledge. Knowledge management stands and
falls with the intelligibility and engagement of knowledge management and
Lhc knowlcdgc proccss, iL rcquircs convcrsaLions such as Lhosc LhaL givc orm
Lo collaboraLion in Lhc conLcxL o CompuLcr SupporLcd CoopcraLivc Work.
e total eld of CSCW appears as depicted in the following diagram.
According to Don Tapscott and Anthony Williams, wikis are an important
corncrsLonc o FnLcrprisc 2.0", Lhc busincss vcrsion o Wcb 2.0. cir book
Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (2006) is, in fact,
Lhc ulLimaLc promoLion o human-bascd SupporLcd CoopcraLivc Work as a
knowlcdgc, producLion and innovaLion paradigm.
A great deal had already been written and said about wiki-use in organiza-
tions when, in 2006, Wikipedia clone Intellipedia became the core of the
ncw way o working insidc Lhc Amcrican sccuriLy scrvicc. InLcllipcdia was a
response to the criticism that the best equipped spies in the world turn out
often to be incorrectly and insuciently informed. Wikis are now employed
Lo hghL Lcrrorism, buL Lhcir usc also cxLcnds Lo Lhc H5Nl bird-u program,
or cxamplc. OLhcr counLrics parLicipaLc whcrcvcr possiblc, as collaboraLion
and controlled openness characterize the wiki way of working.
InLcllipcdia is Lhc shining cxamplc o whaL many organizaLions arc sLriv-
ing for: collaboration with new tools such as wikis, weblogs and newsfeeds,
whilc sLill prcscrving a liLLlc privacy. NoL all knowlcdgc nccds Lo bc availablc
on the street. Intellipedia is a good barometer for the trend in which orga-
nizations are using more and more so-called social software. e wiki is
Lhc modcrn archcLypc or Lhis caLcgory: simplc, acccssiblc, inormaLivc and
exible. In 2007 A-Space, dubbed a MySpace for spies, was launched. A-Space
wcnL livc in ScpLcmbcr 200S and uncLions as a common collaboraLivc work-
space for all analysts from the U.S. Intelligence Community.
Wikis at Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein
e success of Enterprise 2.0 depends, to a large extent, on what manage-
ment makes of it. In essence, this is also the conclusion of Andrew McAfee
in his article Enterprise 2.0: e Dawn of Emergent Collaboration, which
appeared in MIT Sloan Management Review. is essay primarily focuses on
dcvcloping a bcsL wiki pracLicc Lo scrvc as a guidc or organizaLions wanLing
Lo Lravcl down Lhc FnLcrprisc 2.0 paLh.
Remote interactions Communication & coordination
Face to face interactions Continuous task
- 0ec|s|on rooms
- |ng|e d|s|ay grouware
- hared tab|e
- wa|| d|s|ays
- oomware
- ...
- eam rooms
- Large ub||c d|s|ay
- h|ft work grouware
- roject management
- ...
- v|deo conferenc|ng
- lnstance messag|ng
- Lhats[uu0s[v|rtua| wor|ds
- hared screens
- uu|t|-user ed|tors
- ...
- L-ma||
- 8u||et|n boards
- 8|ogs
- Asynchronous conferenc|ng
- 0rou ca|endars
- workf|ow
- vers|on contro|
- w|k|s
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) spans these four quadrants.

In his article, McAfee looks carefully at Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein
(DrKW). is invcsLmcnL bank has abouL six Lhousand cmployccs working
in oces located in such cities as London, Frankfurt, Paris and Tokyo. DrKW
chosc Lo csLablish onc ccnLral wiki insLcad o numcrous individual sysLcms
so as to, in this way, encourage collaboration and communication.
We had to move away from a static, dead intranet. e wiki has allowed us to im-
prove collaboration, communication and publication. We can cross time zones, im-
prove the way teams work, reduce e-mail and increase transparency.
Myrto Lazopoulou, Director User Experience DrKW
e wiki project was launched in the third quarter of 2004. In February 2006,
there were eighteen hundred users. e installation of a WYSIWYG interface
during the course of the project has led to a substantial growth in use.
e CIO responsible for the implementation at the time decided to take an
informal bottom-up approach: no rules of use or conduct. Anyone could start
using Lhc wiki in a manncr LhaL hc or shc wanLcd. Fvcn a wiki abouL your
avoriLc holiday dcsLinaLions was dccmcd pcrmissiblc, as Lhis was how usagc
would grow, amiliariLy incrcasc and Lhc advanLagcs bc discovcrcd. Rulcs o
conduct were unnecessary, it was found, because they were suciently em-
bedded in the company culture. One of the successes of the new wiki was
found to be the Digital Markets User Group, where new digital products and
scrviccs wcrc discusscd. Idcas rom cmployccs in Ncw York and Tokyo arc
bcing cxprcsscd Lhcrc, whcrcas Lhcrc had prcviously noL bccn a placc or Lhis
type of bottom-up input.
Further Disruptions
Only a ccrLain numbcr o disrupLions o a cw cconomic sccLors havc bccn
discusscd in Lhis chapLcr. c currcnL issucs accLing ncwspapcrs, Lclcvi-
sion, music, Lclccom and banking havc conscqucnLly bccn rcvicwcd. is is
howcvcr noL an cxhausLivc lisL. crc arc sLill oLhcr cxamplcs LhaL could bc
includcd. ConsidcraLion mighL bc givcn Lo Lhc many Lravcl agcncics LhaL arc
sLcadily losing Lhcir placc wiLhin Lhc valuc chain. Consumcrs in Lhis sccLor
arc also uniLing ovcr Lhc InLcrncL.
Companics wanLing Lo avoid bcing dispaLchcd by Lhcsc disrupLivc diculLics
should not try to ght them o, but deal with them rationally on the basis
of their own strengths. Abandon bureaucracy and embrace adhocracy. Try
to transform a closed and centralized organizational structure into an open
and dcccnLralizcd cnvironmcnL in which digiLal naLivcs" arc wclcomcd wiLh
open arms outside the connes of the organization.
Ten Questions You Need to Ask Yourself
Wcb disrupLions arc Lhc sLandard nowadays. Fvcn Cooglc is bcing opcnly
besieged by, among other things, Wikia Search from Wikipedia, founded by
1immy Walcs. InsLcad o Lhc advanccd algoriLhms o Cooglc, uscr inpuL is
kcy Lo Wikia Scarch. Uscrs can providc Lhcir scarch rcsulLs wiLh a mini ar-
Liclc conLaining urLhcr cxplanaLion. cy can also cvaluaLc scarch rcsulLs in
Lcrms o Lhcir rclcvancc in ordcr Lo obLain bcLLcr ocuscd rcsulLs.
cBay is Laking conLrol o Lhc markcL or sccond-hand iLcms. c Lravcl world
has bccn hghLing againsL disrupLivc wcb orccs or somc Limc now, and Lhc
same goes for headhunters and employment agencies. Add the music indus-
Lry, ncwspapcrs and Lclccom Lo Lhis lisL. Who's ncxL` Fvcn procssional soc-
cer has suered a web disruption, as the rst purchase of a soccer club by an
enthusiastic Web 2.0 public has taken place on,
meaning that Ebbseet United FC has been acquired by fans. A new commit-
mcnL bascd on Wcb mcdia is Lhc corc o Lhc disrupLivc orcc bchind all Lhc
changes in soccer clubs, business processes, information sources, and what-
cvcr clsc you carc Lo namc.
How can you prcparc yourscl or all Lhis` To bcgin wiLh, you could jusL lcL
your mind go, to co-opt a 60s consciousness-expanding mantra, under the
stimulus of the following ten simple questions:
In our organizations, do we do enough thinking out-of-the-box?
Free music, free newspapers, free phone callswhere does the power of
something for nothing lie hidden within my company?
Would our customers feel it was worthwhile to form a network with each
Would links in our production chain be lost as a result?
Would our organization take the new disruptive forces more seriously than
the record industry did?
Might other players in our production chain be plagued by disruptive
forces? And is that an opportunity for us?
How might enthusiasts, people with a passion for the services or prod-
ucts that we supply, set up a company if they completely gave in to their
hearts desire?
Are we paying sufcient attention to the start-ups on the market?
Which new information system might radically transform the market?
If I were to leave my company, which disruptive new business would I
begin in this sector tomorrow?
The Development of
Virtu-Real Media
10.1 e Future Is Now 242
10.2 Man Is God 244
10.3 Best Bits of the Future 246
10.4 Virtuality Is Completely Normal 247
10.5 HypcrrcaliLy and Calm Tcchnology 251
10.6 MARA and MIA 254
10.7 Sir Tim Berners-Lee on the Mobile Future 257
10.8 State-of-the-Art Digital Manufacturing 258
The century between 1965 and 2065 is replete with coding, modeling, program-
ming and recombining. This development slowly emerged in the 1960s and, after a
period of assimilation of the Web 2.0 lifestyle, eventually took ight. Coding, mod-
eling and recombining are now beginning to cross-over into elements of virtuality,
enriching our reality and making it more effective and efcient. At the same time,
the future merging of ITech and ITainment with developments in nanotechnology,
biotechnology and neurotechnology is now visible on our horizon. In the future,
consciousness and cognition will no longer have to be contained within mortal
The Virtual Worlds that will ultimately come to exist will not completely corre-
spond to environments such as Second Life. Instead, (multi)mediatization, the new
2.0 lifestyle and articial intelligence in the form of agents and avatars will create
a new personal hyperreality, one that will emerge during the next ten years. In this
domain, virtual elements that have been in the pipeline for some time now will
come to enrich the way in which we deal with and do business with each other.
Undoubtedly, this will soon be different in America than in Europe and different
again in Asia and Africa. Geocultural, subcultural and also personal differences are,
and will remain, great.
The Future Is Now
e hyperlinks of the multimedia and socializing World Wide Web underlie
Lhc high hopcs conccrning hypcrindividualizaLion and hypcrcompcLiLion.
Howcvcr, Lhc dcvclopmcnLs LhaL, in principlc, makc Lhc Wcb possiblc will
ncvcr comc abouL Lo an cxLcnL LhaL will bc alicn Lo us humans. c human
dimension is primary, a fact that must be constantly emphasized. It goes
wiLhouL saying LhaL LhoughLs and idcas arc, howcvcr, bcing audaciously ban-
died about with an eye to the future, as hubris is as old as humanity itself.
Next to hyper, hype remains an important Internet characteristic, one
splcndidly dcscribcd in Lhc vcry wcll-known hypc cyclcs LhaL Lhc CarLncr
market research agency rst came up with in 1995.
Trigger P



Trough of
Slope of
Plateau of
Plateau reached in:
<2 years
Internet Protocol version 6
Radio-frequency Identification
Voice over Internet Protocol
2-5 years 5-10 years >10 years
5 10
Speech Recognition
for Mobile Devices
Mesh Networks
DNA Logic
RSS Enterprise
Semantic Web
Social Network Analysis
Digital Paper/E-Paper
RFID (Item)
Biometric Payments
Corporate Blogging
Tablet PC
Location Aware Technology
Location Aware Applications
Web Services
RFID (Case/Pallet)
Mobile Phone Payments
Enterprise Instant Messaging
Grid Computing
Web 2.0
The Gartner hype cycles characterize periods. This is one from 2006, around the peak of the
Web 2.0 craze.
e hype cycle itself mirrors how we always tend to think in an early stage
that the future is now. e belief that we can map out the future is one that
is gaining cvcr morc ground. SLill, pasL visions, such as Lhc cybcr corpora-
Lion" prcdicLcd by IT guru 1amcs MarLin in l006, havc noL ycL bccomc a
full-edged reality. e same lot may befall the cyborg, the new species of
human cybcr organisms," dcspiLc Lhc acL LhaL Lhis dcvclopmcnL now sccms
wiLhin rcach as a rcsulL o Lhc convcrgcncc o ITcch, ITainmcnL, nanoLcch-
nology, biotechnology and neurotechnology.
c poinL hcrc is quiLc simplc: Lhc abiliLy Lo navigaLc occans wiLh scaaring
vcsscls docs noL, o coursc, mcan LhaL Lhc sca will Lurn black wiLh ships. c
samc provcd Lo bc Lhc casc or prinLing and is similarly now holding Lruc or
the Internet and the PC. e general dissemination of state-of-the-art tech-
niques remains far behind the spread of basic applications. is is primarily
because we simply do not need state of the art in all circumstances.
c incrcasing individualizaLion LhaL characLcrizcs human hisLory, rom
book printing and science, through industrialization and mass media, to
Wcb mcdia and Lhc convcrgcncc o digiLal and analog (or virLualiLy and rcal-
iLy) havc now bccn so characLcrisLically rcshapcd by Lhc hypcrlinks o Lhc
World Widc Wcb LhaL wc can spcak mcaningully o hypcrindividualizaLion
and Hypcrcgos.
c individual and social c-mancipaLion o Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion has
bccomc possiblc Lhanks Lo modcrn digiLal virLualiLy, which osLcrcd mcdia-
tization and the ood of proles or IDs. Web media and Social Web networks
havc now bccomc a uscul cxLcnsion o an incrcasing numbcr o pcoplc. NoL
only arc individuals appropriaLcly cvolving inLo a scL o hypcrlinkcd sub-
idcnLiLics LhaL LogcLhcr orm Lhc Hypcrcgo, Lhc samc cvoluLion can bc ound
in brands and organizations.
e interrelation of these types of being by means of identity management,
and Lhc combinaLion wiLh progrcssivcly morc (arLihcial) inLclligcncc, will
urLhcr sLrcngLhcn Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Hypcrcgos ovcr Lhc coming dccadcs.
Broadcast Yourself, the archetypical slogan of me-medium YouTube, is
Lhcrcorc aLLaining incrcasing sLanding and signihcancc. Whcrcas, prcvious-
ly, we would be at most requested to show our passport, now a few passwords
and pin codes, the number of proles and IDs is spectacularly on the rise, en-
gulhng cvcryLhing rom individuals, Lo brands, producLs and organizaLions.

Man Is God
To placc Lhc hnal Lwo chapLcrs o Lhis book in pcrspccLivc, whaL ollows is
a vision o a possiblc uLurc insLigaLcd by Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion and
prognosLicaLcd in Lhc vidco clip Prometeus. is vidco on Lhc growing mulLi-
mcdiaLizaLion and virLualizaLion o our world can bc vicwcd on YouTubc in
scvcral languagcs. c Prometeus scenario is undeniably science ction. At
the same time, it contains the following elements that are more than plau-
Fvcryonc has Lhcir own inLclligcnL agcnL/avaLar.
In Lhc succcssor Lo Sccond Iic, anyonc can bc whocvcr hc or shc wanLs Lo
In Lhc VirLual World cnLiLlcd Placc, cvcryonc can dcLcrminc whcrc Lhcy arc,
be it on Mars, at the battle of Waterloo or anywhere else.
c LradiLional mass mcdia ncwspapcr, radio and Lclcvision havc bccn ab-
sorbed into one large Web Media Mass.
Cooglc dominaLcs our world and has noL bccomc cvil."
BuL abovc all rcad Lhc Prometeus story below for yourself or watch the clip at`v=xjSZadKgdC0.
MAN IS GOD. He is everywhere, he is anybody, he knows everything. is is the
Prometeus new world.
All started with the Media Revolution, with Internet, at the end of the last cen-
tury. Everything related to the old media vanished: Gutenberg, the copyright,
the radio, the television, the publicity.
e old world reacts: more restrictions for the copyright, new laws against non
authorized copies. Napster, the music peer to peer company is sued.
At the same time, free Internet radio appears; TIVO, the Internet television, al-
lows to avoid publicity; the Wall Street Journal goes on line; Google launches
Google news.
Millions of people read daily the biggest on line newspaper. OhmyNews written by
thousands of journalists; Flickr becomes the biggest repository in the history of
photos, YouTube for movies. e power of the masses.
A new gure emerges: the prosumer, a producer and a consumer of information.
Anyone can be a prosumer.
e news channels become available on Internet. e blogs become more inuential
than the old media. e newspapers are released for free. Wikipedia is the most
complete encyclopedia ever.
In 2007 Life magazine closes. e NYT sells its television and declares that the
future is digital. BBC follows.
In the main cities of the world people are connected for free. At the corners of the
streets totems print pages from blogs and digital magazines. e Virtual Worlds
are common places on the Internet for millions of people.
A person can have multiple on line identities. Second Life launches the vocal avatar.
e old media ght back.
A tax is added on any screen; newspapers, radios and televisions are nanced by
the State; illegal download from the Web is punished with years of jail.
Around 2011 the tipping point is reached: the publicity investments are done on
the Net. e electronic paper is a mass product: anyone can read anything on
plastic paper.
In 2015 newspapers and broadcasting television disappear, digital terrestrial is
abandoned, the radio goes on the Internet.
e media arena is less and less populated. Only the Tyrannosaurus Rex survives.
e Net includes and unies all the content. Google buys Microsoft. Amazon
buys Yahoo! and become the world universal content leaders with BBC, CNN
and CCTV.
e concept of static informationbooks, articles, imageschanges and is trans-
formed into knowledge ow.
e publicity is chosen by the content creators, by the authors and becomes infor-
mation, comparison, experience.
In 2020 Lawrence Lessig, the author of Free Culture, is the new U.S. Secretary of
Justice and declares the copyright illegal.
Devices that replicate the ve senses are available in the Virtual Worlds. e real-
ity could be replicated in Second Life.
Any one has an Agav (agent-avatar) that nds information, people, places in the
Virtual Worlds. In 2022 Google launches Prometeus, the Agav standard inter-
In Greek mythology, the Titan Prometeus (the far-sighted one, the in-
novator) brought man the gift of re. As a consequence, we acquired a
divine power: re was the beginning of technology. Over the centuries,
the Prometeus story has continued to be an important theme in visual
art and literature.

Amazon creates Place, a company that replicates reality. You can be on Mars, at the
battle of Waterloo, at the Super Bowl as a person. Its real.
In 2027 Second Life evolves into Spirit. People become who they want. And share
the memory. e experiences. e feelings. Memory selling becomes a normal
In 2050 Prometeus buys Place and Spirit. Virtual life is the biggest market on the
planet. Prometeus nances all the space missions to nd new worlds for its cus-
tomers: the terrestrial avatar. Experience is the new reality.
e predictions in the Prometeus clip stop at 2050. is seems awfully soon
Lo rcalizc cvcryLhing LhaL is mcnLioncd abovc. In addiLion, Lhc undcrlying
Lcchno-cconomic opLimism ovcrlooks Lhc acL LhaL, in Lhis ccnLury, wc arc
confronted by demonstrably large climate, energy, food and population
growth problems. Partly on account of these types of challenges, it is un-
likely that the Prometeus scenario will come to pass. If all the ethical issues
along with our delayed adoption of new things are taken in to consideration,
the predictions in Prometeus would, in fact, seem to be completely at sea. is
is cspccially Lhc casc insoar as Lhc sLaLcd Limc ramc is conccrncd, cvcn i wc
were able to look that far into the future.
NcvcrLhclcss, Lhcsc commcnLs on Lhc Prometeus clip clearly indicate why the
uLurc bcyond Lhc ird Mcdia RcvoluLion is so rclcvanL. IL is cxLrcmcly im-
porLanL Lo criLically cxaminc such a sccnario whcn living in a prcscnL LhaL is
osLcnsibly crossing ovcr inLo an aLLracLivc hypcrrcal or virLu-rcal cxisLcncc.
Upon reection, we can make great progress in separating the wheat from
the cha, and recognize:
what we might expect within the foreseeable future
exactly what we should not expect
and whaL, in principlc, is conccivablc" buL docs noL ycL go bcyond LhaL.
Best Bits of the Future
UndoubLcdly, Lhc uLurc or us Hypcrcgos is bccoming progrcssivcly morc
virLual and dominaLcd by mulLimcdia. BuL whaL do wc mcan by LhaL` To an-
swcr Lhis qucsLion, wc will discuss Lhc noLion o virLualiLy and Lhc mcdia
characLcr o iL. Wc will also givc somc iniLial LhoughL Lo Lhc hypcrrcaliLy
cngcndcrcd in mcdia virLualiLy.
We will then present concrete applications of mobile hyperreality, includ-
ing MARA (Mobile Augmented Reality Applications) and MIA (Mobile In-
LclligcnL AgcnL). WiLh MARA and MIA, wc arc moving somc
distance down the path to what the Prometeus clip denotes as
Agav," our agcnL/avaLar, and Lhc VirLual World o Placc.
c dcvclopmcnL o virLu-rcal mcdia will, in Lhc ncar uLurc,
remain predominantly close to our physical world. Second Life
will, for the time being, remain merely credible proof of con-
ccpL. Our having scvcral (sub)idcnLiLics is alrcady an acLual
fact. Identity management and the portability of proles will
rcccivc urLhcr aLLcnLion in Lhc coming pcriod. c linking o
idcnLiLy managcmcnL wiLh Agavs" is ncar aL hand. Who clsc
could we cite in this regard, but Sir Tim Berners-Lee, a man who
does not care for predictions, and who heads up the World Wide
Web Consortium. Berners-Lee explains at the end of this chap-
Lcr how hc vicws Lhc hypcrrcal world o Lomorrow and whaL his
fundamental considerations are.
e nal chapter of this book responds to the question that always plagues
us when we attempt to predict the future: To what extend will certain sci-
cncc hcLion visions bccomc rcaliLy` IL is conccivablc and noL implausiblc
that ITech, ITainment, articial intelligence, biotechnology, neurotechnol-
ogy and nanotechnology will merge, but what will that produce and when?
In Scene 6 of the lm Waking Life, Procssor Famonn Hcaly supplics an an-
swer to this question that follows the line of the Prometeus scenario.
We will subsequently consider doubts and the margin of error in these types
of predictions, while recalling the time space required for adoption. To con-
cludc, wc will bricy rcvicw Lhc cxLcrnal problcms LhaL mosL likcly awaiL us
in this century.
Virtuality Is Completely Normal
c digiLal virLualiLy LhaL wc know rom compuLcr gamcs, which appcars
dcccivingly rcal in hlm producLions, and o which wc only cncounLcr raLh-
er crude forms of in Virtual Worlds such as Second Life, is only possible by
advanccd compuLcr hardwarc and soLwarc. RcalisLic digiLal virLualiLy has
bccn mainsLrcam or ovcr hLccn ycars. On Lhc PC, MicrosoL FlighL Simula-
Lor and Icisurc SuiL Iarry wcrc Lhc hrsL acccpLablc virLual cnvironmcnLs. AL
Lhc Limc, wc wcrc also vcry cxciLcd abouL Psion's BaLLlc Chcss. IL sccms LhaL,
Our Age of
Simulation is
by a Phony
via Media,
and Fabricated
Visit transpar
eco.htm and
cvcn hLccn ycars ago, digiLal virLualiLy was no longcr a Lcchnological sLunL,
buL a convincing (mulLimcdia) cnrichmcnL o human cxpcricncc.
As a disLanL progcny o Lhc abovc-mcnLioncd applicaLions, hypcrrcaliLy is
beginning gradually to emerge due to the combination of mobile telephony,
GPS, motion tracking and the Internet. e new mobile media platform is
becoming a world in which we can y problem-free to another destination,
jusL as in Sccond Iic, MMORPCs (Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc Rolc Play-
ing Games) and Mirror World applications like Microsoft Virtual Earth and
Photosynth. We can communicate with each other, exchange information
and cxpcricncc plcasurc. BuL cvcn bcLLcr is Lhc acL LhaL, Lhanks Lo mobilc
virLualiLy, wc will soon bc ablc Lo gcL morc ouL o and Lo do morc wiLh our
actual physical reality. 3D images on our spectacles equipped with earplugs
connected to a mobile GPS telephone will transform reality into an open air
museum through which we can wander with our headsets on and be able to
say LhaL wc mcL Napolcon whilc visiLing WaLcrloo. Wc may havc cvcn had a
discussion with the man by means of intelligent software.
Bccausc virLualiLy has rcccivcd an cnormous boosL rom digi-
Lal Lcchnology and, in various rcspccLs, has bccomc cxLrcmc-
ly convincing, many rcgard virLualiLy as Lcchno wizardry. On
closc inspccLion howcvcr, virLualiLy is noLhing spccial, morc-
ovcr, iL bclongs Lo all agcs. Fvcry rcprcscnLaLion o Lhings,
Lrccs, planLs, animals or pcoplc is virLual, in Lhc scnsc LhaL
it is a representation. In painting, surrealism playfully ridi-
culed this point and often took it a step further, as the French
painter Magritte did with his Ceci nest pas une pipe.
VirLual" is a collccLivc qualihcr or all uni-mcdia or mulLimcdia inormaLion
LhaL cnrichcs our scnsual conLacL wiLh rcaliLy. BuL, by cxLcnsion, virLual is
also the characteristic of all information that is lacking from physical reality.
When we, for example, call someone on the telephone, eye contact between
convcrsing individuals is missing. From Lhc vision pcrspccLivc, Lclcphonc
calls arc Lhcrcorc a virLual orm o communicaLion. InsLanL Mcssaging, or
chaLLing," arc a orm o LcxLing," no words bcing vocally uLLcrcd. FurLhcr-
morc, Lhc purcly audiLory naLurc o (LradiLional) phonc convcrsaLions alLcrs
Lhc ocus o aLLcnLion and osLcrs rcccLion, which oLcn may bc vcry posi-
Livc. On Lhc phonc, wc conccnLraLc on Lhc vcrbal subjccL and arc noL disLracL-
ed by looks, gestures and postures of the other(s).
VirLualiLy Lhcrcorc cnrichcs Lhc rcaliLy in which wc cxisL, Lhc cnvclopc o
cvcryLhing around us. Rcal and virLual arc Lwo poinLs on a singlc conLinuum,
jusL likc bcauLiul/ugly and hcalLhy/sick. In acL, closc inspccLion rcvcals LhaL
wc arc consLanLly physically and/or inLcllccLually moving bcLwccn Lhc polcs
in this continuum in one way or another. Virtual-real is therefore not an
ciLhcr...or" disLincLion buL boLh...and." Fvcry LhoughL LhaL wc havc, cvcry
imagc LhaL wc scc, cvcry song LhaL wc hcar on Lhc radio morc or lcss all havc
virLual qualiLics. In cach scnsually limiLcd sLimulus (a pcrson on TV can-
not be smelled, touched or brought into immediate contact) there is media
involvcd, cach Lypc o mcdium hlLcrs ouL a numbcr o sLimuli and ocuscs
attention on others.
A grcaL dcal o shiLing has bccn going on in Lhc virLual-rcal conLinuum ovcr
the last century. As a result of multimedia high tech, which is now rapidly be-
coming three-dimensional, the representation is sometimes indistinguish-
able from the genuine item. We still clearly regard Second Life as inauthen-
Lic, as virLual, as somcLhing complcLcly dicrcnL rom physical rcaliLy. is
disLincLion mighL cnd whcn wc rcccivc 3D imagcs projccLcd onLo our glasscs,
and thats not science ction. Nokia, for example, is working hard on MARA,
the Mobile Augmented Reality Applications, and the topic was discussed in a
vcry concrcLc manncr in Lhc AugusL 2007 issuc o IEEE Spectrum magazine.
Telephone contact, the gramophone record, the traditional radio and TV
wcrc also iniLially LhoughL sLrangc and unrcal, as disLanL and virLual. Duc Lo
lack o inLcracLion, TV and radio will conLinuc Lo appcar as such. Howcvcr,
concert recordings in our surround-sound home theater are much more inti-
mate and real, in the rst place because in a concert hall you experience what
is pcrormcd in much Lhc samc way. c arrival o 3D brings Lhc cxpcricncc
o rcaliLy cvcn closcr Lhan is currcnLly Lhc casc. is ccrLainly applics Lo lic-
like interaction in computer games.
Digital Virtuality: Enhancing and Extending Real Life Beyond Traditional Media
c DigiLal VirLualiLy Cubc, which covcrs Lhc spacc rom Lhc simplc Lcnnis
gamc Pong Lo Rcal Iic iLscl, liLcrally puLs Lhc McLavcrsc virLualiLy, dis-
cusscd in ChapLcr S, in pcrspccLivc. c cubc docs noL dcal wiLh or insLancc
Lhc drawings in Lhc Iascaux cavcs and Lhc virLualiLy in muscums, nor wiLh
Lhc mcdia virLualiLy o ncwspapcrs, magazincs, Lclcphonc, radio and TV.
is is bccausc only Lhc combincd McLavcrsc virLualiLy o IicsLrcams, Vir-
tual Worlds, Mirror Worlds and Augmented Reality is deliberately aimed at
cnriching our Rcal Iic, dchncd as Lhc convcrgcncc o Lhc caLcgorics Scnsory,
Continuous and Physical.
ese three functions are the axes of the Digital Virtuality Cube, which en-
ablcs us Lo cxprcss and posiLion all McLavcrsc caLurcs and applicaLions as
the extent to which they constitute a real-life experience beyond traditional
mcdia and arLiacLs, Lhis bcing a kcy qualiLy in Lhc McLavcrsc goal o blcnd-
ing with Real Life.
Comparcd Lo Lhc immcdiaLcncss o Rcal Iic, McLavcrsc caLurcs and ap-
plications can of course only be semi Sensory, Continuous and Physical.
Howcvcr, Lhcsc caLcgorics sLill apply. To a grcaL cxLcnL Lhcy dchnc Lhc acccp-
Lancc poLcnLial o McLavcrsc mcdia, which should bc ingcniously cmbcddcd
digital tools, enhancing and extending Real Life beyond the capabilities of
LradiLional mcdia. McLavcrsc mcdia arc dcsigncd Lo rcach bcyond Marshall
McIuhans FxLcnsions o Man" sLaLus, insLcad bcing valucd as an inLcgral
part of Real Life.
Univcrsal" Rcal Iic is Lhc origin, Lhc rccrcncc poinL and Lhc dcsLinaLion
o all McLavcrsc virLualiLy. cir dcgrcc o bcing Scnsory, ConLinuous and
Physical dcLcrmincs Lhc rcal-lic cxpcricncc wc can havc wiLh such digiLal
features and applications.

Serious Gaming
Second Life
Digital Virtuality Cube
A couple of illustrations will further explain the three axis and the plotting
of examples in the cube:
Continuous. c VirLual World o Habbo HoLcl docs noL includc a sLory. 1usL
likc Sccond Iic, Habbo cannoL bc playcd Lo Lhc cnd, and Lhcrcorc Habbo
HoLcl and Sccond Iic arc as conLinuous as possiblc, cnduring unLil wc havc
had cnough. In Lhis scnsc, VirLual Worlds likc Habbo and Sccond Iic adopL
a great deal of reality.
Sensory. Habbo is no grcaL succcss insoar as sLimulaLion o Lhc scnscs is con-
cerned. ere are some rudimentary graphics and we can chat, but that is as
far as it goes. is is entirely dierent in the case of Second Life, especially
now LhaL Lhc avaLars havc bccn givcn Lhcir own voiccs.
Physical. As ar as liclikcncss is conccrncd, boLh Habbo and Sccond Iic arc
easily recognizable as articial.
In rcalisLic gamcs, such as World o WarcraL and Halo 3, Lhc scnsory sLimu-
laLion is much bcLLcr dcvclopcd, parLly duc Lo Lhc Lhcmc and Lhc compcLiLivc
element, which makes you sit on the edge of your chair. We know that it is
cnLircly unrcal, buL Lhc scnsaLion is so addicLivc LhaL wc can liLcrally play
oursclvcs Lo dcaLh.
Hyperreality and Calm Technology
rough the integration of the mobile telephone, GPS and the multimedia In-
LcrncL, Lhc ncar uLurc will scc virLualiLy gradually and unnoLiccably bccom-
ing a pcrmancnL caLurc in all our cnvironmcnLs. is virLual inhlLraLion will
rst take the form of information about where we are and what there is to do
Lhcrc. Modcrn virLualiLy is Lhcrcorc a (mulLi)mcdia issuc bascd on inorma-
Lion linkcd LogcLhcr ovcr Lhc InLcrncL. UndoubLcdly, a world o Lomorrow
LhaL bccomcs incrcasingly morc virLual in any such manncr could bc callcd
hypcrrcaliLy. ALcr all, InLcrncL hypcrlinks arc whaL makc Lhis dcvclopmcnL
possiblc, along wiLh Lhc corrcsponding socializing hypcrindividualiLy.
Let us just consider the Virtual World of Second Life for an instant. Philip
Rosedale, the founder of Linden Lab, continues to insist that Second Life is
Lhc virLual uLurc LhaL cvcryonc will usc. c gcncral acccpLancc o a sLrong-
ly improvcd vcrsion may, in Lhc cnd, Lakc placc, buL Philip will likcly no lon-
gcr bc a parL o such a dcvclopmcnL. AparL rom Lhc prcvalcnL Lcchnical and
other limitations, a Virtual World literally meant to be a Second Life cannot
jusL bc consLrucLcd willy-nilly. FnvironmcnLs musL grow as parL o a slow
cvoluLionary proccss aL a raLc dcLcrmincd by our innaLc human rcscrvc. His-
tory, tradition and snail-pace change are important ingredients in ensuring
LhaL pcoplc rcmain aL casc. An cxplosivc suddcn LransormaLion o our rcal-
iLy inLo a Sccond Iic or oLhcr virLual rcplica world would Lhcrcorc only havc
a vcry limiLcd cccL. Such rcalizaLion docs noL dcLracL rom Sccond Iic as a
vcry imporLanL proo o conccpL.
All in all, it is implausible that a Virtual World like Second Life would quickly
become mainstream. An ideal replica of our physical oces, beaches, disco-
Lhcqucs, ciLics and, mosL signihcanLly, oursclvcs as cLcrnally youLhul ava-
Lars is noL Lhc dirccLion in which digiLal virLualiLy will hrsL dcvclop or Lhc
public at large. e combination of mobile telecommunications, GPS, glasses
wiLh car plugs and pcrhaps cvcn Longuc picrcings or shirLs wiLh microphoncs
has a much greater chance of compelling the public to take the next step
towards hyperreality. It is not the intention that hyperreality should replace
human rcaliLy. IL will cnrich our livcs by drawing on mulLimcdia virLualiLy
and making lic cvcr morc ccicnL and cccLivc, jusL as CPS in cars is now
doing. In bric, digiLal-virLual prosLhcscs or physical rcaliLy havc Lhc grcaL-
est chance of becoming mainstream.
Many Lcchno rcaks bclicvc rcligiously LhaL cvcryonc will auLomaLically
bccomc Lcchnologically savvy" wiLhin jusL a cw gcncraLions. is vicw is
not just misguided, it is a downright fantasy. A world made technologically
savvy" is jusL noL on Lhc cards aL all. WhaL iL would rcquirc arc (pcrccivcd)
benets and ease of use. Remember GPS and, insofar as mass media are con-
cerned, radio and TV.
When information, entertainment and communication still were scarce, it was
noL surprising LhaL Lhc mass mcdia o radio and Lclcvision wcrc voraciously
consumed, and later principally used for marketing as well. In eect, there
was an enormous untapped need. e fax machine, telephone and e-mail (the
Internets killer app) originally became widespread on account of the speed
and Lhc onc-Lo-onc naLurc o communicaLion. c ovcrwhclming populariLy
of SMS, chatting and, to a lesser degree, twittering belongs to the same cat-
cgory as Lhc abovc-mcnLioncd c-mail. cy collccLivcly supply our cvidcnLly
unrcmiLLing urgc Lo havc a ncw Lclcgraph": Lo dash o a noLc" wiLh ncgli-
giblc dclay bcLwccn scnding and rccciving, onc LhaL comparcs avorably Lo
Lhc lcLLcr or Lhc cosLly Lclcgraph and LhaL is, morcovcr, pcrccLly lcgiblc.
Mark Weiser (19521999), who sadly died too young, was Chief Technolo-
gisL aL Xcrox and argucd aL Lhc cnd o Lhc prcvious ccnLury LhaL Lhis sorL o
calm technology was a necessary condition for the acceptance of digital
applications. Only when the technology has disappeared and being tech-
nologically savvy" has no urLhcr bcnchL can a ccrLain applica-
tion actually become a hit. Of course, all this depends on one
oLhcr acLor: Lhc ncccssiLy o Lhc applicaLion in qucsLion provid-
ing sucicnL addcd valuc. Nicholas Carrs famous maxim IT
doesnt matter was entirely anticipated by Mark Weisers no-
tions of calm technology and ubiquitous computing.
FxisLing VirLual Worlds, such as Sccond Iic, havc noL ycL mcL
Lhc condiLions o calm Lcchnology" and sucicnL addcd valuc.
e programs control functions are dicult for people unfa-
miliar with computer games, and few
are enthusiastic about the trade in
virLual goods, jcwclry, cloLhing, land
and houses. e disappointing Second
Life population and residence statis-
tics clearly indicate that this form of
a digital dollhouse for adults has little
future. e absence of plot or goals,
such as those that exist in computer
game worlds, makes the likelihood of
a looming dcmisc all Lhc morc likcly. c cnlivcning o communicaLion or
Lhc LargcLcd Lranscr o inormaLion bascd on digiLal puppcL avaLars has Loo
liLLlc Lo conLribuLc Lo our livcs.
Despite all the hype, an idealizing replica world such as Second Life is perhaps
an ulLimaLc goal buL ccrLainly noL an imporLanL applicaLion o virLualiLy in
the near future. Such a world is just a proof of concept, a technological high
poinL, or aL lcasL inLcndcd as such. Howcvcr, biL by biL, Sccond Iic clcmcnLs
will soon nd their way into our mobile hyperreality, which is connected to
physical reality.
Among others, Nokias MARA (Mobile Augmented Reality Applications) and
Mobile Assets self-learning MIA (Mobile Intelligent Agent) are clearly point-
ing in the direction of such a meaningful mobile combination of reality and
virLualiLy, onc LhaL wc will likcly cnjoy in Lhc ncar uLurc. csc applicaLions
will be the subject of the next sections.
Next comes ubiquitous
computing, or the Age
of Calm Technology, when technology recedes into
the background of our lives.
Mark Weiser (1952-1999) is the father of calm tech-
nology and ubiquitous computing. Surf to ubi- for information on the 11

International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing.

It is entirely beyond question that we, thanks to our mobiles, are increas-
ingly becoming true digital nomads. Wired cdiLor Harvcy Fcldspar puLs iL as
My mobile is my place of business, my social network, my entire life folded up into
a device the size of a liquor ask.
MARA: The New Mobile Augmented Reality Applications
Point the camera of your telephone at the art gallery or concert hall. You
will immediately see all the data about the current exhibitionfor example
the rich patrons of the artists in the gallerys collection of Dutch Masters;
or conccrning conccrLs LhaL you can aLLcnd aL Lhc civic ccnLcr. You can, o
course, switch to another date or obtain information about the performing
artists. You can also select the option Other galleries, as you are rarely in
Lown and would likc Lo chcck ouL Lhc local conLcmporary arL sccnc. You havc
heard about the new installations at the modern art museum, all the rage
among the arty-set. Again, you look at your mobile and
ollow Lhc arrow. You havc also uscd your mobilc Lo buy
a LickcL or Lhc cxhibiLion, mcaning LhaL you can avoid
the queue and walk right in.
ese are just a few simple examples of what we will
soon be able to do thanks to MARA, the Mobile Aug-
mented Reality Applications system now being put to-
gether at Nokia. MARA is a combination of GPS, photo
recognition and a triangulation location system. e
MARA home page, including a short lm presentation,
is availablc aL
WhaL MARA will ulLimaLcly mcan can bc vividly imag-
ined. A great deal of the current PC functionality is
now alrcady availablc on mobilc phoncs. For cxamplc,
vacaLions can bc bookcd. Whilc Lalking in a rcsLauranL,
you simply indicate that you want to y to a particular
hoL counLry or an all-inclusivc Lcn-day vacaLion dur-
ing a certain time frame and that your party includes
an clcvcn-ycar-old child. You immcdiaLcly book Lhc va-
cation between the courses of your meal,
since a unique last-minute arrangement
is availablc.
Augmented Reality is Pure ITainment
AugmcnLcd RcaliLy makcs improvcd
working and learning possible, for us to
movc around bcLLcr, rcccivc inormaLion
and cnLcrLain oursclvcs in all sorLs o
ways. Augmented Reality is the ultimate
in ITainment. Using a mobile equipped
with a camera, GPS, a couple of sensors
and a set of digital glasses, we will be de-
liriously happy if, in around ten years,
the problems that we are still experienc-
ing wiLh such convcrgcncc arc rcsolvcd.
at was how IEEE Spectrum magazine
put it in August 2007. As well as notes about the world around us that a cam-
cra obscrvcs, wc could usc Lhc spccial glasscs or lcnscs Lo bring imagcs rom
Lhc pasL alivc or allow oursclvcs Lo bc acLually physically maLchcd againsL
soldiers and cowboys on abandoned lm sets.
AL Lhc Ccorgia InsLiLuLc o Tcchnology an applicaLion was dcvclopcd LhaL
allows us to wander through Oakland Cemetery. Important gures from the
Amcrican Civil War havc Lhcir hnal rcsLing placc Lhcrc. AL appropriaLc mo-
mcnLs, Lhc ghosLs" appcar jusL abovc Lhc ground bcsidc Lhcir LombsLoncs,
complete with accompanying text and appropriated background noise. e
hgurcs cannoL ycL movc, buL Lhc cxpcricncc is ncvcrLhclcss wondcrully au-
LhcnLic. AugmcnLcd RcaliLy may also providc a soluLion or Lcchnicians. cy
will bc ablc Lo rcccivc visual hclp, or cxamplc in Lhc casc o complcx wiring
systems or repairs to airplane and car engines. Surgery might also make use of
Augmented Reality in a comparable manner.
IL is imporLanL or urLhcr dcvclopmcnL LhaL Lhc graphic objccLs can movc
within all three dimensions. Much work is being done on this issue for soft-
warc gamcs, a sccLor involving $30 billion annually. c grcaL challcngc is Lo
kccp virLual imagcs pcrccLly in sync wiLh Lhc imagcs rom rcaliLy. Always
determining the proper location and direction costs a great deal of comput-
ing powcr, and is obviously dcpcndcnL on Lhc dcLails wc wanL. IL is, or cxam-
plc, grcaL or Lhc Lour o Oakland CcmcLcry whcn Lhc ghosLs hovcr abovc Lhc
The augmented-reality glasses will provide use-
ful information in helping us to orient ourselves.
The glasses in this illustration are in education
mode. Read the entire story at
ground bcsidc Lhcir gravcs. Howcvcr, a much grcaLcr prccision
is required when we replace a small part in an engine. Depth is
also vcry imporLanL, Lhc urLhcr you look, Lhc morc disLurbing
the squint angle is.
MIA: Our Mobile Intelligent Agent
MIA is the mobile intelligent agent that the former Mobil
AsscLs Company dcvclopcd LogcLhcr wiLh iLs parLncrs. c
PrcdicLivc InLclligcncc Tcchnologics, which providc Lhc ba-
sis or MIA, makc iL possiblc Lo havc arLihcial inLclligcncc on
mobilc phoncs. By consLanLly rcgisLcring avoriLcs, your MIA
telephone is made into a truly personal assistant for all pos-
sible tasks. e more we use MIA to do things, the smarter
it becomes. MIA is a collection of neural expert systems that
musL hrsL bc Lraincd and LhaL Lhcn urLhcr dcvclop on Lhcir
own, acting as an autonomous intelligent agent. MIA works
wiLh Lhc samc inLclligcnL sysLcms LhaL havc bccn opcraLional
aL various lcvcls o complcxiLy in nuclcar powcr sLaLions, Lhc
army and the air force since the nineties, to name just a few
MIA will know what we want and take the work o our hands. MIA is in-
Lcndcd Lo bc a clonc in a phonc" or pcoplc, buL is also vcry wcll ablc Lo acL, in
Lhc hands o an individual, on bchal o a company in hnancial LransacLions,
or cxamplc. MIA is wcll suiLcd Lo all Lypcs o work, as wcll as Lo providing
entertainment and making purchases. For instance, MIA can help us to con-
hgurc clccLronic cquipmcnL or Lo dcLccL crrors. Wc only havc Lo cnLcr Lhc
righL modcl numbcr and MIA will providc us wiLh Lhc rclcvanL manuacLurcr
Remainders of the
MIA endeavor can
be found at rag-
cgi?board=MBAP&read=50 and otcline.
Augmented Reality will enable us
to experience all sorts of things
with greater intensity.
c dcvclopmcnL o MIA-likc scrviccs is now possiblc on accounL o Lhc ol-
lowing convcrgcncc o circumsLanccs:
cvcryonc now has a mobilc, and sLoragc is incrcasingly lcss cxpcnsivc
Lhc InLcrncL is rcadily acccssiblc cvcrywhcrc
Lhcrc havc bccn rcccnL brcakLhroughs, cspccially in Lcrms o uzzy logic,
ncurocompuLing, cvoluLionary compuLing, probabilisLic compuLing, chaoLic
computing and machine learning theory. ese areas complement each other
DcvclopmcnLs such as MARA and MIA LogcLhcr bring us a long way down
Lhc paLh Lo Agav," Lhc smarL agcnL/avaLar in Lhc YouTubc Prometeus vidco.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee on the Mobile Future
In March 2007, World Wide Web founder Sir Time Berners-Lee appeared be-
fore a judicial sub-committee of the U.S. congress. Berners-Lee, who had set
the ball rolling in a series of lectures on the Digital Future of the United
SLaLcs," has a vision o a uLurc world in which mobilc Lclcphoncs usc radio
wavcs Lo communicaLc wiLh Lhc mosL divcrgcnL Lhings around us, Lhcy Lhcm-
sclvcs cquippcd wiLh digiLal billboard Lcchnology. c Lclcphonc o Lomor-
row will bc ablc Lo dcLcrminc i a givcn suracc is suiLablc or Lhc projccLion
o ccrLain inormaLion. For cxamplc, wc may noL wanL Lo havc our agcndas
projccLcd somcwhcrc in Lhc mcLro, buL on Lhc back o Lhc Laxi drivcr's car
scaL would do no harm. In Lhc mcanLimc, Lhc advcrLising imagc on Lhc sidc
o a Laxi would changc cvcry Lcn minuLcs, dcpcnding on Lhc arca in which
Lhc Laxi is locaLcd. AdvcrLising or IKFA makcs Lhc mosL scnsc
beyond a two-kilometer radius from an outlet, as routes to the
store are clearly marked within this radius.
ese possibilities are part of what is known as the Semantic
Web (see Section 11.4) on which Tim Berners-Lee and his World
Widc Wcb ConsorLium (abbrcviaLcd W3C) arc working. c Sc-
mantic Web is literally intended as a meaningful (semantic)
InLcrncL in which various Lypcs o daLa and mcLadaLa can bc un-
ambiguously exchanged among applications, organizations and
user communities. Anyone lling out a tax form without know-
ing what a certain amount was spent on can quickly access the
appropriate agenda entry by entering the transaction date. If it
is sLill noL clcar, Lhcn phoLos Lakcn on LhaL day arc rcLricvcd and
examined. Ah, it was a day spent with the kids at Disneyland.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Fvcryonc will bc ablc Lo do somcLhing similar wiLh rcgard Lo Lhcir spccihc
situations. Take, for example, the researcher who wants to know the source
o a ccrLain virus. FirsL, hc will asscmblc Lhc rclcvanL gcographic inorma-
tion and medical research in order then to nd an answer to this question.
c cnrichmcnL o our physical rcaliLy wiLh digiLal virLualiLy is a dcvclop-
mcnL LhaL will accL us all in Lhc uLurc. InLclligcnL agcnLs, linkcd Lo avaLars,
will not remain science ction. Our hyperreal futures in which people, ma-
chincs, objccLs, our cnvironmcnL, companics, knowlcdgc and cxpcricncc arc
interlinked on the basis of the Semantic and Social Web can now already be
mappcd ouL. Such a dcvclopmcnL has alrcady bccn in Lhc pipclinc or somc
Limc now and Lcchnology companics, in parLicular, havc bccn hard aL work
in Lhcir cndcavors Lo rcalizc such a uLurc.
Our hypcrrcal uLurc is morc pcrsonal Lhan cvcr, and iL will bc mobilc. c
mobilc phonc is Lhc plaLorm or a hypcrrcaliLy in which cvcryLhing is hy-
pcrlinkcd Lo cvcryLhing clsc. is uLurc is pcrmcaLcd wiLh arLihcial inLclli-
gence. Easy to use ITainment will be the futures killer app. Virtual Worlds
outside the game setting, such as Second Life, will remain proofs of concept.
Howcvcr, in LwcnLy-hrsL ccnLury

manuacLuring ull-cdgcd McLavcrsc vir-
tually is becoming a standard feature.
State-of-the-Art Digital Manufacturing
c collaboraLivc virLual-world dcvclopmcnL o sLaLc-o-Lhc-arL digiLal man-
ufacturing is about to transform our old world of wasteful production, of
shamcul ccicncy, o poor cccLivcncss and Loo liLLlc cusLomcr saLisac-
Lion. In Lhc pasL Lcn ycars a rcvoluLion has bccn rcalizcd wiLh Lhc brcak-
Lhrough dcvclopmcnL o ProducL Iiccyclc ManagcmcnL (PIM). RcccnLly
PIM rcachcd iLs ncxL lcvcl o maLuriLy wiLh Lhc rclcasc o V6R2000: Lhc ncw
vcrsion 6 corc and archiLccLurc o Lhc 2000 rclcasc o Lhc PIM 2.0 soLwarc
portfolio by Dassault Systmes.
Product Lifecycle Management
Reaching farther than traditional Rapid Prototyping, modern PLM systems
like Dassault Systmes CATIA (Computer Aided ree-dimensional Interac-
Livc ApplicaLion), inLcgraLc manuacLuring wiLh cnLcrprisc opcraLions rom
concept through eld support of the nished product.

PLM helps manufacturers to use resources more eciently along the whole
product lifecycle. Before producing anything in the real world, companies
can design, simulate, test and produce products in 3D. is allows them to
opLimizc a producL's Lcchnical, cosL and cnvironmcnLal criLcria, avoiding
wasteful production.
PLM follows the product through manufacturing into the aftermarket, and then
swings back to the concept and production phases for redesign or update. is close-
loop approach can turn a once mediocre product into a genuine category leader.
Nick Donofrio, Senior VP Technology & Manufacturing at IBM in Fortune Maga-
zine, 7/2004
Bernard Charls on Dassaults PLM 2.0 Revolution
We wont stop until all physical products on earth will be digitally designed, digi-
tally prepared for production and digitally managed during their lifecycle. Our vi-
sion is to have a digital model that allows you to dene, monitor and control the
physical world.
Bernard Charls in Fortune Magazine, 7/2004
Welcome to the Dassault Systmes Virtual World. For 26 years we have been using
the power of 3D to help our customers create, optimize and even produce the best
products. We call this Product Lifecycle Management (PLM). Today we are about
to redene the market, again.
Dassault Systmes President and CEO Bernard Charls and his avatar,
making the case for PLM 2.0

PLM 2.0 is about this new environment that will enable user communities to take
advantage of online applications to create, imagine, share and even experience the
future real life of the products they are about to create. V6 will enable to develop
new categories of applications that will be connected all together, integrated and
will be so easy to use that communities of innovators will be able to share this expe-
rience, which is required to make the most optimal products.
In some way it is like Web 2.0, where communities of people can connect to each
other, can share ideas and experience. is is something we want to make available
to our consumers around the world.
e Virtual World is so powerful that it canit will help to improve the real world.
Imagination, testing, verifying in the Virtual World help to create the best prod-
uctthe best product for the consumers, the best product for the environment, in
short to improve our quality of life.
Sourcc: CATIA V6 InLro" via`v=H2zO_yIOi_4
The New V6 Era
CATIA V6 is the result of a ten year, multi-PhD, multi-patent research and
dcvclopmcnL work on CATIA's corc 3D modcling kcrncl, and is unrivallcd in
Lhc indusLry. V6 cnablcs uscrs Lo rcsolvc CcomcLry and Topology simulLanc-
ously, it can open les from pretty much any existing CAD system and edit
Lhcm naLivcly. In shorL, V6 rcmovcs many o Lhc painul limiLaLions LhaL Lhc
CAD industry has suered long and hard from.
CATIA V5 alrcady was Lhc only soluLion LhaL covcrcd Lhc complcLc producL
dcvclopmcnL proccss, rom producL conccpL spccihcaLions Lhrough Lo prod-
ucL-in-scrvicc, in a ully inLcgraLcd manncr.
CATIA is recognized as the worlds leading CAD/CAM/CAE software. It is
designed to optimize all stages of the production lifecycle and oers the
mosL comprchcnsivc applicaLions porLolio availablc in a singlc sysLcm, aim-
ing Lo maximizc concurrcnL producL dcvclopmcnL pracLiccs and proccss rc-
engineering. Currently there are more than 13,000 CATIA sites worldwide in
Acrospacc, AuLomoLivc, IndusLrial Machincry, FlccLrical, FlccLronics, Ship-
building, Plant Design, Consumer Goods, Jewelry and Clothing.
1998-2008: Ten Years of PLM and CATIA
CATIA as wc know iL Loday cvolvcd aLcr IBM's ProducL Managcr (PM) daLa-
basc was sold in l00S Lo DassaulL SysLcmcs. AL LhaL Limc DassaulL was dcvcl-
oping PIM. A liLLlc avanL la lcLLrc" so Lo spcak, sincc AMR analysL Michacl
Burkett only coined Product Lifecycle Management in 1999.
c advanccd PM daLabasc allowcd IBM cnginccrs Lo acccss l,40l,S70 parLs
including 21860 types of cables, 127,008 electronic parts and some 30,000
mechanical assemblies and subassemblies. Via PM all the data, created by
the CATIA software, already in use at IBM, could be distributed to engineers,
accounLanLs and cvcryonc clsc who nccdcd Lhc inormaLion.
PLM 2.0, PLM Online for All, or V6R2009 of CATIA, DELMIA (Digital En-
Lcrprisc Ican ManuacLuring InLcracLivc ApplicaLion) and SIMUIIA, has
been introduced at the start of 2008, ten years after IBM sold PM to Das-
saulL SysLcmcs. CATIA, DFIMIA and SIMUIIA V6R2000 arc naLivc onlinc
solutions with a unied user interface.
V6R2009 is short for the Release 2009 of the Version 6 core and architecture
o DassaulL SysLcmcs' PIM 2.0 porLolio o producLs, which was conccivcd in
tight collaboration with industry leaders.
rough V6R2009 PLM 2.0 truly brings to life the entire product lifecycle,
from ideation to engineering, production, consumer usage, maintenance
and disposal. PIM 2.0 cnablcs all uscrs Lo imaginc, dcvclop, sharc and cx-
pcricncc Lhc producLs in Lhc univcrsal languagc o 3D whilc harncssing Lhc
collccLivc inLclligcncc o onlinc communiLics.
V6R2009 in a Nutshell
This rst release of Dassault Systmes Version 6 serves the business processes of
eleven target industries. Customers can select from over 150 production-ready prod-
ucts, including:
Lifelike Experience through 3DVIA V6
Collaborative Innovation through ENOVIA V6
Virtual Design through CATIA V6
Realistic Simulation through SIMULIA V6
Digital Manufacturing and Production through DELMIA V6
Lifelike Experience: Imagine and Play
With 3DVIA V6 consumers can try out products and suggest modications at any
stage of the creation process. 3DVIA V6 also helps companies market, promote, sell
or maintain products online with 3D-powered experiences in advertising, shopping,
operation, maintenance, et cetera
Collaborative Innovation
ENOVIA V6 provides an open, online collaborative environment, on a single IP man-
agement platform, for all product lifecycle activities. ENOVIA V6 includes the gover-
nance of enterprise ecosystems, global sourcing and Unied 3D Live Collaboration.
V6s turntable navigation
tool: a dramatic virtual-
world departure from the
traditional Excel-style
project views. Source:
CATIA V6 Testimonials
Virtual Design
CATIA V6 offers System Engineering as a collective, integrated multi-disciplinary
model for product development, Meta-CAD Modeling, Knowledge-Based Design
and breakthrough user experiences and functions to shape and reshape 3D from
any modeling source with unsurpassed speed, quality, and ease-of-use.
Realistic Simulation
SIMULIA V6 offers a unique collaborative environment to perform lifelike simula-
tion and virtual product behavior testing. SIMULIA V6 features the Multi physics
Digital Lab, the Open Scientic Platform, and embedded compliance.
Digital Manufacturing and Production
DELMIA V6 delivers next generation manufacturing solutions to create, share, ex-
ecute and optimize virtual production systems through Manufacturing Planning,
Plant & Resource Engineering and Program & Control Engineering.
V6R2009 on the Web
A comprehensive V6R2009 PLM 2.0 demo video can be found on the Web at
Dassault Systmes3DVIA
can be used with Microsoft
Virtual Earth (down load at
This is only one of
many Augmented
Reality scenarios
that change the way we interact with books and games. Combining the real world with
three-dimensional gures is a remarkable immersive experience.
Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or 265 with a webcam. 1.
The PC will link the image it sees to specic Augmented Reality content via previ- 2.
ously downloaded software from
The additional Augmented Reality content will be displayed on top of the trigger 3.
page: in this case a robot holding a postcard with a welcome video.
Make Me the Media Pop
with Augmented Reality Tech
Is Science Fiction Becoming
11.1 Hardwarc, SoLwarc and WcLwarc" 266
11.2 From One of the Crowd to a Complex New I 266
11.3 Singularity and Ideals 269
11.4 Me-Media and the New Internet 270
11.5 Neurotech Is Catching Up 272
11.6 Doubt and Inertia 273
11.7 Superhuman or Sand in the Gears? 277
Ultimately and, according to experts much sooner than we think, hyperindividu-
alization will achieve its true fulllment through the convergence of digital (hard-
ware and software) and analog (wetware).
This chapter will give voice to the views of a number of people attempting to
sketch out the possible future resulting from such an event. It represents an ex-
ercise in mapping out the scope of future possibilities emanating from the prob-
able next step in the development of Information Technology: the IT penetration
of our skin. In the present Me-Media phase, things are still being done in what
is perhaps a somewhat outmoded manner. In terms of their objectives, the con-
temporary Me-Media are mostly just fragmented imitations of mass media. The
technology of Web media simply enables them to reach a public more easily. At
the same time, the new Web environment encourages us to be incredibly ckle.
Web media clearly have a socializing and emancipating effect, but the ultimate
consequence of the Ubiquitous Web would still seem to be far away. Towards the
end of the next decade, however, we may well be looking back at the present mo-
ment as if it were digital prehistory, as developments are happening at an amaz-
ing speed. As well as beginning what may be the last pure Information Technology
era, the integration of ITech and ITainment with nanotech, biotech and cognition
is very close at hand (NBIC).
Hardware, Software and Wetware
A numbcr o visionarics conLinuc Lo prcdicL Lhc ulLimaLc convcrgcncc o IT,
nano and biotechnology into one large network of hardware, software and
biochemical wetware. In this new conguration, digital and analog will
merge and completely new identities be created, which will partly be em-
bodicd and parLly assumc Lhc orm o Sccond Iic avaLars. AL Lhc samc Limc,
another part of them will consist of autonomous software programs, and a
urLhcr parL may bc nano-chcmical viLamin and advanccd mcdical prcpara-
tions to protect and repair the wetware.
Such a uLurisLic vision may pcrhaps sccm laughablc, and wc arc noL Lrying
Lo givc an ovcrly simplisLic vicw o Lhc uLurc bascd on whaL mosL o us would
rcgard as amusing or cvcn Lcdious scicncc hcLion. IL is clcar LhaL, i wc look
back on cvoluLion, Lhc pacc o dcvclopmcnL is sLcadily incrcasing. Fach wavc
o ncw possibiliLics, nonc o which rcquircd a gcnius Lo prcdicL iLs arrival,
can be regarded as telescopic enhancements of future progress: science and
Lcchnology providing cvcr grcaLcr powcrs o magnihcaLion.
Various cxpcrLs havc cxamincd Lhc siLuaLion and arrivcd aL Lhc conclusion
LhaL, in any cvcnL, Lhc convcrgcncc o digiLal and analog is lcss Lhan hal a
ccnLury away. I Lhis is corrccL, iL will signal an cvoluLionary paradigm shiL
in which Is, identities, media, content and more will ultimately be com-
plcLcly inLcrwovcn and inLcrlinkcd.
As Lhcrc arc incrcasingly morc abundanL voiccs bcing hcard and incrcas-
ingly morc indicaLions poinLing Lo a rapid convcrgcncc o digiLal and analog,
along with all the possible consequences of such an occurrence, we would like
to take the opportunity in this chapter to look to the future and introduce
you to principle changes unleashed in a transition to a world of cyborgs, as
skcLchcd ouL by Famonn Hcaly in Lhc hlm Waking Life. Hcaly makcs Lhis dc-
vclopmcnL cxLrcmcly plausiblc, buL or Lhc Limc bcing wc prccr Lo conLinuc
to place it within the category of science ction.
From One of the Crowd to a Complex New I
c ollowing vision o Lhc uLurc is bascd on Sccnc 6 o Lhc hlm Waking Life.
In iL, Famonn Hcaly, Procssor o ChcmisLry in AusLin, Tcxas, cxplains his
idcas abouL Lhc approaching cvoluLion rcvoluLion. ArLihcial inLclligcncc and
molecular biology will merge on the basis of neurotechnology. As the title
Waking Life suggests, this transformation will result in a new awakening of
life after billions of years of slumbering existence. Technology will redeem us
all, immortality becoming commonplace.
e me > Me > ME theme: To be able to say anything meaningful about
Lhc high poinLs o human dcvclopmcnL, wc havc Lo cxaminc our inLcracLion
wiLh Lhc cnvironmcnL. From prchisLory Lo Lhc prcscnL, human cxisLcncc has
primarily bccn conccrncd wiLh Lhc dcvclopmcnL o populaLion, noL o Lhc
individual. BuL Lhis is abouL Lo changc.
Acceleration and change: Life began two bil-
lion years ago and the rst human-like crea-
Lurcs appcarcd six million ycars ago. Homo
sapiens has been on Earth for one hundred
thousand years and began to work the land
about ten thousand years ago. Modern science
has now existed for about four hundred years
and Lhc indusLrial rcvoluLion daLcs back Lo
around lS50. c spccd o cvoluLion is cvidcnL-
ly increasing and if we project this acceleration
into the future, then we must conclude that
the current generation of humans will undergo
phenomenal changes.
Digital and analog: c basis o Lhc ncxL cvolu-
Lionary sLagc in our dcvclopmcnL is Lhc usion
of digital and analog, of articial intelligence and molecular biology. Neu-
roLcchnology is Lhc binding link bcLwccn Lhcm. Rcvicwing cvoluLion up Lo
the present day, you might say that one will become dominant and the other
disappcar. Howcvcr, wc scc somcLhing complcLcly ncw: digiLal and analog
can bc harmoniously incorporaLcd wiLh cach oLhcr bascd on Lhc individual.
As a rcsulL, cvoluLion will changc rom a proccss bascd on populaLions (or
dcspiLc all Lhc cmancipaLions o Lhc pasL, Lhc individual o Loday is sLill pri-
marily onc o Lhc crowd) Lo a proccss in which Lhc individual human will Lakc
center stage for the rst time.
Identities and immortality: Once the technology is ready, the intellectual
and physical capaciLics o cach individual will incrcasc wiLh blisLcring spccd.
Film fragment:
NRLy7LqFN6E; text:
IT 0.0
IT 1.0
IT 2.0
IT 3.0
With Programming Considered as a Human Activity
Edsger Dijkstra (Chairman of Computer Sciences at
University of Texas Austin, 19842000) unintentionally
kicked off our Programming Century
Second Life
ITech ITainment
+ > NBIC
1995 2010 2025 2065
- la|nment redom|nates lech
- A||cat|ons d |nte|||gence f|our|sh
- l matures and, |n the second
half of the Programming Century,
w||| deve|o |nto N8lL
- N8lL:
Nanotech 8|otech lech[la|nment Logn|t|on
- emova| of f|na| restr|ct|ons on the
development of intelligent life in the Metaverse
Virtual Earth
Over the course of the twenty-rst century, the coding and manipulation techniques of IT will merge
with nano, bio and neurotechnology. This convergence of life-dening technologies is the principal con-
stituent of so-called Singularity. The interaction will, in principle, endow humanity with the capacity to
transcend individual existence into an immortal identity with collective intelligence, knowledge, experi-
ences, emotions and spirituality.
Abovc all, Lhc dcvclopmcnL o dcrivcd idcnLiLics, subidcnLiLics and combincd
identitiespartly embodied, partly purely digitalis close at hand. We will
no longer be bound by time and space, and the experience of immortality
will become absolutely normal.
Singularity and Ideals
Anyone making the eort to examine the lm fragment or text on the Inter-
ncL will noLc LhaL Hcaly docs noL usc Lhc Lcrm immorLaliLy" buL, in a gcn-
eral sense, speaks about without limitation of time and space. e leading
Lhrcad running Lhough his argumcnL involvcs Lhc incrcasing accclcraLion in
Lhc succcssion o pcaks in human cvoluLion. Wc can cvcn add urLhcr high
points to the ones that he mentions. When it comes to the area of media,
Lhcrc is ccrLainly somc rclcvancc Lo bc ound in Lhc prinLing prcss, which
bccamc availablc in Furopc hvc hundrcd ycars ago. Woodblock prinLing and
movablc Lypc was availablc much carlicr in China. And wc should noL orgcL
the computer, which made its entry into the business community half a cen-
tury ago, or the PC, which rst appeared in 1981, or the Internet. Indeed,
Hcaly's cnLirc pcriodizaLion may bc subjccL Lo a ccrLain amounL o squab-
bling. For example, the issue of whether life began two or three and a half bil-
lion years ago, as claimed in e End of History for instance. (See sysopmind.
SingulariLyLhc convcrgcncc o dcvclopmcnL inLo onc magnihccnL uni-
tyis jargon encountered in many of this type of cyborg (cyberspace and
organism) speculations, and it is not simply nonsense. e End of History
rcvcals how wc can cxpccL Lo arrivc aL Lhc poinL o SingulariLy wiLhin a orc-
seeable period. Often, such a prelapsarian future is still linked to the ideal of
a bcLLcr world or Lo Lhc rcalizaLion o idcals LhaL raLional human bcings havc
been working on since the time of the emergence of our species.
In Scene 6 of Waking Life, Famonn Hcaly again rcccLs on Lhc world vicw LhaL
may rcsulL in Lhc mcrging o digiLal and analog. c ccicncy o cvoluLion
Lo daLc, Hcaly claims, could bc rcsolvcd by ocusing on Lypical human idc-
als such as truth, loyalty, justice and freedom. is primacy of intellectual
valucs has bccn Lhc Lhcmc o numcrous philosophics, rcligions and Lhcorics,
consider the writings of Plato and Maslow, for example. Due to the accelera-
Lion Loward SingulariLy, human scl-rcalizaLion in a purcly posiLivc scnsc ap-
pcars, morc Lhan cvcr bcorc, Lo bc wiLhin rcach as a rcsulL o Lhc poLcnLial
o convcrging scicnLihc and Lcchnological dcvclopmcnLs. Hcaly prcscnLs Lhis
Lcndcncy as a poLcnLially bcnchcial dcvclopmcnL buL docs noL say anyLhing
about the probability of its occurrence.
Me-Media and the New Internet
In 2007, or Lhc hrsL Limc cvcr, morc inormaLion was gcncraLcd in onc ycar
Lhan had bccn produccd in Lhc cnLirc prcvious hvc Lhousand ycarsLhc
pcriod sincc Lhc invcnLion o wriLing. AL Lhc bcginning o Lhc LwcnLy-hrsL
ccnLury, wc no longcr havc Lo bc saLishcd wiLh prinLcd snapshoLs pickcd up
rom Lhc phoLo shop. InsLcad o imagcs on phoLographic papcr, wc now havc
digiLal mulLimcdia producLions availablc Lo us on Lhc spoL.
2006 saw the publication of the book The Singularity is Near: When Hu-
mans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil. Enjoy Kurzweils slide presenta-
tion on
In 2009 the movie The Singularity is Near, A True Story about the Future
was released. This full-length motion picture intertwines a fast-paced
A-line documentary with a B-line narrative story.
The A-line features Ray Kurzweil interacting with a panoply of thinkers
on the impact of exponentially expanding technologies on the nature of
human life in the next half century.
The B-line is the story of Ramona, Ray Kurzweils female alter ego, starting with ac-
tual footage of Kurzweil creating and demonstrating his virtual creation at the 2001
TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), where Rayas Ramonasang Jefferson
Airplanes White Rabbit.
The B-line continues as Ramona goes into the future where she becomes more and
more humanlike and independenta Pinocchio story. She combats an attack of self-
replicating nanobots and hires Alan Dershowitz (who plays himself ) to press for her
legal rights as a person. The judge rules that he will grant her full legal person-
hood if she passes a Turing test, in which she must appear indistinguishable from
an actual human in a text conversation.
WhaL is iL all lcading Lo` For ycars, Lhcrc havc bccn prcdicLions o Lhc In-
LcrncL bccoming boggcd down. c scrvcr parks ull o consLanLly hum-
ming compuLcrs locaLcd all around Lhc world dcvour cnormous quanLiLics
of energy. After e-mail and e-Business, we are now, in the context of our
e-mancipation, experiencing the beginning of the complete mediatization
o individuals, organizaLions, brands and objccLs.
Wc arc prcparing or such an cxplosivc incrcasc in Mc-Mcdia idcnLiLics by
demanding new technologies to focus increasing amounts of attention on
oursclvcs. A rangc o complcmcnLary mcasurcs is in Lhc making, somc o
which are mentioned in the following (incomplete) list:
IPv6 will soon bc hcrc. Vcrsion 6 o IP (Lhc InLcrncL ProLocol) will providc
the current web with a new set of clothes tailored to accommodate gigantic
growth, as the current 4 10
Internet addresses will expand to at least 3.4
e Semantic Web is in the pipeline. Its information will be well described
and properly ordered in a system of what will be known as meta data.
c Social Wcb is Lhc ocus o inLcnsivc dcvclopmcnL. IL will soon makc iL
possiblc or cvcryonc and cvcryLhing Lo bc incorporaLcd. AL prcscnL, iL rcp-
rcscnLs Lhc mosL noLicablc Lrcnd cmcrging rom Lhc Mc-Mcdia rcvoluLion,
and is consequently the starting point for this book.
The development of the infor-
mation web into a ubiquitous
intelligent Internet requires both
a new knowledge infrastructure
and participation of the greatest
number of people possible. The
so-called Semantic Web must pro-
vide the knowledge infrastructure;
the term Social Web refers to the
participation of individuals and
organizations (see
SICoPNCOICSIF.ppt). Social connectivity
and reasoning
Low High
Agent webs
that know, learn
and reason like
humans do
2 The Social Web 1 The Web
3 The Semantic Web 4 The Ubiquitous Web
connects people connects information
connects knowledge connects intelligence
c combinaLion o Lhcsc ncw dcvclopmcnLs rcprcscnLs a dccisivc sLcp in Lhc
direction of the Ubiquitous Web: the omnipresent entity that accumulates
knowlcdgc, providcs insLrucLion and cngagcs in argumcnL jusL as pcoplc do.
Storage capacity will not be a problem in 2020. When we make use of crystal
structures in nano-technology by, for example, placing the zeros in carbon
isotope 12 and the ones in isotope 13, we will then easily be able to store all
mcmorics rom a human lic in jusL a cw shiny granulcs. On avcragc, wc
are awake for 21,024,000 seconds each year. Suppose that we need 1 mega-
byLc cvcry sccond Lo rccord imagcs, LcxL and sound, on an annual basis, Lhc
required external memory would amount to 21,024 gigabytes or, in other
words, 2 terabytes. Our memories would then always remain in existence
and bc uscd by our (and oLhcr) avaLars.
In Lhis way, immorLaliLy bccomcs Langiblc, aL lcasL acLivc digiLal arLiacLs
LhaL cvcryonc and cvcryLhing will bc ablc Lo lcavc bchind in Lhc sccond hal
of the current century. Ultimately, we will be able to upload the content of
our brains. is possibility is still science ction at present, but not entirely
if it were up to the Blue Brain Team working in the Swiss city of Lausanne on
the cell-for-cell construction of mammal brains.
Neurotech Is Catching Up
At present, neurotechnology and related elds are undergoing a remarkable
caLch-up cndcavor. In March 2007, Lhc IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis
and Machine Intelligence issued an article on the manner in which our brains
recognize computer-simulated street scenes. e result is a general frame-
work for which biology was the inspiration, as the new system literally now
ollows Lhc sLrucLurc o Lhc visual corLcx.
is step forward ts seamlessly with the Blue Brain project being conducted
with the assistance of IBM in Lausanne. Blue Brain is the rst serious at-
tempt to articially construct the brain of a mammal in a biologically ac-
curate manner. At the end of 2006, a splendid simulation of our brains was
providcd aL Lhc lcvcl o Lhc ccll. IL is now possiblc Lo arLihcially link Lhc ncu-
rons in the computer by placing thirty million synapses in their proper
three-dimensional position. As a result, it has become possible to construct
what are known as cortical columns, the underlying structure of our brains.
In Novcmbcr 200S IBM rcccivcd a $4.0 million granL rom Lhc PcnLagon or
research into creating intelligent computers. e money funds the rst phase
of a multiyear eort to engineer computing
sysLcms LhaL simulaLc Lhc brain's acLiviLics
whilc rivaling iLs compacL sizc.
e Soul Catcher research at British Tele-
com Laboratories is an excellent supple-
ment to Blue Brain. In part, the Soul Catch-
er project is examining how the stimuli
LhaL wc rcccivc arc capLurcd and sLorcd by
our thoughts. At the same time, it is explor-
ing how digital information can be directly
entered into the human brain.
It seems likely that we will be able to download the human brain at some time
around 2050. Dying at the end of the century, remarks BT futurologist Ian
Pearson with a wicked humor, will not cause you any career problems. If,
in connection with Blue Brain and Soul Catcher, you also consider the fact
that computers will exceed human intellectual capacity by around 2015, the
Prometeus vision aL Lhc bcginning o Lhc prcvious chapLcr may cvcn bc a vcry
modest outlook of the future.
Doubt and Inertia
AL various poinLs in Lhis book, wc havc cxprcsscd somc doubL abouL prcdic-
Lions. Such rcscrvaLion rcmains imporLanL, or arc wc noL pcrhaps ovcrsLaL-
ing Lhings jusL a liLLlc` How wcll oundcd arc Lhcsc kinds o uLurisLic visions
anyway? Are we not rushing into enormous ethical problems, against which
the debate on cloning pales by comparison? is may indeed be the case, but
Lhc unny Lhing abouL soLwarc and Lhc InLcrncL is LhaL dcvclopmcnLs arc
not so easy to stop by means of legislation and regulation.
Microchips designed by the Silicon Valley company Audience are
now being used by Asian mobile handset makers to improve the
quality of conversations in noisy places. The chip is modeled on
functions of the inner ear and part of the cerebral cortex, so that
a piece of the brain has already been successfully reverse-engi-
neered. Read the entire BusinessWeek story at
In March 2008, it was announced that the
Blue Brain project was progressing faster than
Consciousness is just a massive amount of in-
formation being exchanged by trillions of brain
cells. If you can precisely model that informa-
tion, then I dont know why you wouldnt be
able to generate a conscious mind.
Read the entire story in Seed Magazine at
AnoLhcr inLcrcsLing qucsLion conccrns Lhc margin o crror. Many rcvcla-
tions about the future that seem improbable at rst may, in fact, become
rcaliLy, buL only aLcr dccadcs or cvcn scvcral ccnLurics. A good cxamplc o
an cvcnL scparaLcd rom iLs prcdicLion by somcLhing morc Lhan a hundrcd
ycars is Lhc moon voyagc LhaL 1ulcs Vcrnc dcscribcd in From the Earth to the
Moon. Rcmarkably cnough, Vcrnc's voyagc bcgan in Florida, cndcd in Lhc
Pacihc Occan and had Lhrcc mcn on board, Lhc cosLs o Lhc voyagc in lS65
dollars rccalculaLcd inLo l060 valucs wcrc roughly cqual Lo Lhc cosLs o Lhc
Apollo 11 trip.
Me-Media of another order occurred about ten years ago. When the Life-
streams of Gelernter, Freeman and Fertig became operational on Sun work-
stations, the Association for Computing Machinery, the oldest computer club
in the world, celebrated its centenary. On that occasion, Berkeley researcher
Marc Davis was askcd Lo rccord his vision o whcrc digiLal was hcading on
papcr. Onc o Lhc Lhings LhaL wc mighL cxpccL, wroLc Davis, is Lhc Ncw Ncw
Hollywood." Fvcryonc will havc acccss Lo Lhc soLwarc and cquipmcnL nccd-
cd Lo broadcasL" mulLimcdia programming ovcr Lhc InLcrncL, as a rcsulL o
which hundreds of millions of channels will emerge.
When the tools and infrastructure are in place to enable cheap and eective home
use of video annotation, retrieval, and repurposing tools, the garages of the world
will be the sites of the New New Hollywood creating hundreds of millions of chan-
nels of video content. e conditions of production and use will have changed such
that a large group of amateurs and home users will be regularly making video that
can compete in the information marketplace of networked computers.
It is precisely this change in media
relations that we now see happen-
ing with the lightning-fast growth
of Me-Media. YouTube is bursting
aL Lhc scams wiLh vidco conLcnL
ranging from wonderful documen-
taries such as Hofmans Potion on
Lhc discovcry o ISD and LhoughL-
ful musical clips like Out of Time
Man by Mano Negra to two school
friends who, by way of a parody,
recommend their new eyePhone.
In February 2009 YouTubes Chad
Hurlcy rcvcalcd aL Lhc annual DID
Internet Interrupted:
Why Architectural Limitations Will Fracture the Net
In 2007, Nemertes Research conducted the rst-ever study to
independently model the Internet and infrastructure and cur-
rent and projected trafc. Nemertes concluded that if current
trends were to continue, demand would outstrip capacity be-
fore 2012. In 2008 Nemertes revisited its study and came to the
conclusion that the situation is worse than originally thought.
Capacity in the core, and connectivity and ber layers will
outpace all conceivable demand for the near future. However,
demand will exceed access line capacity within the next years.

concrcncc in Munich, Ccrmany LhaL cvcry minuLc hLccn hours o vidco is
being uploaded to YouTube.
e margin of error for a complete digital world of multimedia and articial
inLclligcncc in 2020 is, rom a Lcchnological pcrspccLivc, ncgligiblc. Howcvcr,
growth in the general use of such technology is a completely dierent issue.
Our Inherent Inertia
c pionccring convcrgcncc o digiLal and analog is undcniably closc aL hand,
but a critical remark must be made about the realization of the resulting
poLcnLial. c cnvisioncd uLurc sccms a complcLcly unprcccdcnLcd sLcp
through the looking glass, as it were. Despite any fundamental or circum-
sLanLial cvidcncc wc arc inclincd Lo arguc LhaL cxcccding such a limiL is sim-
ply impossiblc. And cvcn granLcd Lhc possibiliLy o somc proos o conccpL,
waiting for a broad range of useful results might take innitely long.
FuLurisLic visions such as Lhc oncs in Prometeus and Waking Life are not writ-
Lcn o as nonscnsc, buL may bclong Lo a conccivablc buL non-human ordcr.
For the time being and perhaps until the end of time, we must continue to
assign them to the category of science ction. Instead, it is much more inter-
esting to remain close to the concrete Web reality and to examine what we
might expect from the next few decades, aside from all the radical prophe-
cics o Lhc uLurc. To bcgin wiLh, wc will considcr Lhc avoriLcs, prohlcs and
all Lhc oLhcr inormaLion alrcady availablc on Lhc Wcb aL Amazon, IinkcdIn,
Facebook, MySpace, and so on. We will then go a step further to discuss the
combination of this data with intelligent agents that will act on our be-
halvcs and bc scl-lcarning.
Mature digital intelligence quite possibly may always be
something that remains hidden away. And why not. In prin-
ciple, a car will drive just as well with a two-stroke motor
from the forties as with a computer-controlled fuel-injected
engine. Mature digital intelligence might be an alienating bit of overkill for us
humans, a point that Belgian Silicon-Valley icon Pattie Maes may have already suf-
ciently proven years ago with her FireFly.
press/16635507/19707 and
Gerstner: Fireies before the storm (
Although, technically speaking, there is no single limitation standing in the
way o agcnL Lcchnology, noL so much usc is bcing madc o iL. FirsLly, iL is cvi-
dcnL LhaL wc alrcady havc cnough inLclligcncc o our own. Sccondly, wc havc
Lo acccpL Lhc miLigaLing rcaliLy LhaL Lhc dcvclopmcnL o Lhc ScmanLic Wcb
sLill lcavcs much Lo bc dcsircd. crc is cvcn somc qucsLion o whcLhcr, wiLh
scmanLic sLrucLurc, wc havc alrcady hiL Lhc limiL o pracLical applicaLion.
Morc Lhan an achicvablc, cxpcrimcnLal playgrounda proo o conccpL
has not yet been realized insofar as the Semantic Web and autonomous intel-
ligent agents are concerned.
e recent past saw the adoption of weblogs and wikis, such as the American
sccrcL scrvicc's InLcllipcdia. c Social Wcb musL Lhcrcorc bc Lhc vchiclc
or dcvcloping Lhc (combincd arLihcial/naLural) inLclligcncc dcscribcd in SF
reading and what we all seem to be preoccupied with.
IL sccms LhaL, wiLh arLihcial inLclligcncc, wc havc rcachcd Lhc limiL LhaL Lhc
Greek philosopher Protagoras identied 2500 years ago in formulating the
maxim man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are,
and of things which are not, that they are not. is rule of thumb implies
that any non-existing thing or anything too distant from our world of expe-
ricncc will ncvcr comc Lo pass, or may only happcn c-x-L-r-c-m-c-l-y slowly.
Get A First Life! Just
go outdoors. Everyone
is already a member.
First life is an analog
3D world in which
you are never bogged
down by insufcient
processing capacity.
First Life is incredibly popular: more than six billion
residents, with a few hundred thousand being added
every day.
It is for good reason that, as mentioned, we now see the strong emergence of
the Social Web instead of the Semantic Web, and a proposal has been made
to use Wikipedia, the largest hierarchical collection of information in the
world, as boLLom-up inpuL or Lhc onLologics rcquircd Lo givc shapc Lo Lhc
Semantic Web.
Superhuman or Sand in the Gears?
crc may, indccd, bc a prcmaLurc cnd Lo Lhc dcvclopmcnL o hypcrinLclli-
gcncc and SingulariLy, howcvcr, as Lhc combinaLion o climaLc problcms and
an abrupt shortage of fossil fuels, the joint assault, lay waste to the human
cconomy. Such pcssimism mighL cxaggcraLc a non-rcdcmpLivc doom scc-
nario, buL iL is ncvcrLhclcss only righL Lo rccognizc LhaL Lhc drcam o hypcr-
rcaliLy could vanish long bcorc iL has Lhc chancc Lo bccomc rcaliLy. Clobal
warming and its potential consequences are, in terms of the Me-Media fu-
ture, less likely to be science ction than the prospect of Singularity based on
Lhc convcrgcncc o digiLal and analog LhaL Procssor Famonn Hcaly prcscnLs
in the lm Waking Life. Hypcrcgos, hypcrrcaliLy and, ulLimaLcly, a digiLal-
analog superhuman may well be the glittering bright-side of the coin, but
may also havc a dark sidc LhaL Lcchno-opLimisLs oLcn cnLircly ovcrlook. is
gloomicr ip sidc involvcs Lhc LormcnLs o cncrgy and climaLc.
Fvcryonc knows LhaL casy-oil" (Lhc Lcrm or oil and gas LhaL is casy Lo ob-
Lain) producLion is soon likcly Lo pass iLs pcak cvcrywhcrc, and LhaL Lhcrc is
a rcal lack o an cncrgy alLcrnaLivc. UnprcccdcnLcd pricc incrcascs will un-
doubLcdly bc Lhc rcsulL. Fncrgy sourccs oLhcr Lhan casy oil" ciLhcr providc
liLLlc rclic, or causc Loo much polluLion and LhrcaL Lo Lhc cnvironmcnL, as is
cvcn Lhc casc or biomass and hydrogcn. c days o casy oil" havc passcd,
as Lhc Lop man aL Shcll, 1crocn van dcr Vccr, has bccn Lclling sharcholdcrs
and journalists for some time now. And we are constantly confronted by un-
pleasant surprises, causing the oil price to shoot up further.
In his book e Last Oil Shock: A Survival Guide to the Imminent Extinction of
Petroleum Man David SLrahan makcs Lhc problcm pcrccLly clcar. For cvcry
barrcl o oil currcnLly bcing produccd, wc arc consuming Lhrcc. Morcovcr,
it does not take a rocket scientist to gure out that oil production will un-
doubtedly decline within the next ten years. If nothing changes (and what
could any immediate remedy possibly be, for the only manner of producing
good hydrogcn is by aLomic usion, and iLs dcvclopmcnL will Lakc dccadcs),
the scarcity of oil will soon bring a large part of the economy to its knees,
causing our mobility to come to a grinding halt. No more cars, no trucks
and no airplanes, as transportation becomes unaordable.
It is distressing to admit that, within the foreseeable future, the com-
bination of global warming and oil, the black gold, will throw so much
sand in the gears that IT, Me-Media and the digital-analog superhuman
might sink right down to the bottom of the priority list.
Still, this much is sure: IT began in basements,
clambered upstairs and found its way into our
oces and business processes. e ird Media
RcvoluLion has broughL IT bcorc our cycs and
into our senses. In the next step, ITech and ITain-
mcnL will vanish undcr our vcry skins. AL prcscnL,
we are still talking about ego trips on the Internet
and the ways in which we appear to others. Soon,
we will be obsessed with life-prolonging measures
and bccomc cvcn morc prcoccupicd wiLh oursclvcs
than we already are. One last conclusion has forced
its way into our musings.
Individualization? You aint seen nothing yet!
James Martin, the respectable IT guru, calls the twenty-rst century the
Make or Break Century, and has recently launched his 21
Century Busi-
ness School at Oxford University. It is a place where the huge problems we
currently face, from the divide between rich and poor to overpopulation
and the climate, are analyzed and pursued in an integrated manner. The
result is already clear: humanity will have to endure further difculties
over the coming decades.
A transition, unique in human history will occur. If the transition goes well, humanity has
a magnicent future. If it goes badly, we may be thrown into a new Dark Age or worse.
On Lhc vcry day LhaL Lhis book wcnL inLo prinL, wc would havc lovcd Lo add
scvcral ncw rclcvanL dcvclopmcnLs, as our mcdia uLurc is only sLarLing Lo
unold. For insLancc Lhc marvclous PhoLosynLh covcragc o Barack Obama's
inauguration at, the stunning deep sea features of
Cooglc FarLh, and Lhc sLarL o Lhc SingulariLy UnivcrsiLyPrcparing Hu-
manity for Accelerating Technological Changeto mention just three. at
is why we started to continue this project. ere you can
parLicipaLc in kccping Lrack o inLcrcsLing mcdia-rclaLcd novclLics.
Me the Media Movie
You have reached the end of the Me the Media book, but its stories are
only now truly beginning. At, you will nd additional
information and the Me the Media Moviea compilation of YouTube video
fragmentswhich is primarily concerned with the business impact of the
Third Media Revolution, currently in full swing. The clip ends with the
question: What is your story? We are asking everyone to share their
experiences and ideas with us and everyone else. is
entirely concerned with the developing impact of the new Web media on
Abrams, Jonathan 146
Adelson, Jay 155-156
advcrLising l32
Alaska Airlines 70-71
AlbcrL Hcijn S2-S3
Alexander, James 233
Amazon 158, 160-161
ambient intelligence 17
challenges 103-104, 116
paradigm shift in ideas business 114-118
pcriods o poliLical innovaLion l02-l03
political paradigm shift 105-106, 108-112
Progrcssivc Fra l06-l0S
progrcssivc poliLical coaliLion ll3-ll4
American Idol 36
Anderson, Tom 146
Andreessen, Marc 150
Android OS 203
Anshe Chung Studios 193
Arctic Monkeys 227-228
Armano, David 04
A-Space 237
Astley, Rick 212
aLLcnLion, dividing your 24-20, l6S
AuctionWeb 158
augmentation 173-174
Augmented Reality 17, 174-177, 188-189, 255
Mobile ~ 57, 246
banks, attack on 232-234
BarCamp 82
Barefoot, Darren 166
Bauerlein, Mark 26-27
Bazaarvoicc (Dcll) 76
BBC 128-129
Bebo 145, 149-150
Bcck, WouLcr van 07
Bell, Alexander 59-60
Bell, Gordon 218-219
Bent, Wim 159
Bentwood, Jonny 71
Bernays, Edward 133-134
Berners-Lee, Tim 45, 163, 247, 257-258
Betist, Pim 225
Bezos, Je 160-161
Bianchini, Gina 150
biotechnology 17, 44
Birch, Michael 149
BitTorrent 222, 225
Blattnerphone 128-129
Blizzard 197
blogging 11, 34, 66-88, 235
~ rules 79-80, 85-86
Blue Brain 272
Boldmovcs (Ford) S4-S5, S7
Bowden, Mark 206
British Cool Brands 36
Broekho, Wouter 157
Brolsma, Gary 210
Brutus 142-143
Buchleit, Paul 183
Burns, Veejay 66
Byren, Owen 155
Caesar 142-143
Cameron, Bobby 43
Campbell, Don 205
Carolus, Johann 120
Carr, Nicholas 13, 28, 43, 149, 253
Carter, Gary 139
Cascio, Jamais 173
CATIA V6 258, 260-263
Cavazza, Frcd l54
cell phone 56-57, 63 l0, l00
Channel 9 (Microsoft) 67-69, 85
Charls, Bernard 259
Chcn, SLcvc 2l2-2l4
Chijs, Marc van dcr 2l5
Cicero 169-170
ClinLon, Hillary l05-l06, l0S-l00
Cloud Computing 161
Cluetrain Manifesto 76, 93-94, 97
coins 142-143
Colbert, Stephen 207
communication 38, 68-70, 169-170
CompuLcr SupporLcd CoopcraLivc Work
(CSCW) 235-236
Continous Partial Attention and Friendship
25-26, 168
ConvcrsaLion Fconomy l0, l3, 04-05, 07,
100-118, 166
ConvcrsaLion Prism l66-l67
ConvcrsaLion SocicLy l0, l3, l00-llS, l66
convcrsaLions 66-6S, S5
economy of ~ 89-100
Cooper, Martin 61-62
corporate blogs 67-70, 84-85
Craigslist 158, 161-162
Crimean War 127
crowdsourcing 95-97
CrowdSpirit 96
Cult of the Amateur, e 40
Cunningham, Ward 236
Cup of Cha, My 76-78, 85-86
Cyberspace 172
Cyworld 145, 153-154
Dancing Baby 209
Darlin, Damon 29
Dassault Systmes 258-263
Database of Intentions 148, 168
DataPortability 162, 165
Davis, Marc l2l, 274 141, 155-156
Dell 75-76, 85, 87
Denters, Esme 36, 211
DcvclopcrWorks (IBM) 70
Digg 13, 141, 155-156
digital and analog 267, 269
digital manufacturing 258-263
Digital Virtuality Cube 249-251
Dijkstra, Edsger 43
disruptions 203-240
Dorsey, Jack 29
doubts 273-276
Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein (DrKW)
Dreyfus, Leonard 132
eBay 158-160, 232, 239
Ebbseet United FC 239
e-Business 34
convcrsaLions ~ 0l-05
era of ~ 89-91
Edelman, Richard 71
Edison, omas 59, 129-130, 223
e-mancipation 46, 92
eMule 225
Engestrm, Jyri 158, 182
Eno, Brian 222
Enterprise 2.0 26, 237
Ettinger, Amber Lee 212
Fvc Onlinc l0S-l00
FvcryScapc lS7
FvoluLion o Dancc 2l0
extimate 173-174
Facebook 8, 16, 143, 145-149, 165
Fanning, Shawn 224
Fertig, Scott 175
Fessenden, Reginald 127
Financial Times 13
Firey 275
FirsL Mcdia RcvoluLion l5, l20
Fitzpatrick, Brad 162, 164
Flannery, Matt and Jessica 234
FOO Camp 82
Ford Boldmovcs S4-S5, S7
Free Software Foundation 95
Freeman, Eric 175, 177
Friendfeed 8, 183
Friendster 8, 145-146
Friis, Janus 220, 225, 231
future 241-247, 265
mobile ~ 257-258
G1 203
Gaal, Robert 157
CclcrnLcr, David l75-l77, lS4
Giant Global Graph 163
Gibson, William 172
Gitelman, Lisa 129
global reframe, great 103-104
globalization 103
Gonzalez-Reinhart, Jennifer 235-236
Google 8, 13, 164, 214, 239
Google Earth 172, 185-186
Cooglc Iivcly l00
Google Maps 185
Gootte, omas 125
Gorodetzky, Ron 155
Gouraud, George 129
GPS 37
Graef, Ailin 193
gramophone 56, 59, 129-131, 223
Green, Charles 77
Guericke, Konstantin 150
Gulf War 123
Culik, Dirk Willcm van 220
Gutenberg Bible 34
Habbo HoLcl lS0, l05-l06, 25l
Halo 3 l0S
hardware 266
Hcad-Up Display (HUD) lSS
Hcaly, Famonn 45, 266-270
HcarsL, William Randolph l07
Hcijmans, Dagmar 225
Hcrmanns, 1crcmy 70
HcrLz, Hcinrich 50
HcwlcLL-Packard l76
Hi5 S
HiPiHi l06-l07
Homan, Rcid l50
Hollywood, Ncw (Ncw) l2l, 274
homo ludens 57
Hoovcr, HcrbcrL l35
Howc, 1c 06
Hui, Xa l06-l07
Hulu 2l0-220
Hurlcy, Chad 2l2-2l4
hype cycle 242-243
hyperattention 168-169
Hypcrcgo l4, l7, 30, 53, l4l-l70, l74, 243
hypcrindividualizaLion 243, 265
hyperreality 246, 248, 251-253
hypertargeting 168
Hyvcs S2, l45
blog 79, 85
blogging rules 79-80, 86
Second Life 192
IdeaStorm (Dell) 76, 87 183
identities 17-19, 267-268
virLual ~ l4
iGoogle 14
individuals, ussy l35-l37
inertia 273-276
information 38
InormaLion Ovcrload Rcscarch Croup (ORC)
26, 28
Information Technology (IT) 39-42
four periods 45-46
relationship with media 38
ING 76-78, 85-86
Intellipedia 236-237, 276
Internet Telephony 232
intimate 173-174
iPhone 14, 61, 203
IPv6 27l
iReport (CNN) 8, 14
Israel, Shel 68, 74
ITainment 13, 33-38, 38-64
ITechnology 13, 38, 43-47
iTunes 227
Jackson, Maggie 26
Jaiku 182
1arvis, 1c 75-76
Joost 220-221
1usLin.Lv 2l7-2lS
Kan, Justin 217
Kapur, Amit 165
Karim, Jawed 212-214
Karinthy, Frigyes 144
Karjalainen, Sampo 195-196
Kazaa 203, 220, 225, 231
Keen, Andrew 26, 40-42
Kemp, Jacques 76
Kerkhof, Freek 208
Kerry, John 114
Kierkegaard, Sren 36
Kirk, Walter 28
Kiva 234
Klinker, Dan 216
Kodak 83-84
Koponen, Petteri 182
Kryptonite 73-75, 87
Kurzweil, Ray 270
Kyrla, Aapo 195-196
Laipply, Judson 210
Lasch, Christopher 137
Last, Jonathan 42 226
Ic Bon, CusLav l34
Le Meur, Loc 221-222
Lessing, Doris 28
Icvinc, Rick 03
Leyden, Peter 101
Li, Charlene 78
lifelogging 174, 179, 218
Lifestreams 174-183, 274
Linden Lab 191, 193
LinkedIn 145, 150-151
Iivc NaLion 230
Iivc1ournal ll
IivcIcak 2l7
Iivcly l00
Locke, Christopher 93
Lonelygirl15 36, 210-211
Long Tail 47-48
Madonna 230
Maes, Pattie 275
Malraux, Andr 124
manufacturing, digital 258-263
Manzetti, Innocenzo 59
MARA 246-247, 249, 253-255
Martin, James 243, 278
Maslow, Abraham 201
Masonis, Tod 153
mass media 8-9, 12, 15-16, 33
electronic ~ 15, 119-139
~ vs. mcdia mass 00
Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc ChaL CommuniLy
(MMOCC) 195
Massivc MulLiplaycr Onlinc Rolc Playing
Game (MMORPG) 191, 197-198
Matrix 172
McAfee, Andrew 237-238
McCain, John 106
McKinney, Phil 177
McLuhan, Marshall 47, 49, 58, 97
Me Decade 122, 136
Me-Media 33-64
~ and health 122
~ and new Internet 270-272
business impact 52-53
impact 12-14
convcrgcncc o ~ 5S-64
meaning of ~ 49
media mass 9, 12, 15-16, 33, 47-52
doing business in ~ 99-100
~ vs. mass mcdia 00
Mcdia RcvoluLion l4-l6, 35-37
First ~ 15, 120
Second ~ 15-16
ird ~ 9-10, 12-14, 16, 35, 37, 52-53, 122
mediatization 17, 31, 35
MeOnTV 221
McLavcrsc l4, l6-l0, 30, 66, l7l-202,
economic impact 200-202
~ Roadmap 172-174
Metro 120
Meucci, Antonio 54
MIA 246-247, 253-257
microblogging 179
Microsoft 68-69, 85, 87
Microsoft SharePoint 236
Microsoft Virtual Earth 172, 174, 186, 263
Microsoft WorldWide Telescope 186
Milgram, Stanley 144
Millennial Generation 104, 113-114
Mirror Worlds 174, 176, 184-187
Mobile Augmented Reality Applications
(MARA) 246-249, 253-255
Mobile Intelligent Agent (MIA) 246-247,
Moore, Alan 92
Morph (Nokia) 64
MovablcTypc ll
mscape 176-177
MTV 194
multimedia 119-122
interaction 121
role in wars 122-125
multi-stranded relationships 98
multitasking 28
Murdoch, Rupert 16, 141, 143, 146, 206
Music Genome Project 226
music industry, attack on 223-231 10, 14
MyLifeBits 218-219
MySpace 8, 16, 141, 143, 145-146, 165
Naked Conversations 68
nanotechnology 17, 44
Napster 203, 224-225
narcissism 137-139
Narcissus 138
Narro 159
Mars probe 184
World Wind 187
NBC Univcrsal 2l0
NBIC 36, 43-46, 265, 268
Neuromancer 172
neurotechnology 17, 267, 272-273
New Economy 91
New Politics Institute 101
Newmark, Craig 161-162
News Corporation 141, 146, 219
newspapers 35, 119-122, 208
~ and paperless news 204-208
rst ~ 120
free ~ 120-121, 203-205
Next Agenda 101
Nguyen, Minh 153
Nicktropolis 194
Nieuwe Tijdinghe 120
Nicuwcnburg, David Carccran 76-7S
Nine Inch Nails 228-229
Ning 145, 150
Nokia 254
Norris, Jim 183
NovoKing l07
Numa Numa Guy 210
Oakland Cemetary 255
Obama, Barack 10, 13, 102, 105-106,
108-112, 117
Obama Girl 212
Obama Moment 101-118
Object-Centered Sociality 158
Ogrish 216
Omidyar, Pierre 158
online shopping 158
open source 95-96
OpenID 162, 164
OpenSocial 153, 162, 164-165
OReilly, Tim 39, 42
Orkut 145
pamphlets 122
Pandora 226-227
Parker, Sean 153
PayPal 160
PC Magazine 72-73
PcmbcrLon, SLcvcn 40
Philips 193
phonograph 59, 129-130, 223
photophone 60
Photysynth 186-187
Plaxo 145, 153
Plaxo Pulse 153
Playboy 193
politics, new 105-106
Pontiac 192
power sellers 159
Pownce 183
PR 133-135
Primark 82-83
Prince 229
printing press 15, 33-36, 120-121
Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)
progaganda 133-135
Programming Century 44, 46, 268
Progrcssivc Fra l06-l0S
Prometeus 46, 244-246
Pronk, Jan 72
propaganda 123
Prosper 234
Pulitzer, Joseph 107
radio 35, 127-128
radio war, rst 124-126
Radiohead 229-230
Raymond, Eric 95
Raza, Ghyslain 209-210
record companies 230
recording 128-131
multi-stranded ~ 98
single-stranded ~ 98
Rhcingold, Howard 07
Rickroll 212
Ring, Cameron 153
Ringo 149
Romans 120-121, 142-143
Rosc, Kcvin l55-l56, lS3
Rosedale, Philip 193, 251
RSS newsfeeds 204
Rubcl, SLcvc 72-73, SS
Sanger, Larry 42
Schachter, Joshua 156
science ction becoming reality 265-278
Scoble, Robert 67-68, 74, 166, 187
Searls, Doc 93
Second Life 14, 16, 189-193, 251-253
Sccond Mcdia RcvoluLion l5-l6
Second World War 123
Seesmic 221-222
Sellaband 225-226
Semantic Web 257, 271, 276-277
Semper International 192
Simon, HcrbcrL 25
Simplc SLoragc Scrvicc (S3) l6l, 2l7
simulation 173-174
Sinclair, Upton 107
Singh, Sanjccv lS3
single-stranded relationships 98
Singularity 269-270, 277
Six Apart 183
Six Degrees of Separation 144 11
Skype 160, 220, 231-232 12
Snow Crash 172-173
Social Graph 162-163
Social Media Starsh 166
social networks 141-170
socio-economic impact 166-170
Social Web 141, 208, 271, 277
Socialtext 236
software 266
Solis, Brian 166
Sontag, Susan 125
Soul Catcher 273
Spanish Civil War l24-l26
Spore 199-200
Stagecoach Island 76, 78, 192
Stallman, Richard 95
Star Wars Kid 209-210
Steens, Lincoln 107
Stephenson, Neal 173
SLcvcnson, Dcnnis 42
Stone, Biz 181
Stone, Linda 25, 168
SLrahan, David 277
Street View 185
Studio Dell 76
StumbleUpon 155, 157
SuiteTwo 11, 236
Sullivan, ArLhur l20
Syrus, Publilius 27
Tainment 38, 57
Tancer, Bill 154
Tapscott, Don 26-27, 236
Taylor, Bret 183
technology 38
calm 251-253
Lclccom, convcrgcncc o 5S-64
telecom industry, attack on 231-232
telegraph 56, 58-59, 127
telephone 54-64
cvoluLion 6l-64
Lclcvision by ~ 55
Lclcvision 35, l3l
attack on TV empire 208-223
ird Mcdia RcvoluLion 0-l0, l2-l4, l6, 35,
37, 122
business impact 52-53
omas, Jesse 166
ousand Words, A (Kodak) 84
Time 8, 15
Tocci, Donna 74
Toronto Transit Camp 81-82
Toronto Transit Commission 80-81
tribal culture 97-98
truthiness 207
Tudou 215-216
TV-phone 56
TWiki 236
Twitter 8, 72, 179-181
type letters 15, 35, 120-121
TypePad 11
Ubiquitous Web 272
univcrsc l7l
V6R2009 258, 261-263
Vcrhocvcn, Abraham ll0-l20
Vcronis Suhlcr SLcvcnson 204
Viacom 214
vidcophonc 55
Vietnam Conict 123
virLu-rcal mcdia, dcvclopmcnL o 24l-263
Virtu-Reality 30, 171
Virtual Earth 17
VirLual Hills, c l04
virLual idcnLiLics l4
Virtual Laguna Beach 194-195
Virtual MTV 194
Virtual Reality 176, 188-189
Virtual Worlds 16, 174, 189-200
virLualiLy l7, 37, 247-25l
Voicc ovcr IP (VoIP) 203, 23l-232
Vosmeijer, Johan 225
Vox 11
Waking Life 45, 266-270
Wakoopa 155, 157
Wales, Jimmy 239
Wal-Mart 71
Wang, Gary 215
war 122-123
War of the Worlds 123
Watson, Richard 205
Watts, Cecil 129
Watts Disk 129
wax disk 129
Web 2.0 9, 33-36, 39-42
Web 4.0 40
Wcb convcrsaLions 66-6S
hvc qucsLions S5-SS
Web media 16, 49-51, 65-85
weblogs 11, 16, 34, 66-88, 235
corporate ~ 67-70, 84-85
rules 79-80, 85-86
Wcinbcrgcr, David 03
Weiser, Mark 252-253
Welles, Orson 123
Wells Fargo 78, 192
Wesabe 234
wetware 31, 201, 265-266 l0
Wikia Search 239
Wikio 13
Wikinomics 26, 236
Wikipedia 239, 277
wikis 11, 16, 34, 235-238
Williams, Anthony 26, 236
Williams, Fvan l70
Wincr, Davc l40
Wolfe, Tom 122, 137
World of Warcraft 123, 189-190, 197-198
World Wind 187
Wright, Will 199
Xuewei, Rao 196
Yahoo 164
YouTube 8, 12, 14, 61, 143, 210-212, 212-215,
Zennstrm, Niklas 220, 225, 231-232
Zha, Patrick 197
Zopa 233
Zuckerberg, Mark 147-149
the Media
Jaap Bloem, Menno van Doorn, Sander Duivestein






Past, Present and Future of the Third Media Revolution
Since the mid 19th century countless innovations have sprung up from
American soil, in particular those related to technology and media. With
Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States the change that
web media can create, is being further satisfied. For example, during the
campaign at, YouTube and Facebook, and later at and amongst others, his messages were
resonating and swelling in a genuinely democratic way.
Through web media Barack Obama was able to deliberately implement We
the People anew, so that each and every individual who chooses to can
participate in a variety of ways. It is along these lines that the world is
moving ahead from the well-known concept of the Conversation Economy
to a Conversation Society, which is the ultimate consequence, if not goal,
of what is referred to in this book as the Third Media Revolution.
Me the Media is how we call this multimedia web-based age. The old,
trusted mass media have been absorbed by the new media mass in which
we all participate as individuals and consumers. After the printing press
and movable type, and after such mass media as radio and TV, the modern
era of the Web is the Third great Media Revolution undergone by humanity.
This sweeping wave has far-reaching consequences: for business, for
society, for technology, and for us.
In this Me-Media dynamics composites of digital alter egos are rapidly becoming an accepted
form of personal and brand identity. They increasingly form the basis of the social and economic
activity in which individuals, organizations, and government engage. The Third Media Revolution
e-mancipates physical identities to the Hyperego level: the digital mes we know so well from
CNNs iReport, iGoogle, iPhone, myBarackObama, YouTube and the like. All are hyperlinked and
super active on the Web, involving citizens, brands, companies and politicians.
The coming decades will see us intimately and physically interconnected within our own web by
means of ordinary hardware and software, but subsequently also via biochemistry (wetware)
and nanotech. In this way, life will become one huge test laboratory for the further development
of humanity.
Rise of the Conversation Society
for more content,
insight and discussion
Make Me the Media Pop with Augmented Reality Tech
1 Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or
265 with a webcam.
2 The PC will link the captured image to specific
Augmented Reality content via previously downloaded
software from
3 The additional Augmented Reality content will be
displayed on top of the trigger page: in this case a robot
holding a postcard with a welcome video.
VINT | v|s|on - lns|rat|on - Nav|gat|on - rends

VINT is the Research Institute of Sogeti, and was
founded in 1994. VINT has offices in Amsterdam,
Paris, Stockholm and Washington.
About the Authors
JAAP BLOEM is a senior analyst at VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti. Jaap previously
worked for publishing companies, the
Internet Society and KPMG Consulting. In
Me the Media, Jaap introduces ITainment as
the revolutionary extension of ITech,
analyzes our Programming Century, which
took off around 1965, and defines the
stages of telephony development.
MENNO VAN DOORN is director of VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti, in Amsterdam.
In 2007 Menno was voted IT Researcher of
the Year by VNU/Computable. In Me the
Media Menno introduces the concept of
Media Mass as opposed to Mass Media,
to emphasize the impact of modern web
SANDER DUIVESTEIN is a senior analyst at VINT,
the Research Institute of Sogeti. Sander was
a software architect at Capgemini and an
Internet entrepreneur. His expertise on
Web 2.0 and the Metaverse has been an
important stimulus in the creation of Me
the Media.
PETER LEYDEN heads Next Agenda, a new
project focusing on transformative agendas
into policy-making. Peter previously worked
as managing editor at Wired magazine, and
was a director of the Global Business
Network, a think tank on the future. During
Barack Obamas election campaign Peter
was director of the New Politics Institute.
VINT | Vision - Inspiration - Navigation - Trends
The Obama Moment
by Peter Leyden
9 789075 414226
ISBN 978-90-75414-22-6
the Media
Jaap Bloem, Menno van Doorn, Sander Duivestein






Past, Present and Future of the Third Media Revolution
Since the mid 19th century countless innovations have sprung up from
American soil, in particular those related to technology and media. With
Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States the change that
web media can create, is being further satisfied. For example, during the
campaign at, YouTube and Facebook, and later at and amongst others, his messages were
resonating and swelling in a genuinely democratic way.
Through web media Barack Obama was able to deliberately implement We
the People anew, so that each and every individual who chooses to can
participate in a variety of ways. It is along these lines that the world is
moving ahead from the well-known concept of the Conversation Economy
to a Conversation Society, which is the ultimate consequence, if not goal,
of what is referred to in this book as the Third Media Revolution.
Me the Media is how we call this multimedia web-based age. The old,
trusted mass media have been absorbed by the new media mass in which
we all participate as individuals and consumers. After the printing press
and movable type, and after such mass media as radio and TV, the modern
era of the Web is the Third great Media Revolution undergone by humanity.
This sweeping wave has far-reaching consequences: for business, for
society, for technology, and for us.
In this Me-Media dynamics composites of digital alter egos are rapidly becoming an accepted
form of personal and brand identity. They increasingly form the basis of the social and economic
activity in which individuals, organizations, and government engage. The Third Media Revolution
e-mancipates physical identities to the Hyperego level: the digital mes we know so well from
CNNs iReport, iGoogle, iPhone, myBarackObama, YouTube and the like. All are hyperlinked and
super active on the Web, involving citizens, brands, companies and politicians.
The coming decades will see us intimately and physically interconnected within our own web by
means of ordinary hardware and software, but subsequently also via biochemistry (wetware)
and nanotech. In this way, life will become one huge test laboratory for the further development
of humanity.
Rise of the Conversation Society
for more content,
insight and discussion
Make Me the Media Pop with Augmented Reality Tech
1 Capture this books front, rear, page 51, 61, 74, 189 or
265 with a webcam.
2 The PC will link the captured image to specific
Augmented Reality content via previously downloaded
software from
3 The additional Augmented Reality content will be
displayed on top of the trigger page: in this case a robot
holding a postcard with a welcome video.
VINT | v|s|on - lns|rat|on - Nav|gat|on - rends

VINT is the Research Institute of Sogeti, and was
founded in 1994. VINT has offices in Amsterdam,
Paris, Stockholm and Washington.
About the Authors
JAAP BLOEM is a senior analyst at VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti. Jaap previously
worked for publishing companies, the
Internet Society and KPMG Consulting. In
Me the Media, Jaap introduces ITainment as
the revolutionary extension of ITech,
analyzes our Programming Century, which
took off around 1965, and defines the
stages of telephony development.
MENNO VAN DOORN is director of VINT, the
Research Institute of Sogeti, in Amsterdam.
In 2007 Menno was voted IT Researcher of
the Year by VNU/Computable. In Me the
Media Menno introduces the concept of
Media Mass as opposed to Mass Media,
to emphasize the impact of modern web
SANDER DUIVESTEIN is a senior analyst at VINT,
the Research Institute of Sogeti. Sander was
a software architect at Capgemini and an
Internet entrepreneur. His expertise on
Web 2.0 and the Metaverse has been an
important stimulus in the creation of Me
the Media.
PETER LEYDEN heads Next Agenda, a new
project focusing on transformative agendas
into policy-making. Peter previously worked
as managing editor at Wired magazine, and
was a director of the Global Business
Network, a think tank on the future. During
Barack Obamas election campaign Peter
was director of the New Politics Institute.
VINT | Vision - Inspiration - Navigation - Trends
The Obama Moment
by Peter Leyden
9 789075 414226
ISBN 978-90-75414-22-6