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# Classical simulations and quantum Fourier transforms

QCCC Seminar, 19th Dec 2011 Juan Bermejo Vega MPQ Theory Division

Quantum VS Classical ?

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Main Questions and Motivation

What do we know about Q-algorithms?

Faster (exponentially) for some computational problems.
E.g. Factorisation, computing discrete logarithms, solving Pell’s equation, Q-simulation.

More examples: Q Algorithm Zoo 24 algorithms show exponential quantum speed-ups!

2 / 32

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Main Questions and Motivation

What do we know about Q-algorithms?

Faster (exponentially) for some computational problems.
E.g. Factorisation, computing discrete logarithms, solving Pell’s equation, Q-simulation.

More examples: Q Algorithm Zoo 24 algorithms show exponential quantum speed-ups!

2 / 32

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation What do we know about Q-algorithms? Faster (exponentially) for some computational problems. More examples: Q Algorithm Zoo 24 algorithms show exponential quantum speed-ups! 2 / 32 .g. Q-simulation. computing discrete logarithms. solving Pell’s equation. Factorisation. E.

E.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation What do we know about Q-algorithms? Faster (exponentially) for some computational problems. solving Pell’s equation. Q-simulation. Factorisation. More examples: Q Algorithm Zoo 24 algorithms show exponential quantum speed-ups! 2 / 32 .g. computing discrete logarithms.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Fundamental Q-uestions Practical How to design good quantum algorithms? 1 ¿? 2 Important physical eﬀects? Entanglement? Interence? Simmetries? Structure? Killer-apps (beyond simulation)? Fundamental What are the limits of Q Computation? BPP=BQP? 3 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Fundamental Q-uestions Practical How to design good quantum algorithms? 1 ¿? 2 Important physical eﬀects? Entanglement? Interence? Simmetries? Structure? Killer-apps (beyond simulation)? Fundamental What are the limits of Q Computation? BPP=BQP? 3 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Fundamental Q-uestions Practical How to design good quantum algorithms? 1 ¿? 2 Important physical eﬀects? Entanglement? Interence? Simmetries? Structure? Killer-apps (beyond simulation)? Fundamental What are the limits of Q Computation? BPP=BQP? 3 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Fundamental Q-uestions Practical How to design good quantum algorithms? 1 ¿? 2 Important physical eﬀects? Entanglement? Interence? Simmetries? Structure? Killer-apps (beyond simulation)? Fundamental What are the limits of Q Computation? BPP=BQP? 3 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Fundamental Q-uestions Practical How to design good quantum algorithms? 1 ¿? 2 Important physical eﬀects? Entanglement? Interence? Simmetries? Structure? Killer-apps (beyond simulation)? Fundamental What are the limits of Q Computation? BPP=BQP? 3 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Fundamental Q-uestions Practical How to design good quantum algorithms? 1 ¿? 2 Important physical eﬀects? Entanglement? Interence? Simmetries? Structure? Killer-apps (beyond simulation)? Fundamental What are the limits of Q Computation? BPP=BQP? 3 / 32 .

. ··· ba Rn−i ba ba ba ba 4 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation An approach Classical simulation of quantum computers |0 |0 . . ... . . . |0 . . . |0 |0 H • ··· • . ··· F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • ba R2 · · · . ··· .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Main Questions and Motivation Outline 1 Classical simulation of quantum computers 2 Quantum Fourier transforms 3 The Hidden Subgroup Problem 4 Simulation of non-abelian QFTs 5 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Outline 1 Classical simulation of quantum computers 2 Quantum Fourier transforms 3 The Hidden Subgroup Problem 4 Simulation of non-abelian QFTs 6 / 32 .

H • ··· • . ... . . . . |0 . Apply quantum circuit (unitary evolution). . . Measure. ··· ba Rn−i ba ba ba ba 7 / 32 . |0 |0 R2 · · · .Introduction Main ideas Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Scheme of a quantum computation 1 2 3 Initialise state. ··· F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • ba |0 |0 . ··· . . obtain outcome x with probability px ∈ Px .

Introduction Main ideas Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Scheme of a quantum computation 1 2 3 Initialise state. ··· . . . ··· ba Rn−i ba ba ba ba 7 / 32 . obtain outcome x with probability px ∈ Px . |0 |0 R2 · · · . .. Apply quantum circuit (unitary evolution). Measure. . ··· F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • ba |0 |0 . . . |0 . . . H • ··· • ..

. Measure. obtain outcome x with probability px ∈ Px . ··· F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • ba |0 |0 . ··· . . . H • ··· • . .Introduction Main ideas Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Scheme of a quantum computation 1 2 3 Initialise state. . . ··· ba Rn−i ba ba ba ba 7 / 32 . |0 |0 R2 · · · . Apply quantum circuit (unitary evolution). . |0 . .. .

··· F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • ba ba Rn−i ba ba Measure |x with px ∈ Px ba ba From now simulation = eﬃcient classical simulation 8 / 32 . . |0 |0 H • ··· R2 · · · . . ··· . |0 |0 . . .. |0 .Introduction Main ideas Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Simulation = Sampling If we can eﬃciently sample from the probability distribution Px of the ﬁnal outcomes with a classical algorithm then we can eﬃciently simulate the quantum computation. . ··· • . . . ..

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Clasical simulation results An (incomplete) list of illustrative results Entanglement is necessary |ψp = |ψ1 ⊗ . Interference is necessary ψ| U † ZU |ψ [Van den Nest. then a Z -measurement can be simulated classically eﬃciently. . ⊗ |ψk [Jozsa-Linden.09] Given a s-sparse unitary U (with s constant) acting on a product state |ψ . .03] Given a Q circuit where in each step of the computation the state is p-blocked with constant p. 9 / 32 . such process can be eﬃciently simulated classically.

such process can be eﬃciently simulated classically. But not suﬃcient 9 / 32 . ⊗ |ψk [Jozsa-Linden. then a Z -measurement can be simulated classically eﬃciently.03] Given a Q circuit where in each step of the computation the state is p-blocked with constant p. . Interference is necessary ψ| U † ZU |ψ [Van den Nest. .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Clasical simulation results An (incomplete) list of illustrative results Entanglement is necessary |ψp = |ψ1 ⊗ .09] Given a s-sparse unitary U (with s constant) acting on a product state |ψ .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Clasical simulation results Entanglement ⊕ Interference Today: quantum Fourier transforms 10 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Outline 1 Classical simulation of quantum computers 2 Quantum Fourier transforms 3 The Hidden Subgroup Problem 4 Simulation of non-abelian QFTs 11 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Standard view of Q Computation Choose a quiet environment Create HUGE interference |ψ −→ U |ψ But how do we design the unitary U? 12 / 32 .

. . . 2πi N 1 ω2 ω4 ω6 . ω (N−1)(N−1) Not sparse Role in computation 1 2 Case N = 2...Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum Fourier transform FN  1  1 1 1  FN := √  N 1 . . . .. .. .          ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) . . .. ... It is the Hadamard gate! Case N = 2n . . . . .. . .. 1 ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) ω 3(N−1) .. 1 ω3 ω6 ω9 .. Used in phase estimation 13 / 32 . 1 1 ω := e ω2 ω3 . ..

. 2πi N 1 ω2 ω4 ω6 .. .. .. . .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum Fourier transform FN  1  1 1 1  FN := √  N 1 ... It is the Hadamard gate! Case N = 2n . 1 1 ω := e ω2 ω3 . Used in phase estimation 13 / 32 .          ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) .. 1 ω3 ω6 ω9 . .. . . . ω (N−1)(N−1) Not sparse Role in computation 1 2 Case N = 2. . .. . .. . . .. .. . 1 ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) ω 3(N−1) ..

. . . .. Used in phase estimation 13 / 32 . . .. .. . . 2πi N 1 ω2 ω4 ω6 . 1 ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) ω 3(N−1) . . . . ... . . ω (N−1)(N−1) Not sparse Role in computation 1 2 Case N = 2... .. .          ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) .. It is the Hadamard gate! Case N = 2n .. . 1 ω3 ω6 ω9 . 1 1 ω := e ω2 ω3 .. .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum Fourier transform FN  1  1 1 1  FN := √  N 1 .

.. . . It is the Hadamard gate! Case N = 2n . .. Used in phase estimation 13 / 32 ... 1 ω3 ω6 ω9 . .. . . .... .          ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) ..Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum Fourier transform FN  1  1 1 1  FN := √  N 1 . . .. . . . . . 1 ω N−1 ω 2(N−1) ω 3(N−1) . . 2πi N 1 ω2 ω4 ω6 . . ω (N−1)(N−1) Not sparse Role in computation 1 2 Case N = 2. . 1 1 ω := e ω2 ω3 ..

.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum phase estimation Example of usage: Given U |ψ = e 2πiθ |ψ ﬁnd θ Returns an approximation of the phase up to n-digits θn . . |0 |ψ ··· . . ··· U U 2 • U 2n−1 TS ··· _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Applications 14 / 32 . H m  / FN † TS . |0 . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  |0  H  H   • • ···       TS 1 2 QFT at the end Measures a hidden property. .  .

. |0 |ψ ··· . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  |0  H  H   • • ···       TS 1 2 QFT at the end Measures a hidden property. . |0 . . .  . . ··· U U 2 • U 2n−1 TS ··· _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Applications 14 / 32 . H m  / FN † TS .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum phase estimation Example of usage: Given U |ψ = e 2πiθ |ψ ﬁnd θ Returns an approximation of the phase up to n-digits θn .

. . |0 . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  |0  H  H   • • ···       TS 1 2 QFT at the end Measures a hidden property.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum phase estimation Example of usage: Given U |ψ = e 2πiθ |ψ ﬁnd θ Returns an approximation of the phase up to n-digits θn . ··· U U 2 • U 2n−1 TS ··· _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Applications 14 / 32 . .  . H m  / FN † TS . . |0 |ψ ··· . .

. . |0 |ψ ··· . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  |0  H  H   • • ···       TS 1 2 QFT at the end Measures a hidden property. .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Quantum phase estimation Example of usage: Given U |ψ = e 2πiθ |ψ ﬁnd θ Returns an approximation of the phase up to n-digits θn . ··· U U 2 • U 2n−1 TS ··· _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Applications 14 / 32 . H m  / FN † TS .  . |0 . . .

Shor’s algorithm (exp speed-up). Computation: Estimating x T Mx where x fulﬁls Ax = b (exp speed-up). Generalisation: the hidden subgroup problem 15 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Applications “General” purpose: Measure the energy of an eigenstate of H (Q-Metropolis) Create and sample Gibbs states ρG := 1 exp (−βH) Z Prepare some injective PEPS in a quantum computer.

Computation: Estimating x T Mx where x fulﬁls Ax = b (exp speed-up). Generalisation: the hidden subgroup problem 15 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Applications “General” purpose: Measure the energy of an eigenstate of H (Q-Metropolis) Create and sample Gibbs states ρG := 1 exp (−βH) Z Prepare some injective PEPS in a quantum computer. Shor’s algorithm (exp speed-up).

Generalisation: the hidden subgroup problem 15 / 32 . Shor’s algorithm (exp speed-up). Computation: Estimating x T Mx where x fulﬁls Ax = b (exp speed-up).Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Applications “General” purpose: Measure the energy of an eigenstate of H (Q-Metropolis) Create and sample Gibbs states ρG := 1 exp (−βH) Z Prepare some injective PEPS in a quantum computer.

Shor’s algorithm (exp speed-up). Generalisation: the hidden subgroup problem 15 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Applications “General” purpose: Measure the energy of an eigenstate of H (Q-Metropolis) Create and sample Gibbs states ρG := 1 exp (−βH) Z Prepare some injective PEPS in a quantum computer. Computation: Estimating x T Mx where x fulﬁls Ax = b (exp speed-up).

Computation: Estimating x T Mx where x fulﬁls Ax = b (exp speed-up).Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Applications “General” purpose: Measure the energy of an eigenstate of H (Q-Metropolis) Create and sample Gibbs states ρG := 1 exp (−βH) Z Prepare some injective PEPS in a quantum computer. Generalisation: the hidden subgroup problem 15 / 32 . Shor’s algorithm (exp speed-up).

Computation: Estimating x T Mx where x fulﬁls Ax = b (exp speed-up). Generalisation: the hidden subgroup problem 15 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The QFT in Quantum Algorithms Applications “General” purpose: Measure the energy of an eigenstate of H (Q-Metropolis) Create and sample Gibbs states ρG := 1 exp (−βH) Z Prepare some injective PEPS in a quantum computer. Shor’s algorithm (exp speed-up).

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Outline 1 Classical simulation of quantum computers 2 Quantum Fourier transforms 3 The Hidden Subgroup Problem 4 Simulation of non-abelian QFTs 16 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Choose a group Multiplication rule 1 2 gh = g gg −1 = 1 Deﬁnition of subgroup H: A small group inside G with the same operation 17 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Choose a group Multiplication rule 1 2 gh = g gg −1 = 1 Deﬁnition of subgroup H: A small group inside G with the same operation 17 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Choose a group Multiplication rule 1 2 gh = g gg −1 = 1 Deﬁnition of subgroup H: A small group inside G with the same operation 17 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Choose a group Multiplication rule 1 2 gh = g gg −1 = 1 Deﬁnition of subgroup H: A small group inside G with the same operation 17 / 32 .

f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem.

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem. f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem. f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem. f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem. f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .

f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem.

f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem.

Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits The Hidden Subgroup Problem Promise problem. f (g1 ) = f (g2 ) ⇔ g1 ∈ g2 H Goal: ﬁnd H Classically hard: § ¤ # queries scales as |G | ¦ ¥ Easier § for a Q computer: ¤ exponentially less ¥ ¦ 18 / 32 .

discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems.Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 Shor’s: factoring. Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 .

discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems.Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 Shor’s: factoring. Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 .

Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 . pd d Shor’s: factoring. . . discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems.Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 α α N = p1 1 .

Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 .Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 α α N = p1 1 . . discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems. . pd d Shor’s: factoring.

pd d Shor’s: factoring. . discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems. .Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 α α N = p1 1 . Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 .

. discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems.Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 α α N = p1 1 . . pd d Shor’s: factoring. Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 .

. discrete log Exponential speed-ups! Non-abelian groups Role in computation Lattice problems. pd d Shor’s: factoring.Introduction Deﬁnition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Relation to computational problems Abelian groups Eﬃcient Q algorithm Subsumes other algorithms 1 2 Abelian 8+7=7+8 α α N = p1 1 . Graphs No general Q algorithm Q advantage! Non-abelian A∗B =B ∗A 19 / 32 . .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP The quantum approach 1 Create a superposition over a random coset gH State picture 1 |gH = √ H Density matrix ρH = |gH gH| |gh H 2 3 Apply Fourier transform. 20 / 32 . Measure.

20 / 32 . Measure.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP The quantum approach 1 Create a superposition over a random coset gH State picture 1 |gH = √ H Density matrix ρH = |gH gH| |gh H 2 3 Apply Fourier transform.

20 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP The quantum approach 1 Create a superposition over a random coset gH State picture 1 |gH = √ H Density matrix ρH = |gH gH| |gh H 2 3 Apply Fourier transform. Measure.

20 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP The quantum approach 1 Create a superposition over a random coset gH State picture 1 |gH = √ H Density matrix ρH = |gH gH| |gh H 2 3 Apply Fourier transform. Measure.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP The quantum approach 1 Create a superposition over a random coset gH State picture 1 |gH = √ H Density matrix ρH = |gH gH| |gh H 2 3 Apply Fourier transform. 20 / 32 . Measure.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP Informal analysis: exploit simmetries ρH = |gH gH| 1 The density matrix has a symmetry! ρH = 1 |G | R(h) H 2 R is a group representation R(g ) |h := hg −1 −→ R(gh) = R(g )R(h) 21 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP Informal analysis: exploit simmetries ρH = |gH gH| 1 The density matrix has a symmetry! ρH = 1 |G | R(h) H 2 R is a group representation R(g ) |h := hg −1 −→ R(gh) = R(g )R(h) 21 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP Informal analysis: exploit simmetries ρH = |gH gH| 1 The density matrix has a symmetry! ρH = 1 |G | R(h) H 2 R is a group representation R(g ) |h := hg −1 −→ R(gh) = R(g )R(h) 21 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP Idea: diagonalise the symmetry ρH = 1 |G | H R(h) 4 A group representation can be block-diagonalised 5 The Fourier transform performs that change 22 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP Idea: diagonalise the symmetry ρH = 1 |G | H R(h) 4 A group representation can be block-diagonalised 5 The Fourier transform performs that change 22 / 32 .

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP Idea: diagonalise the symmetry ρH = 1 |G | H R(h) 4 A group representation can be block-diagonalised 5 The Fourier transform performs that change Conclusion: Fourier transform simpliﬁes ρH and helps to solve the hidden subgroup problem 22 / 32 .

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Quantum algorithms for the HSP

That was not everything
1 2 3 4

Algorithm showed does not return Hhidden ... ... but some “related” information! Abelian. Classical algorithms to post-process Non-abelian.
For some easy instances. General problem hard Hope for lattice problems!

23 / 32

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Quantum algorithms for the HSP

That was not everything
1 2 3 4

Algorithm showed does not return Hhidden ... ... but some “related” information! Abelian. Classical algorithms to post-process Non-abelian.
For some easy instances. General problem hard Hope for lattice problems!

23 / 32

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Quantum algorithms for the HSP

That was not everything
1 2 3 4

Algorithm showed does not return Hhidden ... ... but some “related” information! Abelian. Classical algorithms to post-process Non-abelian.
For some easy instances. General problem hard Hope for lattice problems!

23 / 32

General problem hard Hope for lattice problems! 23 / 32 . . Classical algorithms to post-process Non-abelian.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Quantum algorithms for the HSP That was not everything 1 2 3 4 Algorithm showed does not return Hhidden ... For some easy instances... but some “related” information! Abelian.

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Quantum algorithms for the HSP

That was not everything
1 2 3 4

Algorithm showed does not return Hhidden ... ... but some “related” information! Abelian. Classical algorithms to post-process Non-abelian.
For some easy instances. General problem hard Hope for lattice problems!

23 / 32

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Quantum algorithms for the HSP

That was not everything
1 2 3 4

Algorithm showed does not return Hhidden ... ... but some “related” information! Abelian. Classical algorithms to post-process Non-abelian.
For some easy instances. General problem hard Hope for lattice problems!

23 / 32

Introduction

Classical Simulations

Quantum Fourier transforms

Hidden Subgroup Problem

Simulation of QFTs

Credits

Outline

1 Classical simulation of quantum computers 2 Quantum Fourier transforms 3 The Hidden Subgroup Problem 4 Simulation of non-abelian QFTs

24 / 32

Introduction Transition Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Connection with quantum algorithms Quantum Fourier transforms help to solve the HSP Natural question: can we simulate them classically? 25 / 32 .

Short.. Rn−i · · · F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • TS TS TS 1 F2n = √ ω ab n 2 Rk = ab TS TS 1 0 −2πi/2k 0 e TS [Aharonov. . [Browne. . adaptive operations.Introduction Abelian results Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Abelian Fourier transforms FN |0 |0 . ··· • .. |0 |0 H • ··· R2 · · · . 26 / 32 . graph states) Techniques: tensor contractions. Landau. [Yoran. 06]. . 06] Constant number of QFTs Inputs: product states (and some MPS. . . . Makowsky. . ··· . 06]. . |0 .

.. 06] Constant number of QFTs Inputs: product states (and some MPS. . graph states) Techniques: tensor contractions. 06]. . ··· . [Browne. . |0 . . . . Landau. 26 / 32 . . Rn−i · · · F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • TS TS TS 1 F2n = √ ω ab n 2 Rk = ab TS TS 1 0 −2πi/2k 0 e TS [Aharonov. . adaptive operations. 06]. |0 |0 H • ··· R2 · · · .Introduction Abelian results Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Abelian Fourier transforms FN |0 |0 . Short. ··· • . Makowsky. [Yoran.

06] Constant number of QFTs Inputs: product states (and some MPS.Introduction Abelian results Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Abelian Fourier transforms FN |0 |0 .. |0 . ··· • . ··· . 26 / 32 . Makowsky. . [Browne. . Rn−i · · · F2n−1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Rn−2 Rn−1 • • TS TS TS 1 F2n = √ ω ab n 2 Rk = ab TS TS 1 0 −2πi/2k 0 e TS [Aharonov. Short. .. [Yoran. . . |0 |0 H • ··· R2 · · · . . . Landau. 06]. adaptive operations. graph states) Techniques: tensor contractions. . 06].

Techniques: symmetries and group theory. Inputs: coset-states (“aka HSP states”).Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Our contribution We implemented and simulated quantum Fourier transforms for a family of non-abelian groups. 27 / 32 . We only simulate one shot.

We only simulate one shot. Inputs: coset-states (“aka HSP states”).Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Our contribution We implemented and simulated quantum Fourier transforms for a family of non-abelian groups. Techniques: symmetries and group theory. 27 / 32 .

Techniques: symmetries and group theory. Inputs: coset-states (“aka HSP states”). We only simulate one shot. 27 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Our contribution We implemented and simulated quantum Fourier transforms for a family of non-abelian groups.

Techniques: symmetries and group theory. 27 / 32 . Inputs: coset-states (“aka HSP states”).Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Our contribution We implemented and simulated quantum Fourier transforms for a family of non-abelian groups. We only simulate one shot.

a) • (n. b) 28 / 32 . b) = (m.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Examples of groups Dihedral group Pauli matrices σx |m = |m + 1 σz |m = ω m |m ω = exp (2πi/p) Lattice problems Q error correction Model (m. a) + ϕm (n.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Examples of groups Dihedral group Pauli matrices σx |m = |m + 1 σz |m = ω m |m ω = exp (2πi/p) Lattice problems Q error correction Model (m. b) = (m. a) + ϕm (n. b) 28 / 32 . a) • (n.

b) = (m. a) • (n.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Examples of groups Dihedral group Pauli matrices σx |m = |m + 1 σz |m = ω m |m ω = exp (2πi/p) Lattice problems Q error correction Model (m. a) + ϕm (n. b) 28 / 32 .

29 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Why these groups? Non-commutative. Related to computational problems. Those algorithms use quantum Fourier transforms. Quantum algorithms for some instances of the HSP.

Related to computational problems.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Why these groups? Non-commutative. Those algorithms use quantum Fourier transforms. 29 / 32 . Quantum algorithms for some instances of the HSP.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Why these groups? Non-commutative. 29 / 32 . Quantum algorithms for some instances of the HSP. Related to computational problems. Those algorithms use quantum Fourier transforms.

Those algorithms use quantum Fourier transforms.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Why these groups? Non-commutative. 29 / 32 . Related to computational problems. Quantum algorithms for some instances of the HSP.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Main results 1 New circuits for quantum Fourier transforms |m Fp |a FA • #"!  UR ˆ 2 3 4 Input well-known coset-state |gH We can simulate classically and eﬃciently “hidden-subgroup” measurements Techniques: adaptive measurements. group-theory. 30 / 32 .

30 / 32 . group-theory.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Main results 1 New circuits for quantum Fourier transforms |m Fp |a FA • #"!  UR ˆ 2 3 4 Input well-known coset-state |gH We can simulate classically and eﬃciently “hidden-subgroup” measurements Techniques: adaptive measurements.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Main results 1 New circuits for quantum Fourier transforms |m Fp |a FA • #"!  UR ˆ 2 3 4 Input well-known coset-state |gH We can simulate classically and eﬃciently “hidden-subgroup” measurements Techniques: adaptive measurements. group-theory. 30 / 32 .

group-theory.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Main results 1 New circuits for quantum Fourier transforms |m Fp |a FA • #"!  UR ˆ 2 3 4 Input well-known coset-state |gH We can simulate classically and eﬃciently “hidden-subgroup” measurements Techniques: adaptive measurements. 30 / 32 .

We can also simulate changes of basis of the blocks 1 2 Dihedral groups: always Pauli matrices: sometimes. Block basis |m |a FA Fp • Ui  ¨© V  ¨© 31 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Bonus Non-abelian QFTs are not uniquely deﬁned.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Bonus Non-abelian QFTs are not uniquely deﬁned. Block basis |m |a FA Fp • Ui  ¨© V  ¨© 31 / 32 . We can also simulate changes of basis of the blocks 1 2 Dihedral groups: always Pauli matrices: sometimes.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Bonus Non-abelian QFTs are not uniquely deﬁned. We can also simulate changes of basis of the blocks 1 2 Dihedral groups: always Pauli matrices: sometimes. Block basis |m |a FA Fp • Ui  ¨© V  ¨© 31 / 32 .

Block basis |m |a FA Fp • Ui  ¨© V  ¨© 31 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Bonus Non-abelian QFTs are not uniquely deﬁned. We can also simulate changes of basis of the blocks 1 2 Dihedral groups: always Pauli matrices: sometimes.

2 New: non-abelian. 3 Remark: we can not simulate Shor’s algorithm.Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Conclusions Eﬃcient classical simulations of quantum Fourier transforms are possible 1 Previously known: abelian. Miau! Thanks! 32 / 32 .

2 New: non-abelian. Miau! Thanks! 32 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Conclusions Eﬃcient classical simulations of quantum Fourier transforms are possible 1 Previously known: abelian. 3 Remark: we can not simulate Shor’s algorithm.

Miau! Thanks! 32 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Conclusions Eﬃcient classical simulations of quantum Fourier transforms are possible 1 Previously known: abelian. 2 New: non-abelian. 3 Remark: we can not simulate Shor’s algorithm.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Conclusions Eﬃcient classical simulations of quantum Fourier transforms are possible 1 Previously known: abelian. 2 New: non-abelian. 3 Remark: we can not simulate Shor’s algorithm. Miau! Thanks! 32 / 32 .

2 New: non-abelian. Miau! Thanks! 32 / 32 .Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Conclusions Eﬃcient classical simulations of quantum Fourier transforms are possible 1 Previously known: abelian. 3 Remark: we can not simulate Shor’s algorithm.

Introduction Classical Simulations Quantum Fourier transforms Hidden Subgroup Problem Simulation of QFTs Credits Non-Abelian Quantum Fourier Transforms Conclusions Eﬃcient classical simulations of quantum Fourier transforms are possible 1 Previously known: abelian. Miau! Thanks! 32 / 32 . 2 New: non-abelian. 3 Remark: we can not simulate Shor’s algorithm.