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Head

Orbitomeatal plane- inf margin of eye socket & sup external acoustic meatus in same horizontal plane Cranium: 1)neuralcranium (vault/ covers brain, cranial meninges, prox parts of cranial nerves, vasculature of brain), has calvaria & basicranium. 2)viscerocranium(facial skeleton, 15 irreg bones) Neuralcranium: 8 bones united by interlocking sutures(4midline: frontal, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, 2 bilateral pairs: temporal, parietal) Facial Aspect of Cranium     Frontal bone (forehead), has supra-orbital notch to drain sinus Zygomatic (cheek), has piriform aperture(ant nasal opening, w/ curved nasal conchae or lateral wall) Maxillae has infra-orbital foramen Orbits has sup &inf orbital fissures & optical canals

Lateral Aspect of Cranium        Mandible- U shaped, lower jaw, has alveolar processes for Mandibular Teeth ( Head , Ramus Angle, body) Maxillae- upper jaw “ “ maxillary teeth Head- in orbitomeatal plane Zygomatic arch- formed by temporal & zygomatic bone Pterion (Wing): H shaped formation of sutures (unite frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones), overlies meningeal vessels in calvaria External Acoustic Meatus (Ear canal)→Tympatic membrane (eardrum) Mastoid Process- apex of temporal bone/ Attachment for Sternocleidomastoid muscle

Occipital Aspect of Cranium     Occipital, parietal, mastoid parts of temporal bones External Occipital Protuberance (easily palpable) Superior Nuchal Line (marks sup neck limit) Lamda- felt like depression, junction of sagittal & lambdoid sutures

Cranial Base Inferior View (Basicranium)    2 Occipital Condyles- large protuberances where cranium articulates w/ vertebral column Atlas C1 External Opening of Carotid canal- where int carotid enter to supply brain External Surface of Basicranium: Alveolar Arch of Maxillae, Hard Palate( palantine process of maxillae & Horizontal Plates of Palantine Bones), Choanae (post nasal aperture), Vomer (thin flat bone of Nasal Septum, separates choana)

Internal Surface: has bowl shaped floor w/ 3 large depressions    Anterior cranial fossa: has orbital plates- support frontal lobe of brain, crista galli (cock’s comb)- median ridge on each side of Cribiform plate of Ethmoid (axons of olfactory nerves CN1) Middle: has Sella Turcica/ Turkish Saddle surround by Ant &Post Clinoid Process, hypophysial fossa/ Pituitary Fossa Posterior: largest & deepest, has Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla. At temporal base has Jugular Foramina (contains Sup Internal Jugular v), Hypoglossal canals (has CN XII- motor to tongue)

Scalp- 5 layers, first 3 move as 1 unit like wrinkling
fr sup nuchal lines on occipital bone to Supra Orbital margins of frontal bone & over zygomatic bone laterally. 1. Skin-glands & hair follicles, arterial supply &venous/lymphatic drainage. 2. CT- vascularized, 3. Aponeurosis- muscle covers calvaria, attach to occipitofrontalis muscle, 4. Loose CT- sponge like w/ potential spaces may distend w/ fluid fr injury infection, 5. Pericranium-dense CT form external periosteum of neurocranium _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Cranial Meninges- 1. Dura mater: periosteal (outer balloon)is internal surface of calvaria & meningeal (inner balloon) is con’t @ foramen magnum w/
dura covering the spinal cord. 2. Arachnoid: Avascular, thin filled w/ CSF. 3. Pia: very vascularized, cover brain Innervated fr Trigeminal (CN V)N. Headache=pain fr dura(cervical n/trigeminal n), around dural venou sinuses &Meningeal a. Causes: distention of scalp/meningeal vessels..after lumbar spinal puncture, CSF removed→brain sags &pull on superior dura. Subarachoid=real space has CSF, Arachnoid Trabecular Cells, Cerebral a&v (drain intoSSS). Epidural & Subdural are potential spaces.

& blowing Origin Epicranial aponeurosis Superior nuchal line Medial orbital margin Med maxilla &mandible Mandible Insertion Skin& sub tissue of eyebrows +forehead Epicranial aponeurosis Skin around margin of orbital Mucus membrane of lips Orbicularis (angle of mouth. 3. Optic. Regions of Cerebral Cortex: Frontal &Temporal Lobe. Parietal lobe: sensory. Facial. (Superior sagittal sinus receives sup cerebral vein)Sigmoid Sinus. Brain : 1. Diaphragm sellae.Hindbrain. 2.. 10.in cranial& drain blood away from bones into sinuses. thalamus (sensory). Black eye results fr leaks thru aponeurosis layer. Hypoglossal (tongue) Ventricular System.. blowing. Falx cerebri. 8. Fissures (Cleft) Cranial N. Tentorium Cerebelli.) Trumpeter active in smiling. 4-Trochlear Nerve (SEN)(motor nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle of th eye) 5.cerebellum (coordinates motor acts). Oculomotor (movement of eye). Olfactory (smell). smell. Sulci (grooves). 2. digestion).S shaped. turns inferiorly→jugular foramen→con’t as Int Jugular vein Arachnoid granulation: collection of arachnoid villi fr arachnoid that protrude thru meningeal layer of dura mater→dura venous sinus &lateral venous lacunae.forms roof over hypophysial fossa & covers the pituitary gland/ pp get oxytocin (hormone of love) &vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone for fluid retention) fr hypothalamus Diaphragm Sellae: forms a partial roof over hypohysial fossa and covers the pituitary gland (receives oxytocin and vasopressin) Dural Venous Sinuses.Dural Infoldings (for compartments): 1. Accessory (movement of head &neck) arises fr cervical spinal cord & somatic motor to trapezius &sternocledomastoid. No lucid interval.No distinct deep fascia. ↑effect of frontal belly Closes eyelids. orbital part tightly Closes mouth. 9. Falx Cerebelli. enters middle cranial fossa thru Foramen Spinosum & become Middle Meningeal a. Trigeminal (ophthalmic. Arachnoid trabeculae are CT that passes btw arachnoid &the pia. Vagus (sensory to thoracic & abdominal viscera). 2 lateral opened into mid 3 via the interventricular foramina. Midbrain…awareness & visual (filters & evaluates motor & sensory neuron signals). abducen nerve (SEN) controls movement lateral rectus muscle of the eye) 7. Cerebral aqueduct.modiolus) Action Elevate eyebrows & wrinkle forehead Scalo ( surprise /curiosity) Retracts scalp. Drains fr 4 ventricle thru Median Aperture & Lateral Apertures into Cisterns (~ subarachnoid) Vasculature: internal carotid a &vertebral a supply brain ←brachiocephalic a. Forebrain…motor control.. Occipital Lobe: receives & process visual info. pons (pathway for motor & sensory neuron signals). Circle of Willis aka Cerebral Arterial Circle (backup system) @base of brain: 2 vertebral & 2 internal carotid a…Embolism(blockage)/ thrombosis (clots)/ cerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage→Ischemic Stroke circle of willis: circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain Cerebral Veins drains→nearest dural venous sinuses→Internal Jugular V ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ th rd rd Face. Subarachnoid hemorrhage(extravasation of blood fr rupture of Saccular Aneurysm-saclike dilation of a). (Damage=life threatening) Epidural hemorrhage=epidural hematoma(concave)→brief concussion→lucid interval.motor control.narrow channel which connects 3 &4 ventricles. Muscles of face are in Subcut. Maxillary a. medulla(regulates respiration. heart rate. maxillary. Vertebral a (fr. sucking.lies in longitudinal cerebral fissure & separates L from R cerebral hemispheres. Diploic v. Meningeal a. Tissue Muscle Name Frontal belly Occipital belly Orbicularis oculi (orbital sphincter) Orbicularis oris (oral sphincter) Buccinator (cheek mus. 1. 12. 3 is concavity btw R&L th rd th diencephalon. & mandible areas). 6. Also has Gyri (folds).endothelial lined spaces btw periosteal & meningeal layers of dura. 3. 11. whistling. CSF fr Choroid Plexus.fr lumen of embryonic neural tube. 4 post to pons & medulla→tapers into spinal cord.→SVC Neurovasculature of Cranial Meninges: veins of dura accomp. Function: transfer CSF to venous system.cerebral cortex (thinking). Acoustic (hearing & equilibrium). Subclavian a. hypothalamus (hunger/thirst/sex/temp/pituitary secretion 2. Scalp Injuries: infection in loose CT→cranial cavity via EMISSARY V (drain blood away fr scalp to sinuses). kissing. Glossopharyngeal (sensation of pharynx & post 1/3 of tongue). Veins fr brain surface & bone (diploe) drain into sinuses→int jugular v. Keep food out of oral vestibule Resists distension when BLOWING .)→foramen magnum→ Basilar a. Basilar Plexus: communicates inf.separates occipital lobes from cerebellum. Pterion overlies branches of middle meningeal vessels. w/ internal vertebral venous plexus→azygos v. Rostral (toward head) part 3. no brief concussion. 4.

provides major arterial supply to face. VH holds retina in place & support lens.yellow spot of retina. Layer: 3 but 4 is cuplike CT layer Fascial Sheath of Eyeball support it w/in orbit…1. Inner layer. fluid→L. Trigeminal Nerve (CN V). irritants and viruses. btw ramus of mandible &mastoid process.(RME=cornea→aqueous humor→lens→vitreous humor) light cornea  aqueous humor  lens vitreous humor retina Cornea bends light to greatest degree to focus an inverted image on optic fundus.orbital notch Infra-orbital groove in orbital floor Distribution Mucosa of frontal sinus Mucosa of maxillary sinus/ maxillary teeth Arteries of Face & Scalp: w/in CT in scalp.Fr Facial nerve (CN VIII).pyramidal bony cavity w/ square base (orbital opening. stimulated by optical stimuli & exits via Optic Canal…surrounded by extensions of cranial meninges & subarachnoid space→continuous w/ fascial sheath of eyeball & sclera. ducts→conjunc sac Tears w/ dust is accumulated in lacrimal lake→capillary action→L. Sphincter Pupillae.retina (neural layer is light receptive &pigmented layer is light absorbing ) &Fundus of eyeball (light focus here) & Optic Disc aka blind spot (CN2 enter eyeball here) Dilator Pupillae. Lymphatic Drainage: Only parotid/buccal region has lymph node→supf lymph node (@junc of head &neck)→deep cervical lymph nodes along IJV Parotid Gland (salivary gland). has parotid sheath. has photoreceptor cones Sphincter papillae decreases diameter and dilator papillae increases its diameter Vasculature: IC→Carotid Canal in Temporal Bone→IC branches off ophthalmic a→optic canal in sphenoid bone→central retinal a→pierces dural sheath of optic n→optic disc→retina→supplies optic retina except rods & cones Blockage of CRA= immediate blindness Nerve: enter thru Superior Orbital Fissure. Orbital fissure Course Anteriorly along roof of orbit. (CNV3)via masseteric n Elevates mandible mandible Lateral Pterygoid Infratemporal surface of “ “ via lateral pterygoid Protracts mandible & depress chins sphenoid/ joint capsule of TMJ Innervated by Mandibular N.circularly arranged (CN3→ciliary ganglion Macula. Apex. Parasympathetic of CN9 EYE Orbit ... emerging via supra. Recti from Common Tendinous Ring. anterolaterally). (Trigeminal n descends thru Foramen Ovale to enter the infratemporal fossa) . CN2 (sensory).Motor Innervation.Tears protect conjunctiva w/ its enzymes Conjunctivitis is swelling (inflammation or infection) of the conjunctiva By bacteria. canaliculi→L. 2. recti. continuous w/ bulbar conjunctiva (loose & wrinkled over the sclera. Fibrous Outer Layer-sclera(attachment for extrinsic&intrinsic muscles)& cornea (avascular). glands→L. Eyelids keep cornea moist by speading lacrimal fluid.Sensory Cutaneous (Sensory) Nerve Name Supra-orbital Infra-orbital Origin Branch fr bifurcation of frontal n. 3. oblique).radially arranged smooth muscle fibers.. bound the conjunctival sac (mucosal bursal space). central canal.Choroid & Iris(has muscles sphincter pupillae /dilator pupillae on surface of lens and central aperture aka pupil for transmitting light). Lacrimal Apparatus: CN7(parasym)→Lacrimal. Lens fine-tune focus on retina.posteromedially @optic canal in sphenoid.has blood vessels). sac→nasolacrimal duct→nasopharynx→swallowed……. External Carotid a→Facial a (inferior border of mandible). if obstructed can leave you blind th Temporal Region (Temporal & Infra Temporal fossas) Muscle of Mastication Masseter Proximal/Distal Attachments Innervation Action on Mandible Zygomatic bone& arch/ramus of Mandibular N. in middle of orbital roof Fr CNV2 via the inf. Path of Light: Light→Refractive Media of Eyeball→Retina…. CN3(sensory) innervates extra-ocular muscles of orbit (levator Palpebrae superioris. btw skin @ epicranial aponeurosis. Together. Palpebral conjunctiva: internal transparent epithelial mucous membrane covering of eyelid. Vascular middle layer.

can appear red fr underlying capillary bed Teeth-hard conical structures set in dental alveoli.formed by palantine process of maxillae & horizontal plates of palantine bones.arched roof of oral cavity proper & floor of nasal cavities. Vermillion Border. Cavity (decay of enamel by lactic acid fr bacteria & sugar)→pulp (has nerves)→infection of pulp cavity→pulpitis→Toothache Gingivitis: Improper hygiene→food in gum→gingivitis→peridontitis (alveolar bone)→exposes sensitive cement of teeth Innervation: CNV2 &CNV3 →superior & inf alveolar n→Dental Plexus (supply maxillary & mandibular teeth) Palate. Lymph drains to Submandibular &submental lymph nodes. Nasal cavities open post into Nasopharynx thru Choanae of palantine bones.gives lubrication to articular disc. Hollow cochlea contains Membranous cochlear Duct (site for hearing) Hollow Vestibule contains Utricle & Saccule & Maculae (sensory epithelium) Semicircular involves in rotation detection. Maxillarydrains via Maxillary ostium. tongue. Abnormal TMJ→Clicking _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Oral region (oral cavity. allow air to enter & leave tympatic cavity. & Mandibular Fossa. 2 Alar. root (fixed in alveolus by fibrous Peridontium). Parts: crown. Pulp Cavity has CT. Vestibulocochlear n (CN8) runs thru Internal acoustic meatus.arises fr superior pharyngotympanic tube . Vestibule.. Semicircular Canals) surrounded by Otic Capsule (bone area). Auditory Ossicle: not directly covered w/ periosteum1.Temporalmandibular Joint. Sphenoid) Ear External (Auricle & Ext. & n…transmits n &vessels to Apical Foramen via root canal. open into membranous utricle Sound Transmission: 1) Sound→tympanic→ossicle→Oval window→vibration in Perilymph in scala vestibuli→bend hair cells→cochlear n to brain OR 2) bends hair cell→across cochlear duct→dampen in scala tympani→ROUND WINdow→pharyngotympanic tube Neck (larynx. <Cut out pic slide 19 fr head part 4> Paranasal sinuses: air-filled extentions of respiratory part of nasal cavity (Frontal-innervated by CNV1 & drains via Frontonasal duct. blood vessels.at base connects w/ Oval Window (opening on labyrinth wall of tympatic cavity→Vestibule of Bony Labyrinth). Nose Bony parts: Nasal. swallow bc soft palate muscles open the cartilaginous part of tube).3. inferiorly to the Articular Tubercle…to open mouth wider. Receive blood fr facial a. Pharyngotympatic Tube: connects tympati cavity to the Nasopharynx…Fnc: to equalize pressure in middle ear. & teeth/gingivae deeply…. Superior 1/3 = Olfactory area (olfactory receptor neurons form nerve bundles→cribiform plate→olfactory bulb). Inferior 2/3 =respiratory area. Lips= fleshy muscular folds surrounding the mouth. Has orbicularis oris. neck. Popping eardrum= equaling pressure (e. Articular tubercle of Temporal Bone. thyroid & Parathyroid Glands) Skeleton: C1-C7. Membraneous labyrinth (Endolymph-filled~Intracellular fluid – balance) is w/in Bony Labyrinth (Perilymphfilled~ extracellular fluid auditory ). Maxillae. acoustic meatus) & Middle (Auditory Ossicle): collect & transfer sound to internal ear. palate & palanine tonsils) Oral vestibule: slit-like space btw lips/cheeks supf.. teeth. Hyoid Bone.hairless. yawn. Ethmoid.synovial joint. Malleus (hammer). Hard Palate. transforms the sound into audible waves Tensor tympani muscle. Manubrium & Clavicles .Buccinator (main muscle of cheeks) Lips & cheeks act as sphincter to push food fr oral vestibule→oral cavity proper. Stapes (Stirrups). Internal has organ for equilibrium & hearing. Incus (Anvil). Enamel (hardest sub in body) covers Dentine over the crown & Cement over the root. Nasal Septum (Ethmoid & Vomer). form a roof for meatus. 1 septal Cartilage. 5 Cartilaginous parts: 2 lateral. Lined w/ mucosa except Vestibule of Nose…has Conchae-curve inferomedially. Permanent set(16 in each jaw). ÷ into Cochlear n (hearing) & vestibular n (balance) Hollow Bony Labyrinth: a series of cavities (Cochlea. tensing the tympanic membrane to ↓amplitude of sound Vestibulocochlear organ: hearing & balance. pulls on malleus. 2. Frontal. Articular surfaces include: head of Mandible.g. ↑SA to humidify nasal air (maintain pliability). Translation when head of Mandible & Articular disc move anteriorly. gingivae.

Longitudinal Ligament (ant). Interior Larynx: has Rima Glottitus (aperture btw vocal folds).. Prevertebral.Rotator Cuff Roots of Cervical Plexus C1-C4 (ant rami) deep to SCM. Ant C Lateral Cervical : (venous path) External jugular v. & extends into Axillary Sheath. for movement during swallowing. Coratid Sinus=slight dilation in Internal Coratid @bifurcation. trachea & esophagus. has 9 cartilages (most prominent is Thyroid Cartilage (bottom end of laryx)-the only laryngeal cartilage that forms a complete ring around airway. 3. Lat C.SCM (÷neck into ant & lat. Post Cervical. Parathyroid gland is posteromedial to thyroid gland. Alimentary (Pharynx & Esophagus) 1. Viscera: 3 layers Supf to Deep.→carotid ∆. locate anterolaterally to larynx & Trachea. Larynx connects oropharynx w/ trachea. consists of R &L lobes interconnect by thin Isthmus. Vocal cords separated @rest. where must sympathetic ganglia be  In the prevertebral layer Retropharyngeal Space: potential space btw prevertebral & Pretracheal Layer. 2. Encloses infrahyoid muscles. Cervical Plexus Block: when anesthetic agent is injected @Nerve Point of Neck. (normal venous pressure=Ext jug v is visible briefly. Endocrine (parathyroid & thyroid glands). Alar & Carotid) for compartmentalization & slipperiness for swallowing. (CN11): supf n. EJV prominent when venous pressure ↑) Subclavian v used for Central Line Placement to parenterally (outside of alimentary tract) insert nutria fluids & chemotherapy.Hyoid. Inferior horns of thyroid cartilage articulates w/ cricoid cartilage @cricothyroid joints. Nerves here fr cervical sympathetic ganglia. Epiglottic cartilage gives flexibility to epiglottis.1. Internal jugular veins. It is a baroreceptor (responds to ∆s in arterial blood pressure). thyroid gland.attachm for ant neck muscles & keep airway open & tongue movement (Hyoglossus-connect hyoid to side of tongue) for articulation Fascia: 1) Fatty Supf subcutaneous Tissue (has Platysma-muscle of facial expression 2) Deep Fascia( Investing. Levator Scapulae & Scalene muscles attach to Transverse process of Cervical vertebrae. Vagus n (CN 10). lies ant. Nuchal Ligament (post). Common & Internal Carotid Arteries. Vestibular Folds are false vocal cords.Larynx (produce voice). So . but crosses deep to SCM muscle Roots of Brachial Plexus C5-T1 (ant rami) btw scalene muscles . Buccopharyngeal fascia is part of pretracheal c)prevertebral of deep cervical fascia (cervical sympathetic ganglia ) Fixed to cranial base (sup). innervated by inf laryngeal n. & deep cervical lymph nodes. Cervical ∆s). Brachiocephalic trunk→R Subclavian & R Common Coratid for veins: SVC→R/L Brachiocephalic v→R/L Subclavian →R/L Interjugular baroreceptors (IX and X) react to changes in arterial blood chemoreceptors (IX and X) monitors level of oxygen in the blood. increase the blood pressure Common Coratid A. AKA Adam’s Apple). has carotid body (a chemoreceptor) to monitor level of O2 in blood. d)Carotid Sheath contains: tubular fascia. (CN 10) . major path for infection spread Infection: Abcess (swollen area w/ pus. Preacheal.→subclavian v→brachiocephalic →SVC. makes parathyroid hormones (↑calcium in blood) 2. Slit-like during phonation.. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block: when injected into supraclavicular part of brachial plexus Venous Angle: junc of internal jugular &subclavian v(see pic) Anterior Cervical: Left aorta does not have Brachiocephalic region. innervated by CN9 &10. turning head & neck a)Investing Layer invests: Sternocleidomastoid & Trapezius muscles(@corners of neck)/ submandibular & parotid glands (superiorly) b)Pretracheal Layer: fr hyoid into thorax.inf to subcla a. post to prevertebral fascia→swelling post to SCMastoid).here blends w/ fibrous pericardium covering heart. Respiratory (Larynx & Trachea). Narrow &wedge shaped during ordinary breathing. Pus may perforate prevertebral layer→retropharyngeal space→bulge in pharyn→Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)→Dysarthria (difficulty speaking) Structures: 4 major regions. →Phrenic n Nerve Block: Regional Anesthesia for surgery in neck/upper limb. aorta→L subclavian & L Common Coratid (notice. not brachiocephalic) aorta→R.Thyroid gland makes thyroid hormones (controls metab) & Calcitonin (↓Ca in blood). Fnc: rotation & gliding of thyroid cartilage→∆s in length of vocal folds. but close (not tightly) to produce audible vibration Thyro-arytenoid: relaxes/ shortens vocal ligaments→∆s pitch of voice. has Spinal Accessory n.

directs food to esophagus. Pharyngeal muscles in wall of pharynx: External circular & Internal Longitudinal. Tonsillectomy.removal of palantine tonsil.Trachea.common in children. Tonsilectomy.post to larynx & Trachea. ends at Manubriosternal joint→R & L bronchi. Zones of Trauma: 1) Manubrium to Cricoid→Apices of lungs &Trachea 2) Cricoid to Mandible→Larynx 3) Superior to Mandible→Oral &Nasal Cavities. Oropharynx & Nasopharynx Zone 1 &3 have greatest mortality . Pharynx. laterally have common carotid a & thyroid lobes 3.inf to larynx. Tonsils are in nasopharynx.