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Modeling A Robotic Perception Episode

Dr. Roshan A. Shaikh1 Salman Zafar2 Department of Computer Sciences. Iqra University Karachi Pakistan (Tel: +92-321-256-7963; Email: 2 Department of Computer Sciences. Iqra University Karachi Pakistan (Tel: +92-300-823-6057; Email:;

Abstract: The need to understand the human mind so as to make a robotic mind work is well recognized.
In cognitive and neurosciences many questions are left still unanswered in understanding this phenomena. Since a robot faces numerous difficulties in programming itself to the degrees of freedom that it embraces with the characteristics that match with humans. The need to develop a pragmatic model that maps a human like brain must be addressed. In this paper we discuss such a model. This is done by taking a closer look in modeling a robotic mind framework by incorporating various modeling agents into the perception base of an intelligent robotic system. This work covers the theoretical survey of the relevant literature including the theories of mind by Leslie, Baron cohen and Mckaart on the developmental work on mapping the human mind for the understanding of intelligent robotic systems and the paper concludes with a proposition of a novel design of a robotic mind. Keywords: Robot, Perception, Tables, Agents, Classification of agents.

A robot faces numerous difficulties in programming itself to the degrees of freedom that it embraces characteristics that match with humans. In literature there seems to be scant if any work specifically in human mapping area with electro mechanical systems. This is what we have attempted in this work. In this paper we discuss a model for a robot to have a human like brain, imitating expressions, adopting human like learning and have creative ability to construct productive outputs while staying within the restrained environment of a non-human electro mechanical analogue and digital systems. The usefulness of mind mapping includes decision making, empirical understanding, stimulating creative constructs and intelligence. Raising the most fundamental questions and understanding the complexity of this highly advance system. Scientists all around the world are putting in great endeavors by taking a closer look in modeling a human mind framework with respect to the model comprising of various intelligent agents into the perception base of smart robotic system. The comparative anatomy of human brains with other vertebrates show five major regions. In contrast, in human brain the cerebrum overlies a number of the other parts. The cerebrum- is the source of all conscious sensations, actions, memory and intelligence. Mind collectively refers to the aspects of intellect and consciousness manifested as combinations of

thought, perception, memory, emotion, intention and imagination – a sort of superset whose members are many including consciousness as a subset. (IEEE-Spectrum-The rapture of the geeks 06.08). A human mind facilitates like an information processor that processes information from the environment and provides the logic of what is happening. Psychoanalysts explain that human beings too are information processors the human brain decodes information that’s been put in it, while computers are designed in the similar pattern. A human mind is thought dependant as it transmits, the mind may wish to instruct the brain to take a certain action. This transmission back to the brain might use the Fourier transform to decompose the complex form of thought into its component waves so the individual fibers of the brain can vibrate and transmit to the muscles of the body a directive to take action, or to other fibers connecting brain cells which may in turn develop the thought to the next step or stage (William Witherspoon, 2004).One aspect of human mind mapping for a robot dictates an in depth look of tasks can be made under study. For instance multiple threads may be drawn from a priori state. By following each of those threads more streams are drawn that relate to each other and to all those triggers that lead upstream all the way to the priori. Additionally if a robot has to perform, continually generated new ideas synthesized with previously build ideas and

4 BARON-COHEN’S MODEL OF Agent THEORY OF MIND This model deals with two sequences of input availability. Some of the critical unresolved elements include the following.……….p (x. auditory and physical mediums that have self-motile motion.………………(2) As well as cumulatively so that.b) is the subset of P constituting sets of agents (a) and basic truth tables (b). namely mechanical. Psychological consciousness occurs half a second after a stimulus starts.b) λ1………. Relational understanding of stimuli with self motile motion.y)…………. The first principle explains stimuli in visual. al 1.λn) bring about transformations to perceptions sequentially as in . Perception gives rise to two types of consciousness: phenomenal and psychological. psychological.(1) Where p (a. 2002). 2. The natural developmental procedure has given independent field specific modules in lieu of the argument that deals with each of these classes of Physic occurrences.y)…………(3) Now. 1. 2. 1.y) = 0 b p (a. Perception is a finite set of world states so that there are p (a.……….1 ASSUMPTIONS The basic assumptions made to develop a high level design comprise the following: 1.2 PERCEPTION It is the process gaining awareness from the sensory information. P = [ p (a. The second principle explains s all visual mechanics work eye-like. Though the world is naturally formed into three groups of stimuli based upon their fundamental structure.(4) ∫ ∫ A g e n t s Responsive Agents Cogniti ve Agents Expressio n Perceptio n Faith/Intentio n Robo Mind Control Stimulati ng Agents Control Agents .3 LESLIE’S MODEL OF THEORY OF MIND This theory is a manifestation of fundamental events as a central system to aim mechanics and theories of other mind. 2002). and social factors. actional and attitudinal agents. eye direction detector.b) + 0 a p (x.. For example phenomenal consciousness is full of rich sensations that are hardly present when eyes are closed. Quantification – Measurement.a notion that it captures from its surroundings. DESIGN End Effector s Sensor Figure: 1 2. Depending on measurement methods use the capacity of perception ranges between seven and forty symbols or percepts at one time. 1. P (x. actional and attitudinal agencies. not much success has been made in development of a comprehensive Human-Robot mapping model. shared attention mechanism and the theory of mind (Brian scassellati. Perception – Evidence of perception from sensory systems. (Brian scassellati.experiences it must be able to use inspiration. While lots of work has been done in attempting to understand this mapping process.. P = P λ* P (x. mechanical. The way people perceive or experience this information depends not only on the stimulus itself but also on the physical context in which the stimulus occurs and on numerous physical.b) paired subsets of P. Usually learning begins with the sensory systems through which people receive information about their bodies the physical and social world around them. The remaining of this paper comprises of a high level design of a robotic mind (Robo-Mind) and with detailed emphasis on the perception system of the robotic mind. Mind reading systems such as that the set or originator to the theory of mind can be formed into four distinctive modules Intentionality detector. The paper concludes with recommendations as to the theoretical significance of a Human-Robot mind. so that progressive world states from (λ1………. P = λ * x = 1 ∑ x = n p (a.b) λ. 3. keeping in view that the concept of number may be vital to the object illustration.y) λn].

performing. 2. 7. 3. Sensor Network . PERCEPTION EPISODE MODEL Perception episode model can be explained in terms of Agents and Truth tables as shown in Figure: 2 BIOLOGICAL AGENT Symbolic Agent. Here learning is a procedure and gaining experience is an acquired characteristic through a specific process. In Table: 3 Learning is gained by experience in intelligent systems. 4. Input Agents Figure: 2 Table-2 and Table-3 are attached as Annexure-A and Annexure-B. Adaptive Agents. predicate analysis and recursive algorithmic truth axioms organized as semantic data dictionary of decision making perceptions. learn new knowledge and provide support to unbiased operation of Robo – Mind kernel (RK). abstraction and reasoning. Intelligent Agents. Agents are categorized as under: 1. 2. Information Agents Search Agents. in a separate work by the authors these approaches are discussed at length. Ad-Hoc Agents. 6. symbolic information. logical interpretation of information. . 5. Agents are Intelligent Agents whose job is to communicate intuitively between tables. Entertainment Agents SOCIAL AGENT Percepti on LEARNING AGENT Smart Agents. Similarly intelligent system provides creative intelligence and coordination by the process of unconscious incitement that is a process of automating behavior. mathematics. learning and reasoning the sensory data. Tables are sets of heuristic.2 A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE DESIGN Stimulating agents (sa) connect perception system and control tables. 3. Processing Agents Hybrid Agents. We deal with the first tedious task of designing Perception system (PS) by identifying and describing functions responsible for a comprehensive perception module in the following manner. analyze data and perform memory functions. Autonomous Agents. It is possible to apply neural nets or some sort of tree walking approaches to connect these tables. Tables are categorized as under: 1. Control agents (ca) and Cognitive agents (ga) are responsible for maintaining Control tables (CT. Control Agents – (ca) Cognitive Agents – (ga) Responsive Agents – (ra) Stimulating Agents – (sa) Physical Agents – (pa) 2. although it is not the primary purpose of this paper. Control agents and Cognitive agents are responsible for updating and maintaining Control tables (CT). Physical agents (pa) provide connectivity and real time communication with Sensor network (SN) and End effectors (EE). sequential analysis. systematic performance. Robo-Mind kernel (RK) and Faith / Intention rules (FR). Temporal Agent PERSONALITY AGENT Parallel Agents. We propose the Robo-Mind as shown in Figure: 1 as only a high level prototype. World Agents PERSONAL AGENT Dedicated Agents. Thinking procedure forms thoughts. language. Spatial Agent. 4. The model comprises of Agents & Tables. Stimulating agents (sa) carries filtered perception information to Control tables (CT). this paper does not dwell further into protocols and specifications of any other component of the Robo-Mind. 4.2. 5. Other than perception. Responsive agents (ra) deal with Expression system (ES). Procedure for perception is comprised of analyzing.(SN) Perception System – (PS) Control Tables – (CT) Robo-Mind Kernel – (RK) Faith / Intention Rules – (FR) Expression System – (ES) End effectors – (EE) 3. these show the details of Agents and Truth tables. ANALYTICAL APPROACH Each high level perception agent operates in a hierarchical formulation with autonomously defined procedures and processes.

y = A process at instance t Associati on as (Ba) as (La) as (Sa) as (Pa) Thinki ng th (Ba) th(La) th (Sa) th (Pa) . p = Procedures that depend upon specific processes.2 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATIONS M = High Level Perception of the Robo-Mind.1 SYMBOLIC NOTATIONS Percepti on M(r )= p (Ba) p (La) p (Sa) p (Pa) Learni ng l (Ba) l (La) l (Sa) l (Pa) Creative IntelligenceCoordination cic (Ba) cic (La) cic (Sa) cic (Pa) Table: 4 A mathematical expression on it is critical in understanding the mapping process with human brain. 4.Agent Types Percepti on (p) Learning (l) Creative Intelligencecoordination (cic) Unconscious incitement Associati on (as) Thinkin g (th) (Ba) Biologic al Agents (La) Learnin g Agents (Sa) Social Agents (Pa) Persona l Agents Sensory stimuli Gain experience Linking relationships Reasonin g Predicate analysis Examine Automatic impulse Making connections Rational StudyImplementati on Reflexive Involving patterns Adapt Implementati on Deliberative - - Table: 3 4.

P (y 1) = n = 1 ∫ n = x Ba (p) t * R1 represents the relationship with Biological agent with Perception. Observational behavior of the classifications of robots was limited and thus remains in its natural of settings due to which technical summary of the results are not briefed. The model sketch gives perceptive abilities of a robot input by the human like imitation results a very prime indicator a robot must embrace. IEEE INMIC. involving the findings based on the researches being carried out. most optimum mirror of a robotic mind can be simply a human mind imitation. its associations and imitations. Also. M= x=1 research. (2005) “A security architecture for multihop mobile ad hoc networks with mobile agents”. While the theoretical and empirical efforts have led to a very sound theory about Human-Robot mind mapping. (2001) “Principles of modern networks”. Mathematical Mind & Computational Computers (how the computer can support mathematical thinking and learning) David Tall Mathematics Education Research Centre University of Warwick. The analysis and interpretation summarizes the understanding of a human mind in distinction of perception into endless categories to assimilate into the area of robotics. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Learning. [6] Brian Scassellati. “Investigating Models of Social Development using a Humanoid Robot” MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab. Creative intelligence coordination. L = High level perception results as a spread function of individual layers of our model as shown in figure. 2002. REFERENCES [1] Shaikh R. UK. it has opened up many areas of future . We can also derive additional equations for Perception. P (y2) = n = 1 ∫ n = x La (p) t * R2 represents the relationship with Learning agent with Perception. R = A resulting process which has indicated a maximum limit of Perception as a finite integer indicating the level of intensity of the result of all such Processes whose sensory cumulative values have been registered at instant t. CONCLUSION In this paper a model of Human-Robot mind is developed. (2002). the proposal of modeling a robotic mind consists of sensory and creative input mechanisms acquired by the social dynamics and environment. 02139. New York. “Perception” Cambridge Handbook to Cognitive Science [5] Brian Scassellati. In our model we have proposed high level perception as shown in figure depending upon the progress technology we envision more complex implementation of this model with more or less number of high level perception. a = Cumulative result of individually integrated procedures. 5. “Theory of Mind for a Humanoid Robot”. If M is high level representation of the Robo-Mind. [4] Casey O'Callaghan (2007). Aisoft Press. learning functions. [3] Brian Scassellati. visual and auditory stimuli’s.t = A measurable instant in time. Yale University. 13–24. carefully choosing the innate and relative attributes that boost intelligence factors. d = Delta determines the function showing relationship between procedures and processes. The way forward includes development of intelligent agents and fact tables to test the theory proposed in this paper. The understanding of the human mind brings forth a distinct look into the deeper understanding of how human mind can be imitated in an artificial humanoid. P (y3) = n = 1 ∫ n = x Sa (p) t * R3 denotes social agent and Perception relationship and. MA. [2] Shaikh R. USA [7] David Tall Biological Brain. thinking patterns. Autonomous Robots 12. Cambridge. x = Number of high level perception on which intelligent systems operate. processes and results for each high level perception as shown in figure. “How Developmental Psychology and Robotics Complement Each Other” MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab. Similarly. ∑ x=n a log 10 (L) / n We can also show that. learning skills and their practice that are present in human mind. Association and Thinking without any problem. P (y4) = n = 1 ∫ n = x Pa (p) t * R4 describes Personal agent and Perception relationship. Department of Computer Science.

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Fault tolerance. Emotional reservoir. Skilled. Adjusting environment. . Efficient. Stress management. Independence awareness. Perform memory functions. Collect facts and data. Sensory stimuli. Gain experience. Form thoughts. objective tasks. Speech recognition. language. Charisma. Probing. Arts. Disposition. Linking relationships. Learning. Adaptive. Robust. Reactive stimuli. and Extensible. Experience. Abstraction. User centered. Analyze sensory data. Semantic handling of data. Transparent. Association. Form knowledge. Creative intelligence coordination. Music. Interactive. Form actions on sensory stimuli. Anatomy. Sequential analysis. Credibility.ANNEXURE – A PERCEPTION E X P E R I E N C E . Form thoughts & make decisions.AGENTS Agent Type Biological agent Symbolic agents Temporal Agents Spatial Agents Personality Agents Parallel Agents Adaptive Agents Entertainme nt Agents Learning Agents Smart Agents Autonomous Agents Information Agents Search Agents Intelligent Agents Biology. Routines in the brink of time. Mobile. Proactive functioning. Character. problem solving. Observing the physical real world and analyzing sensory data. systematic. Processing Agents Social Agents Hybrid Agents World Agents Relationships. abstraction and reasoning. Holistic functioning. logical interpretation of information. Language processing. memory stored in a language format. Temperament. Circadian rhythms. Value system. Individual actions. News. Examine. Time based decisions. Learn new information. Unconscious incitement. Edification. Socially able. Analyze data. Multitasking. Reasoning. Traits. Gain experience. mathematics. Converting into new forms. Pragmatic searching into the data streams. Current world status. Autonomous processing agent of all agent types. Sound recognition. Image conception. Interpretation & production of symbolic information. Spatial learning. Scalable. Circulatory system. Communicate data streams. Memory. Learn new information. Unconscious incitement. Seeking meaningful data. Physiology. E-Commerce. and Make decisions. Time constraints. Recognition of sounds and objects (visual). Psyche. Linking relationships. Percepts. Cinema. Carrying out a thorough exploration. Autonomous tasks. Communal. Identity. Study. Thinking. Bring news and updates. Visual information. Individuality. Reasoning. Alternate plans. Customization improvisation. Films. Flexible.

Process and make sense of sensory inputs. Assigned processes. Special task. Specialized tasks. Confidential work routines. Specific tasks.Personal Agents Dedicated Agents Ad-Hoc Agents Input Agents Individual. Table: 1 . Exclusive jobs. Distinctive tasks. Committed routine tasks. Particular performing routine.

Science. Cable.ANNEXURE – B P E R C E P T I O N EXPERIENCE – PERCEPTS. Satellite. Internet. Arts Specific / Disposition / Psyche Open Open Specific Open Meaningful data Random tasks Observe Corresponden ce Image conception Sensing inputs Sensory stimuli Identifying errors / discrepancies Time slack solving Analyze sensory data . Open Specific / Personal. Open Specific Specific / Media. Office. GOALS & FUNCTIONAL SCOPE Agent Type Personality Agents Learning Agents Social Agents Personal Agents Smart Agents Autonomous Agents Adaptive Agents Entertainment Agents Dedicated Agents Information Agents Search Agents Ad-Hoc Agents Hybrid Agents Parallel Agents Symbolic Agents Input Agents World Agents Processing Agents Temporal Agents Spatial Agents Percepts Edification Study / Observe Interaction Cognition Analysis Gain experience Acquire skills Sensory stimuli Object oriented Collect data Charming Gain insight Communicati on Catharsis Learn new information Recognition Acquisition & Adept Motor / Movements Assign routines Form knowledge Associate meaningful information Correction of procedures Gain insight Alternate functions Figurative representatio n Making sense Analyze Problem solving Error correction Observations of the real Goals Charisma Knowledge attainment Credibility Improve Make decisions Awareness Implementati on Relaxation Result oriented Communicate verbal / visual / readable Inquire Task deployment Knowledge attainment Multitasking Character definition Procession of inputs Knowledge acquisition Speech recognition Time specific Awareness Functional Scope Social Open Social Specific / Inner self Open Open Specific Open Specific / Dedicated environmen ts TV.

Intelligent Agents Autonomous processing world Get experience Table: 2 New form of knowledge Open .