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Introduction Turmeric (Curcuma longa L), the ancient and sacred spice of India known as ‘Indian saffron’ is an important commercial spice crop grown in India. It is used in diversified forms as a condiment, flavouring and colouring agent and as a principal ingredient in Indian culinary as curry powder. It has anti cancer and anti viral activities and hence finds use in the drug industry and cosmetic industry. 'Kum-kum', popular with every house wife, is also a by-product of turmeric. It finds a place in offerings on religious and ceremonial occasions. A type of starch is also being extracted from a particular type of turmeric. The increasing demand for natural products as food additives makes turmeric as ideal produce as a food colourant. Turmeric is the dried rhizome of Curcuma longa L., a herbaceous perennial belonging to the family Zingiberaceae and a native of South Asia particularly India. The plant is propagated from rhizomes. The leaves are long, broad, lanceolate and bright green. The flowers are pale yellow and borne on dense spikes. The pseudostems are shorter than leaves. The rhizomes are ready for harvesting in about 7 to 9 months after planting. 2. International scenario India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Other major producers are Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, Central and Latin America and Taiwan. The global production of turmeric is around 11 lakh tonnes per annum. India dominates the world production scenario contributing 78 % followed by China(8%), Myanamr(4%) and Nigeria and Bangala Desh together contributing to 6% of the global production. India is the global leader in value added products of turmeric and exports. Other major exporters are Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, Central and Latin America and Taiwan. United Arab Emirates(UAE) is the major importer of turmeric from India accounting for 18% of the total exports followed by United States of America(USA)with 8%. The other leading importers are Bangaladesh, Japan, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom, Malaysia, South Africa, Netherland and Saudi Arabia. All these countries together account for 75% of the world imports and Asian countries are the main suppliers to the entire world. The remaining 25% is met by Europe, North America and Central and Latin American countries. United States of America imports 97% of its turmeric requirement from India and the remaining portion from the Islands of the Pacific and Thailand. Out of the total global production UAE accounts for 18% of the imports, followed by USA(11%), Japan(9%), Srilanka,UK, Malaysia together accounting for 17%. 3. National scenario The state wise total area and production of turmeric is given in Table 1. Table 1. Statewise Area, production and productivity of turmeric in India (2005-06) State Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa Area (ha) 69,990 25,970 24,020 Production (tonnes) 518,550 143,358 57,090 Productivity (tonnes/ha) 7.41 5.52 2.38

e. Turmeric is available in two seasons in India i.237 1.164.46 10.750 4. The institutional sector in the West buys ground turmeric and oleoresins. 65% exported to UAE. Sangli Turmeric (Maharashtra). Srilanka. From India’s total turmeric exports.88 0. Rajapore Turmeric (Maharashtra).760 5.70 8.427 26.700 6. Nizamabad Bulb ( Andhra Pradesh) etc. Dharmapuri and Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu. and Malaysia.400 8.96 2.70 11.91 5.049 8.140 16. UK.970 1. USA.383 8.108 979 850 850 740 670 670 466 427 200 200 92 90 12 173.38 4. The guidelines for organic farming of spice crops is enclosed in Annexure I.763 2.72 1.000 9.410 3. The various varieties of turmeric that are traded in India are Allepey Finger ( Kerala). India exported 5150 tonnes of turmeric valued at Rs. Erode Turmeric (Tamil Nadu).510 3.00 4.25 6.43 0. pollution free food maximising the use of on farm resources and minimising the use of off-farm resources.000 640 610 3. The major trading centers of turmeric are Nizamabad. .380 3.79 3.West Bengal Assam Maharashtra Karnataka Bihar Kerala Himachal Pradesh Gujarat Tripura Uttar Pradesh Meghalaya Nagaland Chhattisgarh Madhya Pradesh Sikkim Uttarakhand Arunachal Pradesh Manipur Mizoram Andaman & Nicobar Rajasthan Jammu & Kashmir TOTAL Source : Spices Board 11.82 0.56 1. Japan.59 0.600 3.11 0.384 1. while dry turmeric is preferred by the industrial sector. Salem Turmeric (Tamil Nadu).844 11.640 1. Organic farming : Organic farming is a crop production method which encourages sustainable agriculture by enhancing the biological cycles in nature. nutritive.25 4.95 Indian turmeric is considered the best in the world market because of its high curcumin content.98 2. 4. It is targeted at producing healthy.650 642 230 12 855.533 3.February to May and August to October.364 9.52 3. Erode..005 25.80 crores during 2006-07. It seeks to avoid the use of chemical nutrients and pesticides.631 140 1. Dugirala in Andhra Pradesn.59 10.400 1.86 0.37 8. Sangli in Maharshtra and Salem.

jack and litchi and on the west coast with coconut and arecanut. It can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500mm above MSL within a temperature range of 20-30°C with a rainfall of 1500 mm or more per annum or under irrigated conditions.5 cm long pieces. In some areas. rich loamy soils having natural drainage and irrigation facilities are the best. red soils to clayey loams. turmeric is grown as an intercrop with mango. In the case of the irrigated crop. garlic. Turmeric cannot stand water stagnation or alkalinity. The cultivated varieties show considerable variation in size and colour of the rhizomes and curcumin content. Though turmeric thrives in different types of soil ranging from light black loam. Spacing generally adopted is 45-60 cm between the ridges and 15-20 cm between the plants. pulses. vegetables. There are two dominant types of turmeric found on the world market: 'Madras'. Solarisation of beds is beneficial in checking the multiplication of pests and diseases causing organisms. Being an annual crop. wheat. and 'Alleppey'. ragi and maize. The fingers are cut into 4 . onion. It is cultivated as a subsidiary crop to ginger in some areas and in other areas with chilli and quick-growing vegetables. turmeric requires a conversion period of two years.6 Varieties A number of cultivars are available in the country and are known mostly by the name of the locality where they are cultivated. 5.5.1 m width and of convenient length may be prepared giving at least 50 cm spacing between beds. both the mother rhizomes and fingers are used.1 Climate and soil Turmeric requires a warm and humid climate. and the mother rhizomes are planted as such or split into two.5 Planting material Carefully preserved seed rhizomes free from pests and diseases which are collected from organically cultivated farms should be used for planting. to begin with seed material from high yielding local varieties may be used in the absence of organically produced seeds. 5. Often castor and pigeon pea are planted on the borders and on irrigation channels to provide shade 5. More than 5 per cent curcumin content and lemon yellow. The seed is sometimes sprouted under moist straw before sowing.3 Buffer zone In order to cultivate turmeric organically a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet shall be maintained if the neighbouing farms are non-organic. 5. The produce from this zone shall not be treated as organic. orange or orange yellow coloured turmeric powder are preferred in the international market. Turmeric can be cultivated organically as an intercrop along with other crops provided that all the companion crops are also organically grown. both named after the regions of production . 5. Organic production : 5.2 Rotation Turmeric is grown in rotation with sugarcane. elephant foot yam. ridges and furrows are prepared and the rhizomes are planted in shallow pits on the top of the ridges. For sowing. The polythene sheets used for soil solarisation should be kept away safely after the work is completed. minimum tillage operations may be adopted. Beds of 15 cm height. each having at least one sound bud. chilli.4 Land preparation While preparing the land. However.

200 kg per acre.0% to 7. where users prefer it as a spice and a food colorant. Lakadong variety of ginger is grown in Meghalaya and this variety is popular for high curcumin content of 5 to 5.1 Pests . the 'Armoor' type of the Nizamabad area and the 'Chaya Pasupa' are the other important varieties of Andhra Pradesh. Suroma. adoption of phyto sanitary measures combined with understanding the life cycles of both pest and its predators will allow decisions to be made regarding the need to intervene for managing the pest population. The Madras turmeric is preferred by the British and Middle Eastern markets for its more intense. Alleppey turmeric contains about 3. Cow dung slurry may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Proper drainage channels are to be provided in the inter rows to drain off stagnant water. adds organic matter to the soil and conserves moisture during the dry period. The first mulching is to be done at the time of planting with green leaves @ 4-5 tonnes per acre. 5. Seed rhizomes may be put in shallow pits and covered with well rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma (10 gm compost inoculated with Tricoderma).8 Cultural practices Mulching the beds with green leaves is an important practice beneficial to this crop when planting is done on raised beds.05%. phosphorus content like Acalypha weed and potassium content like Calotropis as mulch. 5. brighter and lighter yellow color.8 tonnes/ acre is also desirable.in India. Application of well rotten cow dung or compost from own farm @2-3 tonne /acre may be given as basal dose while planting rhizomes in the pits. prevents wash off of soil due to heavy rains.10.5% to 5. Weeding may be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Of the two types cultivated in Maharashtra. This helps to enhance germination of seed rhizomes. In Orissa important varieties cultivated are Roma. It is to be repeated again @ 2 tonnes / acre at 50th day after planting. Turmeric can be planted during April-July with the receipt of pre monsoon showers. 'Lokhandi' has bright coloured hard rhizomes and the other has light-coloured soft rhizomes. Ranga and Rasmi.0% curcumin.5% volatile oils. The popular commercial varieties in Andhra Pradesh are 'Duggirala' of Guntur and 'Tekurpeta' which has long.7 Planting At the time of planting 25 g powdered neem cake mix well with soil is applied in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows. The orange-yellow flesh Alleppey turmeric is predominantly imported by the United States. smooth and hard fingers. The Patna variety is noted for its deep colour. the Madras type contains only 2% of volatile oils and 2% of curcumin. and 4. 'Kasturi Pasupa' of the Godavari Delta. Care may be taken to include a mix of leguminous crops with leaves rich in nitrogen content. Such materials may be used for mulching. application of neem cake @ 0.9 Manuring Turmeric needs heavy manuring. 5. In addition. stout. A seed rate of 1000 kg rhizomes is required for planting one acre of land. Regular field surveillance. In contrast.10 Plant protection The underlying approach for pest and disease management under organic production is based on a range of preventive and other management strategies to minimize the incidence of pests and diseases. As an intercrop in a fruit-garden seed rate may be as low as 125 . 5. 5.

Application of Trichoderma at the time of planting can check the incidence of rhizome rot. Dried turmeric has a poor appearance and rough dull colour outside the surface with scales and root bits. The cooked turmeric is taken out of the pan by lifting the troughs and draining the water into the pan itself. the heap is plastered over with earth mixed with cow dung. Curing involves boiling of rhizomes in fresh water and drying it in the sun. The same hot water in the pan can be used for boiling the next lot of raw turmeric which is already filled in the troughs.5% may be sprayed at fortnightly intervals. If necessary neem oil 0. the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. Alternatively. Artificial drying using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of 60°C is also found to give a satisfactory product. No chemical should be used for processing. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with sawdust. polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. During night time the material should be heaped or covered. Manual polishing consists of rubbing the dried turmeric fingers on a hard surface.11 Harvesting and curing The crop has to be harvested at the right maturity and is ready for harvesting in about 7 to 9 months after sowing depending upon the variety. The turmeric is also polished in power-operated drums. Harvested rhizomes are cleaned of mud and other extraneous matter adhering to them. the intermediate types in about 8 months and the late types in about 9 months. Fingers are separated from mother rhizomes. with water just enough to soak them. 5. Boil till the fingers/mother rhizomes become soft.2 Diseases No major disease is noticed in turmeric. In the case of sliced turmeric. The cooking of turmeric is to be done within 2-3 days after harvest.10. The colour of the turmeric always attracts the buyers. The recovery of dry product varies from 20-25% depending upon the variety and the location where the crop is grown. Usually the land is ploughed and the rhizomes are gathered by hand picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. The green turmeric is cured for obtaining dry turmeric. The aromatic types mature in about 7 months. In order to impart attractive yellow colour. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated. The cleaned rhizomes are boiled in copper or galvanized iron or earthen vessels. .12 Preservation of seed Rhizomes for seed are generally heaped under the shade of trees or in well-ventilated sheds and covered with turmeric leaves. The pits can be covered with wooden planks with one or two holes for aeration. 5.If shoot borer incidence is noticed. The cooked fingers/mother rhizomes are spread on bamboo mats or cement floor under the sun for drying. When the rhizomes are uniformly coated with suspension they may be dried in the sun. Sometimes. The mother rhizomes and the fingers are cured separately. turmeric suspension in water is added to the polishing drum in the last 10 minutes. such shoots may be cut open and larve picked out and destroyed. 5. rhizomes may also be cooked using baskets with perforated bottom and sides. The improved method is by using hand-operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis. artificial drying has a clear advantage giving brighter coloured product than sun drying which tends to suffer from surface bleaching. It may take 10-15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry. The average yield per acre is 8 -10 tonnes of green turmeric. The rhizomes are spread in 5-7 cm thick layers for desirable colour of the dried product. Leaf spot and leaf blotch can be controlled by restricted use of Bordeaux mixture 1%. Mother rhizomes are usually kept as seed material. Smoothening and polishing the outer surface by manual or mechanical rubbing improves the appearance.

25/kg.13 Yield The yield of pure crop varies from 8000 to 10000 kg per acre. Spices Board has also programmes to encourage production of Lakadong turmeric in the North Eastern States. viz.1 Sale price The farm gate price of cured turmeric has been considered at Rs. 23900/-. Financial aspects : 7. 10 and 15% for small.5. 7. Conclusion The net income from organic cultivation and curing of turmeric is Rs.3 Margin The percentage of margin / down payment to cost of development prescribed is 5. 8. 7. However. processing. Assistance is provided for organic cultivation of turmeric in select states.95 % shall be available from the financing institution. Spices Board is also implementing the scheme for Export Oriented Production during the XI Plan where in assistance is being provided for promotion of organic turmeric under various programmes as indicated in Annexure II 7. 7.4 Bank loan Bank loan of 85 . abundant manuring and copious irrigation it may be as high as 12000 kg per acre. Linkages : Spices Board supports production.5 Rate of interest The rate of interest to be charged to the ultimate borrower would be guided by RBI guidelines issued from time to time.0 acre organic turmeric cultivation is Rs 34800/. Bank loan considered in the model is 90%. The activity is technically feasible. The detailed cost of cultivation is given in Annexure -III. financially viable and bankable.6 Security Banks are guided by RBI guidelines issued from time to time in this regard. The rest of the cost of development will be provided as bank loan. Spices Board has been designated as one of the agencies empowered to accredit certification agencies. Under exceptionally favourable conditions. 7.per acre. 6. certification and marketing of organic spices. 7. the ultimate lending rate has been considered as 12 % for working out the bankability of the model scheme. medium and large farmers respectively. .2 Cost of cultivation The cost of cultivation for 1. Margin considered in the present model is 10%.