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Baltic Way 2010

1 Find all quadruples of real numbers (a, b, c, d) satisfying the system of equations  (b + c + d)2010 = 3a    (a + c + d)2010 = 3b (a + b + d)2010 = 3c    (a + b + c)2010 = 3d 2 Let x be a real number such that 0 < x < π . Prove that 2 cos2 (x) cot(x) + sin2 (x) tan(x) ≥ 1 3 Let x1 , x2 , . . . xn (n ≥ 2) be real numbers greater than 1. Suppose that |xi − xi+1 | < 1 for i = 1, 2, . . . n − 1. Prove that x1 x2 xn−1 xn + + ... + + < 2n − 1 x2 x3 xn x1 4 Find all polynomials P (x) with real coefficients such that (x − 2010)P (x + 67) = xP (x) for every integer x. 5 Let R denote the set of real numbers. Find all functions f : R → R such that f (x2 ) + f (xy) = f (x)f (y) + yf (x) + xf (x + y) for all x, y ∈ R. 6 An n × n board is coloured in n colours such that the main diagonal (from top-left to bottomright) is coloured in the first colour; the two adjacent diagonals are coloured in the second colour; the two next diagonals (one from above and one from below) are coloured in the third colour, etc; the two corners (top-right and bottom-left) are coloured in the n-th colour. It happens that it is possible to place on the board n rooks, no two attacking each other and such that no two rooks stand on cells of the same colour. Prove that n = 0 (mod 4) or n = 1 (mod 4). 7 There are some cities in a country; one of them is the capital. For any two cities A and B there is a direct flight from A to B and a direct flight from B to A, both having the same price. Suppose that all round trips with exactly one landing in every city have the same total cost. Prove that all round trips that miss the capital and with exactly one landing in every remaining city cost the same.

This file was downloaded from the AoPS Math Olympiad Resources Page

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Further suppose the circle through D. let d(k) denote the number of divisors of k and let s(k) denote the digit sum of k. DA (in this order) do not form an arithmetic progression. Prove that S lies on P Q. 14 Assume that all angles of a triangle ABC are acute. the segment CD is an altitude and H is the orthocentre. (b) Show that there is such a quadrilateral for which the lengths of its sides AB. 15 The points M and N are chosen on the angle bisector AL of a triangle ABC such that ∠ABM = ∠ACN = 23◦ . 16 For a positive integer k. 9 There is a pile of 1000 matches. respectively. What is the smallest amusing odd integer greater than 1? 17 Find all positive integers n such that the decimal representation of n2 consists of odd digits only. E. Two players each take turns and can take 1 to 5 matches. (a) Show that the lengths of its sides AB. Consider all dissections of a convex n-gon into triangles by n − 3 non-intersecting diagonals.artofproblemsolving. for example 7 exceptional moves can be done by the first player and 3 moves by the second and then no more exceptional moves are allowed. B. and C intersects the side AB in two points X and Y . 10 Let n be an integer with n ≥ 3.Baltic Way 2010 8 In a club with 30 members. X is a point inside the triangle such that BX = CX and ∠BXC = 2∠BM L. D. DA form an arithmetic progression after the order of the lengths is changed. BC. Two circles k. k and k intersect in exactly two different points P and Q. CD. One day each member sent his hat to a different member (a member could have received more than one hat). Find the least possible number of black triangles. A positive integer n is said to be amusing if there exists a positive integer k such that d(k) = s(k) = n. Whoever takes the last match wins. Given that the circumcentre of the triangle lies on the line containing the bisector of the angle DHB. 13 In an acute triangle ABC. It is also allowed at most 10 times during the whole game to take 6 matches. Prove that there exists a group of 10 members such that no one in the group has received a hat from another one in the group. every member initially had a hat. and all colourings of the triangles with black and white so that triangles with a common side are always of a different colour. 12 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with precisely one pair of parallel sides. This file was downloaded from the AoPS Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www. C and B. 11 Let ABCD be a square and let S be the point of intersection of its diagonals AC and BD. Determine which player has a winning strategy. and E lie on the same Page 2 . Let D and E be points on the sides AC and BC of the triangle such that A. Find ∠M XN . BC. determine all possible values of ∠CAB. Furthermore. k go through A. CD. Show that the midpoint of XY is the foot of the altitude from C to AB. D.

1−1 + 2−1 + 3−1 . This file was downloaded from the AoPS Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www. . 1−1 + 2−1 . + an and a1 a2 . .. there exists a unique integer denoted by k −1 such that 1 ≤ k −1 ≤ p − 1 and k −1 · k = 1 (mod p). 1−1 + 2−1 + . + p2 = 2010? 1 2 k 20 Determine all positive integers n for which there exists an infinite subset A of the set N of positive integers such that for all pairwise distinct a1 . pk such that p2 + p2 + . .. . . an ∈ A the numbers a1 + . Prove that the sequence 1−1 .com/ Page 3 . . an are coprime. p2 . . .. . . 1 ≤ k ≤ p − 1.artofproblemsolving. .Baltic Way 2010 18 Let p be a prime number. . 19 For which k do there exist k pairwise distinct primes p1 . . For each k. . p+1 2 . . + (p − 1)−1 (addition modulo p) contains at most distinct elements.