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Sustainable manufacturing

Presentation for Cambridge University Horizon Day, 8th December 2004

What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge?

Julian Allwood Institute for Manufacturing University of Cambridge Mill Lane Cambridge CB2 1RX +44-1223-338181 jma42@cam.ac.uk 1

Sustainable manufacturing

Presentation for Cambridge University Horizon Day, 8th December 2004

What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge?

Julian Allwood Institute for Manufacturing University of Cambridge Mill Lane Cambridge CB2 1RX +44-1223-338181 jma42@cam.ac.uk 2

un.org/esa/sustdev 3 Bio-diversity Urbanization Non-renewable material Hazardous waste Waste volume Energy consumption .Sustainability: what are the issues? United Nations indicators of “sustainability”: Greenhouse gas Ozone layer Air quality De-forestation Desert-ification Agricultural chemicals Poverty Gender equality Nutrition Child mortality Sanitation Anthropo-sphere Ecosphere Health Education Housing Crime Population (Employment) http://www.

saying: O man of Shuruppak. son of Ubartutu: … Abandon wealth and seek living beings! Spurn possessions and keep alive living beings! Epic of Gilgamesh.Sustainability: some issues will never be solved Poverty Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh. tablet XI. ~2600BC Gender equality Nutrition Child mortality Sanitation Health Education Housing Crime Population 4 .

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Agricultural chemicals Carbon Monoxide Sulphur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide Ozone layer Air quality 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 5 4 3 2 1 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 5 Hazardous waste UK waste (Mt) Nickel Zinc Lead .Sustainability: some issues are already being addressed Where a local lobby can create pressure for change on bodies with local authority 16 14 UK emissions (Mt) .

Sustainability: some issues are not solved but could be Where a local lobby cannot create effective pressure for change UK CO2 emissions (Mt) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1990 700 600 (Billion tonnes) 500 400 300 200 100 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 Greenhouse gas (energy consumption) Non-renewable material (material consumption) Waste volume (Employment) UK Municipal waste (Mt) Global pig iron production 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Incineration with energy recovery Recycled/composted Landfill 6 .

. use of non-renewable materials or generation of waste.Sustainable manufacturing is .. Developing technologies to transform materials without emission of greenhouse gases. Assembly Components Retail Use Materials Extraction Anthropo-sphere Disposal Ecosphere 7 .

Sustainable manufacturing is .. use of non-renewable materials or generation of waste. 8 .. Developing technologies to transform materials without emission of greenhouse gases.

Sustainable manufacturing What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge? 9 .

Five options for sustainable manufacturing: 1. Use less material and energy Assembly Components Retail Use Materials Extraction Anthropo-sphere Disposal Developing technologies to transmit power with reduced emission of greenhouse gases: 50% of US industrial electricity is used by electric motors. most of which could be reduced to around 20% of the current power 10 .

Five options for sustainable manufacturing: 2. renewable for non-renewable Assembly Components Retail Use Materials Extraction Anthropo-sphere Disposal Developing technologies to join electrical components without lead: WEEE directive likely to outlaw lead in solder by 2006 11 . Substitute input materials: non-toxic for toxic.

Industrial symbiosis Assembly Components Retail Use Materials Extraction Anthropo-sphere Disposal Developing technologies to manufacture PCBs without water pollution: Anglia Circuits cleans its effluent water to drinking quality standards 12 .Five options for sustainable manufacturing: 3. Reduce unwanted outputs: Cleaner production.

Convert outputs to inputs: recycling and all its variants Assembly Components Retail Use Materials Extraction Anthropo-sphere Disposal Developing technologies to take photographs with reduced use of materials: Kodak’s single use camera changed from an environmental problem to an example of good practice.Five options for sustainable manufacturing: 4. once the used cameras were accepted back for renewal 13 .

Changed structures of ownership and production: product service systems.Five options for sustainable manufacturing: 5. means that the company retains ownership of the material embedded in the product 14 . supply chain structure Disposal Use Retail Assembly Components Extraction Materials Developing technologies to wash clothes with reduced end of life waste: Electrolux pay-per-wash system.

Sustainable manufacturing What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge? 15 .

Changed structures of production : Environment & structures of production: • 10% of World energy use is in freight Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts Extraction Materials 16 .

Trillion BTu • 10% of World energy use is in freight Changed structures of production : Environment & structures of production: • Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production P Pu etro lp l & an c o C d p al he ap p m er rod ic ( u a p c Pr ls ( rim ts im pr a r Pr ary ima y) im m ry ar e t ) y a Pr Fe wo ls Tr i m rt o an ar iliz d sp y er or te s ta xt tio ile n s N eq on M uip Fa me ac m br tal hi en ic m ne t Pl a in as ted e ry C tic m ral om & e p pu ru tal rod te bb pro uc r. du s ca od pr c l a p od ts p p ro uc lia du ts nc cts Pr es e i M Fu ntin tc i Te sce rnit g xt lla ure ile ne pr ou od s uc ts D rin k F & oo to d ba cc o 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Primary Secondary 1998 US manufacturing energy use (source eia.doe.gov) 17 . er d ts El ec W elec pro uct tri o .

Changed structures of production : Environment & structures of production: • 10% of World energy use is in freight • Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production • 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products Materials Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts Extraction • Globalisation results in disposal far from production. so inhibits recycling 18 .

Changed structures of production : Environment & structures of production: • 10% of World energy use is in freight • Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production • 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products Materials Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts Extraction • Globalisation results in disposal far from production. so inhibits recycling Policy drivers: • End-of-life legisation 19 .

2000) • Near to market production allows tracking of demand (eg.Changed structures of production : Environment & structures of production: • 10% of World energy use is in freight • Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production • 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products Materials Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts Extraction • Globalisation results in disposal far from production. so inhibits recycling Policy drivers: • End-of-life legisation Commercial attraction of different structures: • ~10% of US GDP is tied up in Supply Chain costs (Delaney. Zara) Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop • Ideal extension of ‘Just-in-time’ is ‘Make-toorder’ 20 .

low setup.Changed structures of production : Environment & structures of production: • 10% of World energy use is in freight • Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production • 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products • Globalisation results in disposal far from production. Zara) Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop • Ideal extension of ‘Just-in-time’ is ‘Make-toorder’ 21 . low tooling. 2000) • Near to market production allows tracking of demand (eg. trade-off flexibility against output rate • small scale recycling technology . so inhibits recycling Technology: • flexible small scale production technology.to convert used materials back into products with minimal damage to underlying material structure Policy drivers: • End-of-life legisation Commercial attraction of different structures: • ~10% of US GDP is tied up in Supply Chain costs (Delaney.

a new machine A substitute for pressing without specialist tooling Trades flexibility and setup times against production rate Allows new supply chain structures without stock 22 .Incremental Sheet Forming .

why not bulk forming? Early stage multi-university. two company collaboration 23 .Flexible Ring Rolling If incremental sheet forming is possible.

De-photocopying Existing paper recycling: Regional collection Pulping and de-inking Re-entry into original paper making process Novel process: Collection within the office Toner removal within the office Second or third use within the office. prior to conventional recycling 24 .

separation. cleaning Melting and casting in centralised capital intensive facilitites Ingots ‘cost’ 5% of energy of virgin Al. and 1% of energy of existing recycling process 25 .Recycling of Aluminium scrap by cold bonding Existing Al recycling: Collection. Products from existing processing route Novel process: Collection (small scale). cleaning Deformation with high compression and high extension Lower strength product. sorting. but one stage from scrap to product.

what would be the environmental effect of: • Increased internal assembly of products • Increased local sourcing of raw materials • Increased recycling Jamaica Rest of World Disposal Disposal Use Use Retail Retail For attractive scenarios: • How would product costs change? • What technology would make the change economically attractive? • What legislative or policy instruments would be effective? Assembly Assembly Components Components Materials Materials Ground Ground 26 .Localisation in Jamaica For office chairs and carrier bags.

UK clothing & textiles Formal analysis of mass flow and existing environmental effects: • Flows and stocks of all materials and related matter during a year in the UK must balance • Estimates of effects outside UK Scenario analysis: • Simple model of basic processes • Explore and evaluate alternative supply chain structures • Specify technology requirements Resource stock Production Environment Extraction Emissions Import Export Disposal Other regions Wastes 27 .

PhD or Masters): Polymer Best practice and options Supply chain structure Flexible small scale production Recycling technology 3 66 12 9 6 6 42 6 6 6 3 3 24 3 3 24 Key priorities for developing new work: • Sharing of best practice.Sustainable Manufacturing Work in the Institute for Manufacturing developed since August 2003 (in person months Post-doctoral.cross-sectoral • Polymers .small scale production and recycling 28 Generic 30 30 Textiles Paper Water Wood Metal Food . workshops to develop options for change .