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International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

A Futuristic Study on Harnessing Wind Energy
C.M.Choudhari1, Nitesh P.Yelve2

Abstract - Among the different renewable energy sources, wind energy is currently making a significant contribution to the installed capacity of power generation, and is emerging as a competitive option. To facilitate the rapid growth of harnessing wind energy for power generation, some innovative steps are required to be taken, which are tried to be figured out in this paper. This paper mainly deals with the employment of wind energy as an alternative and renewable source of energy in India. The purpose of the paper is to give a clear idea of what kind of measures are needed in India, for alternative sources of energy such as wind to be a success. It first introduces the notion of wind energy use in India. It follows by outlining the technology of energy generation from wind. Then, it goes on to look at the history and development of wind energy use in India since the early 1990’s. The current state of wind energy in India is examined, looking specifically at the geographic distribution of wind farms and estimated wind capacity in various states as well as the current state of the market with regards to private sector companies active in the space. To enhance the current status of India in harnessing wind energy, two innovative steps are discussed in this paper i.e. re-engineering and retrofitting existing wind energy systems and forecasting of wind energy systems with TRIZ. This paper yields some key lessons that policy makers, engineers and entrepreneurs must take into account, in making wind energy employment in India, a huge success.

1.0 INTRODUCTION India currently ranks fifth in the global wind energy installation list, with about 2980.2 MW [1] installed capacity estimated on 31st December 2004, a figure placing it right behind Germany, USA, Spain and Denmark. The Washington-based ‘Worldwatch Institute’ recognizes India as a “Wind Superpower”. A veritable wind energy boom began in the early 1990’s with the transformation of the Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources into the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in 1992. India is probably the only country in the world with a fullfledged Ministry dedicated to the production of energy from renewable energy sources. As far back as 1950’s wind energy was being used in India to pump water for domestic use and irrigation and as an alternative to diesel pump-sets. Then in the 6th National Five-Year Plan (NFYP) the Government of India introduced the National Windmill Demonstration
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Program, which, continued throughout the 7th NFYP (1985-1990), and saw the installation of hundreds of units of 12 PU500 wind pumps for shallow water pumping. Based on today’s scenario, India’s energy demand is expected to require an extra 150,000 MW of installed electricity by 2012 [2] and the government is looking at wind energy to help solving that supply problem. Current wind technology can be separated into three types. First there are wind pumps, which use mechanical energy from wind mainly for water-pumping purposes (used for drinking and irrigation). Then, there are wind energy generators (WEGS’s), connected to turbines, which are used to produce electricity, to be distributed on electricity grids and are meant for rural and/or urban use. Lastly, there are wind-electric battery chargers that produce electricity and store it in batteries. Regarding this, an overview of historical and current status in India is given in this paper.

C.M. Choudhari, Asst. Professor, Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai – 400 703 (MS) Nitesh P. Yelve, Lecturer, Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai – 400 703 (MS)

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Technical Session T-1

International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

At this stage of technology, some innovative steps are required to be taken to boost the present uprise in harnessing wind energy for the above mentioned purposes. In this paper two such methods are discussed which are re-engineering and retrofitting existing wind energy systems and forecasting of wind energy systems with TRIZ.
Figure 1 - Installed Wind Energy in the 1990’s [5]

2.0 HISTORY 3.0 CURRENT STATUS In 1985, the MNES conducted an extensive wind data collection program consisting of wind monitoring, wind mapping, and complex terrain projects, covering 25 States/Union Territories of India. The wind resource potential calculated as a consequence of this study was 20,000 MW [2,3]. Consequently grid-quality wind power became the main focus of the MNES, and it opened up the wind energy sector to private enterprise, with giant success. By March 1998, due to private sector investment, out of total 968 MW installed capacity, 95% had come from industries, entrepreneurs and businessmen [2,4]. Lured by the incentives set up by the Ministry, wind farms had been set up by major industrial houses, including Madras Cement Limited and Dalmias, all over the country. A capacity of 230 MW was installed in 1994-95 [2], 382 MW in 1995-1996 [2], 170 MW in 1996-1997 [2]. Between 1993 and 1997, growth in the wind energy sector represented approximately 6 per cent of new generating capacity installed in the country [2]. Graph shown in the Figure 1 [5] depicts the installed capacity of wind energy in India, in 1990’s. By the end of 2001-2002 the total wind power installed capacity in India was 1627.3 MW [1]. A capacity of 241.2 MW was installed in 2002-2003 [1], 615.2 MW in 2003-2004 [1], which raised the total wind power installed capacity in India to 2483.7 MW, in 2003-2004. A Wind Power Capacity of 496.5 MW has been added during 2004-05 (upto December 2004) [1], taking the cumulative capacity to 2980.2 MW. Most of these commercial projects have been established in Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka. The geographical distribution of wind power density in India is shown in the Appendix I [1]. Tamilnadu is maintaining its lead in wind installations, accounting for over 50% of total capacity in the country. Public sector undertakings, public utilities and corporate houses have been invited to invest in commercial wind power projects to partly meet their requirements. Wind turbines of 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.65 MW are being installed across the country in large numbers [1]. Asia’s largest wind turbine generator of 2 MW capacity has been installed at Chettikulam in Tirunelveli District of Tamilnadu. The state wise break up of demonstration and commercial wind power capacity is given in Table I.
Table I - State Wise Wind Power Installed Capacity (as on 31.12.2004) [1]
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamilnadu West Bengal Others Total Total Wind Power Installed Capacity (MW) 101.3 219.9 276.0 2.0 27.6 411.2 263.2 1677.4 1.1 0.5 2980.2

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International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

4.0 FUTURISTIC APPROACHES FOR HARNESSING WIND ENERGY In view of the large scope for renewable energy based power generation and in order to boost the present uprise of the wind farm development in India, re-engineering and retrofitting existing wind energy systems and forecasting of wind energy systems with TRIZ, are two suggested feasible solutions. 4.1 Re-engineering and Retrofitting Existing Wind Energy Systems Existing wind farm entrepreneurs are showing interest in improving the performance of their wind energy systems. Re-engineering and retrofitting existing wind energy systems can serve them as a key tool [6]. This new initiative is suggested here addressing the involved technical and commercial concerns of both the state-run utility (the principal customer of wind generated electricity) and wind farm entrepreneur to spur development of economically competitive wind-power plants. Before commencing on implementing adhoc measures to improve the performance of wind energy systems, it is necessary to have comprehensive technical investigations and then to evaluate the costbenefit ratios of each of the issues considered. A five stage process is required to undertake such an activity as described below [6]. Step 1: Investigations • Assess adequacy of sitting and wind resources, which includes, (a) Re-location of wind turbines on account of bad sitting & wake losses, (b) Increasing hub height of the wind turbines and (c) Increasing rotor swept area

Assess adequacy of machine power curve which includes, (a) Dirty blades, (b) Pitch angle settings for stall regulated machines, (c) Yaw misalignment and (d) High wind hysteresis Evaluate adequacy of electrical networking which includes, (a) T&D losses and (b) Reactive power compensation Assess machine down time in term of (a) O&M practices: Schedule, MTBF (logistics) and (b) Availability and reliability of spares

Step 2: Configuration / Design • Improved WF layout • Optimal Turbine design modifications • Seeking design certifications Step 3: Financial Closure • Preparation of bankable project documents • Seeking finances (loans) from financial institutions/Utilities/Corporates Step 4: Implementation • Project scheduling: Low wind period & other site specific conditions • Contracting Step 5: Verification • Third party inspection for Emission trading 4.2 Forecasting of Wind Systems with TRIZ Energy

The first wind turbines (produced in mass process) were installed in the 70´s in Denmark and they had less than 50 KW per unit. Nowadays the biggest have 1.5 to 4 MW per unit (a growth of 100x). It shows that wind energy systems will reach to its maximum power per unit in a few years. This is a typical case of gigantism [7]. So it is seen how important the wind energy is in the electric power systems. It is tried here

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International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

to utilize the application of TRIZ instruments supports as Technology Foresight in this case for forecasting of the Wind Energy Systems. The aim of utilizing TRIZ for forecasting is to anticipate the future changes in the technology area and try to define the next changes that will appear in the near future. The systems and subsystems included in a typical wind farm are shown in Table II. In a typical wind farm the mechanical energy produced by the wind generator is transferred to the transmission networks and this to the electric station which relinquishes the energy to the power line. A wind farm is also a subsystem of the electric power system.
Table II - Systems and Subsystems Included in a Typical Wind Farm [7]
Supersystem System Subsystem Blades Rotor Gearbox Generator Transformer Foundations Tower Others Power- transmission Data- transmission Power- transformer Electric- systems Operational- buildings Others Power cables Foundations Others

period; and wind energy is in growth period [7]. From 1888 to 1980 the wind energy was in infancy period [7] where the power generated by the wind energy system per unit mass was very less. From 1980 it entered the growth period [7] where all possible efforts are being taken to increase power generated by the wind energy system per unit mass. It means that installed capacity per unit mass (KW/Ton) has become the ideality [7] because the main law of technology evolution [7,8] is “all systems evolve towards the increase of degree of ideality; an ideal technical system is a system that does not exist but its function is delivered.” The increase of Ideality since 1888 (Brush’s system has an Ideality ˜ 0.25 KW/Ton [7]) until 1998 (Gamesa´s G-80 has an Ideality ˜ 9 KW/Ton [7]) is shown in the Figure 2.

Wind Generators

Wind Farm

Transmission Networks Electric Station

Power Line

A technological system evolves through periods of infancy, growth, maturity and old age. The infancy period starts when a new technical system is invented. The new technical system enters the growth period after overcoming the major problems associated with it. The system is said to be in maturity state when its performance index reaches a limit and technical saturation takes it in the old age period. For example hydraulic energy has reached to old age period; solar, geothermal and biomass energy systems are in infancy

Figure 2 - Evolution Ideality of Wind Generators: Power / Mass Vs Time

The solution which makes the system to reach the ideality is called as Ideal Final Result (IFR) [7]. Altshuller [7] defined the IFR as “…a fantasy, a dream. It can not be reached, but it will allow us to build a path to the solution…”. So in forecasting with TRIZ it is tried to reach to the highest development of the system towards imagining the IFR. In this concept the ideal

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International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

system is one which performs its ability to catch the energy of the wind without existing. If new (large) turbines are manufactured in the same way as oldest (small) turbines were manufactured, the IFR can not be achieved. Here is an example of possible evolution of the system. Figure 3 shows the actual position of the system technology.

(Wind Generator). This system has a total mass of 149 Tons (excluding foundations) and a power of 2,000KW, so the Ideality ˜ 13.3 KW/Ton, with an increase of 11.5 %. To further increase the ideality Generator is eliminated and its useful effect is brought to another element (Blades) in the next step. So in this case the mass of the tower lowers (Figure 4) increasing the Ideality. So the main useful function of the generator (the generation of electric energy) is given to the blades by putting in the blades the windings and other elements of the electric generator. So no generator is needed but its function is delivered (Ideal Final Result). This system has a total mass of 111 Tons (excluding foundations) and a power of 2,000 KW, so the Ideality ˜ 18 KW/Ton, with an increase of 35 %.

Figure 3 - Actual Situation of Wind Turbine Technology. (Scheme of Gamesa’s G-80 generator) [7,9]

This system has a total mass of 222 Tons (excluding foundations) and a power of 2,000 KW, so the Ideality ˜ 9 KW/Ton. In the next step the Gearbox which is the heaviest subsystem is eliminate and its useful effect is brought to another element i.e. Generator. This is actually proposed by a study of the University of Navarra (Spain) [7]. This study also improves the mass of the blades with a decrease of the mass of the rotor and tower. This system has a total mass of 167 Tons (excluding foundations) and a power of 2,000 KW, so the Ideality ˜ 12 KW/Ton, with an increase of 33%. Continuing with this strategy (Ideal Final Result) the next step is to eliminate the Transformer and bring its useful effect to another element (Generator) and to a part of the supersystem (electric station). This is proposed by WINFORMER® [7], decreasing also the mass of the rotor and tower. In this case a DC-AC converter is needed in the electric station. But in this study we only take care about the system

Figure 4 - Elimination of the Electric Generator

In the next step tower is eliminated and its useful effect is brought to another element. At this point the blades are required to be maintained up so a up-force is needed. In this case the Archimedes buoyancy force is used to eliminate the need of the tower (Figure 5) utilizing an helium balloon or similar. This system has a total mass of 75 Tons (excluding foundations) and a power of 2,000 KW, so the Ideality ˜27 KW/Ton, with an increase of 48%. As the theory of evolution says, the last step is the only use of fields. So the next step (try to imagine the IFR), could be something like shown in the Figure 6.

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Technical Session T-1

International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

Figure 5 - Elimination of the Tower

modern zone to achieve the ideality. So the conclusion can be drawn from the present study that the government and private sector companies are required to direct the flow of investment in drawing the maximum power from the existing wind energy systems by re-engineering them and in setting up the new wind energy systems working very much close to the ideality discussed here. 6.0 REFERENCES
1. Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (2005) – ‘Annual Report 2005’, Government of India Mallet, V.K. (2001) – ‘The Use of Wind Energy in India - Lessons learned’, Term Paper, Sustainable Energy, 10.391J, Spring 2001 Iniyani, S., Suganthi, L., Jagdeesan, R. (1998) – ‘Critical Analysis of Wind Farms for Sustainable Generation’, Solar Energy, Vol 64, Nos 4-6, pp. 141-149 Rajsekhar, B., Hulle, F.V., Hansen, J.C. (1999) – ‘Indian Wind Energy Programme; Performance and Future Direction', Energy Policy 27, pp 669-678 http://www.cseindia.org/html/dte/dte990630/dte _cover.htm referred on 1st Nov 2005 Rajsekhar, B., Hulle, F.V. (2001) – ‘Scope and Prospects of Re-Engineering and Retrofitting Wind Farms In India’, Proceedings of European Wind Energy Conference, Copenhagen http://www.triz-journal.com/2004/ 01 /2004-02. pdf referred on 27th Oct 2005 Salamatov, Y. (1999) – ‘TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time’, p 141 Scheme of Gamesa’s G-80 generator (2000) – ‘Magazine Energia’, Ed. Alcion, p 44

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Figure 6 - Obtaining Electric Energy from the Wind Utilizing only Fields

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5.0 CONCLUSION
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With about 1271 MW installed capacity estimated on 28th February 2001, India was ranking fourth in the global wind energy installation list, right behind Germany, Denmark and the United States [2]. But, according to the recent investigation, India ranks fifth in the global wind energy installation list, with about 2980.2 MW [1] installed capacity estimated on 31st December 2004, right behind Germany, USA, Spain and Denmark. It shows that the technology being used in India for harnessing wind energy is not competitive enough in global market. The new wind energy systems are constructed with higher watts but with no much change in the technology, hence they are becoming heavier and this can be one reason for loosing global competitiveness. Two solutions are discussed here, one is reengineering and retrofitting existing wind energy systems, so that they will give more power without much change in the existing set up and second is forecasting of wind energy systems with TRIZ which will really direct the technology in the super
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Technical Session T-1

International Conference on ‘Wind Energy: Trends & Issues’

5 – 7 January, 2006

Appendix I - Wind Power Density in India [1]

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