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S.M. Khot, C.M. Choudhari, Nitesh P. Yelve, Jitendra K. Sardar Faculty of Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai-400 703 E-mail: smkhot66@yahoo.co.in, c.choudhari@rediffmail.com, niteshpy@yahoo.co.in, jitendrasardar@yahoo.com

Abstract: In order to enhance the performance of mechanical systems, dynamic analysis plays an important role at design stage, which helps in adjusting natural frequencies to avoid resonance. The system parameters plays critical role in controlling natural frequencies. Taguchi’s concept of orthogonal array has been used for studying natural frequencies of cantilever and simply supported beams under simultaneous variation of parameters like material, length and thickness. The results obtained under the combination of these parameters are analyzed by using two statistical methods viz. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Factor Plots, to identify the critical parameters affecting the natural frequencies and their contribution. Keywords: Natural frequency, ANOVA, Factor Plot, System Parameters 1. Introduction The dynamic analysis of a mechanical system plays an important role at design stage for better performance. In order to achieve this, normally, the natural frequencies are adjusted in such a way that resonance is kept away from the operating range. The natural frequencies of the system can be adjusted by controlling the system parameters so that resonance condition can be kept away from the operating range. The traditional ‘vary one factor at a time’ experiments are intrinsically incapable of uncovering interaction among factors [1]. Designers generally are curious to understand the design space of the parameters, their interactions and its effect on the performance in the pre and post design process. Statistically designed experiments provide cost effective solution to such needs. Taguchi’s concept of orthogonal arrays is one of the best available such statistical techniques to design the experiments being conducted to understand the performance of the system under ‘simultaneous variation’ of parameters. This concept is extensively used in mechanical product design and optimizations, but specific areas like applications of these methods to understand the dynamic behaviour of mechanical systems and components have remained more or less unexplored. Hence, an attempt is made to apply Taguchi’s concept of orthogonal array in designing experiments to determine the natural frequencies of cantilever beams and simply supported beams under the simultaneous variation of three different parameters. In the present analysis this technique is used for designing experiments to determine the natural frequency of cantilever and simply supported beams for first mode shape under the simultaneous variation of three different parameters namely material, length and thickness. These parameters are identified based on the basic equation of natural frequency; whereas width is not considered as it gets cancelled. Cantilever and simply supported beams are used in many mechanical applications, out of which bridges, supporting structures for machines which are continuously subjected to vibration, are major areas of their applications. The natural frequencies of the system can be adjusted by controlling the system parameters like material, length and thickness so that resonance condition can be kept away from the operating range. And if the most significant factor out of these three system parameters is

known special attention can be given to that particular parameter so that system can be kept away from resonance. Keeping this in view, the experimentation is designed by Taguchi’s concept of orthogonal array and the obtained results are then analyzed by ANOVA and Factor Plots. 2. FEM Analysis by ANSYS© The cantilever and simply supported beams are analyzed by using ANSYS© software and their natural frequencies are determined for first mode shape. The element type selected for the analysis is “beam 3”and the appropriate mesh sizes of beams are selected through convergence study. The natural frequencies of cantilever beams obtained by FEM analysis in ANSYS© software are compared with the experimental and analytical results [2] and found to be in close agreement; which validates the methodology of analysis by ANSYS©. FEM analysis in ANSYS© software is done for cantilever and simply supported beams of different materials, lengths and thicknesses; and natural frequencies are determined for different combinations, for first mode shape and are given in table 3. 3. Design of Experiments by Taguchi’s Method Taguchi’s method of Orthogonal Array is used here to design the experiments for finding out the natural frequencies (f) of cantilever and simply supported beams under the simultaneous variation of three different system parameters namely material, length and thickness. The natural frequencies are found for different combinations of system parameters according to Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array. The experimentation details are given in the Table 1. Table 1: Factors and Their Levels for Experiment for cantilever and simply supported beams Control Factors 1. Material (m) 2. Length (l) 3. Thickness (t) 1 Steel 500 mm 1 mm Levels 2 Aluminium 625 mm 1.25 mm

3 Copper 781.25 mm 1.56 mm

For determining required minimum number of experiments to be conducted, the degrees of freedom are required to be calculated. These are determined by using relations given below and shown in table 2. Hence, it is required to conduct at least 19 experiments to be able to estimate the effect of each factor and the desired interaction. For three factors at three levels L-27 is the available Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array, which permits thirteen factors at three levels. Hence, L-27 is chosen as Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array for conducting experiments with three factors at three levels. Degree of freedom of a factor A = (Number of levels of factor A) – 1 and Degree of freedom for interaction A x B = (Number of levels of factor A – 1) x (Number of levels of factor B – 1) Table 2: Factors and their DOF Control Factors Material (m) Length (l) Thickness (t) mxl Degrees of Freedom 3–1=2 3–1=2 3–1=2 2x2=4 Control Factors mxt lxt Overall Mean Total DOF Degrees of Freedom 2x2=4 2x2=4 1 19

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Fig. 1. Linear Graph of L-27 The Linear graph [3] gives the columns in which factors can be assigned. According to the Linear graph of L-27, as shown in Fig.1, the factor ‘m’ is assigned to column number 1,' ‘l’ is assigned to column number 2 and ‘t’ is assigned to Column number 5. The columns 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 take interactions into consideration, whereas the columns 10, 11, 12 and 13 are vacant because number of available columns in L-27 is more than the number of control factors. With the help of Orthogonal Array and Liner graph shown in Figure 1, the experimental scheme is designed and results are obtained by finite element analysis using ANSYS©, which are given in the Table 3. Table 3: Experimental Scheme Exp. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 1 m Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper 2 l (mm) 500 500 500 625 625 625 781.25 781.25 781.25 500 500 500 625 625 625 781.25 781.25 781.25 500 500 500 625 625 625 781.25 781.25 781.25 3 4 5 t mm) 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 1.00 1.25 1.56 6 7 8 9 f (Hz) Cant. Beam 3.3614 4.1997 5.2477 2.1489 2.6851 3.3553 1.3741 1.7171 2.4157 3.328 4.1576 5.9147 2.1271 2.6576 3.3208 1.3622 1.7031 2.1261 2.6006 3.2487 4.0588 1.6619 2.0763 2.5943 1.0636 1.3294 1.6603 f (Hz) Sim. Supp. Beam 9.381 11.727 14.658 6.004 7.505 9.3814 3.8426 4.8032 6.0041 9.2773 11.597 14.496 5.9375 7.4219 9.2774 3.8 4.75 5.9376 7.2435 9.0544 11.318 4.6358 5.7948 7.2436 2.9669 3.7087 4.6359

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It is seen from the Table 3 that, for experiment number one, the material of the test specimen is steel; length is 500 mm and thickness is 1.00 mm. The natural frequencies of cantilever and simply supported beams for first mode shape, corresponding to different combinations of material, length and thickness are obtained, which are also shown in the last two column of Table 3 respectively. 4. Statistical Analysis by ANOVA The results obtained from the FEM analysis in ANSYS© software i.e. natural frequencies are analyzed by using the statistical tool ANOVA [3], for getting the relative importance/effect of the individual factor and interactions between the factors on the natural frequency of cantilever and simply supported beams for first mode shape. The analysis by using ANOVA is performed manually. The Grand Mean, m’ is given by, m’=(∑fi) / n (1)

where, fi is the natural frequency corresponding to ith experiment and n is the total number of experiments. Total Sum of Squares, SST is given by, SST=∑(fij–m’)2 (2)

Where, fij is the obtained value of f in the jth run when the independent factor was set at its ith level 4.1 Effect of Individual Parameters on Natural Frequency The effect of a factor at a particular level is defined as the deviation it causes from the overall mean. The effect of material factor (m) is evaluated here, which is at level one for first nine experiments. The average values of natural frequencies for these experiments, which is denoted by Mm1, is given by, Mm1= (f1+f2+f3+f4+f5+f6+f7+f8+f9) / 9 (3)

Where, f1 denotes the natural frequency for experiment number one and so on. Similarly the average values of natural frequencies at level two and level three i.e. for next two sets of experiments (Mm2 and Mm3) are determined. Since there are nine values at each level, Sum of Squares due to material factor, (SS)m with two degrees of freedom is given as, (SS)m = [(Mm1 – m’)2+(Mm2 – m’)2+(Mm3 – m’)2] x 9 Similarly, (SS)l for length factor and (SS)t for thickness factor are determined. 4.2 Effect of Interactions of Parameters on Natural Frequency Since there are three values at each level for the interactions between material and length, the Sum of Squares for it, (SS)mxl with four degrees of freedom is given by, (SS)mxl = [∑(fij + m’ – fj – fi)2] x 3 (5) (4)

where, fij is the obtained value of f in the jth run when the independent factor was set at its ith level and fi and fj are the average natural frequencies which are shown in the Table 4, Similarly (SS)mxt for the interaction between material and thickness and (SS)lxt for the interaction between length and thickness are determined.

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Table 4: Average table for interaction – mxl For Cantilever Beams Length Material (m) (l) (mm) Steel Aluminium 500 4.2472 4.2001 625 2.7182 2.6880 781.25 1.7393 1.7203 fi 2.9061 2.8695 For Simply Supported Beams Copper 3.2793 2.0988 1.3432 2.2404 fj 3.9089 2.5017 1.6000 Steel Aluminium Copper 11.922 11.7901 9.2053 7.6301 7.5456 5.8914 4.8833 4.8292 3.7705 8.1451 8.055 6.2891 fj 10.9725 7.0224 4.4943

5. Statistical Analysis by Factor Plots The results obtained from the FEM analysis in ANSYS© software i.e. natural frequencies are also analyzed by using the Factor Plots method, to identify the significant parameter affecting the natural frequency of cantilever and simply supported beams for first mode shape., out of material, thickness and frequency. For the parameters namely material, thickness and frequency the average natural frequencies are calculated at three different levels (as shown in Equation 3 for material factor). Then the graphs are plotted based on these values. If the graph corresponding to a parameter in the Factor Plot has larger slope then that parameter is said to have comparable effect on the natural frequency. 6. Results and Discussion The results obtained from ANOVA and Factor Plot analysis are discussed here. 6.1 ANOVA Results The results generated after conducting the manual ANOVA for natural frequencies of cantilever and simply supported beams obtained by FEM analysis in ANSYS©, are given in the Table 5, which is also called ANOVA Table. From Table 5, it can be seen that length contributes 70.85%, which is higher in total variation of natural frequency of cantilever and simply supported beams for first mode shape; hence length is the critical parameter affecting the natural frequency of cantilever and simply supported beams. The next contributing parameter is thickness and followed by material. Table 5: Manual ANOVA Results Factors Material Length Thickness Material x Length Material x Thickness Length x Thickness Residual Total 6.2 Factor Plot Results The resulting Factor Plot is shown in the Fig.2 and Fig.3. In the Factor Plots, shown in the Fig.2 and Fig.3, slope of the graph corresponding to the length is larger, hence length is the critical parameter affecting the natural frequencies of cantilever and simply supported beams. DOF 2 2 2 4 4 4 1 19 Cantilever Beam % Contribution SST 02.5015 07.28 24.3543 70.85 06.3124 18.36 00.3167 00.92 00.0821 00.24 00.7988 02.32 00.0102 00.03 34.3760 100.00 Simply Supported Beam SST % Contribution 19.7147 7.28 191.8813 70.84 49.7494 18.37 2.4932 0.92 0.6464 0.24 6.2910 2.32 0.08176 0.03 270.8577 100.00

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Fig.2 Factor Plot for Cantilever Beam 7. Conclusion

Fig.3 Factor Plot for Simply Supported Beam

The application of Design of Experiments is attempted to find out the significant parameter influencing the natural frequencies of cantilever and simply supported beams based on Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array L-27. According to the scheme obtained by Taguchi’s method of Orthogonal Array, FEM analysis in ANSYS© software is conducted on cantilever and simply supported beams, by changing the parameters namely material, its length and thickness, at three levels. From the results obtained by ANOVA and Factor Plots, it is observed that length contributes higher percentage in total variation of natural frequency of both cantilever as well as simply supported beams for first mode shape; hence length is the critical parameter affecting the natural frequency of beams. It can be also seen that the contributions of each parameters of cantilever and simply supported beams under the study are same even though total sum of square values are different. This in fact is consistent with the basic theory, where the constant values in basic equation change according to the boundary conditions. The statistical methods as a part of analysis are found to give a good insight on keeping away the resonance of cantilever beams by adjusting the system parameter according to its contribution in total variation of the results. Thus the parameter to be given importance while selecting the beam structures for engineering applications are identified by making use of Statistical methods. This approach can be used further to identify the critical parameters and their contribution in overall system parameter effect on natural frequency of various standard machine elements, which in turn helps in adjusting the critical system parameters to control the natural frequency of the system. 7. References 1. Phadke, M.S., 1989, Quality Engineering using Robust Design, Prentice Hall, Angle wood Cliffd, New Jersey. 2. S.M. Khot, Jitendra K. Sardar, Nitesh P. Yelve, 2005, Analytical, Experimental and FEM (ANSYS©) Analysis of Cantilever Beams for First Three Modes, Proceedings of 1st National Conference on Recent Developments in Mechanical Engineering (YANTRA 2005), S.V.E.R.I.’s College of Engineering, Pandharpur, Dec. 23-24, 2005, pp 32-36 3. Park, S.H., Robust Design and Analysis for Quality Engineering, Chapman and Hall, London 4. Phillip, J.R., Taguchi Technique for Quality Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Publication 5. Bagchi, T.P., 1993, Taguchi Method Explained Practical Steps to Robust Design, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. 6. Malik, A.K., Principles of Vibration Control, East West Press Pvt. Ltd.

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