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LM1577/LM2577 SIMPLE SWITCHER Step-Up Voltage Regulator

April 2005

LM1577/LM2577 SIMPLE SWITCHER ® Step-Up Voltage Regulator
General Description
The LM1577/LM2577 are monolithic integrated circuits that provide all of the power and control functions for step-up (boost), flyback, and forward converter switching regulators. The device is available in three different output voltage versions: 12V, 15V, and adjustable. Requiring a minimum number of external components, these regulators are cost effective, and simple to use. Listed in this data sheet are a family of standard inductors and flyback transformers designed to work with these switching regulators. Included on the chip is a 3.0A NPN switch and its associated protection circuitry, consisting of current and thermal limiting, and undervoltage lockout. Other features include a 52 kHz fixed-frequency oscillator that requires no external components, a soft start mode to reduce in-rush current during start-up, and current mode control for improved rejection of input voltage and output load transients.

Features
Requires few external components NPN output switches 3.0A, can stand off 65V Wide input voltage range: 3.5V to 40V Current-mode operation for improved transient response, line regulation, and current limit n 52 kHz internal oscillator n Soft-start function reduces in-rush current during start-up n Output switch protected by current limit, under-voltage lockout, and thermal shutdown n n n n

Typical Applications
n Simple boost regulator n Flyback and forward regulators n Multiple-output regulator

Connection Diagrams
Straight Leads 5-Lead TO-220 (T) Bent, Staggered Leads 5-Lead TO-220 (T)

01146804

01146805

Top View Order Number LM2577T-12, LM2577T-15, or LM2577T-ADJ See NS Package Number T05A

Top View Order Number LM2577T-12 Flow LB03, LM2577T-15 Flow LB03, or LM2577T-ADJ Flow LB03 See NS Package Number T05D

SIMPLE SWITCHER ® is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation.

© 2005 National Semiconductor Corporation

DS011468

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LM1577/LM2577

Connection Diagrams

(Continued) 24-Lead Surface Mount (M)

16-Lead DIP (N)

01146806

*No internal Connection

Top View Order Number LM2577N-12, LM2577N-15, or LM2577N-ADJ See NS Package Number N16A
*No internal Connection

01146807

Top View Order Number LM2577M-12, LM2577M-15, or LM2577M-ADJ See NS Package Number M24B TO-263 (S) 5-Lead Surface-Mount Package

01146833

01146832

Top View 4-Lead TO-3 (K)

Side View Order Number LM2577S-12, LM2577S-15, or LM2577S-ADJ See NS Package Number TS5B

01146808

Bottom View Order Number LM1577K-12/883, LM1577K-15/883, or LM1577K-ADJ/883 See NS Package Number K04A

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LM1577/LM2577

Ordering Information
Temperature Range −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C Package Type 24-Pin Surface Mount 16-Pin Molded DIP 5-Lead Surface Mount 5-Straight Leads 5-Bent Staggered Leads −55˚C ≤ TA ≤ +150˚C 4-Pin TO-3 Output Voltage 12V LM2577M-12 LM2577N-12 LM2577S-12 LM2577T-12 LM2577T-12 Flow LB03 15V LM2577M-15 LM2577N-15 LM2577S-15 LM2577T-15 LM2577T-15 Flow LB03 ADJ LM2577M-ADJ LM2577N-ADJ LM2577S-ADJ LM2577T-ADJ LM2577T-ADJ Flow LB03 LM1577KADJ/883 K04A TO-3 NSC Package Drawing M24B N16A TS5B T05A T05D SO N TO-263 TO-220 TO-220 Package

LM1577K-12/883LM1577K-15/883

Typical Application

01146801

Note: Pin numbers shown are for TO-220 (T) package.

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0A Internally Limited −65˚C to +150˚C Minimum ESD Rating (C = 100 pF. LM1577-12 Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3. and ISWITCH = 0.70/2.LM1577/LM2577 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required.40/12. Supply Voltage Output Switch Voltage Output Switch Current (Note 2) Power Dissipation Storage Temperature Range Lead Temperature (Soldering.76/11.) Maximum Junction Temperature 260˚C 150˚C 45V 65V 6.10/3. LM2577-12 Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.65 3. R = 1.com 4 .5V to 40V VCOMP = 1.0V VIN = 3.70/2. ILOAD = 800 mA VFEEDBACK = 14V (Switch Off) ISWITCH = 2.0A VCOMP = 2.60 11.15 80 7.36 11.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 40V 0V ≤ VSWITCH ≤ 60V ISWITCH ≤ 3.64 12.0/14.0V 370 225/145 515/615 225/145 515/615 µmho µmho(min) µmho(max) 9. VIN = 5V.60/11.5 10.64 12.0 25 50/85 50/85 10.90 2.65 3.10/3. please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications.5V to 40V 7 12 11.0/14.0 11.36 52 48/42 56/62 48/42 56/62 ISWITCH = 100 mA 2.60/11.5V to 10V ILOAD = 300 mA Load Regulation VIN = 5V ILOAD = 100 mA to 800 mA η IS Efficiency Input Supply Current VIN = 5V.5 kΩ) 2 kV Operating Ratings Supply Voltage Output Switch Voltage Output Switch Current Junction Temperature Range LM1577 LM2577 −55˚C ≤ TJ ≤ +150˚C −40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ +125˚C 3.60 V V(min) V(max) mV mV(max) mV mV(max) % LM2577-12 Limit (Note 5) Units (Limits) www.15 2. 4) SYSTEM PARAMETERS Circuit of Figure 1 (Note 6) VOUT Output Voltage VIN = 5V to 10V ILOAD = 100 mA to 800 mA (Note 3) Line Regulation VIN = 3.40/12.0V (Max Duty Cycle) VUV Input Supply Undervoltage Lockout fO Oscillator Frequency Measured at Switch Pin ISWITCH = 100 mA VREF Output Reference Voltage Output Reference Voltage Line Regulator RFB GM Feedback Pin Input Resistance Error Amp Transconductance ICOMP = −30 µA to +30 µA VCOMP = 1.76/11. Unless otherwise specified.40 12.0A Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-12. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range.24/12.24/12.0 DEVICE PARAMETERS mA mA(max) mA mA(max) V V(min) V(max) kHz kHz(min) kHz(max) V V(min) V(max) mV 20 50/100 50/100 20 50/100 50/100 12.40 12.national. 10 sec.7 kΩ Measured at Feedback Pin VIN = 3.

VIN = 5V.LM1577/LM2577 Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-12.0 5.50/14.5 0.25 15. VIN = 5V.3/6. LM2577-15 Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.0 80 ± 200 ± 130/ ± 90 ± 300/ ± 400 ± 130/ ± 90 ± 300/ ± 400 10 300/600 300/600 µA µA(max) V V(max) A A(min) A(max) Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-15.0V Lower Limit VFEEDBACK = 15.75 V V(min) V(max) mV mV(max) mV mV(max) % LM2577-15 Limit (Note 5) Units (Limits) 5 www.50/15.0 3.7/0.2/2.1V to 1.5 7.75 14.9V RCOMP = 1. LM1577-15 Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3.5 3.0V to 15. ILOAD = 600 mA 80 20 50/100 50/100 20 50/100 50/100 15.5/9.0V VCOMP = 0V D Maximum Duty Cycle Switch Transconductance IL VSAT Switch Leakage Current Switch Saturation Voltage NPN Switch Current Limit VSWITCH = 65V VFEEDBACK = 15V (Switch Off) ISWITCH = 2.50/15.3/6.7/0. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range.5V ISWITCH = 100 mA 5.50/14.0V (Max Duty Cycle) 4.5 µA(min) µA(max) % %(min) A/V Units (Limits) DEVICE PARAMETERS AVOL Error Amp Voltage Gain Error Amplifier Output Swing VCOMP = 1.25 15.5/1.5/9.5 93/90 2.0V Error Amplifier Output Current ISS Soft Start Current VFEEDBACK = 10.4 2. and ISWITCH = 0.0 MΩ (Note 7) Upper Limit VFEEDBACK = 10. 4) SYSTEM PARAMETERS Circuit of Figure 2 (Note 6) VOUT Output Voltage VIN = 5V to 12V ILOAD = 100 mA to 600 mA (Note 3) Line Regulation VIN = 3.9 VCOMP = 1.3 0.0 5.5V to 12V ILOAD = 300 mA Load Regulation VIN = 5V ILOAD = 100 mA to 600 mA η Efficiency VIN = 5V. LM2577-12 (Continued) Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.0 14.national.0 50/25 V/V(min) V V(min) V V(max) µA µA(min) µA(max) µA 2.7/3. and ISWITCH = 0.55 2.0 0. Unless otherwise specified.0A VCOMP = 2.55 0.com .40/0. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range.5 95 93/90 12.40/0.7/3. 4) LM2577-12 Limit (Note 5) V/V 50/25 2.0V VFEEDBACK = 10. LM1577-12 Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3.0V VCOMP = 1.2/2.5/1.0 0.9 0.5 7. Unless otherwise specified.

5/9. 4) LM2577-15 Limit (Note 5) mA 10.30/15.5 VREF Output Reference Voltage Output Reference Voltage Line Regulation Measured at Feedback Pin VIN = 3.0V VFEEDBACK = 12.0V (Switch Off) ISWITCH = 2.90 2.0 40/20 170/110 420/500 kΩ µmho µmho(min) µmho(max) V/V V/V(min) V V(min) V V(max) µA µA(min) µA(max) µA 2.9 300/600 µA µA(max) V V(max) VSAT Switch Saturation Voltage www.4/0. VIN = 5V.1V to 1.7/0.55 0.0V VCOMP = 1.2 300 170/110 420/500 65 40/20 2.65 3.5 IL Switch Leakage Current VSWITCH = 65V VFEEDBACK = 18.5 7.15 50/85 10.5 7.5V to 40V VCOMP = 1.0/14.5/9.55 15. LM1577-15 Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3.0V Error Amp Output Current VFEEDBACK = 12.0V (Max Duty Cycle) VUV Input Supply Undervoltage Lockout fO Oscillator Frequency ISWITCH = 100 mA 7.15 Measured at Switch Pin ISWITCH = 100 mA 52 48/42 56/62 48/42 56/62 14.0/14.0V to 18.55 15.55 2.4 2.0A VCOMP = 2.2/2.40/0.45 2.0A VCOMP = 2.70/2.0 MΩ (Note 7) Error Amplifier Output Swing Upper Limit VFEEDBACK = 12.2/2.5V ISWITCH = 100 mA 95 12.10/3.LM1577/LM2577 Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-15.45 V(min) V(max) mV Units (Limits) DEVICE PARAMETERS IS Input Supply Current VFEEDBACK = 18.10/3.70/14.9 0.70/2.65 3.0V (Switch Off) ISWITCH = 2.70/14.0V VCOMP = 0V 12.5/1.9V RCOMP = 1.30/15.5 0.0V (Max Duty Cycle) 10 300/600 0.7/0.0 ± 130/ ± 90 ± 300/ ± 400 ISS Soft Start Current D Maximum Duty Cycle Switch Transconductance VCOMP = 1.0V VIN = 3.national. Unless otherwise specified.5/1.5 2.0V VCOMP = 1.0V Lower Limit VFEEDBACK = 18.0 mA(max) mA mA(max) V V(min) V(max) kHz kHz(min) kHz(max) V 15 10 14.5V to 40V RFB GM Feedback Pin Input Voltage Line Regulator Error Amp Transconductance ICOMP = −30 µA to +30 µA VCOMP = 1.com 6 .3 0.0 25 50/85 2.5 93/90 µA(min) µA(max) % 93/90 %(min) A/V AVOL Error Amp Voltage Gain ± 200 ± 130/ ± 90 ± 300/ ± 400 5. LM2577-15 (Continued) Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.0 0. and ISWITCH = 0. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range.

Unless otherwise specified.0/14.60/11. 4) LM2577-15 Limit (Note 5) A 3.65 3.40 12. 4) SYSTEM PARAMETERS Circuit of Figure 3 (Note 6) VOUT Output Voltage VIN = 5V to 10V ILOAD = 100 mA to 800 mA (Note 3) ∆VOUT/ ∆VIN ∆VOUT/ ∆ILOAD η IS Efficiency Input Supply Current DEVICE PARAMETERS VFEEDBACK = 1.15 2. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range. and ISWITCH = 0.0 A(min) A(max) Units (Limits) DEVICE PARAMETERS NPN Switch Current Limit VCOMP = 2.10/3.40/12.0 mA mA(max) mA mA(max) V V(min) V(max) kHz kHz(min) kHz(max) V V(min) V(max) mV Load Regulation Line Regulation VIN = 3.0A VCOMP = 2.70/2.LM1577/LM2577 Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-15. LM1577-ADJ LM2577-ADJ Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3.0 MΩ (Note 7) 800 500/250 500/250 3700 2400/1600 4800/5800 2400/1600 4800/5800 VCOMP = 1.246/1.0 25 50/85 50/85 10.0V VIN = 3. and ISWITCH = 0.0V 100 300/800 300/800 nA nA(max) µmho µmho(min) µmho(max) V/V V/V(min) Measured at Feedback Pin VIN = 3.5V to 40V VCOMP = 1.0 11. VIN = 5V.3 Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-ADJ.5 10.5V to 10V ILOAD = 300 mA VIN = 5V ILOAD = 100 mA to 800 mA VIN = 5V.7/3. LM2577-15 (Continued) Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.national. VFEEDBACK = VREF.0V 4.0 5.com . ILOAD = 800 mA 80 20 50/100 50/100 20 50/100 50/100 12. VIN = 5V.254 1. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range.3/6.246/1.230 1.60 V V(min) V(max) mV mV(max) mV mV(max) % Limit (Note 5) Units (Limits) 7 www.70/2.3/6.60/11.15 7.0V VCOMP = 1.206 1.0/14.9V RCOMP = 1.0 5.214/1.10/3.7/3.254 52 48/42 56/62 48/42 56/62 ISWITCH = 100 mA 2.90 2.5V (Switch Off) ISWITCH = 2.65 3. LM1577-15 Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3.40/12.0 3.214/1.1V to 1.5V to 40V 0.60 11.40 12. Unless otherwise specified.206 1. LM2577-ADJ Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.5 1.0V (Max Duty Cycle) VUV Input Supply Undervoltage Lockout fO Oscillator Frequency Measured at Switch Pin ISWITCH = 100 mA VREF Reference Voltage ∆VREF/ ∆VIN IB GM Reference Voltage Line Regulation Error Amp Input Bias Current Error Amp Transconductance AVOL Error Amp Voltage Gain ICOMP = −30 µA to +30 µA VCOMP = 1.

7/3.0 5.5 0.5/1. and are 100% production tested.0 MΩ resistor is connected to the compensation pin (which is the error amplifier’s output) to ensure accuracy in measuring AVOL. input and output capacitors can affect switching regulator performance.com 8 . Junction to Ambient T Package.5 65 2 85 100 37 ˚C/W www. Note 7: A 1. LM1577K-15/883.0 0. but device parameter specifications may not be guaranteed under these conditions.40/0. Junction to Case N Package.3/6. VFEEDBACK = VREF. To prevent damage to the switch. However.40/0.55 2. At the time of printing. and ISWITCH = 0.3 3. resulting in AVOL that is typically twice the guaranteed minimum limit.5 µA(min) µA(max) % %(min) A/V µA µA(max) V V(max) A A(min) A(max) Units (Limits) DEVICE PARAMETERS Error Amplifier Output Swing Upper Limit VFEEDBACK = 1.5/1.2/2. Note 4: A military RETS electrical test specification is available on request.5 95 93/90 12. In actual applications. Junction to Ambient (Note 8) M Package.3 0. and LM1577K-ADJ/883 may also be procured to Standard Military Drawing specifications. LM1577K-15/883. LM2577-ADJ (Continued) Specifications with standard type face are for TJ = 25˚C.9 0.0 ± 130/ ± 90 ± 300/ ± 400 VCOMP = 1.5 7.0 V(min) V V(max) µA µA(min) µA(max) µA 2. All room temperature limits are 100% production tested.55 0. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions. Note 6: External components such as the diode. The LM1577K-12/883. VIN = 5V. this pin’s load resistance should be ≥10 MΩ. output current is internally limited when the LM1577/LM2577 is used as a flyback or forward converter regulator in accordance to the Application Hints.5V VCOMP = 1. the LM1577K-12/883.2/2.5/9.4 ± 200 ± 130/ ± 90 ± 300/ ± 400 5.5V ISWITCH = 100 mA 35 1.LM1577/LM2577 Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-ADJ. Junction to Case T Package.5 VSWITCH = 65V VFEEDBACK = 1. Junction to Ambient (Note 8) S Package.0V Lower Limit VFEEDBACK = 1. and LM1577K-ADJ/883 RETS specifications complied fully with the boldface limits in these columns. Junction to Ambient K Package. inductor.7/0. and those in bold type face apply over full Operating Temperature Range. When the LM1577/LM2577 is used as shown in the Test Circuit. its current must be externally limited to 6.5/9.0 3.5V Error Amp Output Current ISS Soft Start Current VFEEDBACK = 1.0V to 1.0V VFEEDBACK = 1. 4) Limit (Note 5) V 2.5 7.0V (Max Duty Cycle) VCOMP = 2.7/0. All limits at temperature extremes are guaranteed via correlation using standard Statistical Quality Control (SQC) methods. All limits are used to calculate Outgoing Quality Level. Operating ratings indicate conditions the device is intended to be functional. system performance will be as specified by the system parameters. see the Electrical Characteristics.9 10 300/600 300/600 93/90 2.5V (Switch Off) ISWITCH = 2.7/3. 2.3/6. output current cannot be internally limited when the LM1577/LM2577 is used as a step-up regulator.0A. Note 2: Due to timing considerations of the LM1577/LM2577 current limit circuit.0 5. Junction to Ambient (Note 9) Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur.0 0. Note 5: All limits guaranteed at room temperature (standard type face) and at temperature extremes (boldface type).0V VCOMP = 0V D ∆ISWITCH/ ∆VCOMP IL VSAT Maximum Duty Cycle Switch Transconductance Switch Leakage Current Switch Saturation Voltage NPN Switch Current Limit THERMAL PARAMETERS (All Versions) θJA θJC θJA θJC θJA θJA θJA Thermal Resistance K Package. Note 3: All limits guaranteed at room temperature (standard type face) and at temperature extremes (boldface type). LM1577-ADJ LM2577-ADJ Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limit (Notes 3.national. Unless otherwise specified.0V 4.0A VCOMP = 2.

com .6 or more square inches of copper area. Note 9: If the TO-263 package is used. Using 0. the thermal resistance can be reduced by increasing the PC board copper area thermally connected to the package. and with 1. Typical Performance Characteristics Reference Voltage vs Temperature Reference Voltage vs Temperature 01146834 01146835 Reference Voltage vs Temperature ∆ Reference Voltage vs Supply Voltage 01146836 01146837 ∆ Reference Voltage vs Supply Voltage ∆ Reference Voltage vs Supply Voltage 01146838 01146839 9 www. θJA is 32˚C/W.5 square inches of copper area.LM1577/LM2577 Electrical Characteristics—LM1577-ADJ. Additional copper area will lower thermal resistance further. θJA is 50˚C/W. with 1 square inch of copper area. See thermal model in “Switchers Made Simple” software. LM2577-ADJ (Continued) Note 8: Junction to ambient thermal resistance with approximately 1 square inch of pc board copper surrounding the leads. θJA is 37˚C/W.national.

LM1577/LM2577 Typical Performance Characteristics Error Amp Transconductance vs Temperature (Continued) Error Amp Transconductance vs Temperature 01146840 01146841 Error Amp Transconductance vs Temperature Error Amp Voltage Gain vs Temperature 01146842 01146843 Error Amp Voltage Gain vs Temperature Error Amp Voltage Gain vs Temperature 01146844 01146845 www.national.com 10 .

national.LM1577/LM2577 Typical Performance Characteristics Quiescent Current vs Temperature (Continued) Quiescent Current vs Switch Current 01146846 01146847 Current Limit vs Temperature Current Limit Response Time vs Overdrive 01146848 01146849 Switch Saturation Voltage vs Switch Current Switch Transconductance vs Temperature 01146850 01146851 11 www.com .

com 12 .national.LM1577/LM2577 Typical Performance Characteristics Feedback Pin Bias Current vs Temperature (Continued) Oscillator Frequency vs Temperature 01146852 01146853 Maximum Power Dissipation (TO-263) (Note 9) 01146831 www.

national. LM2577-12 Test Circuit 01146830 L = 415-0930 (AIE) D = any manufacturer COUT = Sprague Type 673D Electrolytic 680 µF. LM2577-15 Test Circuit 01146826 L = 415-0930 (AIE) D = any manufacturer COUT = Sprague Type 673D Electrolytic 680 µF. 20V Note: Pin numbers shown are for TO-220 (T) package FIGURE 1.LM1577/LM2577 LM1577-12. 20V Note: Pin numbers shown are for TO-220 (T) package FIGURE 2.com . Circuit Used to Specify System Parameters for 15V Versions 13 www. Circuit Used to Specify System Parameters for 12V Versions LM1577-15.

20V R1 = 48.LM1577/LM2577 LM1577-ADJ. LM2577-ADJ Test Circuit 01146809 L = 415-0930 (AIE) D = any manufacturer COUT = Sprague Type 673D Electrolytic 680 µF. FIGURE 4.com 14 .national.62k (1%) Note: Pin numbers shown are for TO-220 (T) package FIGURE 3. LM1577/LM2577 Block Diagram and Boost Regulator Application www. Circuit Used to Specify System Parameters for ADJ Versions Application Hints 01146810 Note: Pin numbers shown are for TO-220 (T) package *Resistors are internal to LM1577/LM2577 for 12V and 15V versions.7k in series with 511Ω (1%) R2 = 5.

and formulas for calculating them are given in Figure 6. identify inductor code for region indicated by VIN (min) and ILOAD (max).. When the NPN switch turns on. The error amp output voltage is compared to a voltage proportional to the switch current (i. The comparator terminates the switch on time when the two voltages are equal.national. by tying the feedback pin directly to the regulator output.230V reference. inductor current during the switch on time). storing current in the inductor. The output voltage is controlled by the amount of energy transferred which. Voltage Options: 1. When the switch turns off. Thus. and this creates energy in the inductor (L). the inductor current charges up at a rate of VIN/L. determine if the LM1577/ LM2577 can provide these values of VOUT and ILOAD(max) when operating with the minimum value of VIN.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) Duty Cycle Average Inductor Current Inductor Current Ripple Peak Inductor Current Peak Switch Current Switch Voltage When Off Diode Reverse Voltage Average Diode Current Peak Diode Current Power Dissipation of LM1577/2577 D STEP-UP (BOOST) REGULATOR Figure 4 shows the LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ used as a Step-Up Regulator. discharging its current through diode (D) into the output capacitor (COUT) at a rate of (VOUT − VIN)/L. The upper limits for VOUT and ILOAD(max) are given by the following equations. The LM1577/LM2577 turns its output switch on and off at a frequency of 52 kHz.e. The LM1577-12/LM2577-12 and LM1577-15/ LM2577-15 can also be used for step-up regulators with 12V or 15V outputs (respectively). A basic explanation of how it works is as follows.com . VOUT ≤ 60V and VOUT ≤ 10 x VIN(min) 01146811 FIGURE 5. is controlled by modulating the peak inductor current. The shaded region indicates con15 www. Step-Up Regulator Formulas STEP-UP REGULATOR DESIGN PROCEDURE The following design procedure can be used to select the appropriate external components for the circuit in Figure 4. Voltage and current waveforms for this circuit are shown in Figure 5. thereby controlling the peak switch current to maintain a constant output voltage. which amplifies the difference between the feedback voltage and a 1. This is done by feeding back a portion of the output voltage to the error amp. the lower end of the inductor flies above VIN. based on these system requirements. For 12V or 15V output From Figure 7 (for 12V output) or Figure 8 (for 15V output). Inductor Selection (L) A. in turn. 1. This is a switching regulator used for producing an output voltage greater than the input supply voltage. Given: VIN (min) = Minimum input supply voltage VOUT = Regulated output voltage ILOAD(max) = Maximum output load current Before proceeding any further. Step-Up Regulator Waveforms These limits must be greater than or equal to the values specified in this application. IIND(AVE) ∆IIND IIND(PK) ISW(PK) VSW(OFF) VOUT + VF VR VOUT − VSAT ID(AVE) ID(PK) ILOAD PD VF = Forward Biased Diode Voltage ILOAD = Output Load Current FIGURE 6. energy stored in the inductor during the switch on time is transferred to the output during the switch off time.

com 16 . Find the lowest value inductor that is greater than LMIN. If E • T intersects both the L and H regions. the product of volts x time that charges the inductor: 01146827 FIGURE 7. an appropriate inductor code should be obtained from the graph as follows: www. go on to step C. where VF = 0. proceed to step C.85.DC.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) ditions for which the LM1577/LM2577 output switch would be operating beyond its switch current rating. From Figure 9.5V for Schottky diodes and 0. go on to step C.national. Identify Inductor Value: 1. identify the inductor code for the region indicated by the intersection of E • T and IIND. LM2577-12 Inductor Selection Guide IIND.9): 1. the inductor value found in step B1 is too low. This code gives the inductor value in microhenries. The minimum operating voltage for the LM1577/LM2577 is 3. LM2577-15 Inductor Selection Guide If LMIN is smaller than the inductor value found in step B1.5V.8V for fast recovery diodes (typically). Otherwise. E • T. the average inductor current under full load. Find where E • T intersects this inductor value to determine if it has an L or H prefix. the maximum switch duty cycle (0 ≤ D ≤ 0.85. select the inductor with an H prefix. 2. then calculate the minimum inductance needed to ensure the switching regulator’s stability: 01146828 FIGURE 8. From here. The L or H prefix signifies whether the inductor is rated for a maximum E • T of 90 V • µs (L) or 250 V • µs (H). If D ≥ 0. For Adjustable version Preliminary calculations: The inductor selection is based on the calculation of the following three parameters: D(max). 2. If D < 0. 2. B.DC.

Pulse: powdered iron. The factor of 20 to 30% is chosen as a convenient balance between the two extremes. LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ Inductor Selection Graph C. pot-core inductors. Benefits are low EMI and ability to withstand E • T and peak current above rated value better than ferrite cores. small physical size. Complete specifications for these inductors are available from the respective manufacturers. The inductors listed in this table have the following characteristics: AIE: ferrite. toroid core inductors. Be careful not to operate these inductors too far beyond their maximum ratings for E • T and peak current. Greater ripple current causes higher peak switch currents and greater output ripple voltage.national.com . 17 www. and this may interfere with signals sensitive to noise. and very low power dissipation (core loss). Renco: ferrite.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) 01146812 Note: These charts assume that the inductor ripple current inductor is approximately 20% to 30% of the average inductor current (when the regulator is under full load). Select an inductor from the table of Figure 10 which cross-references the inductor codes to the part numbers of three different manufacturers. as this will saturate the core. bobbin-core inductors. Benefits are low cost and best ability to withstand E • T and peak current above rated value. Be aware that these inductors generate more EMI than the other types. FIGURE 9. Benefits of this type are low electro-magnetic interference (EMI). lower ripple current is achieved with larger-value inductors.

53120 PE .92108 PE . The value of the output filter capacitor is normally large enough to require the use of aluminum electrolytic capacitors. or by paralleling smaller-value capacitors.53122 Renco RL2442 RL2443 RL2444 RL1954 RL1953 RL1952 RL1951 RL1950 RL2445 RL2446 RL2447 RL1961 RL1960 RL1959 RL1958 RL2448 The compensation capacitor is also part of the soft start circuitry. Working Voltage (WVDC): Choose a capacitor with a working voltage at least 20% higher than the regulator output voltage. Figure 11 lists several different types that are recommended for switching regulators. In general. (612) 475-1173 1000 Parkers Lake Rd. Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) : This is the primary cause of output ripple voltage. the soft start circuit requires CC ≥ 0. L and COUT.com 18 .92114 PE .22 µF. Wayzata.53118 PE . NY 11729 Choose a capacitor that is rated at least 50% higher than this value at 52 kHz..53113 PE .52629 PE . In order to guarantee optimum compensation. The following procedure calculates values for RC. Ripple Current: This is the maximum RMS value of current that charges the capacitor during each switching cycle. and it should also be no greater than 3 kΩ. and the following parameters are used to select the proper capacitor. Most electrolytic capacitors specify ESR at 120 Hz which is 15% to 30% higher than at 52 kHz. CC. Also. The values of RC and CC are mainly dependant on the regulator voltage gain. one of the standard procedures for testing loop stability must be used.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints Inductor Code L47 L68 L100 L150 L220 L330 L470 L680 H150 H220 H330 H470 H680 H1000 H1500 H2200 (Continued) C.53119 PE . Calculate the minimum value of CC .53115 PE . Compensation Network (RC. The larger of these two values is the minimum value that ensures stability. at 52 kHz. the switch duty cycle is allowed to rise at a rate controlled by this capacitor (with no control on the duty cycle. A. First.. East.53117 PE . CA 92112 Renco Electronics Inc. Calculate the minimum value for COUT using the following two equations. Deer Park. Table of Standardized Inductors and Manufacturer’s Part Numbers 2.53114 PE . Select a capacitor with ESR. (619) 268-2400 P. CC) and Output Capacitor (COUT) Selection RC and CC form a pole-zero compensation network that stabilizes the regulator.52626 PE .53121 PE .52627 PE .. Box 12235. and it also affects the values of RC and CC needed to stabilize the regulator. the preceding calculations for CC and RC are only valid if ESR doesn’t exceed the maximum value specified by the following equations. When power to the regulator is turned on. Be aware that this procedure doesn’t necessarily result in RC and CC that provide optimum compensation. www. MN 55391 Pulse Engineering. Manufacturer’s Part Number Schott 67126980 67126990 67127000 67127010 67127020 67127030 67127040 67127050 67127060 67127070 67127080 67127090 67127100 67127110 67127120 67127130 Pulse PE .O. Select a resistor less than or equal to this value. such as measuring VOUT transient response when pulsing ILOAD (see Figure 15). San Diego. As a result. For step-up and flyback regulators. low values of ESR are achieved by using large value capacitors (C ≥ 470 µF). that is less than or equal to the lower value calculated. be aware that ESR increases by a factor of 2 when operating at −20˚C. B.national. it would immediately rise to 90%.53116 PE . drawing huge currents from the input power supply). ILOAD(max).53112 PE . FIGURE 10. the formula for ripple current is Schott Corp. (516) 586-5566 60 Jeffryn Blvd. and capacitors with high WVDC. In order to operate properly. and COUT that ensure regulator stability. calculate the maximum value for RC.

NC 28643 (919) 384-2551 United Chemi-Con — Types LX. Bypassing the Input Voltage pin directly to ground with a good quality. Diode Selection Chart MR851 30DL1 MR831 HER302 Fast Recovery 1A 3A 4. With the LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ. 300. low ESR. IL 60173 (708) 843-7500 Sprague — Types 672D.1 µF capacitor (leads as short as possible) is normally sufficient. select R1 and R2 so that If the LM1577 is located far from the supply source filter capacitors. SC 29671 (803) 878-6311 Nichicon — Types PF.com .g. Schaumburg. Input Capacitor Selection (CIN) The switching action in the step-up regulator causes a triangular ripple current to be drawn from the supply source. This in turn causes noise to appear on the supply voltage. 0. Sprague Road. or PZ 927 East Parkway. Pickens. an additional large electrolytic capacitor (e.national. 5. Cornell Dublier — Types 239. Skip this section if the LM1577-12/LM2577-12 or LM1577-15/LM2577-15 is being used. Diode Selection (D) The switching diode used in the boost regulator must withstand a reverse voltage equal to the circuit output voltage. 673D. Box 128. Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors Recommended for Switching Regulators (max) 20V BOOST REGULATOR CIRCUIT EXAMPLE By adding a few external components (as shown in Figure 13).23V reference. 250. Schottky barrier diodes are often favored for use in switching regulators. or SXJ 9801 West Higgins Road. the output voltage is given by VOUT = 1. Lansing. 19 www. or 350 P.23V (1 + R1/R2) Resistors R1 and R2 divide the output down so it can be compared with the LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ internal 1. UFT. The switching waveforms observed during the operation of this circuit are shown in Figure 16. and should be rated for average and peak current greater than ILOAD(max) and ID(PK).LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) 3. See Figure 12 for recommended part numbers and voltage ratings of 1A and 3A diodes. A suitable diode must have a minimum reverse breakdown voltage greater than the circuit output voltage. For a given desired output voltage VOUT. and must conduct the peak output current of the LM2577.O. Rosemont. the LM2577 can be used to produce a regulated output voltage that is greater than the applied input voltage. or 674D Box 1. 47 µF) is often required. 251. the input voltage should be decoupled. For proper operation of the LM1577. PX. Output Voltage Selection (R1 and R2) This section is for applications using the LM1577-ADJ/ LM2577-ADJ. Typical performance of this regulator is shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15. Their low forward voltage drop allows higher regulator efficiency than if a (less expensive) fast recovery diode was used. VOUT Schottky 1A 1N5817 MBR120P 1N5818 30V MBR130P 11DQ03 1N5819 40V MBR140P 11DQ04 MBR150 50V 100V 11DQ05 3A 1N5820 MBR320P 1N5821 MBR330P 31DQ03 1N5822 MBR340P 31DQ04 MBR350 31DQ05 1N4933 MUR105 1N4934 HER102 MUR110 10DL1 FIGURE 12. IL 60018 (708) 696-2000 FIGURE 11. SXF.

national. Load Transient Response of Step-Up Regulator of Figure 13 FIGURE 16.2 A/div Horizontal: 5 ms/div FIGURE 15. Line Regulation (Typical) of Step-Up Regulator of Figure 13 01146816 01146815 A: Switch pin voltage. (AC-coupled) B: Load current. 10 V/div B: Switch pin current. 2 A/div C: Inductor current. FIGURE 13.com 20 . 100 mV/div. 100 mV/div (AC-coupled) Horizontal: 5 µs/div A: Output Voltage Change. Switching Waveforms of Step-Up Regulator of Figure 13 www.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) 01146813 Note: Pin numbers shown are for TO-220 (T) package. Step-up Regulator Delivers 12V from a 5V Input 01146814 FIGURE 14. 0. 2 A/div D: Output ripple voltage.

both output voltages have the same magnitude). Figure 20lists these transformers with the input voltage. Transformer Selection A family of standardized flyback transformers is available for creating flyback regulators that produce dual output voltages. FLYBACK REGULATOR DESIGN PROCEDURE 1. When the switch turns off. 2. First. RC) and Output Capacitor (COUT) Selection As explained in the Step-Up Regulator Design Procedure. Note that the primary and secondary windings are out of phase. and no greater than 3 kΩ. output voltages and maximum load current they are designed for. as described in the step-up regulator section.. and formulas for calculating them are given in Figure 19.com . from ± 10V to ± 15V. as shown in Figure 18.e. The output voltages are controlled by adjusting the peak primary current. This allows the primary to charge up the transformer core when the switch is on. RC and COUT must be selected as a group. Calculate the minimum value for ∑COUT (sum of COUT at both outputs) using the following two equations. and this produces voltage at the outputs.national. CC.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints FLYBACK REGULATOR (Continued) A. Its operation is similar to a step-up regulator. Select a resistor less than or equal to this value. The following procedure is for a dual output flyback regulator with equal turns ratios for each secondary (i. Flyback Regulator Waveforms 21 www. Where ∑ILOAD(max) is the sum of the load current (magnitude) required from both outputs. Figure 18 shows the LM1577/LM2577 used as a flyback regulator with positive and negative regulated outputs. Voltage and current waveforms for this circuit are shown in Figure 17. B. The equations can be used for a single output regulator by changing ∑ILOAD(max) to ILOAD(max) in the following equations. A Flyback regulator can produce single or multiple output voltages that are lower or greater than the input supply voltage. the core discharges by sending current through the secondary. so no current flows through secondary when current flows through the primary. The larger of these two values must be used to ensure regulator stability. except the output switch contols the primary current of a flyback transformer. calculate the maximum value for RC. 01146817 FIGURE 17. Compensation Network (CC.

LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ Flyback Regulator with ± Outputs www.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) 01146818 T1 = Pulse Engineering.national. PE-65300 D1. D2 = 1N5821 FIGURE 18.com 22 .

select R1 and R2 so that D.23V reference.national.com .23V (1 + R1/R2) Resistors R1 and R2 divide the output voltage down so it can be compared with the LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ internal 1.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints Duty Cycle (Continued) D Primary Current Variation ∆IP Peak Primary Current IP(PK) Switch Voltage when Off VSW(OFF) Diode Reverse Voltage Average Diode Current Peak Diode Current ID(PK) Short Circuit Diode Current VR ID(AVE) VOUT+ N (VIN− VSAT) ILOAD Power Dissipation of LM1577/LM2577 PD 01146878 FIGURE 19. With the LM1577-ADJ/LM2577-ADJ. Calculate the maximum ESR of the +VOUT and −VOUT output capacitors in parallel. Calculate the minimum value of CC VOUT = 1. Skip this section if the LM1577-12/LM2577-12 or LM1577-15/LM2577-15 is being used. a flyback regulator generates more noise at the input supply than a www. A suitable diode must have a reverse voltage rating greater than this. As a result. Diode Selection The switching diode in a flyback converter must withstand the reverse voltage specified by the following equation. 3. the output voltage is given by 23 4. At this point. Input Capacitor Selection The primary of a flyback transformer draws discontinuous pulses of current from the input supply. In addition it must be rated for more than the average and peak diode currents listed in Figure 19. For a desired output voltage VOUT. refer to this same section in the Step-Up Regulator Design Procedurefor more information regarding the selection of COUT. This formula can also be used to calculate the maximum ESR of a single output regulator. Output Voltage Selection This section is for applications using the LM1577-ADJ/ LM2577-ADJ. Flyback Regulator Formulas C. 5.

Without it. Transformer Type LP = 100 µH 1 N=1 Input Voltage 5V 5V 5V 10V 10V 2 LP = 200 µH N = 0. and this requires a larger bypass capacitor to decouple the LM1577/LM2577 VIN pin from this noise. 6. ± 10V ± 12V ± 15V ± 10V ± 12V ± 15V ± 10V ± 12V ± 15V ± 10V ± 12V ± 15V Power dissipation (and power rating) of the resistor is. Switching waveforms seen in this circuit are shown in Figure 27. For most applications. Snubber Circuit A “snubber” circuit is required when operating from input voltages greater than 10V. This circuit clamps a voltage spike from the transformer primary that occurs immediately after the output switch turns off. Use the following equations to calculate R and C. The RC values are selected for switch clamp voltage (VCLAMP) that is 5V to 10V greater than VSW(OFF). The fast recovery diode must have a reverse voltage rating greater than VCLAMP. a low ESR. while the load transient response is shown in Figure 24 and Figure 26. www. and a parallel RC. Snubber Circuit FLYBACK REGULATOR CIRCUIT EXAMPLE The circuit of Figure 22 produces ± 15V (at 225 mA each) from a single 5V input. the switch voltage may exceed the 65V maximum rating.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) step-up regulator. 1. Flyback Transformer Selection Guide In addition to this bypass cap.0 µF cap will be sufficient. As shown in Figure 21.national. the snub- 01146819 FIGURE 21. or when using a transformer with LP ≥ 200 µH. Manufacturers’ Part Numbers AIE 326-0637 330-0202 330-0203 Pulse PE-65300 PE-65301 PE-65302 Renco RL-2580 RL-2581 RL-2582 FIGURE 20. a larger capacitor (≥ 47 µF) should be used where the flyback transformer connects to the input supply.5 15V 15V 15V Transformer Type 1 2 3 Dual Output Voltage Maximum Output Current 325 mA 275 mA 225 mA 700 mA 575 mA 500 mA 800 mA 700 mA 575 mA 900 mA 825 mA 700 mA ber consists of a fast recovery diode. This will attenuate noise which may interfere with other circuits connected to the same input supply voltage.com 24 .5 10V 12V 12V 12V 3 LP = 250 µH N = 0. The output regulation of this circuit is shown in Figure 23 and Figure 25. if it is connected very close to the VIN and Ground pins.

+15V Output 25 www. Line Regulation (Typical) of Flyback Regulator of Figure 22. 100 mV/div B: Output Current. PE-65300 D1. Flyback Regulator Easily Provides Dual Outputs 01146823 A: Output Voltage Change. +15V Output FIGURE 24.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) 01146820 T1 = Pulse Engineering.national. D2 = 1N5821 FIGURE 22. 100 mA/div 01146821 Horizontal: 10 ms/div FIGURE 23.com . Load Transient Response of Flyback Regulator of Figure 22.

Each Output Loaded with 60Ω www. Load Transient Response of Flyback Regulator of Figure 22. 1 A/div D: +15V Output ripple voltage.com 26 . 100 mV/div B: Output Current. 100 mV/div Horizontal: 5 µs/div FIGURE 27.LM1577/LM2577 Application Hints (Continued) 01146824 A: Output Voltage Change. −15V Output FIGURE 25. Switching Waveforms of Flyback Regulator of Figure 22. −15V Output 01146825 A: Switch pin voltage. 20 V/div B: Primary current. 2 A/div C: +15V Secondary current. 100 mA/div Horizontal: 10 ms/div 01146822 FIGURE 26. Line Regulation (Typical) of Flyback Regulator of Figure 22.national.

LM1577/LM2577 Physical Dimensions unless otherwise noted inches (millimeters) TO-3 Metal Can Package (K) Order Number LM1577K-12/883. LM1577K-15/883. LM2577M-15 or LM2577M-ADJ NS Package Number M24B 27 www. or LM1577K-ADJ/883 NS Package Number K04A 0.300 Wide SO Package (M) Order Number LM2577M-12.national.com .

com 28 . or LM2577N-ADJ NS Package Number N16A TO-220. LM2577T-15. LM2577N-15. Straight Leads (T) Order Number LM2577T-12.LM1577/LM2577 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N) Order Number LM2577N-12. or LM2577T-ADJ NS Package Number TO5A www.national.

LM2577T-15 Flow LB03.com . or LM2577T-ADJ Flow LB03 NS Package Number T05D 29 www.national.LM1577/LM2577 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) TO-220. Bent Staggered Leads (T) Order Number LM2577T-12 Flow LB03.

feedback@nsc.national. As used herein: 1. or (b) support or sustain life. National Semiconductor Americas Customer Support Center Email: new. can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. .com 2.com Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Support Center Email: ap.support@nsc.feedback@nsc. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which.LM1577/LM2577 SIMPLE SWITCHER Step-Up Voltage Regulator Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 5-Lead TO-263 (S) Order Number LM2577S-12. LM2577S-15 or LM2577S-ADJ NS Package Number TS5B National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described. For the most current product information visit us at www.com Tel: 1-800-272-9959 National Semiconductor Europe Customer Support Center Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: europe. and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling. no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications. LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. or to affect its safety or effectiveness.com. BANNED SUBSTANCE COMPLIANCE National Semiconductor manufactures products and uses packing materials that meet the provisions of the Customer Products Stewardship Specification (CSP-9-111C2) and the Banned Substances and Materials of Interest Specification (CSP-9-111S2) and contain no ‘‘Banned Substances’’ as defined in CSP-9-111S2.support@nsc. (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body.com National Semiconductor Japan Customer Support Center Fax: 81-3-5639-7507 Email: jpn. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system.

com Tel: 81-3-5639-7560 .LM1577/LM2577 SIMPLE SWITCHER Step-Up Voltage Regulator www.national.