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ENG 426-Rewenable Energy
Photovoltaic and Wind- Hybrid Sustainable Power System

Final Project
This project includes the design and cost analysis of a small scale hybrid sustainable photovoltaic and wind system for a house.

Lecturer: Jai Singh

Submitted By: Bimal Raj Neupane (s217173)

Bimal Neupane

ENG426

s217173

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Contents
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................... 3 1. 2. 3. Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................... 4 Need of Renewable Energy ............................................................................................................. 5 Types of renewable energy ............................................................................................................. 6 3.1 Solar energy .................................................................................................................................. 6 3.2 Wind energy .................................................................................................................................. 6 3.3 Biomass energy ............................................................................................................................. 6 3.4 Geothermal energy ....................................................................................................................... 7 3.5 Wave and Tidal Energy.................................................................................................................. 7 4. Project description .......................................................................................................................... 8 4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 8 4.2 Solar Radiation and Wind Speed in Darwin ................................................................................ 12 5. Calculation and Estimation ........................................................................................................... 17 5.1 For the PV System ....................................................................................................................... 17 5.2 Installation and cost of PV .......................................................................................................... 21 5.3 For the wind System ................................................................................................................... 24 5.4 Calculating Payback period for the Hybrid System ..................................................................... 25 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Conceptual Design ........................................................................................................................ 25 Standard Components of a PV/ Wind Hybrid Unit ....................................................................... 28 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 29 Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 30 Reference .................................................................................................................................. 36

Bimal Neupane

ENG426

s217173

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PV: NT: MWh: kWh: kV: RET: MW: REC : Avg: m/s: DC: AC: %: Photovoltaics Northern Territory Megawatt hours kilowatt hours Kilovolt Renewable Energy Target Megawatts (capacity) Renewable Energy Certificate average metres per second Direct Current Alternating Current Percent

QLD: Queensland WA: Western Australia

Bimal Neupane

ENG426

s217173

Australia has among the best wind resource in the world and wind energy has become the cheapest renewable energy technology. solar energy is Australia‘s largest energy resource. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . there is an urgent need to focus attention on development of renewable energy sources and use of energy efficient technologies. Australia is blessed with the highest average solar radiation of any continent in the world. it is a proven technology and involves a short construction period. except Southern Victoria and Tasmania. which means our solar industry has the greatest potential to lead the world. Executive Summary Energy is important for the survival of all living organisms which plays a vital role in shaping the human condition and civilization. provide hot water. such as research and development for photovoltaic modules and fuel cells.4 1. the average amount of solar energy that falls on Australia is about 15. The impetus of renewable energy development in Australia is gaining rapidly due to the urgent need of to diminish the greenhouse gas emission. However. Moreover. cool and light buildings. and to heat. Moreover. Energy is essential for survival. Wind energy integrates well in to the electricity grid. and this premium is reducing. it is clear that the process of energy used and changing of daily needs create human to discover new energy during their civilization such that: energy = progress = civilization. Energy is an essential element for economic development of any nation. so the production and consumption of energy are some of the most important activities of human life. Australia has naturally gifted renewable energy and is a prime leader in a number of technologies. solar radiations are average to very good. In all parts of Australia.000 times the nation‘s energy use. Its current cost is only two to three cents more per kWh than the national electricity market pool prices. The viability parameters considered are cost analysis and payback period of the hybrid system. Financial analysis seeks to ascertain whether the proposed project will be financially viable in the sense of being able to meet the demand and whether the proposed project will satisfy the return expectations of those who provide the capital. solar thermal and wind power system. exhaustible energy sources in the world are limited. Sunlight can be used to generate electricity.

which includes electricity derived from coal. Use of fossil and nuclear fuels which causes greenhouse emissions. concern over pollution. which is suffering a tremendous pressure. Projections on the energy demand in the early years of 21st century are alarming. Australia‘s environmental. the world needs a reality check. As the start of industrial revolution. When it comes to the future of energy. energy consumption increases due to more vehicles on the road. That consequently leads to depletion of energy sources and degradation of environment which stretching the resources of our planet to breaking point. Any successful climate change solution must first target the energy sector specifically. This energy scenario poses a great challenge for our technology. depletion of resources and environment degradation the awareness for limited resources around the world has increased dramatically. 400 million tonnes per year for coal and 100. With rapid rise in energy prices. Governments with vision have come to realise that generation of electrical power through non-renewable sources of energy is not enough. Need of Renewable Energy The economic growth and prosperity of any country or region in the world is related to the level of its consumption of energy. oil and natural gas. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . economic and energy security is at risk from climate change unless we can compete in a low carbon world. more industries and more electricity generation and the unlimited burn of fossil fuel such as coal.fired power. and also to our environment. is responsible for around 50 precent of our greenhouse gas emission. The power of the future must be environmentally friendly as well. Australia‘s stationary energy sector.000 MW per year for power. inefficient use of energy and release of harmful pollutants to the atmosphere causing threat such as air pollution.5 2. The estimates are about100 million tonnes per year for petroleum. acid rain and the danger of nuclear radiation.

3. It uses waste materials that are usually dumped. existing wind farms in Australia are concentrated along the windy southern littoral districts. especially from people who live near proposed wind farms. including wind power farms that provide energy to support a large number of homes through to homemade wind turbines. The main conversion routes are direct combustion. Converting biomass energy into useable energy has many environmental benefits. and uses up methane (a greenhouse gas). 3.3 Biomass energy Bioenergy uses biomass directly to generate fuel or electricity.6 3. gasification. the erection of wind turbines has faced some fierce criticism. Fuels such as ethanol can be made from biomass and used as an alternative to petrol to power motor cars. waste from other plants and manure from livestock. Pyrolysis.1 Solar energy Solar energy is a renewable free source of energy that is sustainable and totally inexhaustible. This energy is one of the safest and cleanest forms of energy.2 Wind energy Wind power harnesses the energy in the wind through wind turbines. Types of renewable energy 3. it has now become possible to harness this abundantly available energy very reliably for many purposes by converting it to usable heat or through direct generation of electricity. Because the power output scales approximately as the cube of the wind speed. Biochemical and Fermentation process. the Sun‘s energy falling on Australia in one day is equal to half the total annual energy required by the whole world.Although wind is free and clean. light. Solar panel which converts light energy to the electricity can be used to provide electricity on a small scale to homes to supplement the electricity supply from the national grid or can be used to power whole towns. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . These produce energy on various scales. motion and fuel. Wind farms are now a familiar aspect of the environment. This includes using wood from tree. unlike fossil fuels which are finite. Biomass can be used to generate electricity. It is also a non-polluting source of energy and it does not emit any greenhouse gases when producing electricity. heat. To put solar generation systems into perspective.

Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .6 million years energy supply at 2004–05 consumption levels. platforms. Wave power is sourced from winds blowing on oceans. this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core. which is the equivalent of about 2. generate electricity using the bobbing motion of the ocean‘s waves. Different technologies adopt different methods for harnessing the ocean‘s energy. Floating buoys. Tidal barrage systems trap sea water in a large basin and the water is drained through low-head water turbines. The potential for geothermal energy in Australia is truly enormous.7 3. either the changes in height of the tides or the ocean‘s current. tidal energy by the gravitational pull of the moon on the ocean. Tidal Tidal power is a special form of hydropower that exploits the bulk motion of the tides. the most common oceanic power generation system uses a turbine to drive an electrical generator. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. However. i. Power comes from the water‘s movement. Wave The waves on the surface of the sea are caused mainly by the effects of wind which can be used to generate intermittent power. Ultimately.5 Wave and Tidal Energy Ocean power uses the oceans‘ tides. In recent years.e. currents or waves to produce electricity. 3. or submerged devices placed in deep water.4 Geothermal energy Geothermal energy uses heat energy from the beneath both from kilometres deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths of the earth surface. rotors have been developed that can extract the kinetic energy of underwater currents. The estimation of the energy contained in the upper 5 kilometres of Australia‘s crust at 1 Joules.

Hybrid energy systems oftentimes yield greater economic and environmental returns than wind. land and water against pollution. the size of battery storage can be reduced as there is less reliance on one method of power production. environmental and economical security.1 Introduction A Hybrid power system is the combination of two or more energy conversion technique. I chose the solar panels and a small wind turbine hybrid generation technique to power a one bedroom unit house located at 256 Casuarina Drive. Be safe to consume today and not possess the uncertainty risk for future generations. to maximize the use of renewables. the reliability of the system is enhanced. Protect air. The earth receives more energy in just one hour from the sun than what is consumed in the whole world Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . whereas during the summer. 4. Have minimal or no negative impact on environment or society. Have little or no emissions of greenhouse gases or net carbon. Darwin. This is the most readily and abundantly available source of energy. The major advantage of wind energy is that when used together with solar panels.8 Renewable energy carries with itself a number of benefits providing social. Meet the needs of consumer today and in the future in an accessible and efficient way. geothermal or tri-generation stand-alone systems by themselves. the solar panels would produce their peak output. resulting in a system with lower emissions than traditional fossil-fuelled technologies. The radiant heat and light energy from the Sun is called as solar energy. The following criteria should be met by efficient energy sources:       Not deplete or adversely affect natural resources. solar. Project description 4. Since ancient times this energy has been harnessed by humans using a range of innovations and ever-evolving technologies. Additionally. Nightcliff. All these criteria could be met by renewable energy and thus it could become sustainable for future. This would create more output from the wind turbine during the winter. In this project.

Photovoltaic (PV) literally stands for electricity from light. Contemporary PV cells are able to convert 10 to 20 percent of radiant energy into electrical energy. known respectively as p-type (positive) and n-type (negative) semiconductor. These semiconductors are usually made from thin layers (two or more) of semi-conducting material. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . In this reaction four atoms of hydrogen combine to form one helium atom with loss of matter. These are very similar to singlecrystalline in performance and degradation. fused together to make a single cell. Mono-crystalline Silicon Cells. Polycrystalline module: Polycrystalline (or multi-crystalline) modules which is easier to make are consist of a number of different crystals. Amorphous Silicon. typically 11-14%. Thick-Film Silicon and Other Thin films etc. Mono crystal panels are slightly more efficient (about 12-17%) in the real world. except they are slightly less efficient. In years to come. it is slightly expensive than other PV cell. A photovoltaic cell is a special semiconductor diode that converts visible light into DC (direct current). This matter is emitted as radiant energy. so multiple cells are combined together and encapsulated to form a PV module (also called panel). Mono-crystalline module (Single Crystalline): A mono crystalline panel is constructed using one single crystal. The different types of PV systems are multi-crystalline Silicon Cells. This module is the principle and basic building block of entire PV system and numerous modules can be put together to give the desired electrical output.9 for one year. Certain PV cells are able to transform infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) rays into DC power. this efficiency will be improved to produce even better results. A single cell has small electrical output. in essence. PV cells consist. This energy comes from within the sun itself through process called nuclear fusion reaction. However. of a junction between two thin layers of dissimilar semiconducting materials. When this silicon is exposed to light it generates electrical charges and with the use of metal contacts this can be conducted away as direct current (DC). Metal strips are laid over the entire cell and act as a conductor that captures electrons. usually silicon.

The orientation(azimuth) and tilt(elevation) of the PV arrays 3.e. Type of PV Mono-crystalline module Polycrystalline module Thin Film or Amorphous module Advantage Most efficient module available Cost effective to manufacture compared to mono-crystalline Takes up small area on roof Takes up small area on roof Uses less silicon . sprays the silicon onto a base as a thin film. The primary advantages of thin film panels lie in their low manufacturing costs and versatility.high embodied energy Table.low embodied energy Most popular technology on market Partially shade tolerant Most effective in hotter climate Not as efficient as mono Has more silicon . The peak power rating of the array 4. The efficiency of the inverters used to convert the DC power from the PV arrays in to AC Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . The energy conversion efficiency of the PV modules 5.1 Comparison of different types of PV module The energy output of PV cell depends on: 1. and a greater number is required for the same output.high embodied energy Poor efficiency Takes up more roof space for same output Disadvantage More expensive to produce Has more silicon . The annual total amount of solar radiation available on the site 2.10 Thin Film or Amorphous module: Thin film panels are produced very differently from crystalline panels i. Thin-film panels are significantly less efficient (about 6-8%) than crystalline panels.

The visual impact and closeness to homes should be considered because of noise and shadow flickering. i. The total operating wind generating capacity at the end of 2009 was 1877 MW providing 1. making wind an attractive option. Some specifications that need to produce wind energy are: 1. Wind power is a proven and reliable technology that is widely used in Australia.5 to 3 megawatts (MW).org.5 m/s. The stronger the wind. 2. in which wind farms produce on average capacity factors of 30–35%. The local zoning allows a structure that is at least 12. At this speed the energy produced from the wind is not much greater than the amount of energy lost in friction and electrical losses. The figure 1 shows the typical power curve of a wind turbine at different wind speed. 4. 5.5 m/s average wind speed.11 Wind turbine harness the power of the wind in which the wind blows the blades and forced round. The ‗cut out speed‘ is the highest speed the machine can safely stand without being damaged and the ‗rated speed‘ is the wind speed at which the particular machine achieves its maximum output. called the ‗cut in speed‘. The overall cost should be considered in relation to locating the equipment and distribution costs like long cables. the more electricity produced. In Practice. The lower speed. driving a turbine which generates electricity. The site should be unobstructed from tall buildings and trees. 3.au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . 6.8 m (42 feet) tall.aie. It is recommended to site the wind turbine generator at least 6 m above any surrounding obstacles such as trees or buildings. most of which have turbines of from 1.e. (Source: www.3% of Australia's national electricity demand. At the end of 2009. the better the power output. the taller the tower. Have at least 4. is 4 . there were about 33 wind farms in Australia. wind turbines are designed to work between certain wind speeds.

Therefore if the wind blows at twice the speed. Location: Darwin.89 °E. Elevation: 30 m Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Latitude: 12. Wind speed: The power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed.e.12 Figure 1: Power curve of a wind turbine (Source: http://www.2 Solar Radiation and Wind Speed in Darwin The figures 1 and 2 which are listed below shows the average solar radiation and wind speed throughout the Australia. its energy content will increase eightfold. 3.com/pdf/briefings/technology-2005. visibility and grid connection requirements often take precedence over the optimum wind capture layout. when the wind turbine is not undergoing maintenance. 2. The way wind turbines are arranged: Various factors such as environmental considerations.pdf) The amount of electricity produced from a wind turbine depends on three factors: 1. Wind turbine availability: This is the capability to operate when the wind is blowing. i.bwea.42 °S Longitude: 130. 4.

13 Figure 2: The potential for solar power generation in Australia (Source: http://www.org.org.pdf) Figure 3: The potential for wind power generation in Australia (Source: http://www.au/reports/documents/AusRenewableEnergyFuture.pdf) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .science.science.au/reports/documents/AusRenewableEnergyFuture.

8 101.9 6.8 3.3 17.0 6.6 3.5 31.1 24.14 Statistics Temperature Mean maximum 31.1 94.6 temperature (°C) Mean minimum 24.0 27.4 5.1 10.2 33.8 24.2 1.7 0.9 69 Table 2 A summaries of the major climate statistics of Darwin (Source: http://www.9 32.7 24.4 31.2 21.6 9.3 22.0 0.2 29.0 10.4 2.5 24.6 27.8 70.9 19.1 70 Other daily elements Mean daily sunshine (hours) Mean number of clear days 5.0 20.2 31.6 30.2 12.9 103.3 0.5 20.3 32.1 16.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_014015.2 30.8 31.8 8.7 27.7 9.4 23.5 8.0 15.5 (km/h) 3pm wind speed vs direction plot 17.9 8.5 17.1 (km/h) 9am wind speed vs direction plot 9.7 56 1954 2010 1954 2010 1941 2010 71 56 Mean 9am wind speed 11.6 19.0 30.0 31.0 22.3 25.0 8.5 cloudy days 6.6 19.4 282.0 30.9 1.6 23.8 70 1.4 70 1941 2011 1941 2011 1941 2011 4.4 11.6 30.3 9.2 32.shtml) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .2 70 Rainfall Mean rainfall (mm) 426.6 14.9 69 3 pm conditions Mean 3pm 30.9 9.0 19.5 11.4 27.1 Decile 5 (median) 411.8 temperature (°C) Mean 9am relative humidity (%) 81 83 82 74 65 60 60 64 68 69 72 76 26.8 75.7 21.gov.8 of rain ≥ 1 mm 7.1 15.2 5.9 18.9 25.6 0.8 24.0 0.0 70 1941 2011 1941 2011 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual Years Plot Map 23.0 16.0 140.3 0.8 9.7 17.4 1.5 31.1 9.5 227.7 31.9 14.4 16.2 temperature (°C) Mean 3pm relative humidity (%) 70 72 67 52 43 38 37 40 47 52 58 65 30.4 1709.6 33.0 361.7 32.4 25.8 8.7 9.3 20.5 3.5 13.2 0.2 3.1 20.1 19.4 6.8 140.7 5.5 60 1951 2011 1954 2010 1954 2010 0.0 56 9 am conditions Mean 9am 28.8 56 1954 2010 1954 2010 1941 2010 54 56 Mean 3pm wind speed 17.6 11.9 10.9 29.0 252.6 16.4 1738.2 17.6 4.1 16.9 31.9 17.7 13.7 9.7 1.1 317.4 134.3 temperature (°C) 32.8 18.bom.0 10.9 10.2 376.3 32.6 0.2 28.4 52.7 6.0 28.7 29.0 rainfall (mm) Mean number of days 18.2 56 Mean number of 24.

energymatters. Figure. the data is automatically calculated through the software. humidity and air pressure can be graphically represented with the help of solar power calculator.4 Solar irradiation and Wind speed in Darwin Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . The software is available in www.com. air and ground temperature.15 The details about the solar irradiation and wind speed.au and we just need to enter the post code of darwin.

) humidity: 80 Wind speed in Darwin    Average wind speed: 4.1 m/s Maximum (monthly avg.energymatters.    Average air temperature: 27. from the above data. and is in a unique position to harness its solar resource but wind is not as abundant in the Territory. we can conclude that Northern Territory is endowed with abundant sunshine.) wind speed: 4.9 °C Maximum (monthly avg.) humidity: 55.65 °C Minimum (monthly avg.) solar irradiation: 6. air temperature and wind speed of Darwin can be summarized as: Solar irradiation in Darwin    Average solar irradiation: 5.6 m/s Air temperature in Darwin Wind power is affected by air temperature because colder air is denser and therefore more effective at producing wind power.77 kWh/m²/day Minimum (monthly avg.22 m/s Minimum (monthly avg.) air temperature: 29.87 kWh/m²/day Maximum (monthly avg.5 Maximum (monthly avg. and is site specific.au) At last.84 kWh/m²/day Humidity in Darwin    Average humidity: 68.com. humidity.16 Thus.) air temperature: 24.33 Minimum (monthly avg.) wind speed: 4. 3. 4 and table 2 the average solar irradiation. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . from the above figures 2.) solar irradiation: 4.4 °C (Source: http://www.

The annual electricity bill can be calculated through the per day consumption. I got my electricity bill around 1368 AU$ annually which is around 20 kWh per day energy consumption.17 5. So.com. So annual electricity bill can be calculated as: The details about the average solar irradiation. Moreover. (Go for: Grid Connect Solar Power Electricity Calculator) Figure. Moreover. The software is available in www. We can check our electricity bills to get an approximate value.5 Annual energy consumption and estimated greenhouse emission Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Calculation and Estimation 5. I choose the 20 kWh per day consumption for one bed room unit to design a small scale solar and wind hybrid unit in Northern Territory. Darwin. we need to know our energy consumption in kWh so that we can design our hybrid power system. we pay around 19 cents per kW for the electricity bill in Australia.au and we just need to enter the Average daily energy consumption in kWh then the data is automatically calculated through the software.1 For the PV System First.energymatters. annual energy consumption and estimated green house emission can be represented with the help of Grid Connected solar power calculator.

The Figure 5 shows the suitable system options.6 Estimated energy production form 3.com.18 Thus from the figure (5).0 KW Grid Connected System Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Moreover. annual energy production and estimated greenhouse emission offset can be calculated through estimating energy consumption with the help of the software which is available in www. costs and performance based on our electricity consumption and geographical location. the details about the solar panel selection.energymatters. 20 kWh per day energy consumption produces the greenhouse emission of about 9490 kg per year.3 kg annually. The figure 6 listed below is the system output of 3 kW (18×175 W solar panels) solar panels which average annual production is 6000 kWh powers which reduces the green house emission of 7762.au and we just need to enter the post code of Darwin. Figure.

The grid will act as a giant battery for the system.19 5. 5. The following is summary data on Sharp Solar Panel 175Watt 24Volt (mono) performance in Darwin. 3KW (18 ×175W) solar panel in Darwin will produce on average of 5. (Source: http://www. on sunny summer afternoon). The grid can absorb PV power that is surplus to current needs (say. Again. This is based on assumption that there is an Average solar irradiation of 5. when the output of the PV system is insufficient.1 Grid connected PV System: Grid connected is connected to the local utility. and at night or an cloudy days.5 precent for every 5 degree variation in temperature.energymatters.2 PV System components: Solar Panels Thus. Note: The grid connected hybrid system details explanation is in the conceptual design part.1. making it available for use by other customers and reducing the amount that has to be generated by conventional means. Solar panels can be wired in series or in parallel to increase voltage or current respectively.971 M watt annually. solar panel is rated up to temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and its output is varying by 2. I need to install 3 KW (18×175KW) Solar panels. the grid can provide backup energy from the conventional sources. However.au/index. I choose the 18×175KW mono-crystalline Solar panels because of its high efficiency and also which takes up small area on roof space. from the figure 6. This option is more preferable in areas already connected to the grid.php)     Solar panels should face north Acceptable solar panel angle for grid connect: 0° to 7° Optimal solar panel angle for grid connect: 2° Winter solar panel angle (SAPS): 27° See appendix for solar panel Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Moreover. it is varies from different location because different geographical locations receive different quantities of average peak sun hours per day.77 kWh/m²/day.1.com. Moreover. from the figure 5. The solar panels and wind turbines generate DC electricity which is routed to an inverter that converts the current to 240 volts AC.

20 Cable size and Fuse Recommendation for PV System: Table 3 Cable and Fuse Recommendation for 24 V DC (Source: www.com. A solar regulator also prevents the battery from back feeding into the solar panel at night and prevents the battery from damage and reduced life expectancy due to over current flow.au (type: DC cable sizing calculator) Solar Regulators The purpose of solar regulators or charge controllers is to regulate the current from the solar panels to prevent the batteries from overcharging which causes gassing and loss of electrolyte of the battery. . See appendix for solar regulator Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . solar regulators are rated by the amount of current they can receive from the solar panels.com.energymatters. However.au) The details about the cable size and fuse recommendation can be calculated through estimated voltage production through the PV system with the help of the software which is available in www.energymatters.

Taking rising electricity costs into account. A battery rated at 100Ah at the 100 hour rate can supply a total of 100A over a period of 100 hours. See appendix for Inverter Solar Batteries A deep-cycle lead-acid battery is designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity which are rated in Ampere Hours (Ah). In the hybrid case the inverter is placed where it gets a DC voltage from both hybrid supplies from the wind turbine and solar panels. This would equate to 1. Inverters are rated by the amount of AC power they can fed to the system continuously in which it is fitted with overload protection. wind turbines and labour cost. The angle at which the roof is facing affects the amount of sun that will hit the solar panels.2. 99.1 Calculating Payback period for the System The following should be considered to calculate an estimate of the system‘s payback time:  Up-front cost of the panels. See appendix for Solar Batteries 5. which allows running electrical equipment off standard 240V AC.   Eligibility for government rebates. roof faces north side is suitable to get maximum performance of the system.0A per hour. inverter. The vast majority of deep cycle batteries on the market today are lead acid batteries.5% by weight.    Details study of the climate data. regulators. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .21 Inverters A power inverter converts DC power or direct current to standard AC power or alternating current. System size. battery.2 Installation and cost of PV 5. Lead acid batteries are recycled at a rate of 98% by volume. For my case.

I chose 18×175W panels multi crystalline solar panel that may be extended to 20 panels later in order to build up my system total environmental friendly. oil. then i would pay more than $1368 annually. roof space required to produce desired energy can be calculated through estimating energy consumption with the help of the website http://www.energymatters.2.solarselect. Thus.php?pageid=15) Moreover.net.au/index.au website) Before installing PV system. inverter and battery is taken from the http://www. The details about the solar panel selection.22 5.com.1 Cost estimation and Payback period for the PV System The table 4 shows the estimated cost for the 3 kW solar systems and the roof space required to install the solar panel. the PV system cost is estimated by dollars per watt installed i.000. According to figure 5. permitting.e. from figure 6. and labour necessary for complete installation. Solar Regulator. all equipment. Inverter = $16.000 Note: The price for the solar regulator.) are likely to end. so the charging rates are likely to increase in the following years.solarselect. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . my system is 3 kW and the total installation cost is approximately equal to 13.au Table 4 Estimated cost for 3 kW PV system (Source: http://www. So from the table 4: Total cost of 18×175W (including labour charge). i used to pay $1368 annually at a rate of 19 cents/KW.net. etc. Since the current energy sources (coal.

23 Australia is divided up into various zones based on how much renewable energy can be generated by a solar panel in a given area. The Solar Credits multiplier offers thousands of dollars in savings depending on the size and location of installation.520 = $10.480 Payback period for PV system:  Payback period = Payback period = = 8 years  Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Solar credits will apply to the first 1.com.000-$5. The Darwin is lies in a zone 2. Figure: 7 Calculation of Renewable Energy Certificate and solar credit (Source: http://www.520 Total cost = $16.barrymiller.5 kilowatts (kW) of capacity installed.au/solar/#rec1) Government rebate calculation = $5.

Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Because the wind speed in Darwin is below the average wind speed required to move the wind turbine blade. The annual wind energy is really small as compared to the energy production from the PV system. so the total energy can produced from the wind turbine is: Where Now.22 m/s and in general the house unit use small rotor diameter wind blade i. rated at power output between 1kW to 5kW but even up to15kW.3 For the wind System Wind-generator sizing requirements depend on the average wind-speed of our location and the energy demand that is expect to meet with our wind-generator.24 5. A is the swept area of the rotor is the Wind speed in m/s In Darwin. away from the obstacle. ranges from 1-2 m. A turbine of this size could have a rotor diameter 2m to 7m and a general rule of thumb is that the tower should be placed 20 heights of the nearby upwind or downwind obstacle. Average wind speed is 4. An average home uses is around 20 kWh/day and the farm could use 100kWh/day. General figures indicate that a midrange single wind-turbine would be suitable. We know the annual electrical energy production of the turbine: (Source: energy and climate change by David Coley) Where.e.

$5. However.zoning and REC values.au] Total cost = $17.000 Installation cost of Domestic wind turbine: (including labour charge) = $1.520 = $11. Conceptual Design Solar panels are classified according to their rated power output in Watts. NT and WA.barrymiller. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . Different geographical locations receive different quantities of average peak sun hours per day.980 Payback period for the Hybrid system:  Payback period = Payback period =  = 9 years 6.4 Calculating Payback period for the Hybrid System Installation cost of 18×175W (including labour charge) and other equipment = $16. This rating is the amount of power the solar panel would be expected to produce in 1 peak sun hour.com.com.au website) Total cost of the hybrid system: 17.520 [source: http://www.500 . the figures range from as low as 3 in Tasmania to over 6 in areas of QLD.500 Note: The price for the wind turbine is taken from the http://www. I choose the solar rebate. In Australia. Government rebate calculation = $5.25 5. because the wind speed in Darwin is quite low.500 Solar and wind power RECs rebate: The Solar and wind Credits rebate levels are based on two elements .energymatters.

a special kind of inverter also called ‗gridcommutated inverter‘(or synchronous inverter) transforms the DC power from the hybrid system in to AC power at a voltage and frequency that can be accepted by the grid. most hybrid systems provide power through batteries and/or an engine generator powered by conventional fuels. which operate "off-grid"—not connected to an electricity distribution system. my system is ―on-grid‖ system in which grid will act as the battery for the system when the output is higher than the rated value. if the energy is sufficient from the battery storage i.au/products/services/faq-info/wind_grid. However. If there is surplus electricity being generated.e. the inverter will feed it into the main grid. for the off grid. For the times when neither the wind nor the solar systems are producing. which is converted into 240V AC by the inverter. in the grid conneceted hybrid system. However.com.26 Many hybrid systems are stand-alone systems.pdf) Figure 8 shows the grid connected hybrid renewable energy system in which the PV cells and wind generator produces DC electricity. Moreover. The solar panels and wind turbines generate DC electricity which is routed to an inverter that converts the current to 240 volts AC. the grid automatically supplies the house.rpc. Moreover. Further the alternating current is fed to the home appliances and equipment (load or demand). while Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . if the house demand is greater than the primary energy production from the renewable energy sources. we can use our own energy. Figure 8 Typical grid-connected renewable energy systems (Source: http://www. via the inverter.

and battery storage.solosol. a bi-directional grid forming mini grid inverter (which can also work as a battery charger). Figure 9 Hybrid. photovoltaic modules. This energy will therefore be substracted from the energy which the system uses from the grid(which winds the meter forwards). Deep cycle batteries are charged according to the power produced by the solar panels and wind turbines. At the end of billing period the meter will read the net amount of kWh used by the system (our consumption). Sun shines on the solar panels or wind turns the wind turbine blades to generate DC electricity.renewable energy systems (Grid-connected) Source: (http://www. The 24 volt appliances can be run directly off the batteries or the current routed through an inverter which converts it to 240V/50Hz AC electricity suitable for running standard home appliances.html) The above figure 9 shows a simplified hybrid design system. An inverter is a semiconductor-based device which is used to convert the DC power to AC power.net/solar_system_types. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . The set-up consists of a cluster of small wind turbines. In the meter system.27 ‗debit‘ and ‗credit‘ meters measure the amount of power bought from or sold to the utility.kWh) operate in either direction so that any energy supplied by the system to the grid ―wind back‖ the meter. the electricity meter (energy.

Standard Components of a PV/ Wind Hybrid Unit  Sharp Solar Panel 18×175Watt. 3000 Watt.28 7. 30A Victron Centaur Battery Charger: See appendix for Details In-Built AC Auto Transfer Switch Battery Disconnect Fuse Switch and Circuit Protection Battery Interconnection Cables Battery Temperature Sensor Battery Warning Signage DC Links and Wind Turbine-Solar Array Cables Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . 24 Volts (mono-crystalline) See appendix for Details  200W. 24 V Air Breeze Land Wind Turbine with Power Center Controller See appendix for Details  Victron Phoenix 24V. Inverter See appendix for Details  Trojan 24Volt 250Ah Flooded Lead Acid Deep Cycle Battery See appendix for Details  Steca PR2020 20A solar charge controller See appendix for Details   Tilt Tower Kit and Solar Panel Kits High Quality Solar Modules with 25 Year Warranty See appendix for Details           Solar Module Frames (Wind Rated) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Booster LCD Display with Data Logging 24VDC.

Moreover. and release of harmful pollutants to the atmosphere causing threat such as air pollution. Darwin has a highest solar radiation as compare to other Australian city. wind turbine power output is strongly dependent on the wind speed.5m/s on average which is not really enough to make the investment worthwhile. However wind power is a clean energy source that can be relied on for the longterm future. So. Actually. Hybrid renewable energy is guaranteed clean and safe source of energy. in the near future we have to depend upon the renewable energy resources to fulfil our energy demand. The use of fossil and nuclear fuels which causes greenhouse emissions. In fact. Conclusion The investment on the hybrid system which has just 9 years of pay pack period is worthwhile. It ensures the supply of energy in every condition as it is hybrid system in which the other sources of energy to shift on them one by one. PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance. It helps to decrease the pollution level. However considering the weather conditions in Darwin connecting the wind system is not really worthwhile. In fact Australia nicknamed "Sunraysia" for its abundance of Sunlight energy. the utilisation of solar panels is a great way to generate clean and renewable electricity that's capable of powering remote appliances or powering our home or workplace. Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 . So.29 8. Thus the energy saving and payback period are also dependent on wind speed. acid rain and the danger of nuclear radiation. This is because the wind speed is always around 4.

energymatters.au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .com. Appendix System Specification: Solar Panel: (Source: http://www.30 9.

energymatters.31 Wind Turbine: (Source: http://www.com.au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .

energymatters.32 Inverter: (Source: http://www.com.au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .

energymatters.33 Regulators: (Source: http://www.au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .com.

34 Deep Cycle Battery: (Source: http://www.energymatters.com.au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .

au) Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .energymatters.com.35 Battery Charger: (Source: http://www.

org.com. 2nd edition. http://www. http://www.solaronline. Renewable Energy power for a sustainable future. by Godfrey Boyle Bimal Neupane ENG426 s217173 .pdf 7.com. http://www. Reference 1.shtml 4.au/solar_system_basics 3.au/Renewable-Energy-Components/WindTurbines 6. Energy and Climate Change By David Coley 10.au/cec/resourcecentre/factsheets.36 10.bom. http://www.solar1.org.science.cleanenergycouncil.au/glm/trnaus/tmy99.au/reports/documents/AusRenewableEnergyFuture.mech. http://www.unsw.pdf 2.html 8.apolloenergy.au/nsw/observations/sydney.energymatters. http://www.gov.edu.barrymiller.com. http://www.au/ 5. http://www.com.au/solar/#rec1 9.