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# Density is mass per unit volume Density = mass / volume velocity = displacement / time Force = rate of change of momentum

Momentum = mass . velocity Power is rate of work done Power = work / time Unit of power is watt Potential energy (P) PE = m.g.h m = mass g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2) h = height Kinetic energy (P) P = (1/2).m.v2 m = mass v = velocity Ohm's law V = I . R V = voltage applied R = Resistance I = current Electric power (P) = (voltage applied) x (current) P = V . I = I2 . R V = voltage applied R = Resistance I = current OPTICS Index of refraction n = c/v n - index of refraction c - velocity of light in a vacuum v - velocity of light in the given material

Density is mass per unit volume Density = mass / volume Force = rate of change of momentum

velocity = displacement / time Momentum = mass . velocity

v2 m = mass v = velocity Acceleration due to gravity at a depth 'd' from earth surface is : d gd = g(1R ) G M1 M2 Fg = r2 Escape velocity Escape velocity from a body of mass M and radius r is Acceleration due to gravity at height 'h' from earth surface is : h is very much smaller than R 2h gh = g(1R ) For example if you want to calculate the escape verlocity of sa object from earth then.velocity of light in the given s = displacement material v = u + a t s = ut + (1/2)a t s = vt .m.h m = mass g = acceleration due to gravity (9.velocity of light in a vacuum from u v .Power is rate of work done Power = work / time Unit of power is watt Potential energy (P) PE = m.g.81m/s2) h = height Gravity (Force due to gravity) Fg : Force of attraction G : Gravitational constant M1 : Mass of first object M2 : Mass of second object Kinetic energy (P) P = (1/2). M is dmass of earth r is radius of earth OPTICS Under constant acceleration linear motion v = final velocity Index of refraction u = intitial velocity n = c/v a = acceleration t = time taken to reach velocity v n .index of refraction c .(1/2)a t v2 = u2 + 2 a s Friction force (kinetic friction) Linear Momentum 2 2 .

T=Time period. v = Speed of wave. λ where ω = Angular frequency.k x 2γcosθ h= ρgr γ: liquid-air surface tension(T)(T=energy/area) θ: contact angle ρ: density of liquid g: acceleration due to gravity r: is radius of tube Time period of pendulum Waves 1 f= T 2π ω= T v = f .When the object is moving then Friction is defined as : Ff = μ Fn where Ff = Friction force. μ= cofficient of friction Fn = Normal force Momentum = mass x velocity Simple harmonic motion Capillary action The height to which the liquid can Simple harmonic motion is defined be lifted is given by: by: d2x/dt2 = . λ=wavelength Doppler effect Relationship between observed frequency f and Resonance of a string frequency = f = nv .

3. v: speed of sound d:diameter of the resonance tube Bragg's law nλ = 2d sinθ where n = integer (based upon order) λ = wavelength d = distance between the planes θ = angle between the surface and where. L: length of the string n = 1...emitted frequency f0: 2L v f = f0( v + vs where. It is negative if source of wave is moving towards observer..... 2... 2.. 2. 3. Resonance of a open tube of air(appro ximate) where.8D) where. v = speed of sound intensit y of Sound Power sound intensity of sound = area . 3. v=velocity of wave vs=velocity of source.8D) where. 2. 3. v: speed of sound d:diameter of the resonance tube Resonance of a closed tube of air(accurate) where. 3. L: length of the cylinder n = 1. L: length of the cylinder n: 1. L: length of the cylinder n: 1. ) Resonance of a open tube of air(accurate) nv Approximate frequency = f = 2L frequency = f = nv 2(L+0. 2. It is positive if source of wave is moving away from observer.. L: length of the cylinder n = 1. v = speed of sound Resonance of a closed tube of air(appro ximate) nv Approximate frequency = f = 4L frequency = f = nv 4(L+0.

the ray I intensity of sound in decibel= 10log10 I0 I dB = 10log10 I0 where I=intensity of interest in Wm-2 I0=intensity of interest in 1012 Wm-2 de Broglie equation Relation between energy and frequency E = hν where E = Energy h = Planck's constant ν = frequency λ= h = p h mv where p = momentum λ = wavelength h = Planck's constant v = velocity Davisson and Germer experiment Centripetal Force (F) λ= h F= m v2 = m ω2 r r where e = charge of electron m = mass of electron V = potential difference between the plates thru which the electron pass λ = wavelength Circular motion formula Torque (it measures how the force acting on the object can rotate .

K-1mol-1] ) Ratio of specific heat (γ) .m3.67E 11 N m2 / kg2 the object) Torque is cross product of radius and Force Torque = (Force) X (Moment arm) X sin θ T = F L sin θ whete θ = angle between force and moment arm Stefan-Boltzmann Law The energy radiated by a blackbody radiator per second = P P = AσT4 where.e.314472 in Kelvin [K]) Boyles law (for ideal gas) P1 V1 = P2V2 T (temperature is constant) Charles law (for ideal gas) V1 V2 = T1 T2 P (pressure is constant) Translational kinetic energy K per Internal energy of monoatomic gas gas molecule (average molecular kinetic energy:) 3 2 3 K= kT 2 k = 1.m2)/r2 where G is constant. σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.K-1mol-1] ) T = Temperatue ( Efficiency of Carnot cycle η= 1- Tc Th i.314472 .v = ω r v2 Centripetal acceleration (a) = r Forces of gravitation F = G (m1.6703 × 10-8 watt/m2K4 Ideal gas law P V = n R T P = Pressure (Pa V = Volume (m3) n = number of of R = gas constant .38066 x 10-23 J/K Boltzmanns constant Root mean square speed of gas K= nRT n = number of of gas (in moles) R = gas constant ( 8. G = 6.m3.Pa. Pascal) gas (in moles) ( 8.Pa.

3kT V 2 rms Cp γ= Cv Cp = specific heat capacity of the gas in a constant pressure process Cv = specific heat capacity of the gas in a constant volume process In Adiabatic process no heat is gained or lost by the system. = m k = 1. R = T = M = gas γ = gas constant(8.314 J/mol K) the absolute temperature the molecular weight of the (kg/mol) adiabatic constant = cp/cv Capillary action Resistance of a wire The height to which the liquid can ρL be lifted is given by R= h=height of the liquid lifted A T=surface tension r=radius of capillary tube 2T h= ρrg ρ = rsistivity L = length of the wire A = cross-sectional area of the wire .38066 x 10-23 J/K Boltzmanns constant m = mass of gas Internal entergy of ideal gas Internal entergy of ideal gas (U) = cv nRT Cp γ= Cv Boltzmann constant (k) Speed of the sound in gas R k= Na R = gas constant Na = Avogadro's number. Under adiabetic condition PVγ = Constant TVγ-1 = Constant where γ is ratio of specific heat.

.85 X 10-12C2/N m2) Spherical Capacitor L C = 2 π κ ε0 ln (b/a) where C = [Farad (F)] κ = dielectric constant L = length of cylinder [m] a = outer radius of conductor [m] b = inner radius of conductor [m] ε0 = permittivity of free space (8. + Rn If resistors are in parallel then equivalent resistance will be 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + . . . . R V = voltage applied R = Resistance I = current Electric power (P) = (voltage applied) x (current) P = V . . . PInstantaneous = Instantaneous Power Vm = Instantaneous voltage Im = Instantaneous current Total capacitance (Ceq) for PARALLEL Capacitor Combinations: Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 + . . . . . R V = voltage applied R = Resistance I = current In AC circuit average power is : Pavg = VrmsIrms cosυ where. . Pavg = Average Power Vrms = rms value of voltage Irms = rms value of current Capacitors Q = C. .V where Q = charge on the capacitor C = capacitance of the capacitor V = voltage applied to the capacitor Parallel Plate Capacitor Resistor combination If resistors are in series then equivalent resistance will be Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . .Ohm's law V = I . .85 X 10-12 C2/N m2) Magnetic force acting on a charge q moving with velocity v F = q v B sin θ where F = force acting on charge q (Newton) C = 4 π κ ε0 a b . . . + 1/Cn Cylindrical Capacitor A C = κ ε0 d where C = [Farad (F)] κ = dielectric constant A = Area of plate d = distance between the plate ε0 = permittivity of free space (8. . . I = I2 . . + 1/Rn In AC circuit Instantaneous power is : PInstantaneous = VmIm sinωt sin(ωt-υ) where. + Cn Total capacitance (Ceq) for SERIES Capacitor Combinations: 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 + .

one wound on top of the other 1 M = μ0N1N2LA E= CV2 N1 = total number of turns per unit length for first solenoid 2 N2 = number of turns per unit length for second solenoid A = cross-sectional area L = length of the solenoid. unlike charges attract. k = 1/(4 π ε0) ≈ 9 x 109N. the time constant (in seconds) is: τ = RC R = Resistance in Ω C = Capacitance in in farads. Mutual inductance of two solenoid Energy stored in capacitor two long thin solenoids.85 X 10-12C2/N m2) Force on a wire in magnetic field (B) F = B I l sin θ q v B θ B = charge (C) = velocity (m/sec2) = magnetic field = angle between V (velocity) and (magnetic field) where F = force acting on wire (Newton) I = Current (Ampere) l = length of wire (m) B = magnetic field θ = angle between I (current) and B (magnetic field) In an RL circuit (Resistorinductor ). q2)/r2 where k is constant. Self inductance of a solenoid = L = μn2LA n = number of turns per unit length L = length of the solenoid.m2/C2 q1 = charge on one body Ohm's law V = IR where V = voltage I = current R = Resistence . F = k (q1 .b-a where C = [Farad (F)] κ = dielectric constant a = outer radius of conductor [m] b = inner radius of conductor [m] ε0 = permittivity of free space (8. Coulomb's Law Like charges repel. the time constant (in seconds) is: τ = L/R R = Resistance in Ω C = Inductance in henries In an RC circuit (ResistorCapacitor).

k = 1/(4 π ε0) ≈ 9 x 109N.m2/C2 q = point charge r = distance from point charge (q) Electric field due to thin infinite sheet σ E= 2 ε0 where E = Electric field (N/C) σ = charge per unit area C/m2 ε0 = 8.85 X 10-12 C2/N m2 Magnetic Field around a wire (B) when r is greater than the radius of the wire. Electric field due to thick infinite sheet σ E= ε0 where E = Electric field (N/C) σ = charge per unit area C/m2 ε0 = 8.q2 = charge on the other body r = distance between them Calculator based upon Coulomb's Law Electric Field around a point charge (q) E = k ( q/r2 ) where k is constant.1 ) Formula) . μ0 I B= 2πr where I = current r = distance from wire and r ≥ Radius of the wire Magnetic Field At the center of an arc μ0 I r B= 2 π R2 where I = current R = radius of wire r = distance from wire and r ≤ Radius of the wire (R) Bohr's model μ0 I υ B= 4πr where I = current r = radius from the center of the wire Emitting Photons(Rydberg Ephoton = E0( 1 .85 X 10-12 C2/N m2 Magnetic Field around a wire (B) when r is less than the radius of the wire.

.n h = Planck's constant. Half life of radioactive element n12 n22 where n1 < n2 E0 = 13.3.6 eV Average life of radioactive element ln(2) t1/2 = λ τ= 1 λ .2.nh L= 2π where L = angular momentum n = principal quantum number = 1...