B pay fo r their treatment C more time and money should be spent on health education

lifestyles, so fewer people would beill 2 everyone deserves free medical treatment when they are ill






3 more money could be spent on treating those who really need it OPINION  ESSAYS  


ion Essoys

Opinion essays are discursive essays in which you present your personal opinion on a particular topic. Your opinion must be stated clearlyand supported byjustifications. You should also present the ee healthcare and match the viewpoints with the opposing viewpoint(s) in a separate paragraph. An opinion essay should consist of: s JOu agreewith and whichones JOu disagree w ith. a) an introduction. in which you introduce thesubject and stateyour opinion clearly; b) Reasons a main body, consisting of two or more paragraphs (each presenting a separate viewpoint supported byreasons/examples), including a paragraph giving the opposing people would learn to viewpoint supported by reasons/examples; and have healthier lifestyles, so fewer people would beill which you restate your opinion using different words. c) a conclusion, in •••• 2 everyone deserves•free medical use present tensesinthis type of W You normally riting, andphrases such asI believe , treatment when they aremy opinion, I think, It seems to me that, I stronglydisagree wfth , etc to express your In ill opinion. You should list your viewpoints with Firstly, Furthermore, Moreover, Also, etc, 3 more money could be and introduce the opposing viewpoint using However, On the otherhand, etc. spent on treating those who really need it • Opinion essays are normally written in a formal style, therefore you should avoid using colloquial expressions, short forms or personal examples. You can find thistype ofwriting inthe form ofan article in newspapers, magazines, etc.



s in which you present your personal opinion on a   e stated clearlyand supported byjustifications. You and Introductionkey words, then answer the questions. 2 Read the rubric underline the     point(s) in a separate paragraph. • •••••••••••••••• statement:   You have had a class discussion about the following Paragraph 1   stateyour opinion clearly; Maths are more important subjects than Artand Music. English and roduce thesubject and Now your teacher has asked you to writean essay giving youropinion and reasons to introduce the subject and or more paragraphs  (each presenting a separate support your view(s). state your opinion clearly   examples), including a paragraph giving the opposing   examples; and 1 Who is going to read your essay? MaIn Body te your opinion using different words.   2 Should you usc colloquial expressions and short forms? Why (not)? • •••••••••••••••• sinthis type of W riting, andphrases such asI believe ,   statementParag raph 2 mean? Tick (I ) in the rubric 3 ,What does theyour me that, I stronglydisagree wfth etc to express   wpoints with Firstly, Furthermore, A Art and Music are easier than Englishand Maths. Moreover, Also, etc,   first point using However, On the otherhan and Music are not as viewpoint as Englishand Maths. d, important B Art etc.   and reasons/examples tten in a formal style, therefore you should avoid   4 Whichof thistype rt forms or personal examples. You can findthe following should you include in your essay? Tick {I } Paragraph 3·   in newspapers, magazines, etc. A reasons why Art and Music can be boring


Paragraph 1

• ••••••••••••••••

introduce the subject and state your opinion clearly

MaIn Body

Parag raph 2

• ••••••••••••••••

first viewpoint and reasons/examples

Paragraph 3·
second viewpoint and reasons/examples

Paragraph 4 ·
opposing viewpoint and reasons/examples



Final Parag raph

  B your views about whether Englishwpoint second vie and Maths arc important   and reasons/examples C reasons or examples to support your views   e the key words, then answer D opposing views and supporting arguments the questions.   Paragraph 4 · about the following statement:   mportant subjects than Artand Music. opposing viewpoint   to writean essay giving youropinion and reasons to and reasons/examples     Conclusion   ••••••••••••••••• ions and short forms? Why (not)?   Final Parag raph ubric mean? Tick (I )   restate your opinion, using Englishand Maths.   different words ortant as Englishand  Maths.   • The rvrrber of parCX}faphs u include in your essay? Tick {I }   in II'e rooin body depeOOs n be boring   on the rwJber of viewh and Maths arc important points included.   t your views   arguments  


o o o o o o

restate your opinion, using different words

• The rvrrber of parCX}faphs in II'e rooin body depeOOs on the rwJber of viewpoints included.

o o o o o o

Unll140 Opinion (sSOYS
.. Which of the fou r subjects mentioned in the rubric do/did you study at school? Which is/was your favourite, and why? 6 What are the benefits of studying these subjects? Use the notes to complete the table. You can add fu rther ideas of your own. tools to deal with everyday matters provide well-rounded education help you communicate clearly necessary in order tofind ajob

"I''' Wi"i , I ,'





" ... . tr -"t:".;I1Znr0>

r t ( ;r 111::151e

Do you agree or disagree with the statement in the rubric? Give reasons.

3 a) Read theessay and label the paragraphs with the headings below.
• second viewpoint & examples • restate opinion • firs! view point & examples • subject & opinion • opposing viewpointts}

English and Malhs are more importanl sUbjects than Art and Music
Isn't it unfortunate that in today's society there are so many people who cannot read, write or even do arithmetic? [ strongly believe that, although subjects such as Artand Music are important, E nglish and Maths are the most fu ndamental part of our education. In the first place, when you know how to read, write and do simple calculations, you have the tools requ ired in order to deal with everyday matters. For example, being able to read and write can help you communicate and express yourself dearly. Moreover, you need basic maths for such dai ly chores as doing your shopping, paying your bills and managing your money. Furthermore, it is essential to have a good knowledge of E nglish and Maths in order to find even the simplest job. R eading, writing and mathematical skills are the mi nimum requirements that most employers demand. On the other hand, it can be argued that A and Music rt are just as significant as English and Maths. F instance, or learning how to draw or play an instrument can introduce a child to a whole new world. In addition to this, subjects such as Art and Music can provide children with a wellrounded education rather than just basic skills. All things considered, though, it seems to me that : :g English and Maths are vital subjects. Without learning to g read, write or do arithmetic, people may have difficulties cs coping with even the simplest tasks in dai ly life.

Para 1

Para 2

Para 3

Para 4

Para 5

b) Read the essay again and underline the viewpoints the writer mentions. What reasons/exa mples are glven to support each viewpoint? what linking words! phrases are used to introduce the writer's viewpoints and the opposing viewpoint? what is the writer's opinion? Do you agree or disagreewith this opinion?



Unil14n Opinion Essoys
Usc the linking words/phrases from the list below to fill in the table that follows, as in the example.

B 1) All in all, I don 't believe that

in the first place, a/so, forexample, tosum up, moreover, firstly, although, 1 begin with, all things considered, such as, therefore, on the otherhand, 0 however, apart from this, in other words, in panicuiar; for instance, in addition, because, taking everything into account, furthennore, for one thing. since, lastly, secondly, nonetheless, while
To Jist points:

theatre is an outdated form of entertainment, 2) since new ideas are often presented on the stage. 3) While television may be more convenient, it is theatre that offers qualityentertainment.

in the first place,


2 To add more points:

3 To introduce opposing viewpoints: 4 To introduce examples/reasons:
5 To conclude:


Underline the correct word phrase, as in the example.


Read the extracts and replace the linking words/phrases with suitable ones from Ex. 4. whlch paragraph is each extract from?

A 1) On the other hand, computers save us time and energy and make daily lives easier. 2) For one thmg, most of us are grateful to be able t.o withdraw money from cash machines rather than wait in long queues inside the bank. 3) What is more, have made many s Jobs easier by doing routme tasks that in the pas! were . tiring and time-consuming.

1 It is argued/One reason that testing new drugs on animals is necessary before giving them to humans. 2 In my view, we can all do something to protect the environment. f or example/In addition, we can recycle newspapers and magazines. 3 Taking holidays abroad is usually 00 more expensive than taking them in your own country. What is more However, it gives you the opportunity to experience other cultures. 4 Secondly /Especially, regular exercise helps you to stay in good health. 5 On the other hand, it can be argued that what individuals do to protect the environment makes very little difference, in particular/since it is factories and power stations which create the most pollution.

Each main body paragraph shou ld start with atopic sentence whichclearly states the main idea of the paragraph. This should befollowed byappropriate supporting sentences which justify themain idea and/orgive examples.



U 10O io s y nil 4 pin n[sos
Read the extract below and answer the following questions. Useful expressions for gh'ing opinions • I believe/think/feel (that) ". I strongly believe n, • In my opinion/view, '" • The way I see it, ... • It seems/appears to me (that) . • To my mind, n. • I (do not) agree thatjwitb . On the other hand, thereare certain disadvantages to havingyour own car. Firstly. carshave to be maintained and repaired on a regular basis. Therefore, you need to spend a considerable amount of money to keep the car in good condition. Moreover, driving can sometimes be extremelystressful. For example, being caught in a traffic jam is not only irritating but also time• My opinion is that . • As far as I am concerned, .,. • I (completely) agree that;.... .ith .. I (strongly) disagree tharwith .. • I am totally against .. • I couldn't agree more that/with ... I couldn't disagree more that/with ,..

9 Use the prompts below to write sentences, as in the example.
1 we / help I elderly their lives be easier e.g 1 strongly believe that we should help the elderly, If we wen' to do this, then their lives would be easier. 2 all students/ learn / foreign language have better career opportunities

3 people / give up smoking

have fewer health problems

... teenagers / get I part-time job a) What isthe main idea ofthe paragraph? Which sentence is it in? b) What supporting sentences does . the writer give? c) Which linking words/phrases has the writer used? Suggest other suitable words/phrases which could replace these. learn to be more responsible

5 we / alldo / voluntary work 0::::::::;. ourcommunity be a betterplace to live


Use appropriate expressions to expand the prompts below to make sentences expressing an opinion, as in the example.

8 Read the topic sentences and
suggest suitable supporting ones. 1 Television may have a harmful effect on youngpeople.

in order to / protect / environment / people / stop use / plastic bags It seems to me that, in order to protect the environment. people should stop using plastic bags. 2 spending money / set up / space stations/ be / completely I unjustified

3 in order to reduce / pollution I traffic / be / ban from / enter / city centre

2 Looking after a pet from an early age develops a person's character.

... organic vegetables / be / much / healthy / than / vegetables / grown with chemical fertilizers 5 children / be encouraged / participate in I after-school activities

3 Life in a large city isveryinteresting.


U 1nOin n[ssors nil 4 p io
13 Read the extracts below and saywhich are beginnings and which are
endings. Which writing techniques have been used in each'! A addressing the reader directly

Viewpoints A fast food easy solution for peoplewith busy lives B fast food unhealthy C fast food expensive for consumerand environment

B asking a rhetorical question C using direct speech/a quotation


...- ---!


To sum up, competition has a negat ive effect on children, as the only :=J thing that really matters is winning. Imagine how you would feel if you were always expected to be the best.

Reasons I Examples
I high in fat and salt; not fresh

2 packaging non-biodegradable, damages environment 3 many ingredients are genetically modified 4 ordering fast food saves time and energy 5 people who work long hours can pick up phone and order takeaway 6 money spent on fast food for a week isenough to buy groceries for two weeks

14 Read the rubric and underline the keywords, then answer
the questions.
You have had a class discussion about the following statement: Fast food is a good alternative to cooking foryourself. Now yourteacherhas asked you to writean essay expressing your opinion and giving reasons for your point of view.

b) Which of the viewpoints agree with the statement in the rubric? Which disagree? c) Use the notes in part a) to talk about fast food, as in Ihe example. e.g. In the first place, fast food is l'CIy unhealthy. "

1 What does the statement in the rubric mean? A Fast food is cheap, delicious and good for you.

8 Fast food is a goodsolution for those who have no time to cook. e Cooking is easier than ordering takeaway. 2 Which points must you include in the essay? A your opinion 8 your friend's opinion e reasons to justify your points of view
3 Which style is not suitable for this essay - formal or informal?

16 Read the rubric in Ex.

15 a) Read the rubric in Ex, 14 again and match the viewpoints (A - C)
to their reasons/examples (l . 6). There are two justifications for each viewpoint.

again, then write your essay (120 - 180 words). Use your answers from Ex. 14and your notes from h . IS to help you. You can use the eSS3)' in Ex. 3 as a model.



    3.  a.                        b.                                                             4                            





5               6                     7                                   8                             9                            


10                             13               14                         15             16                                  






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