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Energy theft detection unit

ABSTRACT The present thesis, Microcontroller Based Power Theft Identifier, introduces the concept of preventing the illegal usage of the electrical power. Here, the radio communication principles are employed and also the technology of Microcontrollers is utilized to find out the user trying for pilferage of power i.e., by displaying the respective consumer meter number and address. For the complete operation, the system can be sub-divided into two major sections, one is the transmitting section and the other is the receiving section. The transmitting section has to be incorporated at the consumers end and the receiver section has to be placed at the electrical substation. In the transmitting section, two types of automatic power theft detection schemes are provided. In the first scheme, within the meter (inside the bottom cover), an electro-optical sensor is placed and it is configured to feed trigger signal for the timer circuit. Whenever light falls on it (when user tries to open the bottom cover), the output of the timer circuit energizes a relay which provides supply for modulating input section which differs from user to user. An F.M Transmitter is designed with a carrier of 100 MHz. Here, the modulating input is superimposed over the carrier and is transmitted. In the second scheme, a transmitter is connected to the bottom cover. If the user touches this bottom cover, due to electro-static charge associated with human body, the transistor gets turned on and energizes the relay, which provides supply for modulating input section. In the receiving section, the signal received is demodulated, amplified and digitized (using ADC) and is fed to Microcontroller (8051). Microcontroller identifies the frequency and its associated user. Then it energizes an alarm and displays the address of the user. INTRODUCTION The proposed project work aims on the design and development of energy theft prevention aspect. Thereby, energy pilferage can be reduced to a considerable extent. This project envisages the development of energy theft identification. Hence this project work is titled as MICROCONTROLLER BASED POWER THEFT IDENTIFIER. Now-a-days the energy consumption and energy distribution has become a big subject for discussion because of huge energy pilferage. Hence the need has come to think in this line and a solution has to be emerged out. Thus this project work has been taken up which serves the purpose of energy monitoring so that the energy thief can be easily caught, thereby huge penalties can be imposed on energy thieves. By detecting the energy theft cases, people or electric consumers will become alert and thereby the energy theft can also be prevented.

This project work is basically related to Radio communication. As we know the modern communication plays a dominant role in the communication revolution, the proposed project work is aimed to use radio communication between energy consumer and centralized electric sub-station, where the energy theft monitoring is performed. Hence, this project work is divided into two units i.e. (1) energy theft detection at energy consumers place, (2) Centralized radio receiver, where the power theft information is received, decoded and monitored using Microcontroller. The energy theft detection consists of energy theft detector, suitable tone generator and F.M Radio Transmitter. The frequency of tone generator differs from one energy consumer to the other. The frequencies are allocated according to the energy consumers identification code. In this project work, for the demonstration purpose two analog energy meters are considered, one is equipped with light sensing circuit and the other one is equipped with touch sensitive circuit. Whenever, one tries for energy theft by opening the top cover of the energy meter, the light falls on the LDR which is arranged inside the meter, this in turn enables the relay which thereby enables the tone generator. The tone generator generates the tone signal as a modulating signal to the built in 100MHz F.M.Radio Transmitter. Thereby the F.M.Radio Transmitter transmits 100MHz Carrier signal super imposed with tone signal in the frequency modulation mode. The centralized energy monitoring system receives the F.M signal with the help of F.M.Radio receiver. The received signal is demodulated and amplified with the help of transformer coupled amplifier. The detection is performed with the help of a versatile IC TEA 5591A. The advantage of this type of radio receiver is, it provides all the major functions required for modern FM designs of receivers. The received audio tone signal is amplified using signal amplifier. The amplified tone signal is converted into the voltage proportional (using frequency to voltage converter) to the signal frequency. This conversion is performed by using phase locked loop (PLL) technique. The amplitude output of the PLL is proportional to the frequency of the tone signal, which is proportional to the electric consumers identity code. This signal amplitude is fed to the analog to digital converter circuit for converting the analog information into digital pulses. For sensing the energy theft, in addition to the LDR arrangement, another technique is also incorporated in this project i.e. Touch Sensitive Circuit. If energy consumer touches the energy meter, the touch sensitive circuit actuates which energizes the relay and remaining is same as described above. In the recent survey conducted by the state electricity departments, shows that the electric generation and consumption records are not tallying due to lot of energy pilferage. As there is no method to detect energy pilferage, the genuine energy consumers are charged with huge charges, thereby it is becoming a burden to them. Hence to avoid and to detect the energy theft, it is decided to put effort in this direction and our project is taken up to detect energy theft consumer and pass it on to the centralized energy monitoring station

This project consists of mainly two sections. One section consists of energy meter, isolator and receiver + comparator situated on our supply pole and the one consists of energy meter isolator and transmitter, situated in our homes. The energy meter 1 & 2 can measure the energy by measuring voltage and current. Voltage can measure directly with the help of voltmeter provided on the energy meter but for measuring current it requires a Current transformer (C.T.). The C.T. can measure current by measuring magnetic field induced from a current carrying thick copper wire using a coil. Energy meter c o n s i s t s o f f o u r L E D s t o s h o w t h e s t a t u s . O n e L E D ( t r a n s p a r e n t r e d L E D ) blinks with a constant time interval. This time interval reduces with increase in LOAD. The energy meter at our home measures the energy consumed by different LOADs. The output from energy meter (from blinking LED) is given to transmitter section through isolator. Isolator consists of a relay and a driver for switching it by energy meters output. The isolator prevents the transmitter section from high voltage output of energy meter. The isolator output is used to drive one out of four inputs of the transmitter. This signal is decoded using encoder IC HT12E and transmitted using RF transmitter module. At the pole the energy meter 1 will measure the supplied electric energy to the home by similar method, by measuring voltage and current using C . T . T h e o u t p u t o f e n e r g y meter is fed to the trigger input of the receiver

Transmitter circuit

Receiver circuit

Major Components: Transmitting Circuit: 1. Capacitors: C1 : 470p C3: 3p C4: 7p C5: 470p 2. Resistors: R1: 4k7 R2: 6k8 R3: 100 ohm R4: 200 ohm 3. Inductors: L1: 27nH L2: 68nH 4. One transistor and transmitting antenna Receiving Circuit: Capacitors: C4: 2p C5: 33p C6: 1p C7: 2p C8: 1n C9: 1u C10: 4u C12: 10u C21: 47u

Resistors: R5: 20k R6: 18k R7: 12k R10: 100k R11: 100k R12: 6M8 R14: 3M R15: 47k R18: 10ohm Three diodes(D1,D2,D3),One transistor,One inductor(2uH),One receiving antenna,Two ICs

APPLICATIONS

The system can be incorporated for almost all types of users. The concept is well suited especially for villages and interior areas.