X n cos n X n cos
X rms
2 X av
1 2
2 Xn n 1
Reviewing the definition of the rms value (below) we need to evaluate the integral over one period of the function x(t)2.
X rms
1 x(t )2 dt T 0
2 2 av
x(t )
2 X av
n 1
X n cos(n 0t
)
n 1
X n cos(n 0t
Noting that the integrals of products of two different frequency components are individually zero, the required integration reduces to:
1 T
T 2 X avdt 0 0 n 1 T 2 X n cos 2 (n 0t n
X rms
)dt
X rms
2 X av
1 2
2 Xn n 1
Question 2: (10%)
A second-order circuit is shown in Figure 1 below. What function does the circuit fulfill? Show that if
L + vin C R vo -
Figure 1. Second order circuit Magnitude response for the second order low pass filter
1 H( ) Vo ( ) Vin ( ) j C j L 1 (1
2
1 R 1 1 R
2
1 j L ( j CR 1) 1 R 1 1
2
1 LC j L R
j C H( )
LC )
L R
1 2
LC
( LC )
L2
R2
With L 2CR 2
2
LC
L2
R2
And hence
H( ) 1
With
1
c
1
4
( LC ) 2
LC 1
4
H( ) 1
ANS: Replace all elements by their respective impedances in the circuit diagram:
In order to obtain an expression of the required form, we need to eliminate the the expression under the square root operator. We can do this by setting:
terms from
This leaves
Figure 2 [Hambley P10.52] (a) When vS < 12V diode is OFF and so no current flows: i(t) = 0 When vS > 12V diode is ON with i(t) = (vS 12)/80 = (20 sin 200 t - 12) / 80 In the cycle from 0 to 1/100 = 0.01 = 10msecs the diode turns on at a time that satisfies 20 sin 200 tON = 12 tON = (1/200 ) sin-1(12/20) = 1.024ms The diode then turns off at time tOFF = T/2 - tON = 5 1.204 = 3.976ms ICAP Simulation:
D1 unknow n
2 2 1
R1 80
4
V2
V1
1 v(2)
2 i(r1)
10.0
160m
-10.0
120m
-30.0
i(r1) in amperes
80.0m
-50.0
40.0m
-70.0
3.00m
9.00m
21.0m
27.0m
Note: for the graph above v(2) is the source voltage vs and ir the current through the resistor. A diode with N=1E-4 has been used in the simulation (ideal diode) (b) The average current is given by
T
Iav
(1/T)
i(t) dt
3.976m
Iav
(1/0.01)
1.024m
1.25 [ - 31.83x10-3 x(-0.8001) - 12x3.976x10-3 + 31.83x10-3 x 0.8001 + 12x1.024x10-3 ] 1.25 [ 0.02547 - 0.04771 + 0.02547 + 0.01229] 1.25 x 15.52x10-3 19.4mA
= = =
Question 4: (20%)
The voltage source for the circuit in Figure A generates the periodic pulse signal shown in Figure 3B below.
(a) Find the average value for the output voltage, VO,av. (b) Calculate the peak-to-peak variation in the capacitor voltage, VOr and check your result with ICAP. iC 20
+ vin
25 F
vO -
Figure A v in (V) 24
12
8 s 10 s Figure B
(a)
(b) For the first 8 ms, the capacitor current is given approximately by
Then
1 vout
21.68
21.64
21.60
21.56
21.52
3.966m
3.970m
3.978m
3.982m
Ripple measured with ICAP is 38.2 mV. The wider the simulation time step the greater the deviation from the calculated results.
Question 5: (35%)
A single-phase, half-wave rectifier is supplied from a 240V, 50Hz supply. Assume the diode used in the rectifier to be ideal. a) First this circuit is operated with a 10 the load voltage. (5%) resistive load. Sketch the circuit and
b) Calculate the average load voltage and current. (5%) For the remainder of the exercise the circuit is operated with a load consisting of a 10 resistor in series with a 0.1H inductor, as shown in Figure 3. While the diode is conducting the circuit is described by the following differential equation:
L diL dt RiL VM sin t
c) Solve this equation and find an expression for iL(t). (10%) d) Plot iL using a program of your choice for the interval 0<t<20ms. (5%) e) Determine the conduction angle of the diode. (5%) f) Calculate the average load voltage (Vs,ave) and current (IL,ave). (5%)
iin
D1 +
iL + vR -
+ vL -
V1
R1 10
1 v(1)
2 v(2)
3 i(r1)
320
160 0 -160 -320 2.00m 6.00m 10.0m time in seconds 14.0m 18.0m 3 2 1
D
V s =339Sin ( t)
iL R =10
V s =339Sin ( t)
iL
VL
Answer c): The solution is the sum of transient and steady state response: iL (t ) iLtr (t ) iLss (t )
iLtr (t ) I 0e t / Where I0 is the initial value of iLtr(t=0) And is the time constant of the circuit equal to L/R. The steady state response is obtained using phasor analysis (amplitudes rather than rms values are used): Vin 90 Vin 90 I Lss L Z R 2 ( L) 2 tan 1 R In the time domain the steady state solution becomes: Vin iLss (t ) sin( t ) Z The complete solution for iL(t) the becomes: iL (t ) iLtr (t ) iLss (t )
Vin sin( t ) Z The initial condition is used to determine I0: Vin I0 sin( ) Z With the values given: Vin=339V Z=33 -72.3 I0=9.8A iL (t ) 9.8 Ae t / 9.8 A sin( t 72.3 ) With =L/R=10ms. I 0e
t/
R1 10 V1
3
L1 0.1
1 v(1)
2 v(2)
3 i(l1)
320
160 0 -160 -320 2.00m 6.00m 10.0m time in seconds 14.0m 18.0m 3 2 1
Excel Plot:
D
V s =339Sin ( t)
iL R =10 VL L = 0.1H
V s =339Sin ( t)
iL VL
and