FOREWORD The book is mainly written as a self-study book, but may also be used in class with a teacher

. It revises some of the most difficult points of grammar that third-year students have already studied; it will also introduce them to many more features of English grammar appropriate to an advanced level of study. The book consists of two parts: Morphology and Syntax. There are 15 large units in the book. Each one covers a particular area of grammar and contains some smaller units, helping to present the information in a systematized way. The book concentrates on the areas students need to pass the exams and gives thorough explanations of them. Special attention is given to those points which are often a problem for students: Noun, Articles, Adjective, Adverb, Oblique Moods, SubjectPredicate Agreement, Simple and Composite Sentences, Predicative Сomplexes. The main aims of the book are as follows: • to help the students improve their knowledge of English grammar so that they could use English at a near-native level of grammatical competence;

to raise their awareness of how the English language works and to be able to speak on the use of grammar structures in English using appropriate examples;

• to raise the students’ awareness of the creative use of grammar; • to ensure the students that they can communicate efficiently with a number of grammar patterns they learn; • to develop the students’ ability to translate from Russian/Belarusian into English using appropriate grammar structures. All the grammar rules are lavishly supplied with explanations and examples. The book is supplied with the glossary (p. 122), where there are all the linguistic terms and their Russian equivalents.


THE NOUN..........................................................................................................................................6 The Category of Number..................................................................................................................8 The Genitive Case..........................................................................................................................13 Types of the Genitive Case.........................................................................................................13 THE ARTICLE...................................................................................................................................16 Functions of the Article..................................................................................................................17 The Use of Articles with Abstract Nouns.......................................................................................21 The Use of Articles with Material Nouns.......................................................................................24 The Use of Articles with Predicative Nouns and Nouns in Apposition.........................................26 The Use of Articles in Some Set Expressions................................................................................28 The Use of Articles with Some Semantic Groups of Nouns..........................................................30 Articles with Names of Seasons and Parts of the Day...............................................................30 Articles with Names of Meals....................................................................................................31 Articles with the Nouns school, college, prison, jail, church, hospital......................................32 Articles with Names of Parts of the Body..................................................................................33 Articles with Names of Specific Periods....................................................................................33 The Use of Articles with Proper Names.........................................................................................34 Names of Persons.......................................................................................................................34 Geographical Names .................................................................................................................36 Calendar Items............................................................................................................................37 Miscellaneous Proper Names.....................................................................................................38 THE ADJECTIVE..............................................................................................................................40 Morphological Composition...........................................................................................................40 Semantic Characteristics................................................................................................................41 The Position of Adjectives..............................................................................................................42 Degrees of Comparison..................................................................................................................43 Patterns of Comparison..................................................................................................................44 Intensifiers of Adjectives................................................................................................................47 Substantivized Adjectives...............................................................................................................48 Adjectives and Adverbs..................................................................................................................50 OBLIQUE MOODS...........................................................................................................................53 Temporal Relations within the Oblique Moods..............................................................................55 Subjunctive II.................................................................................................................................56 The Conditional Mood...................................................................................................................59 The Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I...................................................................................61 THE SENTENCE..............................................................................................................................67 The Simple Sentence. Structural Types..........................................................................................68 Communicative Types of Sentences...............................................................................................69 THE SUBJECT..................................................................................................................................75 Ways of expressing the Subject......................................................................................................75 Structural Types of the Subject.......................................................................................................76 “IT” and “THERE” as Subjects....................................................................................................78 THE PREDICATE..............................................................................................................................80 AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH THE SUBJECT........................................................85 4

Grammatical Agreement.................................................................................................................85 Pronouns as Subjects..................................................................................................................86 Agreement with Homogeneous Subjects ...................................................................................87 Notional Agreement........................................................................................................................88 THE OBJECT.....................................................................................................................................91 Types of Objects.............................................................................................................................91 Structure and Ways of Expressing..................................................................................................94 Predicative Constructions that Function as Objects.......................................................................94 THE ATTRIBUTE..............................................................................................................................96 THE APPOSITION............................................................................................................................99 THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER......................................................................................................100 Structural Types of the Adverbial Modifier..................................................................................101 Semantic Characteristics of the Adverbial Modifier....................................................................102 ABSOLUTE NOMINATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS.........................................................................104 THE COMPOSITE SENTENCE.....................................................................................................107 The Compound Sentence..............................................................................................................107 The Complex Sentence.................................................................................................................110 Nominal Clauses.......................................................................................................................111 Attributive Clauses ..................................................................................................................112 Adverbial Clauses.....................................................................................................................114 WORD ORDER...............................................................................................................................117 Glossary of Linguistic Terms...........................................................................................................120 List of Books....................................................................................................................................123


She was a beauty. problem). place. things. Beauty is a great power. man. states (e. Sometimes proper names can be used as common nouns: Ford ― a Ford = a car. i.e. experience in . A proper noun is used for a particular person. abstract notions. Count nouns He bought an evening paper. sleep). etc. music. iron).Who climbs the grammar tree distinctly knows Where noun and verb and participle grows Dryden MORPHOLOGY THE NOUN Nouns are names of objects. question.g. Uncount nouns nouns may be abstract (fun. socialism) or material (bread. table. child) or inanimate (table. Many uncount nouns can also beсome countable in certain contexts. We need someone with this field. uncount nouns (denoting object that cannot be counted) and collective (собирательные) nouns (denoting a group of persons) Count nouns may be concrete denoting animate (boy. dog.) Common nouns can be classified into count nouns (denoting object that can be counted). It is generally spelled with a capital letter. book. Semantic characteristics. tree) objects and abstract (idea. All nouns can be divided into two main groups: proper nouns and common nouns. house. I’ll tell you about my life experiences. snow. thing or idea that is unique. 6 Uncount nouns He bought wallpaper. materials. human beings. love. Repin ― a Repin = a painter like Repin. animals.

Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories of number and case. For example. cock. friendship. Morphological composition.) Collective nouns of multitude are used in the plural. Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes or suffixes): teacher. She is fond of coffee. room. staff etc. Morphological characteristics. then it is used in the plural: My family are watching TV now. If you regard a noun as a group or persons. clergy. leaf. a bluebell. She always drinks Chinese tea. etc. a forget-me-not.) or collective proper (family. roof. police. cattle. French cheeses are delicious.Bring me a glass of water. bird. Simple nouns consist of only one root-morpheme: dog. gentry. poultry. bachelor. pick-me-up . two lemonades and three ice-creams. a father-in-law. a portion: Collective nouns may be nouns of multitude (people. Gender doesn’t find regular morphological expression. A noun of material as a count noun may denote kind of. Glass is widely used in industry. it is used in the singular: The audience was enormous. Nouns may be simple. A coffee. 7 . a seaman. Compound nouns consist of at least two stems. chair. In this shop you can buy different teas. a pickpocket. stone. Cheese is rich in cholesterol. feminine (names of female beings) ― girl. cow. The distinction of male. wife. type of. company. please. Collective nouns proper are used in two ways: if you regard a particular noun as a single body. kindness. folk. crew. a looking-glass. government. neuter (names of inanimate objects) ― table. derived and compound. female and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun: masculine (names of male beings) ― boy.

Other nouns are used either only in the singular or only in the plural. child ― children. halves. (page) ― pp.. heroes. Irregular plurals. x. selves. d) in musical terms of Italian origin: pianos. MP (Member of Parliament) ― MPs [‘em’pi:z] (or MP’s). Note: The plural of abbreviations is sometimes formed in spelling by doubling a letter: Ms (manuscript) ― MSS. Eskimos. Nouns ending in -y.teeth. knives. These nouns are called variable nouns. lay-bys. ss. louse ― lice. tangos. The suffix -es is added to nouns ending in:-s. brother― brethren. b) nationality nouns in -ese. 2) voicing (twelve nouns ending in -f (e) form their plural changing -f(e) into -ve: wives. change -y into -ies: stories. still-lifes. a fish ― fish. shelves. Marys. 3) -en plural: ox ― oxen. a swine ― swine. ch. sh. In other cases -fs: proofs. c) to compounds: stand-bys. beliefs. loaves. plural ― more than one. Mr (Mister) ― Messers. handkerchief ― handkerchiefs(-ves). c) in abbreviations: photos. tooth . wolves. In a few cases both -fs and -ves forms are possible: scarf ― scarfs (-ves). sopranos. toys. elves. mouse ― mice. goose ― geese. calves. Singular nouns denotes one. p. MD (Doctor of Medicine) ― MDs [‘em’di:z]. tomatoes. radios. woman ― women. a deer ― deer. Nouns in -o have the plural in -os: a) after a vowel: zoos. They form their plural by: 1) a change of a vowel: man ― men. Only -s is added: a) after a vowel: boys. Variable nouns (regular plurals): Noun + -s/-es. flies. solos. kilos. etc. thieves. lives. b) in proper names: Romeos. They are called invariable nouns. dwarf ― dwarfs (-ves). a craft ― craft.The Category of Number English count nouns have singular and plural forms. b) in proper names: the Kennedys. 8 . o: glasses. 4) retaining the singular form in the plural: a) a sheep ― sheep. watches. preceded by a consonant. leaves. foot ― feet. z.

the United States. etc. homework. stone (3 dozen eggs. 4) proper names: London. skittles. formula ― formulae. the United Nations. measles. darts. but dozens of people). Here belong: 1) material nouns: sand. statistics. 6) plurals of foreign origin: -us — -i [ai]: stimulus – stimuli. a headquarters ― headquarters. a works (завод) ― works. Wales. 10) collective nouns: money.-ss: Japanese ― the Japanese. a barracks ― barracks. But: the fruits of my investigation. The tomato is a vegetable. jewellery. -ex. 9) some proper nouns: Athens. -a — -ae [i:]: vertebra ― vertebrae. gold. 6) some games: bowls. Brussels. classics. 5) some diseases: diabetes. -um — -a [a:]: datum – data. billiards. 2) abstract nouns: music. dozen. Invariable Nouns Singular invariables (singularia tantum). rabies. crisis ― crises. Some of these nouns are occasionally used in the plural. information. 5) retaining -s of the singular unchained in the plural: a means ― means. weather. a Swiss ― the Swiss. fruit. mathematics. draughts.ics: aerobics. the Thames. 8) subject names in . -ix — -ices: appendix – appendices. advice. genetics. the evident. thousand. с) quantitative nouns: hundred. not a fruit. a species ― species. The statistics are optimistic. 7) the word news. million. a series ― series. -on — -a [a:]: phenomenon – phenomena. when you are talking about a particular person’s work or activities: His politics are uncertain. rickets. 3) substantivized adjectives with abstract meaning: the inevitable. shingles. linguistics. phonetics. -is [iz] — -es [iz]: basis – bases. 9 . This drink is made from four tropical fruits. mumps.

binoculars. arms. which were waiting for him. leggings. 3. He put on a new pair of shoes. Note the singular and the plural form of the noun in the following patterns: He spared no effort to get you out. trousers. greens. shorts. Some proper names: The Netherlands. It’ll require/it’ll cost them a lot of effort. scales. You can refer to more than one item by using a number or a quantifier with “pairs of”. Miscellaneous nouns: wages. thanks. ashes. the old. 2.Plural invariables 1. surroundings. the Middle Ages. ― У вас нет основания для жалоб. ― Он замечает все детали. earnings. the Hebrides]. ― Он не жалел сил. the young. riches. the contents of a book (but the silver content of the coin). the East Indies. etc. большой затраты сил (больших усилий). sweepings. archives. customs. the verb is singular if it is in the same clause. outskirts. scissors. She described it in (great) detail. Note. goods. ― Она описала это в (мельчайших) подробностях. the Midlands. You have no grounds for complaint. ― Это потребует (от них) 10 . jeans. Summation plurals (= nouns denoting objects consisting of two parts): braces. glasses. ― Не вдавайтесь в детали. When you want to refer to a single piece of clothing or a single tool you can use “some” or “a pair of” in front of the noun. 4. looks. Don’t go into detail. чтобы помочь вам выбраться. minutes. He has a good eye for detail. the English. When you use “a pair of” with a noun in the plural form. stairs. and plural if it is in the following relative clause: A new pair of new shoes brings more happiness. Substantivized adjectives denoting people: the rich. the poor. tights. manners.

― Он предал свою мать. Lemons contain a lot of vitamin C. the waters of the Atlantic. редис) are always plural when used collectively. carrots. take a noun in the plural. и никогда не сожалел об этом. 11 . (виноград. The nouns grapes. Note 3. картофель. onions. He was deep in thought. etc. ― Поразмыслив. он решил ничего ей не говорить. thirty-one. the blue skies of Italy. the snows and frosts of the Arctic. Note 1. свекла. etc. potatoes. beets. radishes. морковь. ― Он был погружен в свои мысли. Twenty-one students were present at the lecture.e. etc. regular plural. Compound numerals with –one: twenty-one. in all weathers. i. These nouns are: 1) colour — colours (= hues) — colours (= regimental flags) 2) a force — forces (= powers) — forces (= an army) 3) a custom — customs (= habits) — customs (= taxis on imported goods) 4) a draught — draughts (= currents of air) — draughts (= a game) 5) a glass — glasses (= vessels for drinking from) — glasses (= spectacles) 6) a manner — manners (= ways) — manners (= behaviour) a moral — morals (= lessons of a story) — morals (= standards of behaviour) 8) a minute — minutes (= spaces of time) — minutes (= secretary’s record of proceedings) 9) a quarter — quarters (= forth parts) — quarters (= lodgings) Some nouns which belong to the singularia tantum group are occasionally used in the plural form for stylistic reasons suggesting a great quantity or extent: the sands of the Sahara. Note 2. He had betrayed his mother without a second thought. But they happen to be homonyms of nouns which are used in both forms.On second thoughts he decided not to tell her anything. ― На лекции присутствовал двадцать один студент. лук. There are a few nouns in English which have only the plural form and lack the singular (pluralia tantum nouns).

6. 5. tooth-brushes. shoe shops. the last element takes the plural form: forget-me-nots. merry-go-rounds. Compounds in which the first component is “man” or “woman” have plurals in both parts: men-servant. women-doctors. As a rule in compounds it is the second component that takes the plural form: housewives. go-betweens (посредники). a funeral. 12 . progress. 9. In compounds originating from a prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element only the first noun takes the plural form: editors-inchief. 7. ink. men-of-war (военные корабли). hair. When a compound is a substantivized phrase which doesn’t contain a noun. mothers-in-law. But: man-eaters. knowledge. In compounds with a conjunction as a linking element the plural is taken by the second noun: gin-and-tonics. Compounds in . grown-ups. pick-ups (случайные знакомства). stand-bys. The plural in compound nouns 1. or an adverb. drop-outs (дезертиры). In compounds formed by a noun plus a preposition. 3. Compounds ending in man change it into men: policeman — policemen. Roman. woman – haters. Such nouns as German. lookers-on. a vocation. close-ups. Normans. evidence. Some nouns which are singular in English are plural in Russian: applause. 2.ful have the plural ending at the end of the word: handfuls. a gate. cream. or an adjective only the first element takes the plural: passers-by.Note 4. debate. 4. courtsmartial. spoonfuls or spoonsful. a watch. gossip. a race. attorneys-general. Norman are not compounds and therefore they have regular plurals: Germans. Romans. 8. a sledge. fighting.

1) add ’s to singular nouns and names not ending in –s: Tom’s hat. e. the Secretary of State’s private room. Types of the Genitive Case The dependent genitive 13 . 7) add ’s to the last word in a phrase: The Duke of Norfolk’s sister. Achilles’ heel.The Genitive Case Case is a grammatical category which shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. The Form. 6) add ’s to the final component of a compound noun: my mother-in-low’s dress. Archimedes’ Law. 5) add ’s to proper names ending in -s: Charles’s car. Cervantes’ Don Quixote. just add an apostrophe: Guy Fawkes’ night. Socrates’ wife. with an apostrophe only. 3) add ’s to irregular plural nouns: children’s games. Possessives usually replace articles before nouns. foreign and classical (ancient Greek and Roman) names. The main meaning of the genitive case is that of possession. having an apostrophe s (’s) or unmarked.e. Denis’s birthday. the boy on the left’s sister. in an hour two’s time. Euripides’ plays. 4) add an apostrophe (’) after the -s of regular plurals: the girls' teacher. St. sheep’s wool. The genitive case may be marked. James’s Park. someone else’s gloves.i. Note: In many older. 2) add ’s to singular nouns ending in -s: an actress’s career. i. We can say the car or Sue’s car but not Sue’s the car or the Sue’s car.

In this case a noun in the genitive case generally precedes another noun which is its head-word. The dependent genitive may be of two kinds: 1) the specifying genitive. It may be replaced by the of-phrase. This genitive case is used with proper names, as a rule. The common meanings are those of: a) possession: Mary’s doll, Mary’s new doll;
b) personal or social relations: John’s wife; c) relation of the whole to its part: the cat’s tail, the aspen’s leaves; d) subjective relations: the doctor’s arrival = the doctor arrived; e) objective relations: Peter’s arrest = Peter was arrested; f) authorship: Byron’s poems; g) the genitive of origin: the girl’s story = the girl told the story.

The specifying genitive may also be used with:
a) collective nouns: the government’s decision;

b) the names of countries, towns and continents: Britain’s population, Europe’s future; c) the names of newspapers and nouns denoting different kind of organization: the company’s plans, the Gardian’s analysis, the Geographical Society’s gold medal, the school’s history;, d) nouns of special interest to human activity: the mind’s activity, science’s influence, the brain’s cells;
e) such nouns as: ship, boat, car: the ship’s crew, the car’s wheel.

Note. Differentiate between the following structures containing a proper noun used prepositively: Nelson’s tomb, the Nelson Column; Shakespeare’s birthday, the Royal Shakespeare Theatre; Queen Victoria’s reign, the Queen Victoria Memorial; Lincoln’s speech, the Lincoln Memorial. The noun in the genitive case denotes possession. The proper noun in the common case denotes the name of the person to whom something is dedicated. 2) The classifying (descriptive) genitive

The noun in the genitive case here completely loses its meaning of possession and comes to denote a quality and refers to a whole class of similar objects: a girls’ school (= a school for girls), sheep’s eyes, man’s blood, a doll’s face, a doctor’s degree, woman’s work, a soldier’s uniform. The classifying genitive is also used with nouns denoting time and distance, such as: an hour’s trip, a moment’s delay, a week’s time, a few minutes’ silence. We don’t use the indefinite article with a plural possessive: a two-hour lecture but twohours’ lecture; a four-day journey but four-day’s journey. This type of the genitive case is also used in set expressions: at a snail's pace, to our hearts' content, to keep out of harm's way, at my wit's end, in my mind's eye, to keep others at arm's length, by a hair's breadth, for one's country's sake, to have at one's fingers' ends, within/at a stone's throw, the lion's share. 3) The group genitive This type is considered to be a specific feature of the English genitive case ― ’s may be added not only to a single noun, but to a whole group of words: a) to a group of co-ordinate nouns: Jack and Ann’s house (the house belongs to Jack and Ann); cf: Jack’s and Ann’s houses (= Jack has a house and Ann has a house); b) to an extensive noun phrase: the Prime Minister of England’s residence; c) to a noun + possessive pronoun: somebody else’s umbrella; d) to a group ending in a numeral: an hour or two’s walk. Note that the group genitive is not normally used with a nominal group when the head-word is postponed by a phrase or relative clause: The name of the man walking in the street/who arrived yesterday. The independent (absolute) genitive A noun in the genitive may be used without a head-word. It is used: a) to avoid repetition: “Whose hat is that?” — “Virgina’s”; b) to denote places where business is conducted: at the hairdresser’s, at the butcher’s;

c) People’s houses can be referred to in this way when we are talking about the host-guest relationship: We hold a lovely evening at Peter and Helen’s. Roger was at the Watsons’ last night; d) Firms and institutions, hospitals, churches and cathedrals often have names, ending in -s genitive. The names of firms are often written without an apostrophe: Harrods, Selfridges, Bank of Berkley’s (or Barkleys), McDonald's (or McDonalds), Marks and Spencer's (or Marks and Spencers), St Paul’s (Cathedral), St John’s (College). There is also the double genitive. It is used when a noun is modified by two successive nouns one of which is in the genitive case and the other with the “of”phrase: a friend of my father’s. The noun in the genitive case must be both definite and personal: a story of Agatha Christie’s, a story of my father’s, but not: a story of a writer’s. Note also that the noun preceding the “of” - phrase cannot be a proper noun: Mrs Brown’s Mary but never Mary of Mrs. Brown. It is important to remember that the noun preceding the “of” - phrase is premodified with the indefinite article as the meaning of the double genitive is “one of many”: a friend of Mrs White’s, but not the friend of Mrs White’s. It is also possible to use demonstrative pronouns which presuppose familiarity: this wife of John’s, that idea of Ann’s.

THE ARTICLE The article is a structural word specifying the noun. There are two articles in English — the definite article the and the indefinite article a. The indefinite article conveys the idea of indefiniteness. The definite article conveys the idea of definiteness. Definiteness suggests that the object presented by


The demonstrative force remains in many phrases. Functions of the Article The Indefinite Article The indefinite article is used in the following functions: classifying. such as at the time. The numerical meaning is evident in such phrases as at a time. generic and numerical. The definite article developed from demonstrative pronouns this. 1) Classifying . Both the definite and the indefinite articles have developed from notional parts of speech. 17 . that. which account for its meaning of definiteness.the noun is individualized and singled out from all the other objects of the same kind. not a sound. A descriptive attribute is used to describe an object (or a group of objects) or give additional information about it: He wore a large straw hat. Nouns modified by restrictive attributes are used with the definite article. A restrictive attribute indicates such a quality or characteristic of an object which makes it distinct from other objects of the class: She accepted the coffee he offered her. All attributes are generally divided into restrictive (or limiting) and descriptive. while indefiniteness means a more general reference to an object. Both descritive and restrictive attributes can be premodifying (occupying the position before the noun). Since the choice of articles is determined by the context or the general situation we should pay attention to different attributes modifying nouns. whose influence is traced in their meaning and use. The indefinite article developed from the cardinal numeral one. in a moment. nouns modified by descriptive attributes are mainly used with the indefinite article. of the kind. and postmodifying (used after the noun).

A complex sentence has two or more clauses. every). 3) Numeric(al) In this function the indefinite article preserves its original meaning of the cardinal numeral one: I won’t say a word. In this function the indefinite article implies that what is said about one representative of the class (a thing. The article has the meaning of the indefinite pronoun some: Somewhere a telephone began to ring. every: A crane is a tall bird with a very long neck and beak. I saw a speck in the distance. The indefinite article in its generic function has the meaning of any. In this function the indefinite article is used in proverbs and sentences expressing some general truth: A friend in need is a friend indeed. It was a boat. 2) Generic (any. The noun preceded by the indefinite article in its classifying function may be accompanied by premodifying and postmodifying descriptive attributes: I’ve read a very interesting novel.In this function the article serves to refer an object to the class or group of objects of the same kind. He was a man who travelled a lot. A hungry man is an angry man. The door opened and a girl entered. wearing a very old garden shirt. This is a novel which is very suitable for staging. animal or a person) can also be said about other representatives of this class. 18 . A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines. A library is a collection of books. Marion came out of the garden.

it can also have the idea of “mankind”: Man is not made to defeat. Note 1. a year. The Definite Article The main functions of the definite article are: specifying and generic. The generic use of the definite article occurs with nouns denoting social classes: the proletariat. It is used to indicate that the noun becomes a composite image of the class: The lion is the king of animals. Woman is physically weaker than man. 1) Generic In its generic function the definite article refers to the whole class of objects of the same kind. Note 3.An apple a day keeps the doctor away. a thousand. a minute. The tiger has always had the reputation of being a man-eater. the obvious. after the negative not — not a word. measure: a hundred. the gentry. 2) Specifying 19 . the intelligentsia. the bourgeoisie. The idea of oneness is evident with nouns denoting time. an hour. the beautiful. The use of the definite article before substantivized adjectives in their collective or abstract meaning is also generic: the poor. Note 2. the strong. not a thought. distance. The rose is my favourite flour. The whale is in danger of becoming extinct. a day. so with the words man and woman in their generic meaning no article is used. The definite article is used in its generic function with nouns denoting different inventions and discoveries: Popov invented the radio. The generic reference suggests the highest degree of abstraction in a countable noun. As for the noun man.

or a participial phrase: I’m convinced Luke is the man we are looking for. the horizon. The students of our institute are taking their exams in June. d) the situation Though the object is mentioned for the first time. e) the meaning of the noun The definite article in its specifying function is used with unique objects or notions: the sun. the world. But: She is an only child in the family.In this function the definite article serves to single out an object or a group of objects from all the other objects of the same kind. the south. It may be expressed by the following words: very. Pass the butter. The girl was crying bitterly. c) the preceding context The noun with the definite article may be a mere repetition of the noun mentioned before. no attribute or context is necessary for the speaker to point out and for the listener to understand what object is meant: After visiting a theatre: I liked the acting and the music. same. next. In everyday situations: Go to the kitchen. the north: 20 . the sea. It may be a clause. The specification can be provided by: a) a premodifying restrictive attribute. first. the moon. a prepositional phrase. last. “My wife has left me”. following. most: Are we on the right road? He is the only man for this position. The woman standing by the window is my teacher. wrong. right. After a flower exhibition: The flowers were splendid. opposite. the earth. left. b) a postmodifying restrictive attribute. Daniel could hardly get the words out. or the reference to the words or statement just mentioned: I saw a girl in the garden. only.

modesty. The sun sank below the horizon. A warm September sun was brightening the tree tops. idea. The line between count and mass nouns is not always easy to draw. belief. visit) can be used both in the singular and in the plural. answer. relief. violence) is presupposed by the following: 1. Usually there is a descriptive attribute describing a noun: The sun shone in an unclouded sky. Among abstract nouns there are many with dual class membership. action as such as meant: 21 . state. He always has such brilliant ideas! The use of articles with non-count abstract nouns (e. impatience. In this country she discovered a world of which she had never dreamed before.g. When non-count abstract nouns have generic reference they are used without any article. This is the case when a certain quality. effort. jealousy. job. lie. Note: nouns denoting unique objects may be preceded by the indefinite article in its classifying function when some aspect or phase of the object is meant or when the word is used figuratively. The Use of Articles with Abstract Nouns Abstract nouns fall into two large categories: count abstract nouns and noncount (mass) abstract nouns. He sailed round the world. anger. fact. opinion. chemistry. They often have considerable difference in meaning: Beauty is to be admired ― She was a beauty. plan. pride.g. doubt. question. Count abstract nouns (e. They walked in silence ― He began to speak after a long silence.The sky had cleared. The use of article with count abstract nouns is practically the same as with concrete count (class) nouns: You could have a very happy life with her.

2. real importance. Knowledge is power. etc. sheer delight. time (modern physics. the French poetry of that period. infinitive fatigue. a woman of feeling. His small clear voice was heavy with passionate determination.Experience is the power of wisdom. perfect surprise. 22 . It gives me great pleasure. Generally no article is used when the abstract noun is modified by a descriptive attribute: His mouth fell open and he stared at her in startled amazement. contemporary art. Abstract nouns with generic reference are often used in attributive and adverbial prepositional phrases after of. degree and authenticity (great value. He turned round in annoyance and then walked away. in: A slight feeling of uneasiness came over him. Non-count abstract nouns can be used with the indefinite article when they are modified by descriptive attributes which bring out a special aspect of a quality. Four pairs of eyes were on him. Moscow time). complete satisfaction. ancient sculpture). When I heard the news I felt perfect relief. with. a carpet of colour. etc. black with suspicion and accusation. We find no article if the attribute qualifies the noun from the point of view of nationality and geography (English literature. Note the use of the definite article in combination with the limiting of-phrase: the English literature of the 19th century. She was fighting down the rising feeling of panic. genuine sorrow): For once he showed real irritation. She has attached herself to youth and hope and seriousness and they had failed her more than age and despair. Russian painting. The tendency to use the noun in attributive and adverbial prepositional phrases without an article is so strong that even count nouns may have no article in these function: a man of principle. French poetry.

This use of the indefinite article may be called aspective: She looked several years younger and there was a new dignity about her. The girl interrupted him with a certain impatience in her voice. Some grammarians point out that the use of the indefinite article in such cases seems to be optional and depends on the intention of the speaker to lay particular stress on the special aspect (“некий”. c) Identification can result from the whole situation of utterance: “And how did you like the music?” she asked. The specification can be provided: a) by a limiting of-phrase: I was wrapped in the security of childhood. Then the two women slimed at each over with a curious tenderness. peculiar or by a descriptive attributive clause: You have a curious influence over me. expressed by the noun. curious. b) by a restrictive (particularizing) attributive clause: I couldn’t help showing the resentment which flared up within me. His apologetic laugh did not disguise the pleasure that he felt. Abstract nouns in specific use take the definite article. His face had a calmness that was new to her. “какой-то”) expressed by the attribute modifying the noun. 3. 23 . “The weather is changing for the best. Identification is based on the linguistic context or the situation of utterance.feeling.” he said. He had a patience which amazed his friends. I was torn between the fear of hurting a nice woman’s feeling and the fear of being in the way. etc. The indefinite article seems to be obligatory which the abstract noun is modified by the adjective certain. state.

What bad news we are having! It was weary. It’s a pleasure to see you. work.4. b) structures with the exclamatory what What a pity! What a relief! The Use of Articles with Material Nouns Most material nouns do not have plural forms and are never used with the indefinite article. literary or other product: Miss Tray says the portrait was the best thing she had ever done. relief. We hid his watch for fun. Such nouns as pity. several cakes I’d like 24 . That means it was a really great work. fun. Some abstract nouns are never used with the indefinite article: weather. Note: The noun work can be used with the indefinite article in the meaning of ‘thing made. 5. pleasure. progress. money. weary work. two cakes. a book or a piece of literary or musical composition. as in the case of cake: a cake. That’s hard luck. Yet the English language makes it possible to look upon some object from the point of view of both count and material. Some syntactic structures affect the use of articles. luck. luggage and some others: It was raw weather. but in certain constructions they are regularly used with the indefinite article: a) structures with the formal it as subject It’s a shame to act like this. shame and some others generally tend to be non-count. comfort. news.

some cake.” Note that this use is restricted to cafes and restaurants. For example.” announced Vernier. buy him an ice. It was not built of brick or lofty stone. but people in their own home would probably say Would you like some tea? or Would you like a cup of tea? rather than“Would you like a tea? 25 . “And now. but of wood and plaster. not silver. to press clothes with an iron ― to use tools made of iron. Blood is thicker than water. When material nouns have generic reference they are used without any article. This is the case with mass nouns referring to the whole class: This is lead. 1. another piece of cake There are many nouns with dual class membership which often have considerable difference in meaning in the two classes: to read an evening paper ― to wrap up a present in brown paper. “I would rather have a whisky. you might ask for two teas in a cafe. The men moved heavily as though they were walking in thick mud. There never was a better wine than Chambertin. Material nouns take no article when they are modified by descriptive attributes: He sat there for a long time. but in the cabin it was thick coffee with sugar and tinned milk. drinking cup after cup of strong black tea. On the travel he drank tea. and there never was a better Chambertin than nineteen-eleven. “the king of wines”. Names of material can change their meaning and become count nouns when: a) Various sorts of materials and food products are meant: They are now giving you bad teas at the club.” b) A portion of food or drink is meant: If you want to please the boy.

material nouns take the definite article. I had several companions and they have all been complete fools. some water and three coins. 26 . as I said. Reference forwards: identification is made by something about to be said when names of material are modified by a particularizing attribute: The water in this glass has now turned pink. and food: he couldn’t touch the food.2. i. As a rule. If there is a limiting modifier. The wine on the table was served in pretty glasses. predicative and appositive nouns are used with the classifying indefinite article which shows that the speaker is characterizing a person. 2. Watch! I pour the water into the glass. He poured the fragrant golden wine that accompanied the lobster. In specific use. but he drank the milk greedily. Identification is based on the linguistic context or situation of utterance. She brought him milk to drink. With plural nouns no article is used: She is really an excellent creature but a complete fool. then drop the coins one by one into the water. object or event as a specimen of a certain class of thing. please. b). when a definite part of the substance is meant. predicative and appositive nouns are used with the definite article: He is the only person here with medical knowledge.e. The coffee will be cold. The Use of Articles with Predicative Nouns and Nouns in Apposition 1. Lets start our breakfast. Reference backwards: identification is made by something already said (by prior mention): Here’s a glass. Linguistic context: a). Situation of utterance Pass me the salt.

The nouns son and daughter predicatively and appositively generally take the definite article when modified by an of-phrase if they express mere relationship: She is the daughter of a doctor. post or occupation) which is unique. not under-manager any longer. the indefinite article is used: She is a daughter of a doctor. can be occupied by one person at a time. no article is used: She is daughter of a doctor.e. As some grammars point out. When the stress is laid on the social position of the person in question. When he was President he often longed for more privacy. i. 27 . to turn miser. Note that when talking about a person rather than describing someone’s role you need an article: The Queen is strongly against the project. The definite article tends to be left out in sentences like: It was nearly 40 years before she became Queen. to elect. His ideal was professor Edward Edwards. These nouns are often used after the verbs to appoint. If predicative and appositive nouns denote the position (rank. head of the Department of Chemistry. either no article or the definite article is used. 4. They chose him chairman of the Society.Philip had been the hero of his childhood. to turn pirate. Henderson is manager. to become and some others: Mr. to choose. state. Note the absence of article in set expressions with the verb to turn: to turn traitor. it would be unnatural to leave in the definite article and say “She became the Queen” or “When he was the President” though the article can be used when the noun is followed by of. 3. He was elected (the) President of the country. If the speaker wants to emphasize the idea that there are several sons and daughter in the family.

сделать положить конец закончиться 28 . the definite article is generally used: John Galsworthy. The article is also omitted when predicative nouns are used in clauses of concession with inverted word order: Child as he was. проникнуть симпатией интересоваться низко. прийти в бешенство to fly into a passion прийти в бешенство to have a good time хорошо провести время it is a pleasure приятно it is a shame стыдно all of a sudden неожиданно a great / good deal of (with non. the indefinite article is used: “Pericles”. was of a Devonshire family. a comedy by Shakespeare. is hardly ever staged. No article is used in structures with enough where predicative nouns acquire an adjectival character. But if the person or work of article is not widely known. The Use of Articles in Some Set Expressions Nouns in set expressions used with the indefinite article to be at a loss растеряться. 7. If the appositive noun denotes a well-known person or work of art. the famous English writer. denoting a certain characteristic of the person in question: Surely Bella isn’t fool enough to believe that sort of stuff? 6.много count nouns) a great many (with count nouns) to take a fancy to to take an interest in in a low / loud voice to have a mind to do something to put an end to to come to an end много увлечься. his judgement was sound. громко склоняться что-л.5. быть в замешательстве to be / get in a fury (in a rage) быть.

сделать иметь привычку об этом не может быть и речи Nouns in set expressions used without an article at night at sunrise at sunset at peace at work at hand at first sight to keep house to make haste to make use of from time to time from head to foot from morning till night to give (get. по правде говоря в оригинале (подлиннике) в целом играть на рояле / на скрипке на днях с одной стороны с другой стороны потрудиться на всякий случай. под рукой с первого взгляда вести хозяйство торопиться использовать время от времени с ног до головы с утра до ночи дать / получить разрешение 29 / просить . ask for) permission ночью на рассвете за закате в мире за работой близко. для верности в начале в конце в единственном числе во множественном числе вдали собирать что-л.Nouns in set expressions used with the definite article to keep the house to keep the bed to tell / speak the truth in the original on the whole to play the piano / the violin the other day (referring to the past) on the one hand on the other hand to take the trouble to do smth to be on the safe side at the beginning at the end in the singular in the plural in the distance to be on the point of to be in the habit of it is out of the question сидеть дома соблюдать постельный режим говорить правду.

autumn. 30 . No article is used when such nouns are modified by the adjectives early. winter) and parts of the day (day. по суше морем по воздуху стать моряком на палубе обидеться заботиться The Use of Articles with Some Semantic Groups of Nouns Articles with Names of Seasons and Parts of the Day 1. summer. When the names of seasons and parts of the day are modified by a descriptive attribute. 2. night. noon. high which do not describe any season or part of the day but indicate the time more precisely: It was early morning / spring. sunset and the like) take no article when used predicatively: It was summer / autumn/ morning/ evening/ night. He returned on a bright January morning. It was late evening / autumn. sunrise. dawn. morning. broad. It was a foggy evening in take notice on to catch sight of by name by mistake by chance by land by sea by air to go to sea on deck to take offence to take care of замечать увидеть по имени по ошибке случайно сушей. afternoon. It was broad day. they are used with the indefinite article: It was a fine clear morning. late. Names of seasons (spring. evening.

night after night. in the daytime. when some particular day. Note the use of articles in some prepositional phrases: in the morning. lunch. in the evening. supper. day after day. after sunset. to approach. The use of articles with names of seasons seems to be optional in combination with such verbs as: to come. Names of meals (breakfast. By the summer of 1943 Penny felt as though the war had been going on for ever. for the winter. high summer or spring is meant. Identification is achieved by means of: a) Linguistic context: I shall not forget the evening I spent with him. late in night. at dawn. 4. The night was warm and beautifully still. i. 5. from morning to night. In such instances reference can be made to particular season (specific use) or to any season in general (generic use): Night / morning came at last. before dawn. The definite article is found with names of seasons and parts of the day in specific use. at night. Day / dawn was breaking when we set out. Articles with Names of Meals 1. She went to Scotland for the summer. through the autumn.e. early in the morning. dinner. during the summer. all through the day. in the afternoon. in the night. In all these sentences the nouns in question have a limiting modifier.3. to set in. to break and some other phrases. Night / twilight was falling quickly. b) Situation of utterance: The day was hot and muggy. tea) usually take no article: 31 . to fall.

etc. Thus we say A child goes to school. college. Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. He ordered a modest lunch.Dinner is ready.: Why aren’t the children at school today? (as pupils) Mrs. 3. Breakfast tomorrow will be at 8 o’clock. When names of meals are modified by a descriptive attribute they are used with the indefinite article: I saw to it that he had a good dinner. hospital These nouns are used without any article when the general idea of these places is meant. I want you to have a nice breakfast. Excuse me. But: Mr.e. When some particular meal is meant the definite article is used. Articles with the Nouns school. Ken’s brother is in prison for robbing (he is a prisoner). The dinner was very sound. jail. A criminal goes to prison. prison. i. 2. Two people were injured in the accident and were taken to hospital (as patients). where’s the church to repair the roof. church. Nora is now working as a cleaner at a hospital. Specific reference is made clear by the context or situation: He was eating greedily the lunch his mother had given him. 32 . A student goes to university / college. the purpose they are used for. Kelly goes to church every Sunday (for a religious service). Kelly went to the school to meet his daughter’s teacher.

I sprained my ankle skiing in the mountains. The definite article is also used to refer to a touch. the twentieth century. and historic periods referring to only one particular period have the definite article: the nineteen-eighties. blow or pain: She had a pain in the side. the definite article is used in prepositional phrase. The dog bit her on the leg. It’s not possible to grant your request at present. centuries. Present and future can be used after at and in respectively without any article: Try to remember it in future. However.Articles with Names of Parts of the Body Possessive pronouns. 33 . associated with the object or. with the subject: The woman took the boy by the hand. Past. Articles with Names of Specific Periods Names of decades. his hands in his pockets. not articles are generally used to modify nouns denoting parts of the body. She wore a string of pearls round her neck. I’m afraid. present and future generally take the definite article: I’m not making any plans for the future now. personal belongings and the like: The man stood frowning. in passive constructions. I only think about the present or remember the past. the iron bronze age: Her best novels were written in the eighties of the nineteenth century.

No article is used in combinations like Aunt Polly. Aunt. 2. ranks or scientific degrees take no article: Lord Byron. Colonel Brown. e) mountains. 34 . President Lincoln.The Use of Articles with Proper Names Proper nouns are individual names of specific people (Paul. a personal name.” said Emily. Normally. Dr. We had dined with the Browns several times before. Watson. Shakespeare). etc. Father. Personal names with nouns denoting titles. Dad. Professor Higgins. but as a family. not individually. Mummy. Mom. being the name of someone imagined as unique needs no article: Anthony shrugged his shoulders. Daddy. calendar items and geographical names: a) continents. b) countries. c) cities. lakes. The main classes of proper nouns are: personal names. Philip Lombard grinned. Uncle. d) rivers. Grandmother. But: The father was the tallest in the family. Names of Persons 1. They are treated as such by the members of the family and are usually written with the capital letter: “I’d like to see Mother. Grandfather) behave like proper nouns. The definite articles is used: a) with a family name in the plural denoting the whole family: The Forsytes were resentful of something. b) when names of persons are modified by a particularizing attribute (a limiting of-phrase of a restrictive attributive clause): This Pat wasn’t at all like the Pat of his memories. Family relations with unique reference (Mother. seas and oceans. Paris). months and days of the week (August. countries and cities (England. Monday) and so forth.

I’m spending the day with a Miss Warren. you will play for knowledge. Proper names can be converted into common nouns indicating a) concrete objects or b) someone having characteristics of the person named. 4. honest: Old Jolyon invited him in. b) to indicate a certain person. Bert Smith had a Citroen. young. Have you ever heard about the painter Reynolds? No article is used when names of persons are modified by the following adjectives: little.This was not the Simon he had known so long. don't you know? It is the great Einstein!” 3. and he drove swiftly and well. In this case they take the article according to the general rule: Lanny has sold them an especially fine Goya. old. but Young Jolyon shook his head. if you are a Leonardo. the stakes hardly matter. dear. She is a Miss Pender. Peek. If you are a Napoleon. d) when the speaker wishes to emphasize that the person named is the very one that everybody knows: You say Shakespeare lived here. normally unknown to the hearer: At a table in a corner the Colonel was introduced to a Mrs. you will play the game of power. c) when names of persons are modified by descriptive attributes indicating a permanent quality of the person in question. or by common nouns denoting a profession: At that moment they were interrupted by the beautiful Mrs. Bilst and a Mrs. The indefinite article is used: a) to indicate that one member of the family is meant: His mother was a Devereux: Lady Margaret Devereux. Do you mean the Shakespeare or somebody else? “Who is this?” ―“Good heavens. poor. There is a young American girl staying at the hotel. Shobbe. 35 .

Names of deserts are generally used with the definite article: the Sahara. the Ukraine. etc. The indefinite article in found when a geographical name is modified by a descriptive attribute bringing out a certain aspect: You haven’t come to a very cheerful England. Geographical names modified by particularizing attributes (a limiting ofphrase or a restrictive attributive clause) are used with the definite article: Did he quite understand the England of today? The Philadelphia into which Frank Cowperwood was born was a city of two hundred and fifty thousand and more. 36 . the Indian Ocean. rivers and lakes usually take the definite article: the Atlantic (Ocean. No article is used when names of lakes are preceded by the noun lake: Lake Baikal. the Crimea. and towns are normally used without articles. the Pacific (Ocean. the Mediterranean Sea. the Thames. the Caucasus. (old) England. “I’m not a Michael Angelo. the Lebanon. the Hague. the Black Sea.” he said. cities. the Gobi. Names of oceans. rapidly expanding the London of the 1860’s. 3. seas. the Ruhr. the Kara-Kum. the Ontario. the United States of America. 6. the Baltic (Sea). countries. the Red Sea. Lake Ladoga. Lake Ontario. No articles is used either when they have premodifying adjectives as in: (North) America. but I have something. (Central) Australia. states. Names of continents. (South) Africa. This is the booming. provinces and cities are traditionally used with the definite article: the Argentine (but Argentina).” Geographical Names 1. no. the Netherlands. 2. (Medieval) Europe. the Baikal. Some names of countries. (ancient) Rome.“I don’t pretend to be a great painter. the Volga. 4. (modern) France. 5. the Amazon.

Madagascar. Brown University. Monday. Mont Blane.7.” 37 . 4. (Мы встретились в пятницу. Sicily. the hours passed. Wednesday. the Canaries. Names of mountain chains and group of islands are used with the definite article: the Alps. 2. the West Indies. etc. 3. Names of months and days of the week generally take no article. When the nouns on question are modified by a rescriptive attribute. Universities names after a person have only the latter form: Yale University. The first Saturday in May. This was May. When names of month and days of the week are modified by a descriptive attribute. a Friday. (Мы встретились однажды в пятницу). Note the pattern “the + common noun + proper noun” in: the Cape of Good Hope. the Gulf of Finland. 8. the Gulf of Mexico. September. slowly. Names of days are used with the indefinite article when one of many Mondays. the definite article is used: “Are you really getting married?” ― “Yes. Slowly. noon. the Lake of Geneva. the City of New York. Wednesday dragged on. Calendar Items 1. Friday. The Bermudas. 9. the Bay Biskay. and it was Thursday. Everest. Names of mountain peaks and separate islands are used without articles: Elbrus. Fridays. is meant: We met on Friday. the Urals.) We met on a Friday. the Andes. etc. etc. Names of universities where the first part is a place-name usually have two forms: the University of London (which is the official name) and London University. April. the indefinite article is used: A cold May is a usual thing in these parts. May.

Names of territories consisting of a word combination in which the last word is a common nouns are generally used with the definite article: the Lake District. the Savoy. Pall Mall. Victoria Station. Names of streets and parks are generally used without articles: Oxford Street. the Empire. concert halls.Mrs. 2. Picadilly Circus. the High Street. the Ritz. Moscow Airport. Russel Square. the Ambassador Hotel. Note that some streets are traditionally used with the definite article: the Strand. the Albert Hall. the Festive Hall. Miscellaneous Proper Names 1. some of them have no article: Punch. the Language. Newsweek. Memorial Park. 38 . the Continental Hotel. picture galleries. cinemas. the British Museum. the Carnegie Hall. the Sedov. the Opera House. the Yorkshire Forests. the Oriental Arts Museum. the Rotary Club. Names of ships and boats are used with the definite article: the Titanic. the National Liberal Club. Trafalgar Square. Picadilly. Regent Street. Hyde Park. the Tate Gallery. Wall Street. etc. the Odeon. Central Park. Some grammarians point out a growing tendency not to use articles with names of airports and railway stations: London Airport. the Lancet. museums. the Guardian. the Coliseum Theatre. 3. the Hermitage. Names of newspapers and magazines are generally used with the definite article: the Times. the Dominion. Trotwood came on the Friday when David was born. 6. 5. Names of theatres. Fleet Street. the Tretyakov Gallery. clubs and hotels tend to be used the definite article: the Bolshoi Theatre. 4. the National Gallery.

Corpus. Fleetwood Mac. [‘neitou]. St. the Department of Trade of Industry. etc. the Eurythmics. Names of well-known organizations are typically used with the definite article. the FBI. Carnival. the Superbowl. the Cup Final. the BBC. the EC. the Doors. Easter. the Cabinet. UNICEF [‘ju:nisef]. Christi. the Senate. Names of sporting events usually have the definite article: the Olympic Games. Mother’s Day. Shell. Names of religious and other festivals take no article: Christmas. then the definite article often occurs: the Bell Telephone Company. Note the following exceptions: Parliament. the House of Lords. Leeds City Council. Woolworths. there is no article: NATO. Queen. Business and chairs of shops are referred to with no article. Midsummer’s Day. Congress. Nissan. Sony. Names of most political or government bodies and institutions have the definite article: the House of Commons.Valentine’s Day. the Grand National. 11.7. the House of Representatives. Ramadan. the State Department. General Motors. New Year’s Day. the Beatles. the Labour Party. 9. 10. which they keep when they are abbreviated: the United Nations (the UN). the Supremes. the Bundestag. the Boat Race. If a word like company is used. Dire Straits. the British Open. Names of musical groups can have either no article or the definite article. Note the difference between: Happy Easter! and I wish you a happy Easter or Did you have a good Easter? 39 . 8. If the abbreviation is pronounced as a word. the Rolling Stones. Singapore Airlines. the Shadows. and the names of councils: Kent County Council. the World Cup.

Grammatically.g. bad. -ive: attractive.g. Common pairs of -ed/-ing adjectives are: amazed / amazing. excited) and some present participles ending in -ing (e.g. etc. sleepy Some past participles ending in -ed (e. features are generally considered to be characteristic of adjectives: 1) their syntactic function of attributes. qualifying nouns. 3) their taking of adverbial modifiers of degree (e. etc. -ible: visible. -less: careless. simple. -ly: brotherly. Derived adjectives. progressive. Adjectives in English do not change for number or case. four Morphological Composition Simple adjectives — old. -ish: childish. 2) their syntactic function of predicatives. kind. Many adjectives are formed from other parts of speech by adding different suffixes: -able: comfortable. -ic: atomic. -ent: dependent. -al: cultural. enchanted / enchanting. bored / boring. friendly. -y: dirty. -ous: dangerous. 40 . -ful: careful. -ant: elegant.) and. exciting) are used as adjectives.THE ADJECTIVE Adjectives are words expressing properties and characteristics of objects (e.g. hence. annoyed / annoying. very). 4) their only grammatical category — the degrees of comparison. blue. good.

deaf-mute. some action: defensive. Relative adjectives are limiting in their meaning. monthly. Italian. blue-eyed. 2. preparatory. light.e. Non-gradable adjectives admit no comparison on account of their meaning. European. 1. medical aid. the left hand. That means that they can be modified by adverbs of degree and themselves change for degrees of comparison. a number. cold. 41 . Many adjectives reveal a descriptive or limiting meaning depending on the head-word or the context.Compound adjectives. beautiful. b) limiting ― denoting a category. Relative adjectives describe properties of a substance through relation to material: woollen. weekly. several pages. According to their meaning they may be further differentiated as: a) descriptive ― denoting a quality in a broad sense ― cold. wonderful. i. specifying the substance (noun) ― the previous page. a section of a whole. wooden. Most adjectives are gradable. place: Northern. They are used with hyphens: grass-green. fair-haired. ― time: daily. Descriptive adjective little finger ― just a small finger fast actions foreign manners musical voice dramatic scene Limiting adjective little finger ― the last finger of a hand fast train foreign languages musical instrument dramatic performance Adjectives are also distinguished as gradable and non-gradable. an equestrian statue. long-legged. feathery. Qualitative adjectives denote properties of a substance directly ― great. Semantic Characteristics Semantically adjectives can be divided into two groups.

full.  an old plastic container  a hard red ball  a frightening Korean mask  a round biscuit tin (= age + material + noun) (= quality + colour + noun) (= opinion + origin +noun) (= shape + purpose (for holding biscuits) + noun)  a small broken plate (= size + participle adjective + noun)  a useful digital alarm clock (= opinion + type + purpose + noun) Note that there are a few adjectives which go before or after nouns and they change in meaning according to their position: This elect body meets once a year (specially chosen). material. square. The Position of Adjectives When we use more than one adjective before a noun. However.All dynamic adjectives are gradable. The late George Brown was an outstanding musician (who is dead now). 42 . Most stative adjectives are gradable too. wooden. type and purpose: perfect. this order is not fixed: opinion + size/physical quality/shape/age + colour + participle adjectives + origin + material + type + purpose + noun. round. George was late for the meeting (didn’t come in time). upper. unique. Non-gradable adjectives are participle adjectives and adjectives describing origin. The president elect takes over in May (who has been elected). there is often a preferred order for these adjectives. empty.

There are three ways of forming the comparative and the superlative degrees: synthetic. ― more 43 . The employees present should vote on this (who participate in the meeting).Present employees number 3.000 (who work at present). Analytical: the comparative degree is formed by adding the word more. Degrees of Comparison There are three degrees of comparison: positive (or absolute). -le: simple ― simpler ― simplest. many ― more ― most. tired ― more tired ― most tired Suppletive (Irregular): good ― better ― best. personal personal ― most personal. Synthetic: by adding the suffix –er to the comparative degree and the suffix -est to the superlative degree. -some: handsome ― handsomer ― handsomest. 2) disyllabic: ending in –y: lovely ― lovelier ― loveliest. -er: clever ― cleverer ― cleverest. the superlative ― most: careful ― more careful ― most careful. near ― nearer ― nearest (for distance) // next (for time). analytical and suppletive. bad ― worse ― worst. -ow: narrow ― narrower ― narrowest. comparative and superlative. Types of adjectives forming their degrees of comparison in a synthetic way: 1) monosyllabic: great ― greater ― greatest. little ― less ― least.

such as: previous. medical. superior. Relative adjectives such as: wooden. Remember the phrase ― the lesser of two evils. late ― later ― latest (for time) // last (for order). Compound adjectives can be inflected in two ways: 1) the first element is inflected if it is an adjective or an adverb (regular with well-): well-known — better-known — best-known. etc. Word combinations with less and least are not considered to be analytical forms of degrees of comparison. The following adjectives do not form degrees of comparison: 1. left. 3. leathern. Limiting qualitative adjectives which single out or determine the type of things or persons. inner. 44 . dead. Comparison of compounds. Adjectives with comparative and superlative meaning which are of Latin origin: former. 2. junior. middle. prior. woolen. upper. minimal. etc. senior. there are some sentence patterns in which comparison is expressed.far ― farther ― farthest (for distance) // further ― furthest (for time & distance). 2) an analytical way: kind-hearted — more kind-hearted — most kind-hearted. Patterns of Comparison Apart from morphological ways of denoting gradation of quality. lesser is not a comparative degree but an adjective meaning ‘not as great as other(s)’. childless. old ― older ― oldest (for age) // elder ― eldest (for seniority).

He is not so clever. John is less naughty than his sister She is quieter than he is. POSITIVE inequality not as… as not so… as twice as… as Her car is not nearly as economical as mine She is not so tall as he is. The less I study the less I know. C O M PA R AT I V E parallel increase/ decrease … -er as… inferiority superiority less + Adj… than … -er than twice –er than the –er… the -er DEGREE The more dangerous it is the more I like it. He became more cautious as he grew older. 45 .MEANING equality PATTERN as… as EXAMPLE DEGREE If a stupid woman marries a smart man she will become as sharp as he is. A mile is just one and a half times as long as a kilometer. He’s rich enough [to own a car / for me to marry him]. excess sufficiency too + Adj [+ Inf] Adj + enough [+ Inf] The grass is too short [to cut / for me to cut it]. The tower is 3 times taller than the house. This task is twice easier than that one.

Ann is the second oldest of the children. Of the three boys.: He is more of a sportsman than his father. Of the two boys. etc. You are less of a fool than I thought (you were). “as much of a”.-er than it is + Adj the –er of the two Of the two… the -er The room is longer than it is wide. Note the following patterns introduced by “more of a”. Edward is the youngest of all / in the family / ever elected president / that I’ve ever taught. Pay attention to the following set expressions: a change for the better (for the worse) ― перемена к лучшему (худшему) so much the better (the worse) ― тем лучше (хуже) ·· · none the worse for ― ничуть не хуже от… if the worst comes to the worst ― в худшем случае to go from bad to worse ― становиться все хуже и хуже 46 . He was enough of a man to tell the truth. It was as much of a success as I expected (it would be). Jack is the taller of the two. Bob behaves the most politely. “less of a”. John behaves the more politely. S U P E R LAT I V E inferiority superiority the –est of/in/ever/ that… Of the three… the -est the second –est of DEGREE the least… of/… She is the least tolerant person I’ve ever met. He is too much of a coward to go there.

a lot. You bad. 47 EXAMPLE POSITIVE DEGREE . very bad. that repetition of the intensifier or the Adj much.” The 5th Symphony by Tchaikovsky is a most beautiful piece of music. The book is ever so interesting. bad boy. the new one is still better. lots Are things that bad with you? I agree with every word you’ve said ― every single word. she thought. Everybody would be only too glad to see you. at worst ― в лучшем случае. It’s very. a great / good deal.· · · · · · · as best as ― в полную меру старания at best. “everybody’s been most kind. The first edition is good. a good bit still The performance proved to be a great deal better than I could ever expect. “Yes”. COMPARATIVE DEGREE My brother is much younger [ than myself] He thought how much more advanced the young were. It’s far too expensive. в худшем случае none the less ― тем не менее in the near future ― в ближайшем будущем the younger generation ― молодое поколение In the last / past few days / weeks / months / years ― за последние дни / with every passing day / year / month ― с каждым днем / годом / месяцем недели / месяцы / годы Intensifiers of Adjectives EMPHASIZERS with very ever so too far too most a most It’s very awkward.

but he didn’t try to analyse it. She put on her very best dress. They can be partially substantivized (i. acquiring 48 . all the + Adj His remorse was all the more painful because of the irony of his mistake. The baby’s fast asleep at last! She is fully conversant with the problems. Idiomatic intensifiers. He is funnier by far. You can find all the linguistic terms and their Russian equivalents on page common collocations. This method is no better than the one we’ve been using. I slept like a log and now I’m wide awake. It’s difficult to go about in the wrongest way possible. Ssh. Substantivized Adjectives When adjectives function as nouns denoting groups of people or things they are called substantivized adjectives. SUPERLATIVE DEGREE “The Swan Lake” is by far the best ballet we have. I’ve been with good people. All the grammar rules are lavishly supplied with explanations and examples. The cake is rock hard! He is bone idle and won’t do a stroke of work. He was none the wiser for that answer. Adj + and + Adj by far Adj + possible the very The sound grew fainter and fainter. far better than you.ever far Adj + by far no none the + Adj Environmental issues acquire an ever greater scope. The boss has got a brand new car.e.

Sing. (& finals. & pl. & pl.studies and examinations . . a the zero sing. a sing. national. the English we use. zero the. the rich. Pl. zero the. sing. can be used with all articles). His was a nervous.abstract notions Sing. the grey of the earth.languages (treated as abstract uncounts) . political. practicals. MEANING PARTIALLY . valuables. EXAMPLE the beautiful. graphic English Sing. & pl. the blind. & pl.substances. shades – counts) Sing. the unknown. The trees were turning yellows and reds.only some of the morphological characteristics of nouns) or fully substantivized (i. the old Russian. . mathematics movables. a sing. WHOLLY . Pl.colours (uncounts. an ordinary ― ordinaries a liberal ― liberals an Indian ― Indians a private ― privates & pl. zero the zero 49 FORM ARTICLE the VERB sing. phonetics.e. greens.groups of persons pl. grey. characteristics) treated as counts . etc. politics.persons (social. pl. .

English. it is always in the plural. kindly. Welsh. the Americans. She waved her hands around in a lively fashion.). the wise. or way: He smiled at me in a friendly way. the Russians. in –ch: Dutch. Japanese. daily. we must add a noun. If we want to indicate a single person or a number of persons. Adjectives and Adverbs Some adverbs are formed from an adjective + -ly: happy ― happily. French and in –ese: Chinese. manner. When an adjective already ends in –ly (cowardly. Portuguese and the adjective Swiss are used with the definite article to form a substantivized adjective in the plural: the English. the rich. Note 2: Some adjectives denoting nationalities and ending in – (i)sh: British.collections of things the sing. friendly. lively.g. etc. In other cases we should use the + the plural form: the Canadians. Irish.) chemical(s) Note 1: When a substantivized adjective denotes a group of people (e. Instead we can use a prepositional phrase with the words fashion. etc. The young man is fishing. The old man receives a pension. the Japanese. N + -ly = Adj in a [Adj] manner/way = Adv N man woman friend Adj manly womanly friendly Adv (phrase) in a manly way in a womanly way in a friendly way 50 Adj = Adv (in form) better best daily . lonely) we don’t add –ly to it to make an adverb.

pointedly. wholeheartedly. one ending in –ly and the other ― without it: cheap(ly). I am dead certain (= completely) / 51 The prisoners were guarded closely (= very attentively). Compare: We live close to the church (=near). reputedly.) However. clear(ly). some do have an adverb form with –ly. dejectedly. clean(ly). including the following common ones: allegedly. (or in agitation. The rain stopped dead (suddenly and completely). thin(ly). deservedly. contentedly. repeatedly. excitedly. She is deadly pale today (= like death). hurriedly. She walked around the room in an agitated way. fine(ly). These pairs of adverbs usually have different meanings. Some adverbs have two forms. He is deadly serious (= very). wickedly: The weather had turned unexpectedly stormy. slow(ly). belatedly. supposedly. reportedly. . markedly. unexpectedly.coward life love mother father brother sister king soldier sick cowardly lively lovely motherly fatherly brotherly sisterly kingly soldierly sickly silly in a cowardly way in a lively way in a lovely way in a motherly way in a fatherly way in a brotherly way in a sisterly way in a kingly way in a soldierly way in a sickly way in a silly way early fast hourly monthly weekly worse worst yearly Most participle adjectives ending in –ed don’t have an adverb form and we can use a similar prepositional phrase: They rose to greet me in a subdued manner.

He pushed his stick deep into the sand (= to a great depth). exactly. They cut short their holiday when The speaker will be arriving shortly 52 undoubtfully) Cut the meat fairly small. close to). (= suddenly and rather firmly or angrily) Turn sharp right at the crossroads (= suddenly and quickly). It’s pretty cold today. stopping)’. arranged. (= after recent past and up until now). she said sharply “ (= exactly). (= quite. you can go direct (= without He saw Susan directly (= straight) ahead. quite) . Everyone thinks highly of her teaching. ‘Do I have to change trains in Leeds?’ I’ll be with you directly (= very soon). (= they praise her for it). The room was prettily rather) decorated. (= to some degree. (adj) a deadly sin (= mortal) He was deeply offended (= very). correctly) They stayed up late to watch the I’ve been feeling very well lately (= in the election results on television. Just take it easy (= remain calm) and tell us exactly what happened. I am deeply privileged. hardly (= only just) hear what he was saying. I could her exams.dead tired / dead asleep / dead drunk / (adj) deadly poison / deadly struggle dead calm / dead sure / dead right. or expected time) They live quite near (her) (= not far He was nearly as tall as his friend (= not from. rather. дальше She is easily the best student in the class. She smiled prettily. I can easily finish it today (= without difficulty). or according to the rules) She worked really hard and passed The telephone line was so bad. but not too small. The meeting starts at 3 o’clock sharpDon’t talk nonsense”. (= будешь You must play fair. Easy does it = тише едешь. ‘No. approximately). She was sitting just here (= exactly) As you justly observed (= rightly. (= in a just or honest manner. the usual. He kicked the ball high over the goal.

smell. aspect (common. continuous). and he did a good job. There are the following moods in English: THE INDICATIVE MOOD presents actions as real facts in the present. seem we use adjectives. Note that after the link verbs look. widely available. which shows in what relation to reality the speaker places the action expressed by the predicate verb. passive). Indicative mood forms distinguish the categories of tense (present. (= in many places) Remember that good is an adjective and well is an adverb: I asked Francis to clean the car. past or future. Please take your seats. future). (= went home early) (= soon). very tightly controlled (= closely. OBLIQUE MOODS MOOD is the form of the verb. number and person. perfect). which is the rain (= shut very firmly). It smells sweet / horrible / bad / wonderful. feel. sound.John became ill. Are you okay? I don’t feel very well today. well is also an adjective meaning healthy: You’re not looking too well. The windows were shut tight against I wouldn’t like to live in a society. However. firmly). taste. correlation (non-perfect. / and he did the job well. not adverbs: She looks nice / bad / pale / awful / strange. voice (active. The door was wide (= completely) It won’t be difficult to get the book. 53 . It’s open so I just went straight in. past.

problematic actions may be viewed as desired. Subjunctive II and the Conditional Mood express unreal (hypothetical) actions. All the forms of the mentioned above Moods can be presented in the following table: Mood Subjunctive Form Non-perfect I be come go Perfect — Subjunctive the II were came went had been had come had gone Mood Conditional the Suppositional Mood should be should come should go have would/should be would/should come would/sould go would/should have should been been would/should have should come come have would/should have should gone gone have 54 . necessary. and they may be grouped as Subjunctive I. which coincides with the stem of the verb (e. Subjunctive I and the Suppositional Mood express problematic actions. The Imperative Mood has practically only one form. Unreal actions are those contradicting reality. but not the action itself.g. imaginary. Subjunctive II. the Conditional Mood and the Suppositional Mood. Begin). supposed. Do. etc. contradicting reality. i.e. possible.THE IMPERATIVE MOOD expresses a command of a request to perform an action addressed to somebody. THE OBLIQUE MOODS express unreal (hypothetical) or problematic actions. There are different forms of the verb employed for this purpose.

If wishes were horses beggars would ride. that is. I was wishing I were still there (were denotes a past action since it is simultaneous with the past action ). correlation and voice. or precedes it. They can only indicate if the action of the verb in the Oblique Mood coincides in time with the action of the indicative mood form in the principal clause. the Conditional or the Suppositional Mood (see the table above) in the subordinate clause denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the indicative mood form in the principal clause: I wish I were home (were denotes a present action which is simultaneous with the present action). This relative expression of time-reference is based on the category of correlation. they cannot refer the action directly to the present. but they have no tense category. Perfect forms of Subjunctive II.Temporal Relations within the Oblique Moods Oblique mood forms distinguish the categories of aspect. the Conditional and the Suppositional Mood indicate priority to the action expressed by the indicative mood form in the principal clause. If there is no indicative mood form in the sentence than a non-perfect oblique mood form directly refers the action to the present or future: I wouldn’t do a thing like that without telling you. Perfect oblique mood forms refer the actions to the past: Ten years ago. Maurice wouldn’t have spoken like this. past or future. Otherwise stated. a non-perfect form of Subjunctive II. So perfect forms always express past actions: I wish I hadn’t got into this mess (hadn’t got denotes a past action which is prior to the present action). If we’d been caught last night – what would have happened to us? 55 .

Subjunctive II is found in simple sentences with modal verbs. built. did.Subjunctive II Form: Subjunctive II has two basic forms: non-perfect Subjunctive II is synthetical and is homonymous with the Past Indicative: spoke. Meaning: Subjunctive II represents an action as contrary to reality: I always wish I were like you (as a matter of fact. I am not like you). had written. 2. had gone. The only exception is the verb to be. Subjunctive II is used in exclamatory sentences beginning with “Oh. In the sentences referring to the present or future the modal verb in Subjunctive II is followed by a non-perfect infinitive. Use: Subjunctive II is used in simple sentences and in certain subordinate clauses of a complex sentence. that …”. whose Subjunctive II from is were for all persons: I/she/he/ it were (was is also possible with I/he/she/it and is more common in conversational English). Perfect Subjunctive II is homonymous with the Past Perfect Indicative for all verbs: had done. etc. etc. “If only …”: Oh. went. that the storm were over! (present) If only Rowley had come! (past) Such sentences express wish or regret. wrote. in the sentences referring to the past – by a perfect one: Could you come again tomorrow? You might have opened the door for me. Simple Sentence 1. A. 56 .

3. In predicative clauses introduces by the conjunctions as if. introduced by жаль. With reference to the future. Subjunctive II is also found in simple sentences containing the modal phraseological expressions had better. seem. Nominal Clauses 1. Complex Sentence Subjunctive II is used in nominal and adverbial clauses. I feel as though I had never been away (prior action). Such sentences express preference of advice: I would rather know the painful truth than imagine it (preference). You’d better keep out of sight until it’s all over (advice). would rather. would sooner. habit or willingness: 57 . after the verb to wish a combination of the modal verb would in Subjunctive II and the Infinitive is often used in the sense of insistence. sound: It was as if she were trying to tell him something (simultaneous action). Sentences with wish-clauses express regret. B. feel. In object clauses after the verb “to wish”: I wish we were both about ten years older than we are (simultaneous action). as though. какая жалость or by the finite form of the verb “сожалеть”. When rendering them into Russian it is possible to use a clause with the opposite meaning. I wish I hadn’t come (prior action). как жаль. The predicative clauses with Subjunctive II immediately follow the link verbs be. look. 2.

In attributive clauses only non-perfect Subjunctive II is used. even though). It is about time: It is time I made up my mind.I wish you wouldn’t sing in the bath. I only wish I might be with you. The principal clause contains a form of the Conditional Mood: I shouldn’t take this line if I were you (present action). 2. It is high time. In adverbial clauses of comparison or manner introduced by the conjunctions as if. 3. He speaks if he had never seen me before (prior action). 58 . In attributive clauses after the expressions It is time. I wish you would shut up! Would + Infinitive is possible only when the subject of the subordinate clause and that of the principal clause do not denote the same thing or person. Adverbial Clauses Subjunctive II is used: 1. In adverbial clauses of unreal condition or concession (after the conjunction even if. If the fulfilment of the wish depends more on the circumstances. Would” + Infinitive shows that the fulfillment of the wish depends on the will of the person denoted by the subject of the subordinate clause: I wish you would treat me better. as though: His voice broke as if he were going to cry (simultaneous action). may (might) or could + Infinitive is preferable: I wish I could help you.

Such sentences are characteristic of literary style. would have been reading.Even if they had wanted me to stay I would have refused (past action). he would have answered sharply. represents an action as contradicting reality. the perfect Conditional Mood is formed with the help of the perfect or perfect continuous Infinitive: should have done. The non-perfect Conditional Mood employs the indefinite or continuous Infinitive: should do. The Conditional Mood is used to denote unreal actions in simple sentences: 1. The Conditional Mood Form: the Conditional Mood is an analytical form built up by means of the auxiliary verb should (for the 1st person) of would (for all persons) and the Infinitive. In this case inversion serves as a means of subordination: Had Mr Robbins been other than a distinguished visitor. like Subjunctive II. Had they wanted me to stay I would have refused. Clauses of unreal condition may be introduced asyndetically (without any conjunctions). Meaning: The Conditional Mood. Use: A. The different between the two moods is in their form and in their usage. but for me. with an adverbial modifier of condition expressed by a but for . In Modern English for the first person should and would are both possible with no real difference in meaning: I should (would) never have thought you read anything but the sporting news. would be going. 59 .phrase: He would not have come.

less straightforward. to sound polite. the non-perfect forms of respectively the Conditional Mood and Subjunctive II are used: I should never forgive myself if I profited by his generosity.2. with implied condition: I wouldn’t waste my time on rubbish in your place (condition is implied in the phase in your place = If I were in your place). If the unreal actions in both the principal and the subordinate clause relate to the present or future. B. The actions in the principal and subordinate clauses may have different timereference. Here the Conditional Mood differs from the Indicative only stylistically: I should very much object to you reading trashy novels (= I very much object). If both the actions contradicting reality relate to the past. 2. The choice of actual forms depends on the timereference of the actions: 1. Sentences of this kind are said to have split condition (or mixed type). The unreal condition may refer to the past (past Subjunctive II) and the unreal consequence to the present (non-perfect Conditional): How much better I should write now if in my youth I had had the advantage of sensible advice! The unreal condition may refer to no particular time (non-perfect Subjunctive II) and the unreal consequence may refer to the past (perfect Conditional): 60 . 3. The Conditional Mood is used in the principal clauses of complex sentences with the subordinate clauses of unreal condition or unreal concession (where Subjunctive II is used). the perfect Conditional is used in the principal clause and perfect Subjunctive II in the subordinate one: I’d have gone this morning if I’d been able to get away. 3.

61 . The non-perfect Suppositional mood: should be. Meaning: Both Subjunctive I and the Suppositional Mood express problematic actions. to a great extent. they differ stylistically: thus. The perfect Suppositional Mood: should have been. These actions are presented as necessity.She wouldn’t have told me the story if she disliked me. order. write. Expressing the same kind of modality. etc. which is homonymous with the verb stem: be. etc.). have. should have written. poetry or official documents. Form: Subjunctive I is a synthetical form which survived from Old English. go. in the British variant of the English language Subjunctive I is only preserved in elevated prose. He suggested that I come for her (Am. request. should do. do.). interchangeable. everyday speech the Suppositional Mood is used. It has only one form. The Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I These two moods will be treated together because they have the same meaning and are practically interchangeable in use. Subjunctive I and the Suppositional Mood are used in the same syntactic structures and are. suggestion. supposition. not necessarily contradicting reality.E. In neutral.E. should have done. should write. desire. However. In American English Subjunctive I in neutral and colloquial speech is the norm: He even suggested that I should play cricket with his sons (Br. They differ in form as well as stylistically. The Suppositional Mood is an analytical form which is built up with the help of the auxiliary verb should for all persons + the Infinitive.

Suffice it to say that he is a liar . So be it (Be it so). Subjunctive I in these expressions may be replaced by Let + Infinitive: Let it be so. Simple Sentence In simple sentences only Subjunctive I is used in a few set expressions as a survival of old usage (the so-called formulaic expressions). Some formulaic expressions have a concessive meaning: Happen (come) what may (will). Most of them express a wish: Long live the Army! Success attend you! Be yours a happy meeting! Far be it from me to spoil the fun / to conceal the truth. Cost what it may. 3. The only productive pattern of a simple sentence with Subjunctive I is the sentence expressing a command or a request with an indefinite pronoun as the subject: 62 . 1. God bless you! God save the Queen! Heaven forbid! Confound your ideas! Subjunctive I in such expressions can be replaced by “may + Infinitive”: May success attend you! May your meeting be happy! May the Army live long! 2.Use: A.

The Suppositional Mood is used only in one type of interrogative sentences beginning with And what if …? (А что если вдруг …?): And what if he should come back? B. 4. object. object. Nominal and Attributive Appositive Clauses 1. We require that all (should) work hard (object clause). command. attributive appositive and some adverbial clauses. supposition.) It is required that all (should) work hard (subject clause). etc. recommendation. My greatest wish in the world is that you should be happy (predicative clause). He suggested that I (should) go out and help them (object clause). 63 . Do you accept our requirement that all (should) work hard? (attributive clause) It is important that a young man should have really trustworthy friends (subject clause). Complex Sentence Subjunctive I and the Suppositional Mood are used in nominal (subject. suggestion. predicative and attributive appositive clauses if in the principal clause a modal meaning is expressed (that of order. desire. Our requirement is that all (should) work hard (predicative clause). Both Subjunctive I and the Suppositional Mood (non-perfect) can be used in subject.Everybody leave the room! Somebody switch off the light! Subjunctive I may be replaced in such sentences by “let + Infinitive”: Let everybody leave the room. predicative).

interesting. Our fear lest he should hive away our secret was great (attributive clause). The subordinate clause may be introduced by the conjunction "that" or the negative conjunction lest (typical of literary style): I was terrified lest they should notice me (object clause). with words like amazing. etc. 64 . I'm surprised you should want him to stay in that house (object clause). 2. though perfect is also possible) and rarely Subjunctive I are used in nominal and attributive appositive clauses after the expression of fear in the principal clause.): It was astonishing that so short a break should have destroyed the habit of years (subject clause). shocked. natural. normal. 3. sorry. it's a shame. I'm very much afraid that I shouldn't be acceptable (object clause). Only the Suppositional Mood (both non-perfect and perfect) is used in nominal and attributive appositive clauses if in the principal clause a personal reaction to events is expressed (for instance.I haven't the least desire that you should dine with me on that day (attributive appositive clause). Our fear was lest we should be late (predicative clause). A feeling of anger seized her that a letter from Gerald should bring her such pain (attributive appositive clause). The Suppositional Mood (mostly non-perfect.

3. whenever. the non-perfect Suppositional Mood or Subjunctive I may be used with reference to the present or future: Though he should make every effort he cannot succeed. 2. rarely.Adverbial Clauses 1. although. In the adverbial clauses of condition referring to the future the Suppositional Mood is used to show that the action is possible. Whatever the reason be. если вдруг …. whoever. что …. After the conjunctions that. "lest" (literary style) the non-perfect Suppositional Mood is used. the fact remains. he has no right to be rude. are the modal phrases may (might) + Infinitive: Whoever he may be. wherever. 65 . whatever. though unlikely. In adverbial clauses of purpose introduced by the conjunction "so that". Subjunctive I: Mary lowered her eyes so that he should not see the faint gleam of amusement in them. He came up closer so that he could see the picture better. in order that. so. etc. or. the modal phrases may (might) or can (could) + Infinitive may be used: I tell you this so that you may understand the situation. however. что …. если так случится. More usual. so that. In the principal clause the Conditional Mood. he gave no sign. Bertha dared to say nothing lest he should hear the tears in her voice. the Future Indicative or the Imperative Mood may be used: If it should be wet they would stay at home. In adverbial clauses of concession introduced by though.. если случайно …. Though he might have been suspicious. Such clauses may be rendered into Russian as: случись так.

I will inform him about your decision. by means of inversion: Should I see him.If you should find another way out. In literary style conditional clauses of this type are sometimes joined to the principal clause asyndetically (without any conjunctions). will you inform me? If you should meet him. 66 . give him my best regards.

Yes-no answers. The sentence is a minimal text unit which may be used in communication to express a complete message. Bye-bye.SYNTAX THE SENTENCE In the process of communication words combine to form utterances. From the point of view of their structure sentences fall into the following types: Sentence Simple One-member Two-member Complete Incomplete (Elliptical) Complex Complete Composite Compound Incomplete (Elliptical) 67 .West! 2. Interjections: Hi! Dear me! 4. Conversational formulas: Thank you. Most utterances fall into two groups: sentences and non-sentence utterances. 3. Vocatives: Charles! Mr. Non-sentence utterances are: 1.

c) patterns extended by optional elements: The child laughed merrily. There are nominal and verbal one-member sentences: a) Nominal sentences are those in which the principal part is expressed by a noun. My friend Mary is a very kind nurse. These sentences are mostly used to describe different emotional perceptions of reality: To think of that! 68 . b) patterns extended by obligatory elements: The child caught the ball. Mary is kind. They are typical of descriptions: Silence. We proved him wrong. They state the existence of things.The Simple Sentence. Mary is a nurse. Summer. Midnight (unextended). English spring flowers! (extended) b) Verbal one-member sentences are those in which the principal part is expressed by a non-finite form of the verb. Structural Types Two-member sentences The basic pattern of a simple sentence is one subject-predicate unit. There are several variations of this basic pattern. If one of these extending elements is omitted the sentence is incomplete. One-member sentences A one-member sentence contains only one principal part which is neither the subject nor the predicate. depending on the kind of verb (transitive/intransitive) occupying the predicate position: a) unextended patterns (those with no secondary parts): The child laughed. either an infinitive or a gerund. John lives in London.

exclamatory sentences. No other element of it is implied or felt as missing or necessary. however. Communicative Types of Sentences According to their role in the process of communication sentences are divided into four types: declarative. they do not carry any new important information and they can be easily restored to complete the meaning of the sentence: “Where are you going?” ― “To the library”. These words can be omitted because they have only grammatical. structural relevance. imperative. See what I mean? You sure? Other kinds are typical of certain restricted uses of writing. 69 . No smoking here. Many kinds of ellipsis. “Who lives in that house ?” ― “John and Mary”. Elliptical (incomplete) sentences An elliptical two-member sentence is a sentence in which one or more wordforms in the subject and the predicate positions are omitted. for example notices and headlines: Children not admitted.Living at the mercy of a woman! A one-member sentence is complete. interrogative. Some kinds of ellipsis are likely to be found only in casual speech: Looks like rain. are common in both speech and writing as a means of reducing repetition or sharpening contrast.

modal or link verb) followed by the subject. Besides their main function of information carriers. Declarative sentences Declarative sentences. did put in front of the base form of the verb: I do feel sorry for Roger. A statement can be emphasized by the auxiliary verbs do. statements are characterized by the direct order of words. form the bulk of monological speech and the greater part of conversation. All varieties of questions may be of the following types: General questions A general question opens with a verb operator (an auxiliary. Interrogative sentences The communicative function of interrogative sentences consists in asking for information. or statements. In a complex sentence the comminucative type depends upon that of the principal clause. You mustn’t talk back to your parents. I haven’t seen my sister yet. Grammatically. statements may be used with the force of questions. It is characterized by the rising tone: Does it hurt much? Can you speak French? 70 .These divisions are usually applied to simple sentences. A statement may be positive (affirmative) or negative: I have just come from a business trip. In a compound sentence coordinate clauses may belong to different communicative types. commands and exclamations: I wonder why he is so late. does.

will you? Let’s forget it. / ― Да. did you? That hardly counts. Isn’t he a bore? ― No (He isn’t a bore). shall we? Note the answers to the following tag questions: 71 ― positive statement+negative tag You didn’t know I was an― negative statement+positive tag ― the tag is positive because the statement contains a semi-negative word ― note the negative tag with “I”. It is quite warm. does it? I’m controlling it. isn’t it? artist.Ready?― elliptical question. Yes and No are used according to the facts and not according to the form of the question. This is usually done when you expect the person you are addressing to agree with you or confirm your statement. была. Haven’t you posted the letter yet? Note the meaning of Yes and No in answers to negative questions: Isn't he a bore? ― Yes (He is a bore). Tags are most often used in spoken English. aren’t I? Nobody had bothered to do this. ― note the use of the plural pronoun in the tag ― to make your order sound less forceful ― after a negative imperative only a positive tag is used . had they? Come into the kitchen. will you? See that she gets safely back. won’t you? Don’t tell Howard. Tag questions A tag question is a short yes-no question added to a statement. не была. Compare with Russian: Вы не были в Париж?― Нет.

You don’t know French, do you? ― No, I don’t (If you don’t know it). You don’t know French, do you? ― Yes, I do (If you know it). Alternative questions An alternative question or an “either-or” question, implies a choice between two or more alternative answers. It opens with an operator and the suggestion of choice is expressed by the conjunction or. The yes-no answer is impossible. Words, word groups and clauses can all be linked in this way: Do you like your coffee white or black? ― Black, please. Will you have your whisky, or do you want dinner straight away? ― Whisky. Suggestive questions Suggestive, or declarative, questions form a peculiar kind of “yes-no” questions. They keep the word order of statements but serve as questions owing to the rising tone: You’re working late tonight? Suggestive questions are used: 1) when we want to confirm something, 2) when we want to express surprise, 3) as leading questions to get exact information, 4) in echo-questions repeating the structure of the statement that came before: He said you were a very good teacher. ― He said that? The use of indefinite pronouns and adverbs has a positive orientation (unless negation is meant). You have something to tell me? ― Just a few words. Pronominal questions Pronominal questions or special, or wh- questions, open with an interrogative pronoun or a pronominal adverb the function of which is to get more detailed or exact

information about a particular person, thing, place, reason, method, or amount. Question words may have various syntactic functions. The word order is characterized by inversion except for the cases when a wh- word is the subject of the question. The tone is usually falling: And then what happened? What am I going to do without you? Who discovered this? Who did she marry? Who did she dance with? Which is the best restaurant? (which is used when there is a limited choice) Where do you think he is now? (the parenthesis “do you think” does not call for the inverted word order). Pay attention to the fact that question words in English and in Russian may not coincide: What is this plant called? ― Как называется это растение? What does a unicorn look like? ― Как выглядит единорог? What do you think? ― Как вы думаете? Rhetorical questions Both general and pronominal questions may serve as rhetorical questions. A rhetorical question contains a statement disguised as a question. Usually it is a positive question hiding a negative statement. No answer is expected: Can anyone say what truth is? Rhetorical questions are used in emotionally coloured monological speech, especially in oratory, poetry and the writer’s digressions.


Imperative sentences Imperative sentences express commands. Besides commands proper imperative sentences may express prohibition, a request, an invitation, a warning, persuasion, etc. Formally commands are marked by the predicate verb in the imperative mood, absence of the subject, and the use of the auxiliary do in negative or emphatic sentences with the verb to be: Don’t be afraid of them. Speak louder, please. Would you do me a favour? Let Philip have a look at it. Let’s go outside. Don’t let’s quarrel about trifles. Let’s not quarrel about trifles. Somebody switch off light. Silence, please (a verbless command). Exclamatory sentences Exclamatory sentences express ideas emphatically: What a funny story she told us! How beautiful her voice is! How I hate posters! What a situation! Isn’t it funny! Doesn’t she sing beautifully! If only I were young again! Fire!( one-member sentence) To think that she should have said so!


The subject is that which is spoken of. Ways of expressing the Subject The subject can be expressed by these parts of speech and groups of words which are connected with the idea of subjectivity: 1. 3.THE SUBJECT Every English sentence except the one-member and the imperative must have a subject. An infinitive phrase or a gerundial phrase: 75 . Two thousands more were believed to be injured. 2. A great number of trees were cut down. A numeral or a nominal phrase with a numeral: Seven is a lucky number. but it pours. The subject determines the form of the predicate. but in questions its position is after an auxiliary verb. A personal pronoun in the nominative case or a nominal phrase with a pronoun: She is a very talkative person. It never rains. An infinitive or a gerund: Seeing is believing. Who told you this? Her dress was the best at the party. 4. A noun in the common case or a nominal phrase with a noun: Love filled his soul. which agrees with it in number and person. 5. To understand is to forgive. The subject is one of the two main parts of the sentence. In declarative sentences it comes before the predicate.

Your doing this is very strange. The simple subject is expressed by a single word-form: Spring has come at last. 8. phrasal. To live is to struggle. A clause. Doing several things at a time doesn't bring good results. 2. 1. gerundial phrases): Building houses becomes more difficult. An Infinitive predicative construction or a gerundial construction: For me to go there is impossible. infinitive phrases. The blue of the sky deepened visibly. What he expected began. Any word or words used as quotations: Your "i" must be dotted.To go on like this was dangerous. 6. "The War of the Worlds" was first published in 1898. complex and clausal. Structural Types of the Subject Structurally the subject falls into four types: simple. 3. which makes the whole sentence a complex one: What is done cannot be undone. Smoking is bad for your health. 7. To ask him again was impossible. b) Gerundial constructions: 76 . The complex subject is expressed by different predicative complexes: a) For-to-infinitive constructions: For him to earn bread was a problem. The phrasal subject is expressed by any of the phrases mentioned above (nominal phrases.

The clausal subject is expressed by a subject clause: Who has done this is still to be found. numerals. gerunds. one-member sentences. This may occur when a noun denotes someone's place of business or residence: The grocer’s was full.” According to the classification suggested by Professor Smirnitsky there exist the following types of the subject. pronouns. 77 . This type of the subject is rather emphatic. These are mainly imperative sentences. However. clauses: To marry Fleur would be to hit his mother in the face. Winter. It may also be the result of an ellipsis: Jim’s was a narrow escape (Jim’s escape was a narrow one). “Where is John?” ― “Went to Paris. 4. twomember elliptical sentences: Sit down! Silence. practice proves that sentences without the subject exist. Looks like rain. predicative complexes. As the subject is the grammatical centre of the sentence which determines the form of the predicate it would be possible to assume that the sentence is unimaginable without the subject.My meeting him again was a surprise. Note: A noun in the genitive case can be the subject. The hairdresser’s is at a stone’s throw away. Where he lives is unknown to me. infinitives. a) definite personal b) indefinite personal c) impersonal Definite personal subject denotes a concrete person or a non-person and can be expressed by nouns.

a person in broad sense. distance and other measurements: It is spring. more or less definite group of persons. It was opened by a young girl of ten. It seems that he is not frank with us.She had never been afraid to experiment. Impersonal subject is used in sentences describing various states of nature or things in general. b) It was a large room with a great window. in this case the subject is expressed by personal pronouns we and they: They say this is a difficult place to work. thus having a demonstrative meaning: a) It is John. in this case the subject is expressed by a definite pronoun one or a personal pronoun you: When one has a fever. 2. b) The postman brought the letter. or it may refer to the thought contained in a preceding statement. Indefinite Personal subject may denote: 1. It also denotes time. c) Mary returned home late. DEMONSTRATIVE It points out some person or thing expressed by a predicative noun. “IT” and “THERE” as Subjects NOTIONAL “IT” PERSONAL It stands for a thing mentioned in the previous context: a) The door opened. It irritated his mother. It is on the table. It is cold today. one’s ideas become grotesque and fanciful. It = This 78 . What you say is a good piece of advice. or characteristics of the environment.

There is a time for all things. It also precedes the following group of verbs: to remain. Doing nothing is awfully work. c) Distance It is a long way to Ireland. more IT It is difficult to translate article. hard crying over spilt doing sentence: come is strange. to turn out. b) Time It was nine o’clock. followed by a clause: It seemed that he didn’t know the place (state of affairs). anything): There was nobody in the room. It is the last straw that breaks with the back. It is they who give wisdom understanding. Note: 1) Here belong sentences with the predicate expressed by the noun time followed by the Infinitive: It was high time to take the departure. with the emphasized part not the camel’s and It is no good there so is no use going early. gerundial phrase: There is no smoking here. to exist. any. there is what we might call a pattern. 2) There can be found in the following idiomatic expressions: There’s no point / There’s no sense + in + Gerund/ Gerundial Complex: There's no sense in your doing this INTRODUCTORY THERE There introduces the notional subject expressed by: a) characteristics environment. the Thingummy!” surgeon. c) gerund. The structure of such sentences follows: It + is/was + is as It is strange that he didn’t come. to appear. somebody. no one... 3) Sentences with predicative adjectives preceded by too and followed by an Infinitive: It was too late to start (time).FORMAL SUBJECTS ‘’IT” AND “THERE” IMPERSONAL IT Natural phenomena. drizzling and dark. That he didn’t emphasized part of the sentence + who/that + the rest of the It is awfully hard work nothing. It is you who are wrong. to live. d) State of things in general “It is all over. to appear. Note: 1) There is used with the verb to be to talk about something that exists. It is they who are losing a game. who am There’s no need + Infinitive/ For-toInfinitive Construction: There is no need to phone him. to come.. To translate this article is difficult this a) noun: There was silence for a moment. d) clause: First. It milk. b) pronouns (some. Study the following examples: It is no secret that the President wants to There is no alternative but to ask her 79 . or There is no. A number of common expressions include It is no.. to go. Note: The predicate agrees with who: It is I laughed at. It was October.. of the EMPHATIC IT Structures with emphatic it are used to give any part of the sentence importance. 2) Sentences predicate expressed by the verbs: to seem. There is nothing new under the sun. etc. said Mrs.

THE PREDICATE The predicate is a word or a group of words that informs us of what is happening to the person.. seem. plan. 80 . It is planned that they will come tomorrow. surprise.have a second term. believe. decide. to leave. Such sentences have the following structure: It+Verb+(Object) + that-clause: It surprised me that they didn’t come to any agreement. It is the second main part of the sentence and its organizing centre. visit this country. expect.pattern when they are in the passive: accept. There is no reason to be pessimistic. There is no chance of meeting him. good footballer. was a success. follow. annoy. frighten. It is no good getting so annoyed. It is no wonder Dad felt angry. It worried me that he drove so fast. It is no surprise that his latest production There is no denying that he is a a very It was no coincidence that they left the works. understand: It is believed that a horseshoe brings good luck. There is no hope of getting money for the research. patterns are used with the following verbs: amaze. please.. party at the same time. It . appear. Some verbs are commonly used with an it . agree.. think. It is no longer necessary to have a visa to expensive computer. intend. There is no need to explain how it There is no point in buying an There is no question of agreeing to his demands. happen.. bother. object or phenomenon indicated as the subject in the sentence. It is no use telling me this.

a noun: Me. etc: of predicate are always exclamatory and are used in colloquial 81 They have been taking care of your English. I shouldn’t think the idea so unreasonable. The simple predicate can be verbal and nominal: The simple verbal predicate The simple nominal predicate The simple verbal predicate can be The simple nominal predicate can be expressed by: 1. to make a remark. to have a smoke.The predicate may be considered from the semantic (= dealing with the meaning of words) or from the structural point of view. to the simple nominal predicate there is an get hold(of). to type make up one’s mind. to give a cry. to make a move. to implied negation. 2. to pay a visit. or an attitude to some action or state ascribed to the subject. From the structural point of view there are two main types of the predicate: the simple predicate and the compound predicate. . although not frequently. a liar! 2. a state. to have a talk. Participle She spying! The simple nominal predicate doesn’t I or a participial phrase: a look. to make fun (of). b) denoting various kinds of contain a link verb. a verb phrase: a) denoting single actions: to have expressed by: 1. a verb in its synthetic or analytical form: His words frightened me. According to its semantics (= the meaning of its components). etc: I took a walk as far as the river. In the meaning of actions: to change one’s mind. the predicate may denote an action. a quality. Sentences with this lose sight (of). an adjective: You sad! 3. an infinitive or an infinitive phrase: My boy insult a gentleman at my table! 4. to take care (of).

an adverb. attitudinal and phasal meaning of the whole predicate. The structural part is expressed by a finite verb ― a phrasal verb.children long enough. The first part of this type of predicate 1. The compound predicate can be verbal and nominal. a phrase. duration. beginning: 1. The notional part is the main bearer of meaning. to set about. voice. an adjective. to verb: do as you were told. The modal comment on the content of the verb and an infinitive or a expressed by: denotes the action performed by person non-person modal expressed by the subject. to commence. modal. The compound verbal predicate falls into three types: The compound verbal phasal predicate The compound The compound verbal modal The compound verbal predicate of double orientation predicate verbal The compound The compound verbal predicate modal of double orientation consists of phasal predicate denotes verbal the beginning. a verbal. or a link verb. to start. gerund). 82 begin. a modal verb. predicate consists of two parts. The notional part may be expressed by a noun. tense. a (or may a attitude to. a predicative complex. The structural part carries grammatical information about the person. the The / second part an infinitive or a gerund. evaluation of or be sentence. or a clause. etc: You will have to can be expressed by: intransitive verbs of seeming and happening: . The first part is the repetition or cessation of a modal part and an finite verb which denotes the the action expressed by infinitive It consists of a phasal part gerund. The phasal verb can be a verb of: 1. a stative. number. The compound predicate consists of two parts: the structural (which comes first) and the notional (which follows the structural part).

2. to continue. etc: The lady was seen to leave the house. etc: He has never been known to lose his temper. to expression of nominal nature: to be able. to proceed. to give up. etc: The weather is not likely to change. etc: Royce continued to work quietly as the other two talked. to be sure. b) verbs of mental activity: used to (denoting a repeated action in the past): He would go there every afternoon just for pleasure. to believe. to hear. 3. 2. some verbs in the passive voice: a) verbs of saying: to say. to appear. etc: He seemed to have heard the news. declare. to turn out. to be allowed. phrases with some modal meaning: to be likely. to state. etc: The delegation is said to have arrived.The man began to play a lively tune. cessation: to stop. repetition: would. The compound nominal predicate can be of two types: proper and double. to cease. a modal to seem. be etc: We anxious cooperate. were to to be going. 3. to prove. c) verbs of perception: to to finish. 83 . duration: to go on. feel. etc: I gave up smoking. to understand. 2. to find. to anxious. to see. to think. to watch. to consider. to be certain. to keep. 4.

2. to sit . link verbs of being: to be. statives. to grow. to 3. to make: teacher. That is what has happened. person / non-person expressed by the to taste. nouns. infinitive gerunds / numerals. Her eyes grew angry. The link verb can be of 3 types: 1. indivisible groups of words and clauses: It’s me. to This type of predicate is often used after get. The girl will make a good function of denoting a process and serving as link verbs: to die. The first one is expressed by a notional verb denoting an action or process performed by the subject. to stay: The children kept silent. to turn. to continue. to smell. phrases. to remain. to marry. to sound. constructions. to etc. prepositional phrases. The moon rose round and constructions. to stand to shine. participles / participial yellow. which are notional. He died a hero. notions: The moon was shining cold The predicative can be expressed by and bright ( a) The moon was shining. pronouns. The predicate denotes two separate keep. phrases or gerundial infinitives phrases / or My daughter sat silent. etc: He looked awful. b) The moon was cold and bright). adjectives / adjectival phrases. link verbs of remaining: lie. The second part of the predicate is expressed by a noun or an adjective denoting the properties of the subject. link verbs of becoming: to become.The compound nominal predicate The proper compound nominal predicate The The compound nominal double predicate compound nominal double proper consists of a link verb and a predicate consists of two parts both of predicative (a nominal part). to look. verbs which perform the double to feel. 84 . to live.

division): Two and five is seven. An infinitive or infinitives: To labour in peace was all he sought. AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH THE SUBJECT Grammatical Agreement It means that the verb-predicate agrees with the subject in number and person. 4. 3. Ten minus two is eight. Twenty divided by five equals four. 2. The verb-predicate is used in the singular if the subject is expressed by: 1.My idea is to go there myself. Where you found them does not concern us. The stars were our only guide. To love and to be loved was his dream. My hobby is dancing. the plural predicate is used. The word-group “many a + noun”: Many a lie has been told. Note: Multiplication presents an exception as the verb may be in the singular or in the plural. Our only guide was the stars. subtraction. A clause: How you persuaded them is beyond my understanding. A numerical expression of arithmetic calculation (addition. 85 . Twice ten is/are twenty. Note: If by two clauses. What I say and what I do are my own affair.

However the negative pronoun none may have a singular or a plural verbpredicate. There was nothing to attract our attention. can be singular or plural: The Canterbury Tales exist/exists in many manuscripts. There were two children and a young woman in the yard. “Senior Citizens” means people over sixty. Pronouns as Subjects 1. each). Nobody has come except him. Indefinite pronouns ( somebody. no one. etc. negative pronouns (nobody. something. With here-there constructions followed by subjects of different number. everyone. it depends whether one person is meant or more than one: None of us understands/understand it. everything. anybody. anything). 2. universal pronouns (everybody. Interrogative pronouns who. Note: The titles of some works which are collections of stories. etc. titles. the verb-predicate agrees with the first subject: Here is Tom and James. There was a young woman and two children in the yard. a plural predicate may be used: Who are with him? Who have agreed to act? 86 . etc.. 6. what have a singular verb-predicate: Who is this man? What is there? If the question refers to more than one person.) have a singular predicate: Everyone thinks he has the answer. however. quotations. neither. Plural words and phrases count as singular if they are used as names. someone.: “Fathers and Sons” is the most popular of Turgenev’s novels.5.

Agreement with Homogeneous Subjects 1.3. when one person or object is meant: A black and white kitten was lying on the sofa. The pronoun all in the sense “всё” has a singular verb. which have to be cooked outdoors. which. You are the one who is wrong. Shish Kebab is one of those dishes. Note 2: If a singular subject is modified by two or more attributes connected by and. that) the verbpredicate agrees with its antecedent: It is I who am wrong. If the article is repeated. I don’t know the boys who live next door. 4. a singular verb-predicate is used. and a plural verbpredicate is used: The bread and the butter are on the table. The universal pronoun both has a plural predicate: Which of the books are yours? Both are mine. It is you who are wrong. Note 1: If coordinated nouns refer to one person or thing. If the subject is expressed by a relative pronoun (who. 5. 87 . two persons or objects are meant. All were ready by that time. The secretary and typist is in the office. A plural verb-predicate is used with homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunction and: John and Peter are my friends. while all in the sense все has a plural verb: All is well that ends well. a singular verbpredicate is used: The bread and butter was wholesome food. The secretary and the typist are in the office.

neither . crew. but also. party. Notional Agreement In Modern English agreement is often a conflict between form and meaning when the principle of grammatical agreement is not observed. government. army. committee.. Either your brakes or your eyesight is at fault. With subjects expressed by collective nouns which are plural in meaning but singular in form (family.. It means that the form of some nouns may be singular but the meaning occurs plural.But if the attributes modify different persons or objects.. A woman with her children was sitting under the tree. But uncountables have no articles: Classical and light music have both their admires. or.. the verb is in the plural and the article is repeated: A black and a white kitten were lying on the sofa. either . board. or the form may be plural but the meaning is singular. as much as. more than. Neither you nor I am ready for the trip. with (or together with) the verb-predicate agrees with the first subject: The manager as well as/ rather than/ more than/ as much as/ the members of the firm is responsible for the present situation. 2.. In modern hotels hot and cold water are supplied in every room.. 1. team. or.With homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunctions not only . nor the verb predicate agrees with the nearest subject: Not only my brother but also my parents were present there.) 88 . This type of agreement is sometimes called notional agreement. 3. My parents as well as my sister are teachers. The students together with their teacher are in favour of the plan. etc. With homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunctions as well as. rather than.

a mass of. This people inhabits the Northern deserts. taken as a whole. “нация” has a singular verb: The people were sitting at their doors. time. Note: The noun “people” in the meaning “народ”. or a collection of individuals taken separately: The government has issued a new edict. There was a lot of time yet. have a singular verb-predicate when the whole amount is meant. a variety of. Subjects expressed by nouns denoting measure. probably driven off. Notional agreement is also observed with word-groups. The cattle are all gone. My family is small. There were a lot of students at the grand meeting. A million dollars is a lot of money. 4. people) though singular in form. not the units: Three yards is not enough for this dress. the first element of which denotes quantity. such as a number of. weight. guard. In most cases the form of the predicate depends on the second element: A number of cars were parked before the building. My family are all sportsmen. The government were divided in their opinion. 3. The police are all over the place. plenty of. etc. police. always have a plural verb-predicate. a lot of.the predicate is either in the singular or in the plural. 89 . gentry. Ten years is a long time. A great variety of books were recently published. etc. poultry. infantry. Subjects expressed by collective nouns of multitude (cattle. clergy. 2.

Subjects expressed by such invariable singular nouns as hair. statistics. economics. Your tactics are obvious. money. mumps. The phrase more than one. billiards. they may have a plural verb-predicate when denoting practical application. which are names of sciences and other abstract notions. news) have a singular verb-predicate: No news is good news. different activities. though logically plural. dominoes. advice have a singular verb-predicate: His money is in the drawer.The nouns “number” and “variety” as subjects may retain their concrete meaning “количество”. “разнообразие”.: What are your politics? His phonetics are not bad at all. wages. The variety of questions was surprising. progress (успехи). have a singular agreement. clothes. Her hair is long. Note 1. riches. 5. etc. gate (ворота). qualities. funeral (похороны). the expression one or two always takes a plural verb: 90 . have a plural verb-predicate: The boy’s clothes were shabby. On the other hand. contents. 6. information (сведения). In this case they are used with the definite article and a singular verb-predicate: The number of books is not great. Subjects expressed by such invariable plural nouns as goods. The contents of his letter are unknown. etc. always takes the verb in the singular. Subjects expressed by invariable singular nouns ending in –s (measles. The goods have just arrived. Though nouns in -ics. Statistics in this article are not quite correct. The gate was locked.

There is more than one answer to your question. There are one or two things I need to discuss with you. The reason may be the fact that an accompanying noun in the former case is in the singular, while in the latter — in the plural. Note 2. The plural forms heaps and lots, when used colloquially to mean a large amount or number, take a singular or a plural verb depending on the construction: There is lots (heaps) more to do There was lots (heaps) of love in his letter There are lots (heaps) of people who don’t think so. Note 3. Nouns like family, team, group, class, party, government take a singular verb when combined with the relative pronoun which, and it can be substituted by it. A plural verb goes with the relative pronoun who, which can be substituted by they: His family, which is a numerous one, can trace its history back to the Middle Ages. His family, who are great musicians, have received their education in Paris.

THE OBJECT The object is a secondary part of the sentence which refers to any other part of the sentence expressed by a verb, an adjective or an adverb specifying, completing or restricting its meaning. Types of Objects From the point of view of the sentence structure, there are three types of the object: direct, indirect and prepositional. 1. The direct object typically denotes an animate or inanimate participant affected by an action, or directly involved in an action (without being an agent or a

recipient), or the result of the action: He wrote a poem. It has the following formal characteristics. It: a) is found with transitive verbs only: All the men wore dark suits; b) typically follows the verb, but there may be preceded by an indirect object: They sent me a telegram; c) corresponds to the subject in passive paraphrases: A telegram was sent to me. In some cases the direct object does not really express a participant role, but rather a verbal notion. This is true of cognate objects, which most typically repeat the meaning of the preceding verb. Verbs combining with cognate objects are normally intransitive and do not otherwise take a direct object. The object contains a noun derived from, or semantically related to, the same verb. The noun generally has some sort of modification, which carries the main new information: He began to smile his secret smile. He lived a long life. He died the death of a hero. 2. The indirect object denotes a recipient of an action directly involved in the process, or a beneficiary of an action (for whose sake the action is carried out): Tactics can win you these games. It has the following formal characteristics. It: a) is found with ditransitive verbs only: I’ll show you the garden; b) is normally placed between the verb and the direct object: They sent me a telegram; c) may be retained as object, or correspond to the subject, in passive paraphrases: I was sent a telegram; d) often allows a paraphrase with a prepositional object: They sent me a telegram. ― They sent a telegram to me. The indirect object denoting a recipient of an action can be replaced by a tophrase: We paid them the money. ― We paid the money to them. Here is a list of


verbs which take recipient indirect objects. They are verbs of transferring goods, services or information from one person to another: bring give grant hand lend offer owe pass pay post promise read sell send show teach tell write

The indirect object denoting a beneficiary of an action corresponds to a forphrase: I’ll get you some coffee. – I’ll get some coffee for you. The following verbs take beneficiary indirect objects. They denote actions carried on somebody’s behalf or for somebody’s benefit: book bring build buy cash cook cut fetch find fix get guarantee keep leave make mix play pour prepare reserve save spare win write

There are two possible sequences of the direct and indirect objects: 1) verb – prepositionless indirect object – direct object; 2) verb – direct object – prepositional indirect object. The second sequence makes the indirect object a little more emphatic. Such word order is obligatory when:
1) both objects are personal pronouns: Give it to me; 2) the direct object is a personal pronoun, while the indirect object is a noun:

Show it to John. 3. The prepositional object is an object introduced by a preposition (agree on a plan). It has the following formal characteristics. It: a) occurs with prepositional verbs (intransitive phrasal verbs with prepositions): I’m sure we can count on him, he’ll never let us down; b) is normally placed after the verb: It is better when one does not have to rely on other people; c) can become a subject in a passive paraphrase: We agreed on the plan. ― The plan was agreed on.

an infinitive phrase): She was looking at the distant hills. an infinitive): I’ve never seen him. complex or clausal. A man hates being run after. The complex object is expressed by a predicative construction (a gerundial construction. a pronoun. 3. an objective construction with Participle I. I want it done at once. Predicative Constructions that Function as Objects A predicative complex is a syntactical unit intermediate between a phrase and a clause. 1. an objective construction with Participle II. a for-to-infinitive construction. The first part of the predicative complex may be either a 94 . the object may be simple. the first denotes the doer of the action and the second one denotes the action itself. 4. The simple object is expressed by a single word-form (a noun in the common case. 2. an objective construction with non-verbals): I’ve never seen her crying. a substantivised adjective or participle. The phrasal object is expressed by a phrase (a nominal phrase. The clausal object is expressed by a clause (an object clause): I don’t know what it was. phrasal.Here is a list of some prepositional verbs: account for allow for count on dispose of drive at keep to laugh at look after reckon on stand for take after worry at Structure and Ways of Expressing From the point of view of its structure. a numeral. a gerundial phrase. He decided to stop. It consists of two parts. a gerund. an objective infinitive construction.

Verbs which may take the objective with the infinitive construction as a direct object: a) and require the infinitive with the particle to: ― verbs of wish and intention (wish. love. ― verbs of attitude (like. feel. etc. dislike. willing): I watched for him to appear through the bushes. The following predicative constructions can perform the function of an object only. believe. while the verbal part is an infinitive with the particle to. impatient. It may be either a direct or an indirect object in the sentence: She liked his worrying about his wife. desire. 95 . Everybody was impatient for the experiment to begin. an adverb or a noun and is called a verbal part. imagine. sorry. should / would like. etc. intend. eager. hate. ― verbs of declaring (declare. acknowledge. The gerundial construction is a predicative complex with the predicate part expressed by a gerund. etc. The second part may be an infinitive.noun or a pronoun and is called a nominal part. understand. The construction can be used as an indirect object of certain verbs (ask. He insisted on my claims being acknowledged. report. choose. find. The objective with the infinitive construction may combine with a wide range of verbs and is usually used as a direct object. though it may also occur in the function of an indirect object. trust. prefer. assume. etc. an adjective. expect.): I supposed him to have been married to her years ago. consider.): I can’t bear people to be unhappy or upset. a participle. etc.): Everybody pronounced him to be a complete failure. mean. suppose. The for-to-infinitive construction is a predicative complex in which the nominal part is introduced by the preposition for. a gerund. want. know.): I did not mean it to be told to her.) and adjectives (anxious. ― verbs of mental activity (think. pronounce. watch. cannot bear.

thus forming a nominal phrase with its headword. remember): At first she thought Johnny killed. The objective with Participle II construction can be attached to verbs of four semantic groups: ― verbs of sense perception: I heard my name called. ― verbs of mental activity (think. THE ATTRIBUTE The Attribute is a secondary part of the sentence which refers to a noun or another word of nominal nature (pronouns. etc. observe. b) and require the bare infinitive (the infinitive without to): ― verbs of sense perception (see. The objective construction with non-verbals can be attached to: ― verbs of mental activity and sense perception: I thought it a wonderful opportunity. command. ― causative verbs: All this made her angry. ask. 96 . allow. feel.― verbs of inducement (order. ― verbs of wish: Nobody wanted it done in such a way.): We saw planes zoom into the air. etc.): She would not allow the life of the child to be risked. The objective with Participle I construction can be used with: ― verbs of sense perception: There we saw the crocodiles swimming about. ― the causative verbs have and get: He got them running his errands every day. believe. ― the verbs let. make: She made him cry. hear. consider. substitute words). notice. ― the causative verbs have and get: I would like to have my hair cut.

white. Non-detached premodifying attributes may be unextended. Non-detached attributes form one sense group with their headword and are not separated form it by commas: The ladies present were shocked.Like any part of the sentence. She is a more beautiful girl. or form chains of homogeneous attributes with identical reference. and crimson flowers in the garden. From the point of view to their connection with the headword and other parts of the sentence. c) a predicative complex. Attributes with identical reference are usually interchangeable and are set off by commas or joined by a conjunction: There were yellow. d) a clause: He is the man I am particularly fond of. I am the cause for your going away. I know a place around the corner where we can have a cup of strong coffee. He is just the man for you to consult. Her walking shoes were elegant. from the point of view of its structure the attribute can be expressed by: a) a single word-form (synthetic and analytical): The sand glittered like white sugar in the sun. attributes may be divided into: a) non-detached (close) attributes. There are two predicative complexes that can function as an attribute ― the For-to-Infinitive Construction and the Gerundial Predicative Complex: This is a lesson for you to remember for the rest of your life. 97 . There were no signs of his supporting us. consisting of one word only. b) a phrase: It was a letter from his devoted friend. I haven’t got time to spare.

time immemorial 3. From the point of view of the position of attributes in the nominal phrase. They are loosely connected with the headword and are often optional from the point of view of structure. Compare: the present members (= those who are members now) 98 statives. cardinal numerals and infinitives are generally postmodifying attributes (the woman upstairs. “a-place-foreverything-and-everything-in-its-place” kitchen). the child asleep.e. attorney general. money to . riding clothes. The position of an attribute depends on the following factors: 1. proof positive. a child’s language. The morphological nature of the attribute. ordinal numerals and quotation nouns generally premodify the headword (a little man. court martial. page five. b) detached (loose) attributes: And for a moment I hesitated. Attributes are used in postposition in some fixed phrases. unable to start talking. preceding the noun they modify): She is a pretty girl. they may be: a) premodifying (i. Poet Laureate. spend). He would not run the risk of being too late. Adverbs.If attributes form a string with different reference (in which case their order is fixed) no commas are required: We saw a large black and white hunting dog there. Detached attributes are separated by commas.e. in several institutionalized expressions (mostly in official designations): the president elect. Participle I. b) postmodifying (i. following the item they modify): The people involved were reported to the police. nouns. apple trees. 2. the third attempt. although very important semantically. Adjectives. A few adjectives have special meanings when they occur after the noun.

etc. Sometimes the headword is embedded between parts of the attribute.. nominal phrase. We are looking for skilled people. comparatives and superlatives. similar.the members present (=those who are present here. This happens with different. He found himself in a situation difficult from his point of view. The girl responsible has been expelled. or a clause. The extension of the attribute. not absent) I think the picture would look better on the opposite wall. We are looking for people skilled at design. Non-detached attributes are postmodifying when expressed by extended phrases or complexes. The apposition may give 99 . first. Compare: It is a sensible suggestion. last. It is a suggestion sensible in many ways. I noticed that the man opposite was staring at me. 4. 5. next. Janet is a responsible girl. and a few other adjectives like difficult and easy. a different life from this one the best mother in the world the next house to the hotel the best man available the simplest way out possible THE APPOSITION The apposition is a peculiar attribute expressed by a noun or nominal phrase and referring to another noun. second. He found himself in a difficult situation. the same.

another name to. there may be any number of adverbials in the sentence. THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER Adverbials differ from other types of secondary parts of the sentence in at least three respects: 1) Adverbials are usually optional. b) detached appositions: Cooper was three inches taller than Mr. i. Warburton. the good ship “Venus”. but they are not essential to the structure: 100 . they are part of the structure of the sentence. 1.e. a strong. muscular young man. they may be omitted without making the clause unacceptable. From the point of view of structure (but not communicative value). etc. Your friend George Lamb has just telephoned. i.e. appositions are subdivided into two types: a) non-detached appositions: Sir Peter. i. are often expressed in the appositive form: the word “geese”. or else put it in a certain class of persons or non-persons. From the point of view of their relation to the headword. 2) Adverbials are not restricted in number. they can occur at different places in the sentence. Doctor Watson. Colonel Davidson. 3) Adverbials are often mobile.e. the play “Romeo and Juliet”. Mount Everest. books. Optional adverbials provide additional information. the use of adverbials may be optional (non-obligatory) or obligatory. or description of the person or non-person. References to words.

c) after verbs implying direction : to put. to act.: John lives in London. phrasal. adverbials may be non-detached and detached. 101 . they are never obligatory and are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. gravely. b) their extension or unusual position in the sentence: Like him. to wait. b) after stative and durative verbs: to live. c) the speaker’s desire for emphasis: “He was her father”.: He went to the dressing-room. to send. its decks deserted (Absolute Construction). From the point of view of their relation to the modified parts of the sentence. she saw the danger in it. etc. d) after verbs of motion and position in space: to come. to step. Adverbials are obligatory when the sentence structure demands one or when their absence changes the meaning of the verb. Simple: We started early. clausal. This is the case: a) after to behave. 2. said Frances.Sometimes the children played by the lake.: Put the book on the shelf. etc. Structural Types of the Adverbial Modifier From the point of view of its structure the adverbial modifier may be simple. Detachment of adverbials may be caused by: a) their meaning and structure: He saw the boat. Detached adverbials are more loosely related to the modified parts. to treat: He behaved bravely. to sit. to last. complex. etc.

result. attendant circumstances. Identifying questions: where? where to? where? how far? where from?: He lives far from his parents. such as adverbials of place. Adverbial Modifier of Manner. exception. for the reason of. Clausal: When the cat is away. thanks to. Adverbial Modifier of Time. Complex: John sat with his elbows on the table and his hands clasped. 4. for (introduces nominal or gerundial phrases): Jane has come to help us. Identifying questions: what for? for what purpose? Prepositions which may introduce them: in order. with the help of. degree. Adverbial Modifier of Cause (Reason). Adverbial Modifier of Purpose. comparison. thus forming semantic classes. manner. concession. condition.Phrasal: We started at five in the morning.: Hooper danced badly. 1. owing to. Adverbial Modifier of Place. etc. Identifying questions: when? how often? how long?: We owned an Alsatian dog once. time. cause. but with great energy. by. Semantic Characteristics of the Adverbial Modifier Semantically adverbials modifiers denote place. 2. without. the mice will pay. 3. Identifying questions: why? for what reason? Prepositions which may introduce them: because of.: Thanks to my parents I got a decent education. etc. 5. Identifying questions: how? in what way? by what means? Prepositions which may introduce them: with. etc. by means of. so as ( never used before an infinitive complex). on account of. 102 . time. due to. purpose.

as though. as. too signals a negative result. so… (as. unless: Without faith there can be no cure. Prepositions which may introduce them: but. 11. Adverbial Modifier of Result. 8. 9. despite. as if. conjunctions if. without.: We walked three miles without meeting anyone. aside from. sometimes modifies a noun with qualitative meaning. He woke up to see that it was daylight 10. except. Adverbial Modifier of Condition. save (formal). Adverbial Modifier of Attendant Circumstances and Subsequent Events. enough. with the exclusion of. conjunctions though. Identifying questions: how much? to what extent?: The story is extremely long. sufficiently. Adverbial Modifier of Exception. It shows an idea that is in contradiction with what is stated in the modified part of the sentence. Adverbial Modifier of Concession. the man was difficult to deal with. apart from. but for. It refers to an adjective or adverb accompanied by an adverb of degree too. etc.: A mountain is higher than a hill. except for. if: Despite his smile.: 103 . Conjunctions introducing them: than.6. 12. except for. Identifying questions: in spite of what? Prepositions which may introduce them: in spite of. etc. 7. Identifying questions: in what case? on what condition? Prepositions which may introduce them: but for. Adverbial Modifier of Degree. so… as implies a realized action: It is too cold to go out. Adverbial Modifier of Comparison. save for (formal). It states a fact that accompanies the event presented by the modified part of the sentence or an event following the event presented. enough suggests a necessary amount of quality to perform the action.

104 . ABSOLUTE NOMINATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS These constructions are called absolute because they are not dependent on any other part of the including sentence. She sat on the porch. ― She sat on the porch. 2) Absolute constructions may have two forms: non-prepositional and prepositional. an adverb or a noun (with a preposition) as their second part. В. He marched out of the room. a stative.These men were quite civil save during certain weeks of autumn and winter. 1) From the point of view of their transformational possibility. as they lack a finite verb form and thus have no predicate. When transformed into clauses they retain their predicate part. a proper form of the link verb to be must be introduced. though they cannot be used without it. ― He marched out of the room. Constructions with non-verbals with an adjective. А. as these constructions lack a verbal component of their own. Mary playing with her doll. which takes a proper tense-aspect form. The latter is introduced by the preposition with (in the case of the infinitive construction it may be without): He was coming to us. Dinner over. and (while) Mary was playing with her doll. absolute constructions fall into two types: verbal and non-verbal. his head high up. his hands up. and his head was high up. everybody rose. Constructions with verbals as their second part. When transformed into clauses.

some of them to be entirely forgotten. ― When dinner was served… 3. 2. ― When tea was over… 7. every nerve upon the stretch. I could hear the steps of the soldiers. she could not say a word. 6. The absolute nominative with Participle II construction: Dinner served. ― As her heart was full… 5. The absolute nominative with a prepositional noun construction: I waited. Prepositional Absolute Constructions 1. with his throat cut. All in the room. she again summoned us to the fire. The absolute nominative with the adjective construction: She stood under the tree.Non-prepositional Absolute Constructions 1. Prepositional absolute construction with Participle II: A Negro boy lay on the pavement. ― … and some of them were to be entirely forgotten. 2. 4. her head full of strange ideas. he bolted the windows. she called in Molly. The absolute nominative with Participle I construction (the most frequently used): It being late. he went over to the Frenchman. The absolute nominative with the adverb construction: Tea over. The absolute nominative with the Infinitive construction: There they remained. Prepositional absolute construction with Participle I: With his head aching from the slap of the bullet and the blood dripping over the ear. The absolute nominative with the stative construction: The gallery door slightly ajar. 105 . Mrs Marlow rang the bell. ―…and her head was full… Her heart full of despair.

4. Prepositional absolute construction with the stative: He stood there trembling. with his hand still up. 106 . Prepositional absolute construction with the adjective: She hurriedly left the room with her eyes red. 5.3. Prepositional absolute construction with the adverb: He turned away. with his face ablaze. Prepositional absolute construction with a noun: They marched towards the square. 6. with little flags in their hands. Prepositional absolute construction with the Infinitive: You’ll lose the last minutes. without someone to take care of you. 7.

in the first case they are joined syndetically.. thus and conjunctive particles also. Copulative coordination implies that two events or ideas conveyed by coordinate clauses are merely joined in time and place.. further. too. in the second case ― asyndetically. Coordination is a way of linking grammatical elements to make them equal in rank. thus forming a compound or a complex sentence respectively. Coordinate clauses may be linked together with or without a connector. but also. Clauses that are parts of a compound sentence are called coordinate. and the conjunctive adverbs then. Within a composite sentence clauses may be joined by means of coordination or subordination. we distinguish four kinds of coordinate connection: copulative. The type of connection is expressed not only by means of coordinating connectives. In its structure a clause is similar to a simple sentence. even. but also by the general meaning of clauses conveyed by their lexical and grammatical content. From the point of view of the relationship between coordinate clauses. both. 1. nor. as they are joined by coordination. 107 . likewise. as well as. disjunctive and causative-consecutive. moreover. again. and therefore containing two or more subject-predicate groups. but unlike a simple sentence it forms part of a bigger syntactical unit. nor. besides. The copulative connectors are: the conjunctions and.. not only . The Compound Sentence The compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank which form one syntactical whole in meaning and intonation..THE COMPOSITE SENTENCE The composite sentence is a sentence consisting of two or more clauses. adversative. neither .

2. the conjunctive adverbs yet. The bus stopped. The front door to the house opened. and the conjunctive particle only. then another lady (succession). and she also wrote a note to the chief of police commending young Martin Brody. Adversative connectors are: the conjunctions but. she was frowning. Occasionally the second clause may contain some commentary on the previous clause: She was familiar with the petty social problems. whereas. The events described in copulative coordinate clauses may be simultaneous or successive: The Black Cadillac made its hunting sound through the night and the tyres sang on the slab and the black fields stretched with mist swept by (simultaneity). Owing to its vague copulative meaning the conjunction and may also link clauses with adversative or causative-consecutive connections. nevertheless. the automatic door sprang open. still. It may suggest mere additionЖ Then she (Ellen) went home and wrote Brody a thank-you note for being so nice. Adversative coordination may also be realized asyndetically. she wanted to go (simultaneity). and a man and a woman stepped out on the wooden porch (succession). Adversative coordination joins clauses containing opposition. and they bored her. Copulative connection may also be expressed asyndetically. The clause introduced by but conveys some event that is opposite to what is expected from the contents of the first clause: 108 . while. which expresses adversative connection in a very general way. a lady got in.And is the conjunction most frequently used to realize copulative coordination. nonetheless. contradiction or contrast. The main adversative conjunction is but. the clauses joined in this way may describe simultaneous or successive events: Our Elsie was looking at her with beg imploring eyes.

then. hence. but nobody laughed. The days became longer. therefore. Either listen to me. 3.. for it was now springtime. usually between two mutually exclusive alternatives. A causative clause may be also joined asyndetically. Disjunctive connection denotes choice. or.. Some people prefer going to the theatre. they were so much alike. so that. or we can wait for you at home. Consecutive connectives are so. For at that point the current was strong. The correlative either emphasizes the exclusion of one of the alternatives. the conjunctive adverbs else (or else). otherwise: You can join us at the station. The only causative coordinating conjunction is for. The weather was fine. either . whereas others will stay at home watching TV programmes. The conjunctions while and whereas specialize in expressing contrastive relations: Peter is an engineer. At first I thought that they were brother and sister. so there were many people on the beach. The disjunctive conjunctions are or. 4. A for-clause differs from a subordinate clause of reason in that it never precedes the clause it is joined to. or I shall stop reading to you. while his brother is a musician. 109 . it means that the sentence is linked with the previous one: When I saw her in the river I was frightened. If a sentence begins with for. The second clause may contain either the reason or the result of the event conveyed by the previous clause.The story was amusing. Causative-consecutive coordination joins clauses connected in such a way that one of them contains a reason and the other ― a consequence.

The first one is called the main (or principal) clause.): Do you realize how far it is to Hawaii? Subordinate clauses function as different parts of the sentence (subject. attribute. one is the basic element. what. where. thus forming a complex sentence. Subordination is a way of linking grammatical elements that makes one of them dependent upon the other. object. when. predicative. if only. whereas the other is a constituent or part of the first. c) adverbial clauses. Sometimes I wish (main clause) life had subtitles (subordinate clause). Complex sentences can be formed by joining subordinate clauses to the main clause with conjunctions or conjunctive words (syndetically) or without them (asyndetically): You can call yourself an extreme sports enthusiast (main clause) if (conjunction) you ski off cliffs (subordinate clause).): Everybody knows that money doesn’t grow on trees. through. that is. b) attributive (or relative) clauses. Subordinate clauses can be classified under three headings: a) nominal (or noun) clauses (clauses functioning as nouns in various syntactical positions). Subordination is usually defined as a non-symmetrical relation. the second is the subordinate clause. because. as far as. etc. etc.The Complex Sentence Within a complex sentence clauses are joined by means of subordination. in a complex sentence with a minimal composition of two clauses. adverbial modifier). why. Conjunctive words which are used to join nominal clauses combine two functions: to link clauses and to be a part in the subordinate clause (who. Conjunctions are the formal signals of subordination the only function of which is to link clauses and express the relation between them (that. 110 . apposition. in order that.

as if. to feel. etc. b) When a subject clause is in final position. whether. how. lest. where.Nominal Clauses 1. when. why. It was as though our last meeting was forgotten. why. wherever. with which it forms a compound nominal predicate: It appears he hasn’t been there. What I want is for you to build me a house. Whatever you say is wrong! Because I ask too many questions doesn’t mean I am curious. A predicative clause immediately follows the link verb. A predicative clause has a fixed position in the sentence ― it always follows a link verb: to be. or the conjunctive words who. 111 . Complex sentences with subject clauses may be of two patterns: a) When a subject clause precedes the predicate of the main clause: What was making him sad was the fact that his ladylove wasn’t with him. either. because.: The question is whether he has signed the contract.. to sound.or. as though should not be confused with adverbial clauses of comparison introduced by the same conjunctions. because.. It seems evident that there is no cure (a subject clause). whoever. as if.. where. Note 1. etc. which. etc. as. whether. to seem. 2. the usual place of the subject being occupied by the formal introductory it: It is understood that modern science allows such experiments. or the conjunctive words who. Compare the following sentences: It seems that there is no cure (a predicative clause). etc. which. if. etc. A subject clause may be introduced by the conjunctions that. what. to appear. as though. to look. A predicative clause may be introduced by the conjunctions that. It was lucky that she agreed to undertake the job. Predicative clauses introduced by the conjunctions as. how..

anxious. why. glad.Note 2. etc. Note: Like subject clauses. assurance: afraid. what. 112 . He asked me if I wanted to stay. happy. about. An object clause may either follow or precede the main clause: What she thinks it would be impossible to say. etc. aware. desire. Attributive Clauses Attributive clauses serve as an attribute to a noun (pronoun) in the main clause. etc. desirous. Object clauses may be used after adjectives expressing feeling. object clauses may be preceded by the formal it: I like it when people are nice to me. An object clause may be introduced by the conjunctions that. An object clause may be joined to the main clause by the prepositions after.: I want to be paid for what I do. or the conjunctive words who. whoever. He was glad that no one was at home. sure. pleased. of. etc. Everybody knows (that) money doesn’t grow on trees. when. before. certain.. 3. You must see to it that there should be no quarrel. whether. beyond. perception. how. This noun or pronoun is called the antecedent of the clause: Holiday resorts which are crowded are not very pleasant.: I’m very sorry I disturbed you. for. sorry. lest. if. If both the subject and the predicative are expressed by clauses the principal clause consists only of a link verb: What he says is that he goes away. where. Swithin said he would go back to lunch at Timothy’s.

where. 2. whom. Relative clauses (like adjectives) describe persons. provide essential information about it and therefore they cannot be removed without destroying the meaning of the sentence. if. A relative clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns and adverbs who. 1. 113 . by means of the word which. Relative clauses can be defining (limiting/restrictive) and non-defining (descriptive/non-restrictive/commenting). question. etc.: The fact that his letter did not require an immediate answer would give me time to consider. has not been answered.According to their meaning attributive clauses may be divided into appositive and relative ones. Defining relative clauses are very closely connected with the antecedent. A library is a place where they keep books. An appositive clause may be introduced by the conjunctions that. Non-defining relative clauses contain additional information about the antecedent which can be omitted without serious change in the meaning of the main clause. etc. things and events. Defining relative clauses are used without commas: What kind of government would be popular? ― The government which promises to cut taxes. fact. what. whose. which stood in a small garden. when. and the conjunctive words what. An appositive clause discloses the meaning of a noun (the antecedent) with a general meaning. such as: idea. desire.. reason. will be popular. comment. Non-defining relative clauses are usually used with commas: The government.: He went to the next house. etc. why he did it at all. as if. how. which promises to cut taxes. in this case. remark. The original question. The clause is called a relative clause because it “relates” to the noun. which. She had a strange sensation as if something had happened. etc. whether.

I consulted my father. The following sentences have exactly the same words. who are untidy.. place. cause (reason). the clause . condition. There is. the clause . Adverbial Clauses An adverbial clause performs the function of an adverbial modifier. result. Adverbial clauses can be identified by asking and answering the questions When? Where? How? Why? etc. (B) Children who are untidy do not take care of their things. It can modify a verb. According to their meaning we distinguish the following kinds of adverbial clauses: adverbial clauses of time. They are who and which. purpose. i. concession. on the other hand. In other words. is a non-defining clause.. an adjective or an adverb in the principal clause..e. Sentence (B) is a statement about some children. and contains two facts: 1) all children are untidy and 2) all children fail to take care of their things. Time : Tell him as soon as he arrives : (When?) : (Where?) Place : You can sit where you like Manner: He spoke as if he meant business : (How?) Reason : He went to bed because he felt ill : (Why?) 114 . The only difference in form between them is that the first sentence has a clause separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Note: There are only two conjunctions that can introduce non-defining relative clauses. untidy children.. manner and comparison. who are untidy .. who are untidy. do not take care of their things.. In other words. a big difference in meaning: (A) Children. and it states one fact about them: they fail to take care of their things. who promised to help me. a defining clause. Sentence (A) is a statement about all children.

before.1. anywhere. since (= because). until/till (= up to the time when). as soon as. as long (= because). When the time clause follows. the first time. since. 2. Adverbial clauses of time An adverbial clause of time shows the time of the action expressed in the principal clause. Clauses of reason are introduced by: as. the verb of the time clause is in a present form and when the verb of the main clause is in a past form. the last time. that is. immediately. Deronda placed himself where he could see her. for the reason that. He met the President when he was in Washington. for (= because). She arrived before the clock struck nine. the verb of the time clause is in a past form too: I’ll stay in the office until I finish the project. whenever. Adverbial clauses of cause (reason) An adverbial clause of cause (reason) shows the cause of the action expressed in the principal clause. as. as long as. the moment (that). 3. no comma is used: When he was in Washington. Time clauses follow the rule of the sequence of tenses. just as. by the time (= before.: George had to wait for half an hour before the doctor came. When the time clause precedes the main clause. on the grounds that: She didn't come on time because she was held up in a traffic jam. when the verb of the main clause is in a present or future form. Time clauses are introduced by after. 115 . because. the next time etc. while. he met the President. once. not later than). everywhere: I am quite comfortable where I am. Adverbial clauses of place An adverbial clause of place shows the place of the action expressed in the principal clause. for. Adverbial clauses of place are introduced by the conjunctions where and wherever. when. every time. a comma is used.

Adverbial clauses of condition Adverbial clauses of condition state the condition which is necessary for the realization of the action expressed in the principal clause. assuming (that). Adverbial clauses of manner Adverbial clauses of manner characterize in a general way the action expressed in the principal clause. They are introduced by the conjunctions than. we separate the two clauses with a comma: Since she isn't at home. if only. on the condition that. 7. as though: Type this again as I showed you a moment ago. for fear (that) and some others: We’ve arrived early so that we may/can/will get a good view of the procession.When the clause of reason precedes the main clause. as long as. They are can be introduced by the conjunctions if. provided/providing (that). as if. Suppose/supposing (that) we miss the train. unless: He’ll definitely win. as though: We were going up the road as fast as we could. as. as… as. 4. so that. not so…as. there’ll be a strike. we'll go out without her. They are introduced by the conjunctions that. lest. Adverbial clauses of purpose Adverbial clauses of purpose state the purpose of the action expressed in the principal clause. in case. She acted as if she were mad. 5. I arrived early so that I might not miss anything. 6. even if he falls ill. They can be introduced by the conjunctions as. so long as. even if. in order that. as if. 116 . in the way (that). Adverbial clauses of comparison Adverbial clauses of comparison denote an action with which the action of the principal clause is compared. what shall we do? Unless the management improve their offer.

Inversion can be of two types: ― full (when the predicate precedes the subject). badly: From this minute he begins to be a different person. WORD ORDER In English we distinguish between direct and indirect (inverted) word order: 1) direct ― Subject ― Predicate ― Object (declarative sentences).8. however much/good. Adverbial clauses of result Adverbial clauses of result denote the result of the action expressed in the principal clause. Inverted word order fulfils three following functions: 1. even though. They can be introduced by the conjunctions although. However far it is. 9.. I intend to drive there tonight. that after so + adv. even if. that after such (a) + noun (or adj. considering (that). even if he doesn’t realize it. They are such wonderful players (that) no one can beat them. They can be introduced by the conjunctions that after so + adj. though. Grammatical a) in questions: 117 . 2) indirect (inversion of some parts for greater emphasis or with a special grammatical or communicative value). no matter how much. ― partial (when only part of the predicate precedes the subject). whereas. + noun): His reactions are so quick (that) no one can match him. Adverbial clauses of concession Adverbial clauses of concession denote the presence of some obstacle which nevertheless does not hither the action expressed in the principal clause. while. He reacts so quickly (that) no one can match him.

Is he at home? b) in exclamatory sentences which are negative in form but positive in meaning: Doesn't she sing beautifully! c) in conditional clauses introduced asyndetically: Had he gone to her aid he would only have got himself caught. often protracted: At a square table. he continued walking. he said (no inversion when the subject is a pronoun). d) in adverbial clauses of concession (if the predicative is a noun the article is omitted): Child though he is. 2. on a stiff armchair of black wood sat Mr. 3. But! We do not use inversion when so is used for emphatic confirmation. ― Oh. f) in stage directions: Enter Napoleon. here: There were not too many people at the zoo. so I have. — So do I. Tired though he was. Exit Lady Hummond. Emphatic (to make any part of the sentence prominent by putting it in an unusual position) 118 . But: “Be quick!”. he is completely aware of the situation. Communicative (in order to provide the final position for the rheme. Johnson. the most important communicative part — this is the so-called end-focus) a) In sentences with the introductory there. e) in the author's words in direct speech: "Be quick!". said Pat. You have stained your blouse with cherry. c) In sentences beginning with so or neither (showing that the remark applies equally to someone or something else): I like this melodical sound very much. b) In sentences beginning with adverbial modifiers.

But: Up it flew. hardly. not once. e) words like so and such followed by that: So dangerous did the weather become. c) words of restrictive meaning: well. d) after only +time expression: Only then did they realize their mistake. But: Only Mary knows the answer (no inversion here). Note: The inversion is partial here! f) in sentences beginning with a predicative.In sentences beginning with: a) negative words never. on no account. not. on no condition. adverbial modifier of manner or a postposition. little: Little do they know about her. b) semi-negative time adverbials: seldom. many. Up flew the plane. that all the flights were cancelled.not only. 119 . Only when she came home did she realize that she had lost her purse. under no circumstances: Never has she spoken with so much confidence. Tall and graceful was Jim. scarcely. Well do I remember her. rarely: Hardly had we entered the house when the storm began. no sooner.

Glossary of Linguistic Terms abstract noun adverbial clause adverbial clause of circumstances adverbial clause of concession adverbial clause of condition adverbial clause of manner adverbial clause of place adverbial clause of purpose adverbial clause of reason (cause) adverbial clause of result adverbial clause of time adverbial modifier adversative coordination affirmative alternative question analytical form animate noun apposition appositive clause asyndetic attribute attributive clause auxiliary verb causative-consecutive coordination collective noun common noun comparative degree complete sentence complex object complex sentence composite sentence compound nominal predicate compound sentence compound-complex sentence compound verbal predicate conjunction conjunctive adverb coordination абстрактное существительное придаточное обстоятельственное придаточное сопутствующих условий придаточное уступительное придаточное условное придаточное образа действия придаточное места придаточное цели придаточное причины придаточное результата придаточное времени обстоятельство противительная связь утвердительный альтернативный вопрос аналитическая форма одушевленное существительное приложение придаточное определительное аппозитивное бессоюзный определение придаточное определительное вспомогательный глагол причинно-следственная связь собирательное существительное нарицательное существительное сравнительная степень полное предложение сложное дополнение сложноподчиненное предложение сложное предложение составное именное сказуемое сложносочиненное предложение сложное предложение с сочинением и подчинением составное глагольное сказуемое союз союзное наречие сочинительная связь 120 .

defining clause) link verb material noun negative nominal nominative absolute construction non-detached notional verb non-limiting clause (also: nonrestrictive. non-defining clause) соединительная связь исчисляемое существительное повествовательное предложение определенный артикль степени сравнения описательное определение обособленный прямое дополнение прямой порядок слов разделительная связь разделительный вопрос восклицательное предложение распространенное предложение общий вопрос притяжательный падеж однородный повелительное наклонение безличный неодушевленное существительное неполное предложение неопределенный артикль изъявительное наклонение косвенное дополнение усиление вопросительное предложение во множественном числе в единственном числе предваряющий (вводный) непереходный глагол неизменяемое существительное инверсия (обратный порядок слов) придаточное определительное ограничительное глагол-связка вещественное существительное отрицательный именной абсолютная номинативная конструкция необособленный смысловой глагол придаточное определительное неограничительное 121 .copulative coordination count noun declarative sentence definite article degrees of comparison descriptive attribute detached direct object direct word order disjunctive coordination disjunctive question exclamatory sentence expanded (extended) sentence general question genitive (possessive) case homogeneous imperative mood impersonal inanimate noun incomplete (elliptical) sentence indefinite article indicative mood indirect object intensification interrogative sentence in the plural in the singular introductory intransitive verb invariable noun inversion limiting clause (also: restrictive.

object object clause obligatory oblique moods one-member sentence optional positive degree predicate predicative predicative clause principle clause pronominal (special) question proper name prepositional object relative pronoun restrictive (limiting) attribute rhetorical question simple nominal predicate simple verbal predicate subject subject clause subordinate clause subordination substantivized adjective suggestive question superlative degree suppletive form syndetic synthetic form transitive verb two-member sentence uncount noun unexpanded (unextended) sentence дополнение придаточное дополнения (объектное) обязательный сослагательное наклонение односоставное предложение необязательный положительная степень сказуемое предикатив (смысловая часть составного именного сказуемого) придаточное предикативное главное предложение специальный вопрос имя собственное дополнение с предлогом относительное местоимение ограничивающее определение риторический вопрос простое именное сказуемое простое глагольное сказуемое подлежащее придаточное подлежащное придаточное предложение подчинительная связь субстантивированное прилагательное вопрос-предположение (с прямым порядком слов) превосходная степень супплетивная форма союзный синтетическая форма переходный глагол двусоставное предложение неисчисляемое существительное нераспространенное предложение 122 .

P. языка. 1995 ― 67 с. Morphology. Mn. грамматике англ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. шк. Lomgman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. 11. Syntax.С. ― М.. 10. 12.. 8. Practical English Usage. 4. Pearson Education Limited. Союз. Oxford. 1999.И. Department of History of English and English Grammar.: Высш. Сослагательное наклонение в современном английском языке: Метод. пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов третьего курса по практич. Practical Course. яз. Aspects of English Grammar. СПб. Петрова Е. 2002. Krylova I. A Grammar of Present day English. Advanced Language Practice. Арбекова Т. Kobrina N. пособие для ин-тов и фак. Hewings M. A Grammar of the English Language. Мн. Kaushanskaya V..Е. Longman. Vince M. СПбГУ. A Grammar of Contemporary English. 123 . Swan M.: MSLU. Английский без ошибок: Учеб. 1999..: Просвещение. Quirk R. Leech G. 2002.List of Books 1. Heinemann. 7. 9.П. 2-е изд. Gordon E.: Филол. 1972. М. значения и употребления: Учеб. Greenbaum S.: ГИС. Петрашкевич Н. 5. 1990. СПб. Svartvik J. ― 136с. иностр. 2. Сложное предложение в английском языке: Варианты формы. Advanced Grammar in Use.: Лениздат. 6.. М. 1984. 1999. Дубовик М.L. пособие. 3.: Книжный дом «Университет». 2001. 1994.. 1973. фак-т.: МГЛУ.M. Л. An English Grammar.

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