UNIT 5 Risk Analysis UNIT 6 ISPS - I UNIT 7 ISPS - II UNITS ISPS - III UNIT 9 Safety General UNIT 10 Safety - Deck Operation UNIT 11 Safety Miscellaneous Operations 111 97 71 55 37 23 5

Safety and Security are at the care of all activities in the ships operation. Block 2 comprises 7 units,

first four of which, i.e. units 5, 6, 7 and 8, deal with security and remaining 3 with the general safety measures which are required in shipboard operations. Unit 5 deals with the principles of risk assessment, risk management and importance of check lists. Unit 6 introduces the genesis and the objective of the ISPS code and discusses the security responsibilities of the contracting governments, ships personal companies and port facility. Unit 7 deals with the ship security assessment, ship security plan and ship security actions including emergency preparedness, drills and exercises. Unit 8 introduces to you security equipment and systems in ships and ports and deals extensively with threat identification, recognition and methods of physical search. Unit 9 introduces the important IMO conventions that deal with safety, IMO safety symbols and signs and discusses importance of protective clothing and permit to work system. Unit 10 deals with precautions to be taken while boarding or disembarking from a ship, anchoring and mooring operations and while working aloft and lifting boats manually. Unit 11 deals extensively with safety while welding, grinding, flame cutting and precautions to be taken when entering enclosed spaces.




Structure 5.1 Introduction

5.2 5.3

Risk and the Shipping Industry Risk and Shipboard Activities
5.3.1 5.3.2 ISM Code Responsibilities with Regard to Safety


Principles of Risk Assessment
5.4.1 5.4.2 Illustrative Example of Risk Assessment Check Lists


Accident Investigation

5.6 Summary 5.1


Risk management may be defined as a systematic method of protecting resources against losses so that the aims of the organization can be achieved without interruption. It is based on the optimum utilization of resources, personnel, financial or material, in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. Risk analysis or assessment is an integral or vital part of risk management. Risk analysis/assessment is the process of identifying and assessing various risks that an activity is exposed to, both in terms of frequency of occurrence as well as the severity of the consequences. The operation of ships is a complex activity that takes place i n an environment which is often unpredictable and sometimes hostile. Catastrophic losses due to cyclones, hurricanes and tidal waves as well as risks due to human error necessitate a process to identify and analyse such risks and evolve measures to counter or neutralize them. This should also include periodic reviews at appropriate intervals to assess the effectiveness of these measures and also identify new risks.

After studying this unit, you should be able to • • • • • explain the necessity of risk analysis/assessment, describe the aspects of risk analysis/assessment, translate understanding to shipboard situations requiring risk analysis/assessment, explain the principles of risk assessment and safety on board, and provide some guidance on be approached.
how in

relation to occupational health

the assessment and control of risks should


Safety and Securit y

Risk may be defined as the uncertainty or lack of knowledge concerning the outcome of events, e.g. the risk of a vessel becoming a total loss.

Hazard is a condition that increases the likelihood of loss, e.g. in poor visibility conditions, the use of high speed is a hazard that may lead to a collision.

Peril is the cause of a loss, e.g. fire is a peril which may cause extensive damage to the ship and/or her cargo.

Risk Response
Risk response is the manner in which an organization wishes to respond to the assessed exposure to risk. The response may be acceptance or avoidance of the risks and as a consequence decide on a way to treat the risks which are acceptable (though they may be undesirable). This risk treatment is always at a cost and may involve reducing the exposure, transferring the risk or retaining it, or a judicious udicious mix so that the organization achieves its aim of maximum profit at a minimum cost. Transfer of risk is done by suitably worded provisions in the contract or by professional risks carriers like insurance companies and P & I clubs.

Parties Involved
It is important to know who are the parties involved in the shipping industry without going into details of what role each of them plays. They are • • • • Ship builder Ship owner Charterer Cargo Interests — Shipper, consignee, Insurance companies, P&I clubs Stevedores Ship repairer Seafarers The relationship betwe en the various parties varies depending on the circumstances and the wording o f the contract between them — of these the seafarer plays an indispensable role in the operation of ships. The safe operation of merchant ships alone can achieve profitability to all the parties concerned. This can only be achieved by seafarers who operate ships, braving the perils of the sea. The officers and seamen who work on deck play a vital role in this activity. While sophistication has given us the luxury of unmanned engine rooms on ships (UMS), it is not likely in the foreseeable future that we will ever have unmanned bridges at sea or unmanned decks in port.


We shall take a passing glance at risk management in the broader context of the shipping industry before taking a deeper look at it in the narrower context of shipboard activities. Before proceeding further, it is essential to understand a few definitions, which we will relate to the loss of a ship or her cargo.


5.3.1 ISM Code
As stated earlier, in the chapter on Safety, SOLAS has been amended, revised and recast several times since it came into existence in 1914. The emphasis of all these activities remained design, construction and equipment of ships. Ina departure from this trend, a path breaking amendment to SOLAS was made in May 1994 when attention shifted to the human element, which saw the introduction of a new chapter. Chapter IX — Management for the Safe Operation of Ships: This new chapter was designed to make mandatory the International Safety Management (ISM) Code. This code establishes safety management objectives : • • risks. • To continuously improve safety management skills of personnel, including preparing for emergencies. To provide safe practices in ship operations and a safe working environment. To establish safeguards against all identified


The ISM Code requires a Safety Management System (SMS) to be established by the Company. This system should be designed to ensure compliance with all mandatory regulations and so that codes, guidelines and standards recommended by IMO and others are taken into account. The SMS should include the following functional requirements • • environmental protection; • • defined levels of authority and lines of communication between and amongst shore personnel and shipboard personnel; and procedures for reporting accidents, etc; procedures for responding to emergencies and procedures for internal audits and management review. 5.3.2 Responsibilities a safety and environmental protection policy; instructions and procedures to ensure safety and

with Regard to Safety
(a) The company is responsible for ensuring the overall safety of the ship and that safety on board is properly organized and coordinated. organize The master has the day-to-day responsibility for the safe operation of the ship and the safety of those on board. (c) (d) (e) Heads of departments are responsible for health and safety in their own department. Each officer/manager is responsible for the health and safety of those they supervise and others affected. Each individual crew member is responsibly for his own health and safety and that of anyone affected by what he does or fails to do.

Risk exposure is not a static phenomenon but a dynamic one and any exercise in risk analysis has to be a continuous review of risk exposure in order to identify any change in the nature or extent of the risks in the light of changing circumstances. On board ship when activit i es are sometimes repetitive, every situation requires varied responses. In an effort to control the known risks certain ship board activities have been identified and measures have been codified and universally accepted to nullify or negate the risks involved when Undertaking such activities. This normally takes the form of work permits and checklists figure no 5.1. 7

Safety and Security

Figure 5.1: Caution Signal

The classical approach to risk analysis can be broken up into five simple steps (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Identification of hazards, Assessment of risks; Risk control options; Cost benefit assessment; Recommendations for decision-making.

This is the approach adopted by the IMO and in simple terms, these steps can be reduced to the following questions : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) What might go wrong? = Identification of hazards (a list of all relevant accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes). How bad and how likely? = Assessment of risks (evaluation of risk factors). Can matters be improved? = Risk control options (devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the identified risks). What would it cost and how much better would it be? = Cost benefit assessment (determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option). What actions should be taken? Recommendations for decision-making (infoiniation about the hazards their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided)


Proceeding from these questions let us examine the principles of risk assessment. A risk assessment should be a careful examination of what could cause harm, during an operation so that decisions can be made with regard to the adequacy or otherwise of the precautions taken or whether something more should be done to prevent harm. The aim is to minimize accidents and ill health on board ships. Having established that hazards are present at the place of work, the assessment should identify the important risks arising out of the activity. This assessment should include an examination of the existing precautions to control the risks such as work permits, restricted access, display of warning signs or wearing of personal protection gear. Guidance on the use of personal protection gear and the use of tools and manual handling operations will be found in the chapter on Safety. There are no rigid rules on how risk assessment should be undertaken. It would depend on the type of the ship, nature of operations and the type and magnitude

What Should Be Assessed? The assessment should cover all the risks arising from the work activities of seamen, but it is not accepted to cover risks which are not reasonably foreseeable. It is advisable to record significant findings of the assessment. Risks considered to be trivial where no further precautions are required need not be recorded. Who Carries Out The Assessment? The process of risk assessment should be carried out by suitably experienced persons using specialized advice if necessary. On board ship, the Master and the Chief Officer possess sufficient experience to do this, guided by company manuals, circulars and other safety manuals. It is sufficient that the assessment addresses only job at hand and not peripheral activities. When to Carry Out Assessment? Risk assessment is a continuous process. In case no valid risk assessment exists, an assessment should be carried out before the task begins. It is then reviewed and revalidated to ensure that it includes any insignificant changes in procedure or equipment. Elements The main elements of the risk assessment process are (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Classify work activities. Identify hazards and persons at risk. Determine risks. Decide if risk is tolerable. Prepared plan of action (if necessary). Review adequacy of the plan of action.

We shall examine each of these elements in detail. Classify Work Activities As a prelude to risk assessment, separate work activities are identified and grouped, information is gathered (or existing information is collated). This should include routine day-to-day operations as well as infrequent maintenance tasks that are undertaken once in a blue moon. Classification of work activities can be done as follows (a) (b) (c) (d) Department/location on board. Stage of operation or work routine. Plan or unscheduled maintenance. Defined t as ks . The information that needs to be gathered

for each activity may include (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Tasks being carried out, their duration and frequency. Location of work. Person who normally or occasionally carries out the task. Other persons who may be affected by the work (e.g. Passengers). Training that the person have received for the task. 9

Safety and Security Identify Hazards of the hazards and risks. We shall, however, examine the process adopting the question and answer approach. For this it is best to categorize the hazards by type

Risk Analysis

(a) -(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Mechanical Electrical Physical Radiation Substances Fire and Explosion.

Alternatively, it can be categorized by the nature of the hazard by asking the question: Does the probability exist? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Person slips/falls on the same level. Person slip/falls from a height. Fall of tools, material, etc. from a height. Inadequate head room. Inadequate ventilation. Hazards from machinery/equipment associated with installation, commissioning operation, maintenance/repair, etc. (g) Hazards from manual handling. Determine Risks The risk from the hazard can be determined by estimating, separately, the potential severity of harm and the likelihood that harm will occur. The potential severity can be gauged thus : (a) (b) Parts of the body likely to be affected. Nature of the harm, ranging from slightly to extremely harmful (i) Slightly harmful-superficial injuries, minor cuts and bruises, eye irritation from dust or nuisance/irritation like headaches or ill health leading to temporary discomfort. Harmful-lacerations, burns, concussions, serious sprains, minor fractures or deafness, dermatitis, asthma, ill health leading to permanent minor disability. Extremely harmful: Amputations, major fractures, poisoning, multiple injuries, fatal injuries or occupational cancer, other severely life shortening diseases, acute fatal diseases. The likelihood of harm can be established by considering the adequacy of control measures already in place and can be classified as highly unlikely, unlikely or likely. The Code of Safe Working Practices and other safety publications relevant to the type of ship must be consulted for guidance on ensuring adequate control of specific hazards in specific circumstances. As a thumb rule, the following issues must be assessed : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Number of persons exposed to the hazard. Frequency and duration of exposure to the hazard. Effects of failure of power or water supply during the activity. Effects of failure of machinery components and safety devices. Exposure to the elements (as in working in the, rain or under water).



Protection afforded by personal protection and its limitations. Possibility of unsafe acts by persons, for example who (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) "Decide if Risk is Tolerable Having established the likelihood of harm, it is necessary to gauge its severity and decide whether or not the risk is tolerable (or worth taking). The table below is one simple method of making this decision. Table 5.1 Harmful Slightly Harmful Tolerable risk Highly unlikely Trivial risk Tolerable risk Moderate risk Unlikely Likely

Risk Analysis

may not know what the hazards are. may not have knowledge, physical capacity or skills to do the work. underestimate risks to which they are exposed. underestimate the practicality and utility of safe working methods.

Extremely Harmful Moderate risk

Moderate risk

Substantial risk Substantial risk Intolerable risk

[ Note : 'Tolerable "means that the risk has been reduced to the lowest level that can be measured Risk Control Action Plan The next step is to determine the action that should be taken to improve safety, takin g into account all precautions and controls already in place. The categories worked out as per Table 1.1 can form the basis for determining whether existing controls need to be augmented and the duration for which such revised controls/measures should be in place. COSWOP suggests a simple approach to this exercise in the form of the table below which indicates the effort made to control risks should reflect the seriousness of the risk. Table 5.2 Level of Tolerance TRIVIAL TOLERABLE ACTION and TIME SCALE No action is required and no documentary records need be kept. No additional controls are required. Consideration may be given to a more cost effective solution or improvement that imposes no additional cost burden. Monitoring is required to ensure that controls are maintained. Efforts should be made to reduce risk, but the costs of prevention should be carefully measured and limited. Risk reduction measures should be implemented within a defined time period. When the moderate risk is associated with extremely harmful consequences, further assessment may be necessary to establish more precisely the likelihood of harm as a basis for determining the need for improved control measures.



Work should not be started until the risk has been reduced. Considerable resources may have to be allocated to reduce the risk. Where the risk involves work in progress, urgent action should be taken. INTOLERABLE Work should not be started or continued until the risk has (UNACCEPTABLE) been reduced. If it is not possible to reduce the risk even with unlimited resources, work has to remain prohibited.
(Note: 'Tolerable' here means that the risk has been reduced to the lowest that is reasonably practicable)


Safety and Security

The action plan should prioritise the actions to be taken to maintain or improve controls. The controls should be selected by taking into account the following points which are listed in order of effectiveness. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Eliminate hazards altogether if possible or tackle the risks at its source (replace a dangerous substance with a safe one). Reduce the risk if elimination is not possible, e.g. where there is risk of electrocution, use a low voltage electrical appliance. Adapt work to the individual where possible, e.g. simplify the task as per the physical and mental capacity of the individuals. Improvise by taking advantage of technical advances. Precedence should be given to measures that protect every one. Use a combination of technical and procedural controls. Ensure emergency arrangements are in place. Adopt personal protection equipment only as a last resort, after exhausting all other control options.

Review Adequacy of Action Plan
Even before the action plan is implemented, it is necessary to review the plan by typically answering the following questions. (a) (b) (c) (d) Will the augmented controls lead to tolerable risk levels? Are new hazards likely to be created? What do others affected think about the necessity and the practicality of the revised preventive measures? Will the revised controls continue to remain in place and not be discarded in the rush to complete the job?

Is ~

I-elve -

0 -c e
Figure 5.2: Action Plan



5.4.1 Illustrative Example of Risk Assessment
To illustrate the utilization of the risk assessment tool, we shall choose a fairly common place activity on board (Figure 5.2), i.e. entering closed or confined places.


As you well know, the atmosphere in any enclosed or confined place is potentially dangerous, due to the deficiency of oxygen or the presence of flammable or toxic fuels, gases or vapours. The risk assessment approach would suggest appropriate measures to be put in place to protect those who may be affected. Scenario LPG Carrier carrying Ammonia on ballast passage. Situation Sounding gauge of No. 1 (S) cargo tank not working. Suspect float broken off from gauge tape. Requirement Repair the gauge before arrival at load port. ETA — five days. In order to inspect and repair the sounding gauge, man entry has to be made into the tank. While check lists and action plans do exist on board for enclosed space entry, the special considerations are (see the data sheet on pages 19 & 20 of the Unit): Temperature Ammonia is carried at a temperature of - 34 degrees C. Toxicity Ammonia is highly toxic; the TLV (threshold limit value) is 50 ppm while the odour threshold is 20 to 50 ppm, which means that by the time you have smelt the gas you have probably ingested the TLV. Inhalation of vapours can cause weak or irregular heart beat or even death. Reactivity Ammonia has an exothermic reaction with water, i.e. it dissolves rapidly with the evolution of heat, which can cause the tank to implode because of vacuum. The above properties put the activity in the "substantial risk" category. Hence, before affecting man entry, extensive preparations have to be made. These preparations include gas freeing and aerating the tank so that men can enter the tank and carry out repairs without wearing personal protective equipment. Gas freeing the tank involves the following processes : • • • • Puddle heating Tank warming Inerting Flushing through with air

Risk Analysis

Puddle Heating Puddle heating is the first step to evaporate residual liquid left behind after completion of discharge. Practically it can take up to 40 hours to puddle heat 90 tonnes of Ammonia, using 3 compressors of 1000 cubic metres per hour capacity. Tank Warming Tank warming after all the liquid from the tank has been evaporated by puddle heating the tank is warmed by circulating warm vapour at the bottom. The compressors and air heater (if Fitted) are used to evaporate final traces of liquid while warming up the tank. This is a slow, tedious process and any attempt to curtail the operation will only result in prolonging it.


Safety and Security

Inerting This process is necessary for all LPG cargoes but it can be safely omitted in the case of Ammonia. Therefore the tank can be flushed through with dry air without using inert gas or Nitrogen. Flushing through with Air Ventilating with compressors or blowers is continued until the concentration of Ammonia is reduced to an acceptable level (about 700ppm) when the tank lid can be opened up. The ventilation is supplemented with air driven fans delivering air through a chute to the bottom of the tank, which causes ammonia vapour to gush out through the open hatch way, bringing down the concentration to about 20ppm when the tank is considered gas free. It is at this stage that the procedures/precautions prescribed in the enclosed space entry permit are enforced before permitting anyone to enter the tank for inspection and subsequent repairs. As these are very rare occasions on gas carriers, it is normal to carry out a full internal inspection of the tank, checking all safety devices, especially over flow devices and making a record of the same. The above description has been kept very brief and does not go into the details of each operation, which is complicated. If meticulously done, the above process could be completed in 50 to 60 hours. About half this time will be required to prepare the tank again to receive cargo when the above processes would be reversed. This example has been deliberately chosen because it highlights the time factor i.e. the question on cost benefit assessment. The prolonged process which consumed considerable resources (effort, man power, material) has basically reduced a substantial risk to a tolerable risk where existing controls are adequate to permit commencement of work with frequent monitoring to ensure controls are in place (see Table 1.2). Expenditure of Resources In the present case it may have been possible to have the tank ready on time to receive the cargo at the load port but it involves consumption of considerable resources. The following is a list of the resources that were probably consumed (the list is not exhaustive): • • • • • 96 — I00 hours. Compressors of 1000 cu. m. capacity running continuously for about 90 hours. Man hours (officers & men). Equipment : Gas measuring instruments, intrinsically safe torches, water driven and air driven lights and fans, SCBAs. Material : 15 — 20 tons of Ammonia vented to the atmosphere while gas freeing and aerating.

While most of the process could be done while the vessel is underway, circumstances might force an interruption of the voyage and consequent delays in loading. Note :Asa self assessment exercise, you will be required to carry out risk assessment using the proforma and Ammonia Data Sheet (placed at the end of the Unit) in conjunction with the above information and Tables I and 2.)

5.4.2 Check Lists Most routine activities on board would have already had a risk assessment carried out 14 and an action plan drawn up which would have been vetted and approved at the highest

level. A very important component of these action plans is a check list or prompt list —i.e. a list that prompts you to check or initiate certain actions prior to commencement of the job. Some of the activities for which such action plans and check lists would exist on board are as follows : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Entering/leaving port Cargo operations (commencement and completion) Bunkering operations (commencement and completion) Passage planning Enclosed space entry

Risk Analysis

Importance of Check Lists As stated earlier, check lists constitute a very important component of an operation for the following reasons (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) It prevents overlooking items — nothing is missed out. Reduces unnecessary communication — no need to explain all activities and basics of the job concerned. Provides a readymade base for monitoring. Bypasses cultural and language barriers to a large extent. Reduces the need for a prolonged planning and briefing. Helps in setting the job activity priorities correctly in a logical sequence. Helps in distributing the work evenly among the people involved and avoids duplication. Most often reflects the best teclinlical/professional procedure for the concerned activity as the check list would most likely reflect the common experience of the company and the industry. On completion, the check list becomes a record document and acts as a proof (evidence) that the system was actually followed. This record keeping protects the person who carried out the procedure and the ship's captain, officers, crew and the company legally. If the check list involves two persons to act on and complete the same, it reduces human errors. (k) It helps maintain situational awareness.



The investigation of accidents and incidents plays a very important role in safety anywhere (figure 5.3). The Marine Accident Investigation Board (MAIB) has instituted an accident reporting system which promotes the identification and study of accidents with the view to prevent recurrences. The master has a statutory responsibility to report all accidents and dangerous occurrences. With the institution of the post of Safety Officer on board, the responsibility now devolves on him. The master would rely extensively on the results and record of the Safety Officer's investigation report when completing his own. A typical investigation would follow the under mentioned steps :


Safety and Security
assisting injured immediate injured and those assisting the injured persons and to the immediate safety of the location. If sufficient help is available and rescue efforts are well in hand, the Safety Officer should avoid involvement with rescue and concentrate on determining the immediate facts. (b) He should first record the names (and in the case of non crew members, their addresses) of all those present in the vicinity even if they did not actually witness the incident.

(c) He should then note and mark the position of the injured and the use and condition of any personal protective equipment, tools and other equipment which were in use some of which may be taken in custody as evidence. Sketches and photographs are also useful. (d) He should carry out a more detailed examination once the injured have been removed to safety; making a note of any changes or the presence of residual hazards.

Figure 5.3 : Action after Accidents

Accidents have often resulted from seemingly minor causes and the seriousness of the consequences is really a matter of chance. Any incident, however trivial, should be regarded as a warning of something wrong in the system of work, the equipment in use or the working area. Immediate attention should be given to rectifying the deficiency or defect in order to avoid a repetition of the incident which might have more serious consequences in future. In a typical incident involving an incident when a person was boarding a vessel, the following would be noted : (a) Whether control measures identified in the risk assessment were complied with. (b) Type of access equipment that was used. (c) Origin of the access equipment, i.e. was it provided by the ship or from the shore.

Risk Analysis


Condition of the access equipment itself especially with regard to any damage such as a broken guard rail or rung/step. The position and extent of the damage should be corroborated by witnesses, and it should be ascertained whether the damage occurred during the incident or was preexisting. The effect of external factors on the condition of the equipment, e.g. ice or oil on the surface. Securing arrangements and rigging methods. Any ancillary equipment used e.g. safety net, life buoy, life line, lighting, etc. Safety of approach from ship and shore (like adequate guard rails, presence of obstructions, obstacles, absence of lighting, etc.). Any indication of how the incident might have happened. Weather conditions prevailing. Distances where they are relevant.

Interviews/examination should take place as soon as possible when memories are still fresh. Some witnesses may not have seen anything but may have heard or overheard an order or instruction. Such persons should not be overlooked. If an interview is not feasible then a statement may be obtained. The interview should be conducted in an informal manner which puts the witness at ease. A clear distinction must be drawn between facts and opinions. Facts are normally supported by evidence while opinions are personal beliefs. Opinions should not be disregarded as they can also be useful in pursuing a particular line of enquiry. It is helpful to adopt a standard format for statements by witnesses. Accidents/Incidents and near Misses Accidents have often resulted from seemingly minor causes and the seriousness of the consequences is often a matter of chance. This can be better explained by the following example : A person working in an elevated position in the engine room having a spanner in the boiler suit pocket. The spanner falls down from his pocket. It is an incident that can have many consequences including the ones mentioned below : • (a) The spanner falls down and nothing happens. No damage to the spanner or any property. No injury. (b) (c) (d) (e) The spanner is damaged — minor damage. The spanner falls down on running machinery. The spanner as well as the machinery is damaged — major damage to property. The spanner drops on a hot fuel/oil line resulting in a major fire — major accident. The spanner drops on the head of a person working below — fatal accident.

All these are avoidable provided proper safety measures are taken. Studies of accidents show that for every ONE serious accident, there have been SIX HUNDRED near misses. The result of this study is given in the following figure 5.4 which is widely known as the "1-10-30-600 ratio". This comprehensive analysis was made by an insurance company from 1753498 accidents reported by 297 cooperating organisations employing over 1750000 employees, who worked more that three billion hours during the exposure period analysed. 17

Safety and Security

1 serious or major injury

10 minor injuries (any r epor ted injury less than serious)

30 property damage accidents

600 incidents with no visible injury or damage (near misses)

Figure 5.4 : Pyramid of Accidents History

Some of the major causes of accidents/incidents are carelessness, lack of concentration, recklessness, hurry to get the job done. The list of causes range from ignoring recognized safe working practices to lapses in concentration, misjudgments or even inexperience. Even over confidence can lead to carelessness. Figure 5.5 provides you emergency procedures in case of leakage of Ammonia. Figure 5.6 gives relevant information about Ammonia Gas. (a) What are the objectives of ISM'?


Risk Analysis

Ammonia (anhydrous)
trances Colourless Pungent, suffocating
ember 1 0 0 5 , Table 725

SYNONYMS NH3 AMA Ammonia gas Anhydrous ammonia Liquefied ammonia Liquid ammonia

The Main Hazard

STOP GAS SUPPLY. Firefighters should wear breathing apparatus and protective clothing. Do not extinguish flame until gas or liquid supply has been shut off, to avoid possibility of explosive re-ignilion. Extinguish with dry powder, halon or carbon dioxide. Cool tanks and surrounding areas with vvdel spray. Do not spray water directly onto burning ammonia.

id ye id skin our aled

DO NOT DELAY. Flood eye gently with clean fresh water, or solution of distilled water with 2,5% borax 'r'd 2.5% boric acid. Force eye open if necessary. Continue washing for at least 30 minutes. Obtain medical advice or assistance as soon as possible. DO NOT DELAY. Remove contaminated clothing. Flood affected area with water. Continue washing for at least 15 minutes, then apply wet compress of solution of distilled water wan 2.5% borax and 2.5% boric acid, but not oil or salves. Do not rub affected area. Immerse frost-bitten area in warm water until tnav,eci Handle patient gently. Obtain medical advice or assistance as soon as possible. REMOVE VICTIM TO FRESH AIR. Remove contarninated clothing. if breathing has stopped or is weak or irregular, give mouth to mouth/nose resuscitation or oxygen, as necessary Keep victim warm and still, with blankets and hot water bottle. If conscious and if mouth is not burnt, giv e, hot tea. Obtain medical advice or assistance as soon as possible. STOP THE FLOW. Avoid contact wan liquid or vapour. Extinguish sources of ignition, Emergency teams should wear breathing apparatus and protective clothing Other people should leave the area. Flood with large amounts of water to disperse the spill, and to prevent brittle fracture. inform port authorities or coastguard of spill See notes and special requirements,

nag e

Health Data
ct id

TLV 25 ppm Odour threshold 20 ppm
Personal protection
Protective clothing covering ail parts of the body, gloves, boots, goggles or face shield, with serf contained breathing apparatus for all persons in cargo operations, or in near vicinity, Decontamination showers and eye fountains to be available on deck in convenient locations, suitably marked, and pressurised,

ON EYES A small quantity in the eye will cause permanent damage Also frost-bite. ON SKIN Se.,!, chemical burns and frost-bite. BY SKIN ABSORPTION Liquid is not readily absorbed through the skin. BY INGESTION Very harmful if swallowed. If conscious, victim should drink water or milk.

ect our

ON EYES Irritation; causes a burning sensation Cold vapour may cause frost-bite. ON SKIN Irritation; causes a burning sensation Cold vapour may cause frost-bite. WHEN INHALED

Acute effect
Convulsive coughing; a high concentration may affect heart action or cause cessation of breathing by reflex action. Chronic effect Irritation of the respiratory tract which may lead to permanent lung damage; but patients usually recover fully.

Figure 5.5 : Emergency Procedures and Health Data


Safety and Security

Ammonia (anhydrous)

Flashpoint -57°C approx. Auto-ignition Temperature 630°C. Flammable Limits 15-30% by volume. Explosion Hazards With mercury, ammonia can form a high explosive which is very sensitive to Impact. Note Although ammonia can be burnt, the ignition energy is so high (about 600 times that for propane) and the flames have such a low heat that ammonia is treated as non flammable for ractical our oses.

Chemical Data

Reactivity Data ! Water, fresh or salt Dissolves
rapidly and exothermically to produce ammonium hydroxide. One volume of water will dissolve up to 1,000 volumes of ammonia vapour causing a risk of tank vacuum.

ev ,

Air No dangerous reaction. Other liquids or gases Dangerous reactions possible with acetaldehyde, chlorine, ethylene oxide, p r o py le n e oxi d e, an d sulphur dioxide.

Boiling Point at Atmospheric Pressure-33°C.

Freezing Point -78°C. Relative Vapour Density 0.6 A heavier-than-air cloud may be formed by escaping liquid.

282 at -30°C. Latent Heat of Vaporisation (K1/Kg) 1367at-33'C 11871at-20'C.

Coefficient of Cubic Expansion 0.0028 per °C at 0°C.

17.03Kg/Kmole. Enthalpy (K1/Kg)

Conditions of Carriage
Normal Carriage Condition Pressurised or fully refrigerated. Ship Type 2G/2PG, Independent Tank required No. Control of Vapour within Cargo Tank Inert gas containing carbon dioxide should not be used because solid ammonium carbamates could be formed, which can choke equipment. Vapour Detection Toxic. Gauging Closed or indirect.

Unsuitable Mercury; zinc; copper alloys;

Suitable Mild steel, stainless steel, aluminium and its alloys; galvanised surfaces; neoprene; polythene. phenolic resins; PVC; polyesters; viton; rubber.

2 0

Figure 5.6 : Information about Ammonia Gas


Risk Analysis

Ship Name :

Record No. :

Current Assessment Date

Last Assessment Date :

Work activity being assessed : Table 5.3 : Hazards Hazard No. 1 2 Description of Identified Hazards


Table 5.4 : People at Risk : Existing Control Measures Hazard No. 1 2 Control Measures

9 10

Table 5.5 :Assessment of Risk (Use Tables 1 and 2 to fill the columns below to determine level of risk) Hazard No 1 2 Hazard Severity Likelihood of Occurrence Level of Risk

9 10 21

Safety and Security

Table 5.6 :Additional Control Measures

Hazard No 1 2

Further Action to Control Risk

Remedial Action and Date

Date Completed

9 Ill

Additional Comments :

Assessment Review date :

(Note : Certain images have been downloaded from the internet to embellish this unit

further. We wish to thank the original creators publishers for allowing us this .facility)

Risk may be defined as the uncertainty or lack of knowledge concerning the outcome events. Operation of a ship is a complex activity that takes place in an environment which is always unpredictable and sometimes hostile and hence subjected to risks. Employers are now required to adopt the risk assessment approach to all work activities on board. assessment which is a continuous process, should cover all risks arising from work activities of a seaman, and should be carried out by a suitably experienced person. :\ her that, action to be taken to improve safety is determined and accordingly, an action plan is made and implemented. An important component of an action plan drawn out for routine activities on ships is a 'check list'. Check list covers activities such as entering/ leaving port, cargo operations, passage planning, enclosed space entry, etc. Accidents have often resulted from seemingly minor causes. Any incident, however small, must be regarded as a warning of something wrong in the system of work or the equipment in use, and must be immediately investigated and deficiency rectified. Please remember that as per one study made of this subject, for everyone serious accident there could be six hundred near misses. Accidents are caused due to carelessness, hurry, recklessness and due to ignoring recognized safe working practices.


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Preamble 6.3 Security Responsibilities

6.4 Summar y

Ships at sea and in harbours have always been easy targets of criminal activities like piracy, stowaways, smuggling, etc. Over a period of time a number of national and international legislations have come into force to eliminate these criminal activities. In the latter half of the 20th century, a number of terrorist organizations mushroomed in different parts of the world — the genesis of which has been attributed to various factors like religious persecution/intolerance, poor governance, poverty, political deprivation, etc. These terrorist organizations were mostly localized — fighting for local issues. In recent years, however, terrorism took on multinational dimensions and terrorist groups went international — opening branches in other countries, like any other business. The most notorious of these groups is the Al Qaeda led by Osama bin Ladin, which carried Out the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon on 11th September 2001, which ich has the widest network all over the world. After the attack on the cruise liner Achille Lauro by terrorists of the Abu Abbas faction, the IMO adopted Resolution A-584 (14) on measures to prevent unlawful acts that threaten safety of ships and the security of their passengers and crew in 1985. This was followed in 1988 by the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the safety of marine navigation (SUA Convention) which included provisions for the absolute and unconditional application of the principle either to punish or to extradite persons committing offences specified in the Convention.

After studying this unit, you should be able to • • • • • describe ISPS Code and its objectives, explain the basics of security assessment and preparation of security plans, give an insight into the threat identification, recognition and response, give a glimpse of the security threats likely to be encountered and the measures to deal with them, and identify responsibilities of various personnel, security equipment and action to be taken.

Maritime activity has always been a risky venture. Even in the early years, apart from the perils of the sea, pirates have posed immense danger to ships and seafarers. In the early middle Ages, the Vikings — natives of Scandinavia —raided and terrorized ships and settlements on the European coasts. Indian pirates, mostly from the Malabar Coast, too used to raid ships plying in the waters of the North Arabian Sea, Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf and settlements along these coasts. They were so dreaded by the Persians, that they made the river Tigris inaccessible by placing massive stones at the mouth —which were removed only by Alexander the Great to make it navigable, on his return

Safety and Security

from India. Sailing ships, loaded with spices and gold from India and the far East, were easy targets to marauding pirates in their fast moving sailing vessels. In the olden days, however, manpower was abundant and cheap (even free) and profits impressive. Shipowners could, therefore, afford to spend on security, to the extent that they armed their ships so they had the capability to retaliate and resist — and even commit acts of piracy on their own! Even Kings and Monarchs took measures to protect their shipping with some measure of success and at times even raided each other's ships for political and economic gains. With the advent of modern day nation states and the rule of international law, the world became more organized and united in rooting out evils like piracy; but it still exists in some parts of the world like the West Coast of Africa, Malacca Straits, etc. While yesterday's pirate had a patch over one eye. cutlass in his teeth and a parrot on his shoulder and sailed in a fast moving cutter, flying the Jolly Roger or the Skull and Crossbones, today's pirate is most often armed with AK-47 rifles and grenades and is a ruthless killer who moves in a speed boat. The only thing in common between both of them is probably the grapnel and rope to board the victim vessel. In more recent years, however, another dangerous phenomenon has raised its ugly head, i.e. terrorism. Genesis of the ISPS Code The Al Qaeda attack in the United States on September 11, 2001 brought about a drastic change in maritime legislation regarding security. On 13th December 2002, the IMO agreed to nine amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74). The SOLAS convention was chosen as the vehicle to expedite the imposition of the legislation as it was already in force and already applicable to all passenger and cargo vessels over 500 tons engaged in international voyages and to mobile offshore oil and gas rigs. This was implemented by merely redesignating Chapters and inserting a new one as the ISPS Code. (The existing chapter XI was amended and re-identified as Chapter XI-land a new Chapter XI2 was adopted on special measures to enhance maritime security). The ISPS code is divided into two Parts, i.e. Part 'A' and Part `13' : Part 'A' is divided into 19 regulations and 2 appendices and consists of the mandatory requirements regarding the provisions of Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS, 1974, as amended; which deals with special measures to enhance the maritime security. Part '13' consists of guidance regarding the provisions of Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS, 1974, as amended. The chronology of events leading up to birth of the ISPS Code is as follows : • November 2001— Maritime Security Committee (MSC) establishes intercessional working group on Maritime Security. • November 2001 — IMO adopts Resolution A.924 (22) for review of measures and procedures against terrorism. • Feb 2002 — MSC Intercessional working group hold this first meeting. • Mar. 2002 — The outcome of the meeting discussed by MSC. • Sept 2002 — MSC intercessional working group meets again. • Dec 2002 — MSC considered the outcome of the group meet and agrees that the proposed text be considered by the Diplomatic Conference. • 12 December 2002 — Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security held in London adopts new amendments to SOLAS — 74 and ISPS Code. ISPS Code — Objectives To establish an international framework to detect security threats and take preventive measures against security incidents affecting ships and port facilities used in international trade.


To establish the respective roles and responsibilities of all parties concerned at the national and international level for ensuring maritime security. Parties involved in the implementation of the ISPS Code • Contracting Governments • Government Agencies • Shipping Industries • Port • Industries • Local Administrations Definitions The definitions of various terms used in the ISPS code are as follows

ISPS - 1

Convention means the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended (SOLAS 74).

Regulation means a regulation of the Convention.

Chapter means a chapter of the Convention.
Ship Security Plan (SSP)

Ship security plan (SSP) means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship's stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident.
Port Facility Security Plan (PFSP)

Port facility security plan (PFSP) means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect the port facility and ships, persons, cargo, cargo transport units and ship's stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident.
Ship Security Off (SSO)

Ship security officer (SSO) means the person on board the ship, accountable to the master, designated by the Company as responsible for the security of the ship, including implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan, and for liaison with the company security officer and port facility security officer.
Company Security Officer (CSO)

Company security officer (CSO) means the person designated by the Company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out: that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval, and thereafter implemented and maintained, and for liaison with port facility security officer and the ship security officer.
Port Facility Security Officer

Port facility security officer means the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and maintenance of the port facility security plan and for the liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers.


Safety and Security

Security Level 1 Security level 1 means the level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times. Security Level 2 Security level 2 means the level for which appropriate additional protective security measures shall be maintained for a period of time. This could be due to heightened risk of a security incident.


Security Level 3 Security level 3 means the level for which further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific target. Ship The term "ship" when used in ISPS Code includes mobile offshore drilling units and high-speed crafts as defined in regulation XI-2/1.

Figure 6.1: Security at Ship

Contracting Governments Subject to the provisions of regulations 3 and 7 of chapterXI-2 of SOLAS 74, Contracting Governments shall set security levels and provide guidance for protection from security incidents. Higher security levels indicate greater likelihood of occurrence of a security incident. Factors to be considered in setting the appropriate security level include (i) (ii) The degree that the threat information is credible, The degree that the threat information is corroborated,

(iii) The degree that the threat information is specific or imminent, and (iv) The potential consequences of such a security incident. Contracting Governments, when they have set security level 3, shall issue, as necessary, appropriate instructions and shall provide security related information to the ships and port facilities that may be affected. Contracting Governments may delegate to a recognized security organization some of their security-related duties


under chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74 and this Part A of ISPS Code with the exception of : • setting of the applicable security level, • approving a port facility security assessment and subsequent amendments to an approved assessment, • determining the port facilities, which will be required to designate a Port Facility Security Officer, • approving a port facility security plan and subsequent amendments to an approved plan, • exercising control and compliance measures pursuant to Regulation 9 of Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74, and • establishing the requirements for a Declaration of Security. Contracting Governments • Shall to the extent they consider appropriate test the effectiveness of the ship security plan or the port facility security plan, or of amendments to such plans, they have approved, or in the case of ships, of plans which have been approved on their behalf. • Should ensure that appropriate measures are in place to avoid unauthorized disclosure of, or access to security assessment and port facility security plan, and to individual assessments or plans. • May identify a Designated Authority within Government to undertake" assessments or plans. • May identify a Designated Authority within Government to undertake their security duties relating to a port facility as set out in chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74 or Part A of ISPS Code. Recognized Security Organizations Contracting Governments may authorize a Recognized Security Organization (RSO) to undertake certain security-related activities, including : • Approval of a ship security plan, or amendment thereto, on behalf of the Administration; a • Verification and certification of compliance of a ship with the requirements of Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74 and Part A of ISPS Code on behalf of the Administration. • Conducting port facility security assessment required by the Contracting Government. An RSO may also advise or provide assistance to a Company or port facility on security matters, including ship security assessment, ship security plan, port facility security assessment and port facility security plan. This can include completion of an SSA or SSP or PFSA or PFSP. If an RSO has done so in respect of an SSA or SSP, that RSO is not authorized to approve that SSP. When authorizing a RSO, Contracting Governments should give consideration to the competency of such an organization. A RSO should be able to demonstrate • expertise in relevant aspects of security, • appropriate knowledge of ship and port operations, including knowledge of ship design and construction and if providing services in respect of port facilities,



Safety and Security

their capability to assess the likely security risks that could occur during ship and port facility operations, including the ship/port interface, and how to minimize such risks, their ability to maintain and improve the expertise of their personnel, their ability to monitor the continuing trustworthiness of their personnel,

• •

• their ability to maintain appropriate measures to avoid unauthorized disclosure of, or access to, security-sensitive material, • their knowledge of their requirements of chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74 and part A of ISPS Code and relevant national and international legislation and security requirements, their knowledge of current security threats and patterns, their knowledge of recognition and detection of weapons, dangerous substances and devices, their knowledge of recognitions, on a non-discriminatory basis, of characteristics and behavioral patterns of persons who are likely to threaten security, their knowledge of security and surveillance equipment and systems and their operational limitations.

• • •

When delegating specific duties to a RSO, contracting Governments, including Administrations, should ensure that the RSO has the competency needed to undertake the task. A recognized security organization, as referred to in regulation 1/6 and fulfilling the requirements of Regulation I of Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74, may be appointed as an RSO provided it has the appropriate security-related expertise listed in paragraph 4.5 of the above Chapter. A port or harbour authority or port facility operator may also be appointed as an RSO provided it has the appropriate security-related expertise. The Company The ISPS code lays down specific requirements for the Company. It is the aim of this chapter to guide the Ship Owners in interpreting these guidelines so as to arrive at specific implementation actions. The ISPS code specifies the following requirements for the Company. Master's Authority. The ship security plan must clearly emphasize the Master's overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions to ensure security of the ship. The Master may request the assistance of the Company or any Flag or Port State as may be necessary. Company's Responsibility Each shipping company or the operator must designate at least one Company Security Officer to be responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining Ship Security Plan fro every Ship in the company fleet. Likewise, the company or the operator must designate a Company Security Officer for each ship in the Company fleet of ships. Company Support The company must ensure that the Company Security Officer, each Master, and each ship security officer have the necessary support to fulfill their


duties and responsibilities outlines in SOLAS 74 and the ISPS Code and the Ship Security Plan. The necessary information that must be provided by the Company to the Master includes the following : • Parties, such as the ship management company, manning agents, contractors, and/or concessionaires, who are responsible for appointing shipboard personnel. Parties who are responsible for deciding the employment of the ship, for example bareboat charterer(s). Contact information for time or voyage charterers, when a ship is employed under a charter party agreement.


• •

The company must keep all information current and updated for changes that may occur. Only current, up-to-date information on any given date must be kept on board. The Company is not responsible for keeping or providing information that relates to a previous owner or operator of the ship. As required by the IMO, the name of the person or organization who appoints the members of the crew or other persons employed or engaged on board the ship in any capacity on the business of the ship is : • Ship's Owner (Name and Address); • Company Security Officer; • Ship's Manager/Operator (Name and Address); • Company Responsible for Employment of Ship (including subcharterer if any) (Name and Address); and • Company Responsible for Manning (Name and Address). The Port Facility A port facility is required to act upon the security levels set by Contracting Government within whose territory it is located. Security measures and procedures shall be applied at the port facility in such a manner as to cause a minimum of interference without, or delay to, passengers, ship, ships personnel and visitors, goods and services. At security level 1, the following activities shall be carried out through appropriate measures in all port facilities, taking into account the guidance given in Part B of ISPS Code, in order to identify and take preventive measures against security incidents. • Ensuring the performance of all port facility security duties; • Controlling access to the port facility; • Monitoring of the port facility, including anchoring and berthing area(s); • Monitoring restricted areas to ensure that only authorized persons have access; • Supervising the handling of cargo; • Supervising the handling of ship's stores; and • Ensuring that security communication is readily available. At security level 2, additional protective measures, specified in the Port Facility Security Plan, shall be implemented for each activity detailed in section 14.2, taking into account the guidance given in Part B of this Code. At security level 3, further specific measures, specified in the port facility security plan, shall be implemented for each activity detailed in section 14.2, taking into account the guidance given in Part B of ISPS Code. In addition, at security level 3, port facility


Safety and Security

is required to respond to and implement any security instructions given by the Contracting Government within whose territory the port facility is located. When a port facility security officer is advised that a ship encounters difficulties in complying with the requirements of Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74 of ISPS code or this part or in implementing the appropriate measures and procedures as detailed in the ship security plan, and in the case of security level 3 following any security instructions given by the Contracting Government within whose territory the port facility is located, the Port Facility Security Officer and the Ship Security Officer shall liaise and co-ordinate appropriate actions. When a Port Facility Security Officer is advised that a ship is at a security level, which is higher than that of the port facility, the port facility security officer shall report the matter to the competent authority and shall liaise with the ship security officer and co-ordinate appropriate actions, if necessary.
'/E5_5eP, WE EMPI_fJV —.HE Ekc~-T ifl 7"P, Q151D 5ECI-P-TY - w I DODY 60ULD PO.)bIDLY PrW-7;+.ATE T•i,~j APIA.


Figure 6.2 Ship Security Officer (SSO) Ship security officer (SSO) means the person on board the ship, accountable to the master, designated by the Company as responsible for the security of the ship, including implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan and for liaison with the company security officer and port facility security officers. The company designates the SSO. The SSO is the executive instrument of the Ship Security Plan. Needless to say that an excellent security plan will yield no results unless it is implemented by an intelligent and security conscious individual. The duties and responsibilities of the SSO include, but are not limited to : • • • 30 Undertaking regular security inspections of the ship to ensure that appropriate security measures are maintained; Maintaining and supervising the implementation of the ship security plan (SSP), including any amendments to the SSP. Coordinating the security aspects of the handling of cargo and ship's stores with other shipboard personnel and with the relevant port facility security officer;

Proposing modifications to the SSP;


• Reporting to the Company Security Officer any deficiencies and nonconformities identified during internal audits, periodic reviews, security inspections and verifications of compliance and implementing any corrective actions; • Enhancing security awareness and vigilance on board; • Ensuring that adequate training has been provided to shipboard. personnel, as appropriate; Reporting all security incidents; • Coordinating implementation of the SSP with the company security officer and the relevant port facility security officer; and • Ensuring that security equipment is properly operated, tested, and maintained, if any. The SSO is responsible for liaising and communication with the Port Facility Security Officer and SSO of other ships in case of ship-to-ship operations. Periodic Review Procedures The SSO is responsible for ensuring a Ship Security Assessment is carried out. The SSO must review the Ship Security Plan at least twice within five years. In addition, internal audits shall be arranged by the Company Security Officer to review the effectiveness of the Ship Security Plan. The Ship Security Plan is reviewed to ensure its efficiency, continuing suitability and effectiveness, with a view to consider the need for improvement. The aim is to re-examine all the procedures in use to see whether any improvements can b e done and whether the procedures are still relevant. Procedures may need to' be amended due to instructions from owners or fitting of new equipment. When the SSP has been put to use as a response to a Security Level 2 or 3, or in a drill, all parties directly involved shall comment on the effectiveness of the SSP and its content to the SSO. Company Security Officer (CSO) A Company Security Officer (CSO) is a person designated by the shipping company to be responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining individual Ship Security Plan for all or part of the company fleet of ships. Depending on how the fleet of ships is organized, a Company may designate more than one CSO as long as it is clear who is the CSO for a particular ship. Company security officer also means the person designated by the Company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out; that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval, and thereafter implemented and maintained and for liaison with port facility security officers and the SSO Duties and Responsibilities The duties and responsibilities of the CSO include, but are not limited to the following: • Advising the. level of threats likely to be encountered by the ships, using appropriate security assessments and other relevant information; Supervising security assessments for each ship; Ensuring the development, the submission for approval, and thereafter the implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan;


Safety and Security

Ensuring that the ship security plan is modified, as appropriate, to eliminate the deficiencies and satisfy the security requirements of the individual ship; Arranging for internal audits and reviews of security measures and activities; Arranging for the initial and subsequent verifications of the ship by the Administration or the recognized security organisations (RSO); Ensuring that deficiencies and non-conformities are identified during internal audits, periodic reviews, security inspections and verifications of compliance are promptly addressed and dealt with; Enhancing security awareness and vigilance; Ensuring adequate training for personnel responsible for the security of the ship; Ensuring effective communication and co-operation between the ship security officer and the relevant port facility security officer; Ensuring consistency between security requirements and safety requirement; Ensuring that if a sister-ship or fleet security plans are used, the plan for each ship reflects the ship specific information accurately; and . Ensuring that any alternative or equivalent arrangements approved for a particular ship or group of ships are implemented and maintained.

• •

• • •

• •

Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO) A port facility security officer (PFSO) shall be designated for each port facility. A person may be designated as the port security officer for one or more port facilities. In addition to those specified in ISPS Code. The duties and responsibilities of the port facility security officer shall include, but are not limited to :

Conducting an initial comprehensive security survey of the port facility, taking into account the relevant port facility security assessment; Ensuring the development and maintenance of the Port facility security plan; Implementing and exercising the port facility security plan (PFSP); Undertaking regular security inspections of the port facility to ensure continuation of appropriate security measures; Recommending and incorporating, as appropriate, modifications to the Port Facility Security Plan (PFSP) in order to correct deficiencies and to update the plan to take into account relevant changes to the port facility; Enhancing security awareness and vigilance of the port facility personnel; Ensuring adequate training has been provided to personnel responsible for the security of the port facility. Reporting to the relevant authorities and

• • • •

• •

• 32

Coordinating implementation of the port facility security plan with the appropriate Company and ship security officer(s).


• Coordinating with security services, as appropriate; • Ensuring that standards for personnel responsible for security of the port facility are met; • Ensuring that security equipment is properly operated, tested, calibrated and maintained, if any; and • Assisting ship security officers in confirming the identity of those seeking to board the ship when requested. The PFSO shall be given the necessary support to fulfill the duties and responsibilities imposed by Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS 74 and Part A of ISPS Code. Vessel Personnel with Specific Security Duties The Master is responsible for the safety and security of the crew, passengers and cargo. The development of general security policies and procedures is the responsibility of the CSO. The SSO is responsible for implementing, maintaining and supervising the Ship Security Plan. The specific security duties for each personnel will be laid down in the Ship Security Plan. Duties and Responsibilities of the Security Watch The security watch must be aware of the : • • Communication To summon assistance, the security watch shall be provided with means of communications to keep in touch with the duty officer.' Briefings All officers and crewmembers are to be briefed about their duties and the security level the ship is in at every change of security level, on possible threats, the procedures for reporting suspicious persons, objects or activities and the need for vigilance. Officer of the Watch (OOW) It is the responsibility of the Watch Officer on the Deck or Bridge to • Familiarize him/herself with all current security standing orders before coming on duty. • Be responsible for all specific security duties being carried out on board and/or any additional duties passed on by the Master. • Know the current Security Level and the security measures that have been implemented. • Be aware of the immediate recall procedures in case of an emergency. • Brief the on coming watches as to the current security level, their standing orders and any additional specific security measures in place. • Ensure all watches are in acceptable dress and are neat and tidy in appearance. • Ensure all watches are equipped with the proper security equipment to enable them to carry out their duties. • Ensure gangway and roving patrol watches are relieved promptly for meals and at the end of the tour of duty. Security level the ship is operating in. A sharp lookout shall be maintained. Suspicious persons, objects and activities and malfunctioning of security equipment shall be reported to the duty officer.


Safety and Security

Ensure that a copy of the standing orders for each post is available at the post. • Ensure all watches know how to report any incidents or problems. • Check the gangway log and visitor badge issue arrangements when coming on duty and at least once between at the beginning and end of watch. • Visit all duty personnel at least once before midnight and once between midnight and 0600. • Record all visits in the security log. • Ensure the Master and Ship's Security Officer's contact details in case of emergency. • Tour the ship randomly and visit all restricted areas, check all mooring lines, rat guards lounge areas and all around berthing area. • Brief relieving OOW as to the current security level, the standing orders and any additional specific security measures in place. • Record the handover/takeover of duties in the security log. All other Ship's Officers • • • Assist the SSO for reporting a security incident or potential security breaches. Assist the SSO in implementing security measures at each security level and report any nonconformities or failures. Be responsible, while on duty, for implementing the requirements of the SSP relevant to their position.

Crew Members All crew members and employees should make themselves familiar with the contents of the SSP and relevant supporting orders. They are to be familiar with their duties as laid down in ship security plan. The Security requirements of a port facility will be determined through port facility security assessment. The security duties of various port facility personnel will depend upon the type and degree of security required at the various port facilities. These duties will be contained in the port facility security plan.

Figure 6.3


SAQ 1 (a) What is the, genesis of the ISPS Code?

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 4 (g) (h)
( 1 )

What are the objectives of the ISPS Code? Who are the parties involved in the implementation of the ISPS Code? Can a RSO approve a ship security plan if he has been involved in the preparation of the security assessment or plan itself? What are the duties of the OOW with respect to security? What are the responsibilities of an SSO? What are the responsibilities of a CSO? What are the responsibilities of an OOW? What are the responsibilities of all crewmembers? Does your company have any plan in place in case the CSO is unavailable during a security incident?


(Note: Some of the pictures/images used in this Unit have been sourced from the internet. We wish to thank the creators/publishers for the usage of their material.)

Tragic events of 9/11 made it necessary for the IMO to develop new measures relating to the security of ships. On 13 December 2002, the IMO agreed to nine amendments to SOLAS 1974, and imposed the ISPS Code. ISPS Code is divided into two parts.

Part A consists of new international framework of measures, to enhance maritime security and through which ships and port facilities can cooperate to detect acts which threaten security in the maritime transport sector. Part B of the code provides guidance relating to processes envisaged in establishing the new international framework and deals with the essential considerations which should be taken intoaccount w lien considering the application of the guidance relating to ships and port facilities It is the responsibility of the contracting government to set security levels and 2uidance for protection from security incidents. Contracting governments should test the effectiveness of the Ship Security Plans and the Port Facility Security Plans which they have approved, and may authorize a RSO to undertake certain security related activities.


Them Ship Security Plan clearly emphasized the master's overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions to ensure security of the ship. A company designated the CSO who is responsible for developing and maintaining Ship Security Plan for every ship in the company fleet. A port facility is required to act upon the security levels set by the government. A SSO is a person on board, who is accountable to the master and responsible for the security of the ship including implementation and maintenance of the Ship Security Plan. A PFSO is responsible for the development, maintenance implementation and exercising of the port facility security plan. His responsibilities are many, and include regular inspections of the port facility to ensure continuation of appropriate security measures, updating of the Port Facility Security plan, training of personnel responsible for the .security and maintaining of all relevant records.


Structure 7.1 Introduction Objective 7.2 7.3 7.4 Ship Security Assessment Ship Security Plan Ship Security Actions

7.5 Emergency Preparedness, Drills and Exercises 7.6 Summary

Risk Assessment Methodology Security risk analysis, otherwise known as risk assessment, is fundamental to the security of any organization. It is essential in ensuring that controls and expenditure are fully commensurate with the risks to which the organization is exposed. However, many conventional methods for performing security risk analysis are becoming more and more untenable in terms of usability, flexibility, and critically in terms of what they produce for the user. Security in any system should be commensurate with its risks. However, the process to determine which security controls are appropriate and cost effective is quite often a complex and sometimes a subjective matter. One of the prime functions of security risk analysis is to put this process onto a more objective basis. There are a number of distinct approaches to risk analysis. However, these essentially break down into two types — quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative Risk Analysis The problems with this type of risk analysis are usually associated with the unreliability and inaccuracy of the data. Probability can rarely be precise and can, in some cases, promote complacency. In addition, controls and countermeasures often tackle a number of potential events and the events themselves are frequently interrelated. Notwithstanding the drawbacks, a number of organizations have successfully adopted quantitative risk analysis. Qualitative Risk Analysis This is by far the most used approach to risk analysis. Probability data is not required and only estimated potential loss is used. Most qualitative risk analysis methodologies make use of a number of interrelated elements : Threats These are things that can go wrong or that can 'attack' the system. Examples might include fire or fraud. Threats are ever present for every system. Vulnerabilities These make a system more prone to attack by a threat or make an attack more likely to have some success or impact, e.g. for fire, a vulnerability would be the presence of inflammable materials (e.g. paper). Controls

These are the countermeasures for vulnerabilities. These are of four types :


Safety and Security

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Deterrent controls reduce the likelihood of a deliberate attack. Preventative controls protect vulnerabilities and make an attack unsuccessful or reduce its impact. Corrective controls reduce the effect of an attack. Detective controls discover attacks and trigger preventative or corrective controls.

After studying this unit on ISPS -- II, you should be able to explain • • • • • risk assessment methodology, ship security assessment, ship security plans, ship security actions, and emerging preparedness.

Security Assessment is a risk-based decision makin g tool. It is a systematic and analytical process to consider the likelihood that a security b r each will endanger an asset, individual and function and, based on that, to identify actions to reduce the Vulnerability and mitigate the consequences of a security breach. The Ship Security Plan is based on the results of the Security Assessment. The most essential part of developing or updating an effective Ship Security Plan is undertaking a comprehensive, written Ship Security Assessment. The Ship Security Assessment is the responsibility of the Company. Security Office, even through he may delegate the task to other competent people with appropriate skills and experience. such as a "Recognized Security Organization" authorized by the Flag State. Security Survey means an inspection, check -and / or audit to control and improve the mitigation strategy. protective measures and actions in the Ship Security Plan. The ship security assessment shall he documented, reviewed, accepted and retained by the Company. Assessment Tools The Ship SecurityAssessment shall include at least the following: An on-scene security survey. • Identification of existing security measures, procedures and operations. • Identification and evaluation of key shipboard operations that it is important to protect. • Identification of possible threats to the key ship board operations and the likelihood of their occurrence, in order to establish and prioritise security measures and • Identification of weaknesses, including human factors in the infrastructure, policies and procedures. Each Ship Security Assessment must consider : • Threats that may be unique for the ports at which the ship will call. • Types of port facilities. • Port facility security measures. 38

The Ship Security Assessment must address the following areas of the ship that, if damaged or used for illicit purpose, could endanger people, property; or operations on the ship or within the port facility. • Physical Security • Structural Integrity of the ship and/or port facilities • Personnel protective systems . • Policies and procedures • Communication systems, including radios and telecommunications. The risk elements and risk response formula is given in Appendices "A" and "B" at the end of this unit, which can be used to carryout a risk assessment and thereby derive a response. The Ship Security Assessment must be reviewed, accepted or approved and retained by the Company. The completed Ship Security Assessment must include a summary report that describes how the assessment was conducted and identified the vulnerabilities that were found along with the countermeasures to be used for any vulnerability. The Ship Security Assessment will contain information that should be kept confidential. The Ship Security Assessment itself should be protected against unauthorized access and/or disclosure. On-Scene Security Survey The "On-Scene" Security Survey should examine and evaluate the existing shipboard security protective measures, procedures, and operations for: • ensuring the performance of all ship security duties, • monitoring restricted areas to prevent unauthorized access, • controlling access to the ship, • monitoring deck areas and areas surrounding the ship, • controlling the embarkation/disembarkation of person and their belongings, • supervising cargo handling and delivery of ship stores, • ensuring the ready availability of ship security equipment and communication systems, and • handling of unaccompanied baggage, Expert Assistance The CSO should consider soliciting the assistance of outside experts in the following areas to prepare a complete and adequate Ship Security Assessment (SSA) by concentrating on the following issues : • Knowledge of security threats and patterns. • Recognising and detecting weapons, dangerous substances and devices. • Recognising characteristics and behaviour of persons who are likely to threaten security. • Techniques used to circumvent security measures. • Methods used to cause a security incident. • Effects of explosives on ship structures and equipment. • Ship Security. • Standard practices, actions for ship and port facility.



Safety and Security

Contingency planning, emergency preparedness and response.

• Physical Security. • Radio and telecommunications, including computer equipment and networks. • Marine engineering. • Ship and port facility operations. Ship Specific Information Prior to conducting the on-scene security survey, the following information of the ship must be collected : • General Layout. • Location of 'restricted areas'. • Access points. • Tidal changes that could affect the vulnerability or security of the ship. • Cargo spaces and stowage arrangements. • Location of stores. • Location of unaccompanied baggage. • Emergency and standby equipment designed to maintain essential services. • Number of shipboard personnel along with existing security duties and training. • Existing security and safety equipment for protecting the ship personnel and passengers. • Evacuation routes and assembly stations for orderly emergency abandonment of the ship. • Agreements for private security services for protecting the ship or port facilities. Existing security equipment, measures, and procedures, including cargo inspection and control procedures, surveillance and monitoring equipment, required personnel identification documents; security communications and lighting. Points of Access The SSA should identify and examine all points of access including open weather decks and evaluate the potential for each such point to be used by individuals for unauthorized entry. Security Measures and Guidance Considering existing security measures, guidance procedures and operations, the SSA should determine specific security guidance for the following : • Restricted areas. • Emergency response procedures, including fire emergencies. • Supervision of ship personnel, passengers, visitors, vendors, repairmen and dock workers. • Frequency and effectiveness of security patrols. 40

• • • • Security Threats 4

Access control systems, including identification requirements. Security communication equipment and procedures. Security doors, barriers and lighting. Security equipment including surveillance equipment.


The SSA should consider all possible security threats that may include the following : • • • • • • • Damage to the ship or port facility caused by an explosive device, arson, sabotage or vandalism. Hijacking or seizure of the ship or of personnel or passengers. Tampering with cargo, stores or critical ship equipment. Unauthorized access, including stowaways. Smuggling of weapons or the use of the ship to transport terrorists and/or their equipment. Use of the ship itself as a weapon to cause damage or destruction. Attacks from the sea while at berth, at anchor or at sea.

Vulnerabilities The SSA should consider vulnerabilities including • • • • • Conflicts between safety measures and security measures. Conflicts between regular shipboard duties and security assignments. Watch keeping duties, limited numbers of shipboard personnel and the effects of fatigue on alertness and performance. Inadequate security training.

Inadequate or poorly maintained security equipment including communication equipment. The CSO shall ensure that persons with appropriate skills to evaluate the security of a ship carry out the SSA. The SSA in addition to the above requirements shall also include an examination of the threats to the ship, which can and do rapidly change. A ship's location, the time of the day and international events can dramatically alter the threat to a -ship. As a consequence, it is critical for the SSO to regularly monitor events to determine potential threats in the path of the ship as it travels to its next destination. Information about potential threats is available from a variety of sources. These include port authorities, local law enforcement officers, consular or diplomatic representatives. A variety of government, industry and international business organizations also provide information on potential threats. For example, governments issue warning for areas with high security risks. Internet sites are also available that compile data on piracy and other threats.

Figure 7.14


Safety and Security

Purpose of the Ship Security Plan Ship Security plan means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship's stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident. The purpose of the plan is to lay down the responsibilities and the procedures to prevent and counteract any anticipated threat to the ship, its cargo and crew. The ISPS Code Part A, Paragraph 9 states that each ship shall carry on board a ship security plan approved by the administration. The plan lays down precise actions to be taken under various threats situations. After July 1, 2004 each ship must carry a Ship Security Plan that has been approved by the Ship's Flag State or a Recognized Security Organization, which has been authorized by the ship Flag State to review and approve Ship Security Plans. The Ship Security Plan must outline the protective security measures to be taken for each of the three different security levels for critical shipboard activities, including controlling access to the ship, monitoring restricted areas, handling cargo, delivering ship stores, handling unaccompanied baggage, and monitoring the security of the ship. Development and Approval of the Ship Security Plan The plan is made based on the security assessment. The Plan is required to be developed taking into account in the guidance given in the Part B of the Code. The CSO is responsible for preparing the Ship Security Plan and submitting the Plan for Flag State Approval. Recognized Security Organization may prepare ship Security plans, but when this is the case, the same Recognized Security Organization may not also review and approve the Plan. Each Ship Security Plan that is submitted for approval must be accompanied with a SSA upon which the Ship Security Plan was developed. The SSA will identify particular physical and operational features of the ship, including the voyage patterns of the ship, and potential security threats and vulnerabilities. Ship Security Plans may be written in the working language(s) of the ship, but also in English, French or Spanish if neither of these languages is the working language(s) of the ship. The content of each Ship Security Plan will be different depending on the particular ship that the Plan covers. The Ship Security Plan must address the following : • Measures to prevent unauthorized weapons, dangerous substances, and devices intended to harm people; the ship or port facilities from being take on board the ship. • Identification of restricted areas and measures to prevent unauthorized access of such areas. • Measures to prevent unauthorized access to the ship. • Procedures for responding to security threats or breaches of security. • Procedure for responding to security instructions from Port State authorities that may be given at Security Level 3. • Procedures for evacuating the ship in case of security threats or breaches of security. • Duties of shipboard personnel assigned security responsibilities. • Procedures for auditing security activities. • Procedures for security training, drills and exercises. • Procedures for coordinating ship security activities with port facility security activities.



Procedures for periodically reviewing and updating the Ship Security Plan.


• Procedures for reporting security incidents. • Identification of the SSO. • Identification of the CSO including 24-hour contact information. • Procedures for inspection, testing, calibrating and maintenance of any ship security equipment. • Location of the Ship Security Alert System activation points. • Procedures, instructions, and guidance on the use of the Ship Security Alert System, including instructions for testing, activating and resetting the device and for limiting false alerts. In addition, all Ship Security Plans should : • Detail the organizational structure of security for the ship. • Detail the relationships with respect to security between the ship, the Company, port facilities, other ships and Port and Flag States. • Detail the systems for maintaining continuous communication with the ship and between the ship and Port facilities. • Detail the basic operational and physical security measures that will always be in place for Security Level 1. • Detail additional security measures that will be implemented without delay for Security Level 2, and when necessary, for Security Level 3. • Provide for the regular, periodic review, or audit of the Ship Security Plan and for the amendment of the Plan in response to experience or changing circumstances. • Procedures for timely and accurate reporting of breaches of security to appropriate Port and Flag State authorities. Confidentiality of Plans Ship Security plans are not subject to inspection by officers dully authorized by Contracting Government to carry out control and compliance measures in accordance with regulation XI-2/9. If the officers duly authorized by a Contracting Government have clear grounds to believe that the ship is not in compliance with the requirements of Chapter XI-2 or Part A of this Code, and the only means to verify or rectify the non-compliance is to review the relevant requirements of the ship security plan, limited access to the specific sections of the plan relating to the noncompliance is exceptionally allowed, but only with the consent of the Contracting Government of, or the master of, the ship concerned. Nevertheless, the provisions in the following plan are considered as confidential information, and cannot be subject to inspection unless otherwise agreed by the Contracting Governments concerned. An SSP must contain the following information : • Identification of restricted areas and measures for the prevention of unauthorized access to them. • Procedures for responding to security threats or breaches of security including provisions for maintaining critical operations of the ship or ship/port interface.


Safety and Security

Procedures for responding to security instructions from Port State authorities that may be given at Security Level 3.

• Duties of shipboard personnel assigned security responsibilities. • Procedures for inspection, testing, calibrating and maintenance of an ship security equipment. • Location of the Ship Security Alert System activation points. If Ship Security Plans are kept in an electronic format, they must be protected by procedures that prevent unauthorized deletion, destruction, and alteration. Ship Security Plans must be treated as sensitive and confidential and must be protected from unauthorized access or disclosure. The Master has the overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions, which, the professional judgment of the master is necessary to maintain the safety and security of the ship. If, in the professional judgment of the master, a conflict between any safety and security requirements applicable to the ship arises during its operations, the master shall give effect to those requirements necessary to maintain the safety of the ship. In such cases, the master will implement temporary security measures and shall forthwith inform the Administration and, if appropriate, the Contracting Government in whose port the ship is operational or intends to enter. Any such temporary security measures under this regulation shall, to the highest possible degree, be commensurate with the prevailing security level.


Implementation and Maintenance of the Ship Security Plan

It is important to understand that no matter how perfect is the plan. it will be ineffective unless it is implemented properly. It is the duty of the ship's security officer to ensure that the plan is implemented on board in letter and spirit. He is to ensure that all the personnel on board the ship are conversant with their security related duties. In order to ensure that the plan is optimally implemented onboard, the ship security officer should regularly exercise the ship's crew in security exercises and drills. Before commencement of the exercise, the personnel m% olved should be briefed on the purpose of the exercise. On completion, a debrief should be carried out to appraise the personnel of any shortcomings. An important aspect of the implementation of the ship's security plan is to critically examine it from the point of view of shortcomings. It needs to be appreciated that over a period of time, the plan may need to be amended to cater to any changed circumstances. The SSO must therefore, identify these changes and propose remedial measures. He can, thereafter in consultation with the ship's master, propose changes in the plan to the company security officer. As the plan is a document approved by the administration, the amendments to the plan must be approved. Para 9.3 of Part A of ISPS Code states that amendments to a previously approved plan shall be accompanied by the security assessment on the basis of which the amendments has been developed. In a nutshell. it would suffice to say that the plan is based on an assessment of various related factors. As and when any of these factors change, the assessment changes and hence the plan must be amended to cater for the changes. ISPS Code Part B Para 9.5 states that CSO andSSO should develop procedures to : • Assist the continuing effectiveness of the SSP. • Prepare amendments of the plan, subsequent to its approval.


Different Security Levels Recognizing that vigilance must increase as the threat of a security incident increases, the ISPS Code establishes three different security levels that call that call for tighter protective measures when there are more likely or specific threats. Security Level I It means the level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times. Security Level 2 Security Level 2 is used when there is a heightened threat of an attack occurring in a specific area against a specific class of targets, thus necessitating maintenance of additional protective security measures for a period of time. Security Level 3 It means the level for which further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific target. The Ship Security Plan must specify the security protective measures to be taken on each ship at each security level for the following activities • Ordinary Security activities. • Controlling access to the ship. • Controlling the embarkation of persons and their belongings. • Monitoring restricted areas to prevent unauthorized access. • Monitoring deck areas and areas around the ship. • Supervising cargo and stores handling. Actions to be Taken at Various Security y The actions to be taken at various security levels are summarised in the following tabulated boxes. Table 7.1 : Access to the Ship
Action All access points manned Level I Level 2 Level 3


Yes Yes Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Optional No

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No -

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Electronic information protected Verification of identification Lock off areas not in use Additional guards at access points Inspection of carry on baggage Search of vehicles on ferries Segregate searched from un searched Consider use of boat patrols Provide specific security briefings Limited access to a singles point Suspension of embarkation — disembarkation

Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional


Safety and Security

Table 7.2 : Restricted Areas Action Secure area when not in use Use Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and other surveillance equipment Consider using ships personnel as security staff Consider using automatic intrusion detection Close off areas adjacent to restricted areas Consider deploying additional detection devices in areas adjacent to restricted areas Must have the ability to respond to a breach of a restricted area Level 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Optional Optional Yes Level 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Level 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Table 7.3 : Embarkation of Persons and their Effects Action Sterile area to carry out checks Segregation between checked and unchecked Positively identifying passengers, visitors and others before all embarkations Security briefings for all crew and passengers Set search level % to reflect the threat Ensure searchers are well trained and know what to look for Procedures in place to deal with any prohibited items found Restrict access to crew and passengers only Provide escorts for service providers Level I Yes Yes Optional Level 2 Yes Yes Yes Level 3 Yes Yes Yes

Optional Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes




Optional Optional

Optional Optional

Yes Yes

Table 7.4 : Handling Unaccompanied Baggage Action Ensure stores match the order before being loaded Ensure immediate stowage of all ships stores Checks prior to accepting stores on board Work with Port Facility to subject stores to more rigorous checks Subjecting ships stores to more extensive checking using resources available Restrict the delivery of or refuse to accept ships stores Level 1 Yes Yes Optional Optional Optional Level 2 Yes Yes Yes Optional Optional Level 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes





Action Routine checking of cargo transport units and spaces Routine checking of cargo Check that cargo loaded matches documentation In liaison with Port Facility, ensure vehicle(s) searched in accordance with current security level and SSP Checking of seals or other methods to prevent tampering Visual and physical examination Use of detection equipment where available Use accredited shippers where possible Detailed checking of cargo transport units and spaces Intensified checks to ensure only intended cargo is loaded Increase search of cargo in accordance with security level and SSP Intensifies searching of vehicles to be loaded Increased frequency and detailed checks of seals Suspensions of the loading or unloading of cargo Verify inventory of dangerous goods and hazardous substances

Level 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes

Level 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes

Level 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes




Yes Yes Yes Optional Optional Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Optional Optional Optional Optional

Yes Yes Optional Optional

Yes Yes Optional Yes

Table 7.6 : Monitoring the Security of the Ship Action Deck and access points illuminated at all times whilst in port or at anchorage Maximum lighting whilst underway consistent with safe navigati6n Ships personnel should be able to detect activities beyond the ship on both shore side and waterside Coverage should facilitate identification at access points Assign additional personnel as lookouts and patrols Install additional lighting in conjunction with port facility Ensure coordination with waterside and shore side patrols when provided Use all devices capable of recording on board activities Slow rotation of propellers to deter underwater access Have the ability to respond to incidents Level 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Level 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Level 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes

Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional

Yes Yes Yes Optional Optional

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes





Safety and Security

Figure 7.2 : Restricted Areas

Restricted Areas of the Ship The Ship Security Plan must provide for monitoring the restricted areas of the ship to prevent unauthorized access. The purpose of restricted areas to prevent unauthorized access to protect the safety of ship personnel and passengers and to protect cargo and ship stores from tampering. Restricted areas may include • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The navigational bridge The engine room Steering gear room Crew accommodation areas Cargo tanks or hold Cargo pump rooms Storage lockers for ship stores Spaces containing dangerous goods or hazardous substances Electrical equipment rooms Ventilation equipment rooms Ventilation and air conditioning equipment rooms Portable water systems Emergency response equipment rooms Similar key areas essential to the security and safe operation of the ship.


Contingency Planning There is a famous saying: "Hope for the best and be prepared for the worst". Contingency planning relates to the second half of the saying, i.e. be prepared for the worst. In simple terms, contingency planning means planning for an 4 unforeseen event or an emergency. Hence, depending upon the threat scenario, the ship must identify all the contingencies that can possibly take place. Once the contingencies have been identified, well thought out plans can be drawn up to avoid, minimize and mitigate the adverse effects of the contingency. Some of the contingencies that a ship can expect that would jeopardize its security are • Bomb threat • Hostage situation • Sabotage • Chemical weapon threat • Detection of explosives onboard The contingency plan must include the following • The onboard organization to handle the contingency. • Responsibility and duty of each personnel in tackling in the contingency. • Detailed check off list prescribing the action to be taken by each individual. • The communication arrangements within the ship. • Personnel authorized to communicate with external authorities and the means of communications. • Records to be maintained. The contingency planning for a particular emergency-will vary from ship to ship depending upon the type and size of the ship and resources available. If there is a security threat, the ship will be at Security Level 2 or 3 as advised by the Flag State or by the Contracting Government of the Port Facility. The Security Measures to be taken are laid down in the Ship Security Plan. If the ship is at Security Level 1 and the Master or SSO considers that a security threat exists, he shall take appropriate actions to reduce the threat. He shall also inform the company, the Flag State and the Contracting Government of the Port Facility about the threat assessment. Breaches of Security When security is breached, the Master/SSO shall consider doing the following • Activate the Ship Security Alert System. • Call Emergency Stations. • Inform the Contracting Government of the Port Facility. • Prepare to evacuate the ship.



Safety and Security

Prepare to leave the port.

• Act on Instructions given by the contracting governments. • Use the appropriate Contingency Plans. Security Drills and Exercises According to the ISPS-code Part A 9.8.1, security drills and exercises are confidential and cannot be witnessed by third parties other than flag state authorities. There is an old saying, "the more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war". The fight against terrorism is a war on many fronts. The objective of drills and exercises is to ensure that shipboard personnel are proficient in all assigned security duties at all security levels and the identification of any security related deficiencies, which need to be addressed. To ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of the ship security plan, drills shall be conducted at least once every three months. In addition, in cases where more than 25 percent of the ship's personnel have been changed, at any one time, with personnel that have not previously participated in any drill on that ship, within the last 3 months, a drill shall be conducted within one week of the change. These drills shall test individual elements of the plan. Various types of exercises which may include participation of company security officers, port facility security officers, relevant authorities of Contracting Governments as well as assistant ship security officers, if available, shall be carried out at least once each calendar year with no more than 18 months between the exercises. These exercises shall test communications, coordination, resource availability, and response. These exercises may be : • Full scale or live, • Tabletop simulation or seminar, or • Combined with other exercises held, such as search and rescue or emergency. Response Exercises Company participation in an exercise with another Contracting Government shall be recognized by the Administration. To ensure effective coordination and implementation between the ship, company shore-based personnel, and port facilities, different types of larger scale exercises that include the participation of the Company Security Officer, Port Facility Security Officers, and other appropriate participants should be conducted at least once a year. The purpose of these large scale events is to test communications, coordination, resource availability and emergency response. Security exercise may be a full-scale, real-time (live) event, involving mobilization and deployment of personnel and equipment or the exercise may be "table-up" activity, where the entire security incident is simulated. Security exercises may be combined with other emergency response exercises, such as search and rescue exercises. Shipboard drill scenarios should address a variety of appropriate threats, which may include : (a) (b) (c) Damage to the ship or port facility caused by an explosive device (bomb), arson, sabotage, or vandalism. Hijacking or seizure of the ship or of ship personnel or passengers. Tampering with cargo, stores or critical ship equipment.


(a) (b) (c) (d)

Unauthorised access, including stowaways. Smuggling weapons or the using the ship to transport terrorists and/or their equipment. Using the ship itself as a weapon to cause damage or destruction. Attacks from the sea while at berth, at anchor, or at sea.


Assessment of Security Drills and Exercises As mentioned earlier, drills and exercises are carried out with the primary aim of bringing up and keeping the personnel and the system competent and ready to contract security threats. In order to ensure that this aim is being met, the security drills and exercises being carried out must be assessed. This can be done by conducting the drills and exercises in a methodical and the prescribed procedure. The exercise and the drill must consist of following three phases Preparation As part of the preparation for the exercise, all personnel who are required to participate in the exercise must be thoroughly briefed on the aim of the exercise, how it will be conducted and what each individual is expected to do. Conduct The exercise must be conducted in as realistic a manner as possible and in accordance with the laid down procedures. All the records must be meticulously maintained. De-brief This is the most relevant part as far as the assessment goes. All the records must be examined. The opinion of the participants must be taken. The whole evolution must be critically examined to assess whether the aims of the drill of the exercise have been met.

Figure 7.3: Assessment of Security Drills and Exercise







Risk Response Required Category (Quantitative)





Figure 7.4


APPENDIX- B Risk Value – Response Category





1~1 ..4.4 4 NEGLIGIBLE

46". I


".;, I











4 5


4 5




Figure 7.5 : Risk Value Response Category

SAQ 1 (a) Using the data/formula in Appendices "A" and "B" in this unit, work out-the risk assessment and the appropriate response to the following: Your vessel is to be berthed at a place where the vulnerability is slight, the threat is likely and the criticality is moderate. Which are the designated restricted areas on your ship? Who has overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions with regard to safety and security? The master or the SSO? How does Security Level 2 differ from Security Level 3?

(b) (c) (d)


Safet and Security

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

What are the actions to be taken at Security Level 3 for 'monitoring the security of the ship'? Why is a debrief of security drills/exercises important? What is the procedure for accepting unaccompanied baggage? What is a Ship Security Assessment? What would it culminate in? Who has access to the Ship Security Plan? Which areas could to be termed as restricted areas on board your vessel?


Note : Some of the pietureslimages used in this Unit have been sourced from the internet. We wish to thank the creators/publishers for the usage of their material.]

There are a number of distinct approaches to risk analysis, but essentially they break down into two types - quantitative and qualitative. Qualitative Risk Analysis is by far the most used approach to risk analysis, wherein the threats and vulnerabilities are controlled by 'deterrent', 'preventative', 'corrective' and 'detective' controls. The Ship Security Assessment is an analytical process to consider the likelihood that a security branch will endanger an asset, individual or a function, and based on that, to identify actions to reduce the vulnerability. The ship security assessment is documented, reviewed, accepted and retained by the company. The purpose of a ship security plan is to lay down responsibilities and procedures to prevent and counteract any anticipated threat to the ship, its cargo and crew. Each ship is required to carry on board a ship security plan approved by the administration. This, however, is a confidential document and may not be inspected even by the officers authorized by the government to inspect vessels for compliance of regulation XI-2/9, unless in exceptional circumstances. Increased vigilance is required when the threat of the security incident increases. ISPS code has established three different security levels starting with 'level V, which is the security level which must be maintained at all times, 'level 2' when there is a heightened threat of attack, and 'level 3' when the security incident is probable or imminent. The ship must identity all contingencies and make out plans to avoid, minimize and mitigate the adverse effects of the contingency. The plan must indicate the organization that would handle the contingency, the communication arrangement within the ship and personnel authorized to communicate with external authorities. To ensure that the shipboard personnel are proficient in the assigned security duties, drills and exercises are to be held on the ship.


Structure 8.1 Introduction Objective 8.2 - Security Equipment and Systems 8.3 Threat Identification, Recognition and Response

8.4 Methods of Physical Searches 8.5 Summar y

In the earlier years, the only method of ensuring security was physical examination. With the passing of time, criminals have resorted to innovative techniques to hoodwink inspectors. Also, with large and quick movements of personnel and cargoes taking place, it is no more possible to ensure security through physical inspection alone. Physical inspection of one single container may take up to a day. Needless to say, since time is money, commercial considerations cannot and will not allow such luxuries. In order to detect and nab today's clever and technology savvy criminal, a number of highly sophisticated equipment are in use. As most of us have at one time or another traveled by, the use of metal detectors and the arch is well known to us. We have also come across luggage X-ray machines at the airports. Descriptions of some of the prominent and latest equipment that are in use or likely to be in use in the near future is given in the succeeding paragraphs.

Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to list security equipment and systems, describe threat identification methods, and explain about methods of physical searches.


A Better Nose Explosives emit distinct odors that dogs can be trained to detect. However, search dogs need to rest about every half-hour. The Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, has developed an essential part of what may be aptly described as an electronic dog. The key to the handheld "sniffer" is a component known as a chemical preconcentrator. It draws in a large volume of air, collects heavy organic compounds from the air stream onto a filter and then vaporizes these compounds in the presence of an explosives detector. The unit is so sensitive, a person who had handled a bomb or a suitcase containing explosives would register as having 100,000 times more residue than a "clean" passenger, says co-developer Dave Hannum. X-Rays The next part of the security system that could use improvement is the passenger scanner. The current method for inspecting individual passengers is to use a metal

Safety and Security

detector, which is unable to detect nonmetallic objects such as explosives. The solution lies in weaker, not stronger, X-rays just powerful enough to look through clothes. It takes a front and back scan of a passenger in a little more than 6 seconds. Plastic explosives taped to his chest and back stand out, along with a pistol, bullets and pocket change. What is significant about the X-ray is that, while you can see the man's shin bones, which are very close to the skin, no internal organs appear on the image. This is because the subject is scanned with a narrow beam of X-rays that cannot penetrate more than a fraction of an inch into the body. Most of the rays are scattered back in the opposite direction. This energy is then gathered by sensitive X-ray detectors, and the information gleaned from these sensors is used to generate images. The amount of radiation a person receives during the 6-second scan is roughly equivalent to the radiation to which he is exposed during 20 seconds on a commercial airliner at cruising altitude. Robots The MR-5 has been developed as a standard to a new generation of Explosive Disposal Robots (EDR). Police, military, fire, nuclear and other hazardous response personnel can utilize the multi purpose MR-5. The MR-5 is capable of surveillance, neutralizing, and handling such items as improvised explosive devices (IEDs), hazardous chemicals, and radioactive materials. The MR-5 is an allweather, all terrain in-door and out-door mobile robot. The MR-5 features the latest robotic and computer technologies hazardous packaged into a mobile robot for hazardous environment operations The MR-5 is remotely controlled, and consists of a robust vehicle and dexterous robot arm. The six-axis manipulator arm has turret, shoulder, elbow and a three-axis wrist. Various end-effecter tools and modular equipment can be attached to the arm. The tools and modules are quickconnect/disconnect units. The MR-5 is rugged and precise; it is capable of carrying very large and very small payloads with the same gripper and same dexterity. Also, it can carry a variety of weapons, sensors and detectors, such as disrupters, lasers and mine detectors. Explosion Detection Systems (EDS) In Vision Technologies EDS Machine All InVision 8 CTX EDS machines locate and identify explosive devices concealed in checked baggage. As the conveyor moves each bag through the machine, the system produces a scanned projection X-ray image. From this image, the powerful onboard computer determines which areas need "slice" images, taken by the rotating X-ray source. The CTX 9000 DSi system is the world's fastest FAA-certified Explosives Detection System (EDS) - at 542 bags per hour, it features alternate operational modes yielding even higher throughputs. Using sophisticated computer algorithms, the CTX 9000 DSi analyses these images, and compares their CT properties with those of known explosives. If a match is found, the system alarms and displays the object on the screen. The operator views the screen image to determine whether a real threat exists and then follows established protocols for threat resolution. Explosives Trace Detection (ETDS) IONSCAN has the capability of detecting trace amounts of more than 40 explosive or narcotic substances in a quick 8-second analysis. The color coded display presents instrument status information and results to the operator in an easy to understand fashion. If detection is made, the specific explosive or narcotic is identified on the display. The IONSCAN ® was widely deployed at Salt Lake City Airport for the 2002 Winter Olympics. In


a matter of days, over 80 systems were installed at the ticket check-in counters to screen checked baggage. Ion Track Itemiser The Ion Track Itemiser uses Ion trap mobility spectrometry technology. Trace detection technology makes use of the minute amounts of vapors given off and the microscopic particles left behind when narcotics and explosives contraband are packaged and handled. While the analyzer technology itself is quite sophisticated, it is extremely simple to use. Most importantly, it is fast, accurate and sensitive. Just how sensitive'? Billionths of a gram or the concentration equivalent of dissolving a single packet of sugar in 100 Olympic size swimming pools! Collecting samples for analysis could not be simpler. In the case of trace particle detection, the surfaces of a vehicle or luggage that are suspected of bring tainted with contraband are wiped down with a paper disk known as a sample trap. The trap is then inserted into the desktop analyzer. Once analyzed, the contraband substance is identified, along with its relative alarm strength. Visual and audible indications are provided, and the analysis can be stored and printed for use as court accepted evidence. In the case of vapor detection, the portable, handheld analyzer "sniffs" the air around the openings of closed compartments, containers or packages suspected of concealing contraband. The analyzer then identifies the contraband substance and its relative alarm strength. Again, as with the particle analyzer, both visual and audible indications are provided, and the analysis can be stored and later printed for use as court-accepted evidence. Bio-metrics Biometrics measure an individual's unique physical or behavioral characteristics to recognize or authenticate their identity. Common physical biometrics include fingerprints, hand or palm geometry; and retina, iris, or facial characteristics. Behavioral characters include signature, voice, keystroke pattern, and gait. Of all these biometrics, technologies for fingerprint and hand are the most developed.


Something you are — BIOMETRIC

Something you have — a smart card or token like

Something you know — password, PIN or personal info (such as your wife's birthday) cannot be stolen it cannot be copied; it's always with you wherever you go.

BioFigure 8.1 : Bio-metrics

Of all the above, a biometric is the most secure and convenient authentication tool. It cannot be borrowed, stolen or forgotten, and forging one is practically impossible. Biometrics can be integrated into any application that requires security, access control and identification or verification of people. BioEnable


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products are based on finger print recognition technology which is very secure, most non-intrusive and widely accepted the world over. Fingerprint Recognition A fingerprint looks at the patterns found on a fingertip. There are a variety of approaches to fingerprint verification. Some emulate the traditional police method of matching pattern; others use straight minutiae matching devices; and still others area bit more unique, including things like more fringe patterns and ultrasonics. A greater variety of fingerprint devices is available than for any other biometrics. Fingerprint verification may be a good choice for in-house systems, where you can give users adequate explanation and training, and where the system operates in a controlled environment. It is not surprising that the work-station access application area seems to be based almost exclusively on fingerprints, due to the relatively low cost, small size, and ease of integration of fingerprint authentication devices. BioEnable fingerprint recognition is based on minutiae matching and intelligent scanners that can detect when a live finger is presented. How does it work? Fingerprint systems translate illuminated images of fingerprints into digital code for further software such as enrollment (fingerprint registration) and verification (authentication of registered users). BioEnable devices use the advanced SEIR method and CMOS image sensor to capture hi g h contrast, high resolution fin g erprint images that are virtually distortion-free. A series of powerful algorithms developed by BioEnable extract minutiae data from the image, mapping the distinguishing characteristics of fingerprint ridge stored in database. The actual fingerprint image is never stored, and cannot be constructed from templates. To identify or verify a fingerprint, a proprietary matching algorithm compares the new template made from the extracted minutiae points from the input fingerprint on the optical module to a previously stored sample. The entire matching process takes roughly one second. Authentication takes place either locally or on a server, depending on system configuration.



Figure 8.2 : Finger Print

Eyeballs : A Foolproof ID Card


However, an extensive database identification system may be largely unnecessary as humans carry a built-in identity card, in the pattern of their iris. What's more, the eye can be scanned passively, from a distance of a few feet away. In late October, Indian Technologies of Moorestown, New Jersey, and John Enschede Security Solutions of Haarlem, Netherlands installed an automated iris recognition border-crossing system at Amsterdam's School Airport. During the trial period, passengers who were nationals of the European Economic Cooperation nations could enroll in the iris-recognition system. The system measures 247 independent variables for each iris and stores this information on a so-called smart card. The variability in iris patterns is so great that it is even different between identical twins. The chances of two persons having the same iris code are as low as I in 7 billion. One plan being considered would require iris-matched ID cards for all visitors to the United States. One of the most attractive features for immigration officials is that it would then take less than 2 seconds to verify each person's identity. Who's Who When it comes to spotting and stopping known terrorists, the two most widely used tools – video cameras and photo identity cards – have proved to be technological dead ends. Tests of face ID systems have thus far been disappointing. In Britain, which was at the vanguard of the security camera movement, independent studies have shown that while cameras are useful for gathering evidence to prosecute crimes, they have done little if anything to prevent crime. More sophisticated safeguards on driver's licenses also have proved ineffective. California recently suffered national embarrassment as the result of its attempts to introduce more secure driver's licenses. A network television investigative reporting team revealed that added security measures, including holograms and online verification of Social Security numbers, failed to stop fraud by corrupt state workers and only increased the price for illegal licenses, from $ 1500 to $ 2300.

Equipment Prescribed by SOLAS 74 Ships Security Alert System Each ship must be fitted with a Ship Security Alert System, or "silent alarm", which when activated will transmit a ship-to-shore security alert that identifies the ship. The ship's location, and indicates that the ship is under threat or has had a breach of a security. Transmissions from the Ship Security Alert System must not alert any other ship or sound any alarm on the ship. Further it must continue until reset. The Ship Security Alert System must be designed to be activated from the navigational bridge and from one other place on the ship. Automatic Identification System (AIS) The AIS was conceived as an electronic aid to navigation – specifically collision avoidance. This equipment, along with VDR (Voyage Data Recorder), was made mandatory for various ship types in a phased manner through Chapter V (Safety of Navigation) in SOLAS 74 – the final cut-off date being 1 July 2008. With the implementation of ISPS Code, however, the fitment schedule of AIS has been accelerated and the equipment itself has been converted into a security/surveillance equipment for implementation of the ISPS. In its present configuration, the effective range of this equipment is 50 to 70 nautical miles (i.e. VHF range). Moves are, however, afoot by the US to increase the range to 2000 nautical miles using satellite and HF communications equipment so that ships may be identified and tracked well


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before they hit US shores under a scheme called Long-range Identification and Tracking (LRIT). As shown in the illustration below, the purpose of AIS is to ensure automatic transmission of ship's identity, position and other relevant data.


Figure 8.3 : LRI T Scheme

Other Security Equipment During the Ship Security Assessment, the Company Security Officer and Ship Security Officer must evaluate the need for other appropriate security equipment that may be used to protect the security of the ship, e.g. closedcircuit cameras may be used for surveillance (when personnel are available to monitor the cameras) or metal detectors and/or x-ray equipment may be appropriate for screening passengers and their belongings. The Ship Security Plan must identify all the ship security equipment and establish procedures for inspecting, testing, and maintaining all security equipment in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's instructions. Testing, calibration and maintenance of Security Equipment and Systems It is the duty of the Ship Security Officer to ensure that all the security equipment is in a perfect working order at all times. In this task, he is to be assisted by the Ship's Master and the Company.

Recognition and Detection of Weapons, Dangerous Substances and Devices In order to pre-empt and prevent a terrorist action on board, it is imperative that the terrorist is prevented from bringing his instruments of destruction on board. Further, it is likely that the terrorist will try to smuggle his weapons in parts and these parts at first look would look like machinery spare parts or tools for carrying out repairs on board. It is therefore important that personnel on board have at least a basic knowledge of these instruments and how they look like. The AK-47 has been one of the most popular arms of the terrorist. If this is smuggled on board in parts, it is unlikely that a member of the crew will be able to recognise it. 60



Figure 8.4 : Threat Identification

Explosives Any explosive material has the following characteristics (a) (b) It is chemically or otherwise energetically unstable. The initiation produces a sudden expansion of the material accompanied by large changes in pressure (and typically also a flash or loud noise), which is called the explosion.

Given below are details of chemical explosives. There are many other varieties of more exotic explosive material, such as nuclear explosives and antimatter, and other methods of producing explosions such as abrupt heating with a highintensity laser or electrical arc.

Explosives are classified by their sensitivity which is the amount of energy to initiate the reaction. This energy can be anything, from a shock, an impact, a friction, an electrical discharge, or the detonation of another explosive. High explosives will explode without confinement, are compounds, initiated by shock or heat, supersonic reaction or high brisance (brisance means the shattering effect of an explosion). Primary Explosives They are extremely sensitive and require a small quantity of energy to be initiated. They are mainly used in detonators to initiate secondary explosives. (Examples: Tetryl, Lead azide, Mercury fulminate, lead styphnate, tetrazene, hexanittomannitol.) Secondary Explosives They are relatively intensive and need a great amount of energy to initiate decomposition. They have much more power than primary explosive and are used in demolition. They require a detonator to explode.


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(Examples : Dynamite, TNT, RDX, PETN, HMX, ammonium nitrate, tetryl, picric acid nitrocellulose.)

Also called an initiation sequence or a firing train, this is the sequence of events which cascade from relatively low levels of energy to cause a chain reaction to initiate the final explosive material or main charge. They can be either low or high explosive trains. Low explosive trains are something like a bullet – Primer and a propellant charge. High explosives trains can be more complex, either Two-step (e.g. Detonator and Dynamite) or Three-Step (e.g. Detonator, Booster and ANFO). Detonators are often made from tetryl. Methods of Physical Searches and Non-Intrusive Inspections B e f o r e we e x a m i n e t h e m e t h o d s o f p h y s i c a l s e a r c h e s a n d n o n - i n t r u s i v e inspections, it is important to understand, what it is that we are looking for. The ship security may primarily be threatened either by an individual or a self activating device planted on or in the vicinity of the ship. For the latter, a coordinated search will have to be carried out. The weapons and explosives could also be hidden in the cargo containers. The threat from an individual could be either from the ship's crew or a passenger. As far as the crew is concerned, he is less of a threat than a passenger, because his credentials unlike a passenger would have been checked before his appointment onboard the ship. Besides when the crew embarks the ship for the first time there is plenty of time to search him to ensure that he is not carrying any unauthorized materials with which he could threaten the ship security. The problem therefore primarily arises in passenger ships/ferries where a large number of individ uals enter, at times with their vehicles, in a short span of time.

Metal Detection The most usual way of using metal detection is to process passengers and staff through an archway which is preset to alarm if a certain amount of metal is carried on the person. Hand-held metal detectors may also be used for screening individual passengers and members of staff especially those few who ob j ect h) physical search on religious or other grounds. Irrespective of which equipment used it is essential to remember that metal detectors will not pick up explosive plastic weapons or inflammable liquids carried in glass or plastic containers on the person. For this reason, metal detection alone is insufficient and must always be accompanied by a physical search of a proportion of those being Screened. including some who do not alarm the detector. This combination increases the chances of detection and acts as a powerful deterrent. Baggage Screening The baggage can be divided into two types, Bags hand-carried by passengers and heavy baggage for cruise liner passengers. The smuggling of weapons and the planting of IED in baggage are methods well favoured by terrorists, and bombs have been planted i n several vessels this way. Methods of screening both groups of baggage include metal detectors, vapour detection probes and sytems, X-ray systems, physical search and dogs.

Metal Detectors

Vapour Detection Air sampling system either static or hand-held can be used to detect some explosives. However, currently no commercial system is capable of detecting all forms of explosives. They can, however, be used to supplement other systems such as X-Ray. X-ray Systems The most usual method of screening baggage and personal belongings is to use X-ray equipment and modern equipment are capable of producing images of good definition and penetration. However, X-ray examination can also be defeated, e.g. X-rays may not detect explosives 'and plastic weapons nor will they allow identification of the actual liquid in bottles or other containers. Moreover, it is possible to camouflage the image of weapons and devices by the use of other dense materials, such as lead crystal glass. The use of Xray equipment must, therefore, also be accompanied by a percentage physical check of baggage including a proportion that does not arouse suspicion. The use of X-rays is a very effective method of screening bags and other items provided certain conditions are met, e.g. operator efficiency decreases significantly after only a relative short time, particularly at peak screening periods. For this reason, operators should only scan X-ray images for a maximum of 20 minutes and then be employed on other duties, such as a physical search, for 40 minutes before returning to the console. It is also essential that the image is presented for an adequate time to permit proper examination and a minimum of 5 seconds is considered necessary for this. Screening techniques will vary depending upon whether the equipment presents a fixed or scrolling (moving) image. Physical Search To be properly effective, physical search of bags and belongings should include a check for false compartments, often used for the smuggling of weapons and devices. Although false 'bottoms' are most usual, devices have been incorporated around the sides of cases, in the lids and in the compartments of hold ails. Very often, a smell of glue or a heavy odour to mask the smell of explosives is an indication that a lining may have been removed, a substance, such as explosive, placed behind it and the lining stuck back in position. Attention should be paid to any tampering or repair to a case, non standard or unmatched case components, and also to greasy stains or small holes in the case exterior. The contents of bags should be assessed during search and if the weight seems disproportionate or the bag is unbalanced for no obvious reason, then a further check for a false compartment would be justified. Particular attention should be paid to electrical and electronic apparatus, such as radios, which have often been used as containers for devices to avoid detection under X-ray examination. Passengers should be questioned on the origins of the equipment and whether it has been out of their possession for any period of time. Equipment may be examined for unusual characteristics: signs of tampering, excessive weight, loose objects inside (rotate, not shake). X-ray the equipment if suspicions are aroused. Treat all new, packaged equipment in the same manner as used models. Other containers carried in bags, which could be used to conceal weapons must also be examined. Normally this can be done visually but gift-wrapped parcels, birthday cakes, etc., can be screened by metal detectors or X-ray. Use of Dogs Specially trained dogs can be very effective in searching cars, baggage and freight. However, they should normally not be used near groups of



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passengers as they tend to alarm people who are sometimes put off by them. Dogs can also be used for searching in ships. However, they need to be familiar with the seagoing environment to achieve results. In fact to have their 'sea legs'. Heavy Baggage The screening of heavy baggage is normally done by central X-ray machine supported by physical search. Air sampling probes can be use in the checking of heavy baggage and it is an area where the use of dogs trained to sniff out explosives may well be beneficial. Like passenger screening; once heavy baggage has been screened it is essential it should be marked and kept under surveillance until onboard the ship.

VC200 COMPACT RANGE KEY FEATURES: • 3" Sony SuperHAD CCD • Digital Signal Processing • 12 VDC i 0 % ) operation • Backlight Compensation a Electronic Iris • Built in focus Adjustment • Dnec drive Manual Iris Compatible

VISTA BULLET KEY FEATURES: • As ethically designed • 1 !/3 " CCD Color-330TVL 4 s 2 n ' CCD Mlonochrome-380TVL . i . Complete with 3-6mm Built-in Lers A d j u s t a b l e M o u n t i n g Bracket 0 12VDC operation VISTA VISTA COBMINATION CAMERA KITS KEY FEATURES: Camera kit includes: • Camera (Color/Mono) High / Low Res. • 12VDC Power Supply • Mounting Bracket • 2 x BNC connectors • 4 to 9 m m Built-in Vari-focal Lens COVERT & DISCREET DOME CAMERAS KEY FEATURES: Discreetdesign•Fixed&vari-focalLensoption • Color or Monochrome • Standard or High Resolution • Ceiling or Wall mount VISTA PROTOS RANGE KEY FEATURES:
• V, & 1 /3" DSP (Exview, & IR sensitive Ptak White Inversion BLC selectivity option Wide ranging Power Supply (98-260V AC/ 12-40 VAC White Balance adjustments Gamma correction Remote set-up

1 1

• • • • •

Figure 8.5 : Screening of Heavy Baggage

Explosives Explosions are highly exothermic chemical reactions that produce expanding gases and were first made by Asian alchemists more than one thousand years ago when they discovered that by making a mixture of saltpeter (KNO,) and sulphur, it could be detonated. Explosives are classified as
Primary (Initiators)

That do not bum but detonate if ignited (mercury fulminate).


Low (Propellants)


That bum at steady speed and detonate only under extreme conditions (gunpowder).
High i

That release large amounts of energy when detonated (nitroglycerine).

Roger Bacon (1220-1292)

Born in England, Bacon studied geometry/arithmetic/music/astronomy in France. Upon returning to England in 1247, Bacon became interested in science. His experiments using lenses/mirrors resemble modern scientific approaches. In 1257 Bacon left the University of Oxford and entered the Order of Friars Minor. His interests in the sciences continued and in 1266 Bacon wrote to Pope Clement IV proposing a science encyclopedia. Pope Clement IV misunderstood what Bacon was proposing and assumed the encyclopedia already existed. So when the Pope asked to see the encyclopedia, Bacon rapidly began work on the project. The project was carried out in secret since Bacons superiors opposed what he was - doing. Bacon hoped to demonstrate that science had a rightful role in the University curriculum. But In 1268, Pope Clement IV died along with Bacon's chance to see the project accepted (only parts of the manuscript were ever published). What is the Connection between Bacon and Explosives? While composing the encyclopedia, Bacon became aware of the discovery by the Asian alchemists. This prompted Bacon to experiment with mixtures of saltpeter, sulfur, and a new ingredient (charcoal); Bacon had made black powder (the early form of gunpowder). One hundred years later friar Berthold Shwarts looked into this black powder. Schwarts took a long iron tube and closed one end except for a tiny hole. He filled the tube with black powder and stuffed a small pebble in it. He touched a flame to the tiny hole and the pebble shot through the air with great speed. Schwarts had invented the "gun". Nitroglycerin/Nitrocellulose Five hundred years after Berthold Schwarts invented the gun, Ascano Sobrero (Italian) mixed nitric acid and glycerin to obtain nitroglycerine – an explosive so unstable that it could be detonated by the touch of a feather. One mole of nitroglycerine (227g) releases 1427 kJ upon exploding. Its volume increases from a liquid of approximately 1/4 L to gases occupying approximately 650 L. H2C – CH – CH2 + HNO, –H2C— CH — CH2 Nitric I I Acid 00 0
1 1 1 1



000 HHH

NO, No, No,


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Figure 8.7 : Explosion

In 1845, Christian Schoenbein made nitrocellulose (guncotton) by dipping cotton in a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. However, the material obtained was too unstable to be used as an explosive. Major E. Schultze (1860) of the Prussian army produced a useful propellant. He nitrated small pieces of wood by placing them in nitric acid and impregnated the pieces with barium and potassium nitrates. The purpose of the latter was to provide oxygen to bum the incompletely nitrated wood. Schultze's powder was highly successful in shotguns but was too fast for cannon or even most rifles. In 1884 a French chemist, Paul Vieille, made the first smokeless powder as it is now known. He partially dissolved nitrocellulose in a mixture of ether/alcohol, then he rolled it into sheets and cut into flakes. When the solvent evaporated, it left a hard, dense material. This product gave satisfactory results in all types of guns.

Figure 8.8 : Alfred Nobel (1833-1896)

Alfred Nobel mixed nitroglycerin and silica (SiO2,) forming a paste that could be safely used as an explosive - he patented this material as dynamite (1867). Nobel also invented the blasting cap to provide a safe and dependable means for detonating. Nobel's original blasting cap consisted of 80% mercury fulminate [Hg (ONC)2] and 20% potassium chlorate. Blasting caps today are lead azide [Pb (N3) 2] due to its greater stability when stored under hot conditions. A French newspaper – thinking Alfred and not his brother had died in 1886 – ran his obituary under the headline, "The merchant of death is dead". Nobel, displeased that his inventions became an instrument of war, established the Nobel Prize in categories reflecting his interests (Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Literature, Peace). Ballistite In 1887 Nobel introduced ballistite, 40% nitrocellulose/60% nitroglycerin blended together with diphenylamine. When cut into flakes, this made an excellent propellant and it continued in use for over 75 years. The British refused to


recognize Nobel's patent and developed a number of similar products under the generic name cordite. Cordite Sir James Dewar (1842-1923) is best known for his work with low-temperature. He invented the thermos and produced both hydrogen and oxygen in liquid form. Along with Sir Frederick Abel, Dewar invented cordite (1889). This smokeless gunpowder consists of nitroglycerin, guncotton, and a petroleum substance gelatinized by addition of acetone. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Trinitrotoluene is a high explosive that is unaffected by ordinary shocks and, therefore, must be set off by a detonator. TNT is often mixed with other explosives such as ammonium nitrate to form amatol. Because it is insensitive to shock and must be exploded with a detonator, it is the most favored explosive used in ammunitions and construction.


Figure 8.9 : TrinitrotolueneWhy Do Nitro Groups (NO,) Lead to Unstable Compounds? Nitrogen has charge of + 1 and nitro group have a strong tendency to withdraw (pull) electrons from other parts of the compound. Attaching three nitro groups to a compound leads to an extremely unstable situation.

Pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) PETN is a powerful high explosive with 140% the power of TNT. Because PETN is more sensitive to shock or friction than TNT, it is primarily used in small caliber ammunition.




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('Ncloti-iniethN,Ienctrinitraniine (RDX) also called RDX, Cyclotrimethyle lenetrin I train me is a white crystalline solid usually used in mixtures with other explosives, oils, or waxes. RDX has a high degree of stability in storage and is considered the most powerful high explosive. RDX is the main ingredient in plastic explosives.

NO2 4

H2 02N-1~ NCH2-N I NO2
Figure 8.10: RDX

ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer) Although ammonium nitrate (NH,NO.,) is a benign fertilizer, when mixed with fuel oil it becomes a deadly bomb (ANFO). Dynamite or TNT is usually used to detonate AN FO (military manuals suggest using one pound of TNT for every fifty Pounds of fertilizer). The deadly Oklahoma City Bomb was ANFO.

Figure 8.11

DuPont de Nemours (1771-1834) DuPont is one of the oldest continuously operating industrial enterprises in the world. The company was established in 1802 near Wilmington, Delaware, by a French immigrant, Eleuthera lrenee du Pont de Nemours, to produce black powder. The company was capitalized at $36,000 with 18 shares* at $2000 each. Du Pont de Nemours had been a student of Antoine Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, and he brought to America some new ideas about the manufacture of consistently reliable gun and blasting, powder. Due to increasing competition in the early 1900s, DuPont made the the transition from an explosives manufacturer to a diversified chemical company. The $ 2000 investment in 1802 is %%orth approximately $ 2.5 billion today. Detecting Explosives Today's challenge is not safe handling of explosives but early detection when used by terrorists. Here are 4 methods : Canines ATF's explosives-detecting canine training program was established in 1992. Although not high tech, canines can detect minute quantities for a variety of explosives.



Figure 8.12

Chemical Sensor Portable system the size of soccer ball is being developed by Sandia Laboratories that can detect/identify smallest traces of explosives. Known as chemical sensor system, molecules are collected on a fiber and "ion mobility spectrometer" identifies type of explosive. Neutron Beam Technology called Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) directs beam of neutrons. When neutrons contact contaminant, they instantly produce high energy gamma rays. Explosives are identified from energy of gamma rays. Lasers Carbon dioxide laser scans/analyzes baggage surfaces. The interaction of laser radiation with traces of explosive causes micro bursts. Explosives are identified from light generated by bursts.

Why do sniffer dogs have to be rested every half hour? Why is biometrics a foolproof method to establish identity of a person? Name the biometrics commonly used for the purpose and which is the most reliable? (d) What is AIS and how does it help in surveillance? (e) Differentiate between a primary explosive and a secondary explosive. (f) Can metal detectors detect the presence of explosives and inflammable liquids? (g) How is baggage screened prior to being loaded onto an aircraft? (h) What is TNT used for? (i) What is an IED? Where would it have maximum effect? 0) What does CCTV mean? Where could it be used on board a vessel? [Note: Some of the pictures/images used in this Unit have been sourced from the internet. We wish to thank the creators/publishers for the usage of their material.]
8. 5 S UM M ARY

(a) (b) (c)

Each ship is required to be fitted with a ship security alert system which when activated shall initiate and transmit a ship to shore security alert to a competent authority designated by the administration. Such a system is designed to be activated from the navigational bridge and from another place on a ship. The purpose of AIS is to ensure automatic transmission of ship's identity, position and other relevant data with large and quick movements of personnel and cargo. It is not possible to now rely only on physical examination as a method of ensuring security. Highly sophisticated equipment and system which include X rays, Robots, Explosive detection systems of different types, Biometrics, and cameras of various types are now in use all over the world to track down terrorist and saboteurs. 69


Structure 9.1 Introduction Objectives 9.2 P reamble 9.3 Important IMO Conventions 9.4 IMO Safety Symbols and Signs 9.5 Emergency Procedures 9.6 Protective Clothing and Equipment 9.7 Permit-to-Work System 9.8 Summary

Safety Philosophy and Safe Working Practices Just like charity begins at home, the awareness of safety starts right here, where you are. Be it on board a ship or ashore, safety must always be first. The employer or ship owner is ultimately responsible for the safety of all persons on board ship. However, the immediate responsibility for the overall safety of the ship and her crew is that of the Master. Under him the ship's officers and the crew have a duty to ensure safety in the tasks entrusted to each of them, whether supervising or carrying out a job or in reporting or remedying defects which might impair safety. It is your duty to ensure that as far as possible you maintain all places of work and your accommodation clean, orderly and safe. The Master will from time to time inspect your cabin, storerooms and public places; but it is up to you to ensure that you keep these areas clean and tidy at all times. The development of a "safety culture'' and the achievement of high standards of safety depend on good organization and the whole-hearted support of management and all personnel. Responsibilities with Regard to Safety The responsibilities of various entities connected with shipping vis-a-vis s-a-vis safety are as follows : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The company is responsible for ensuring the overall safety of the ship and that safety on board is properly organized and coordinated. The master has the day-to-day responsibility for the safe operation of the ship and the safety of those on board. Heads of departments are responsible for health and safety in their own department. Each officer/manager is responsible for the health and safety of those they supervise and others affected. Each individual crew member is responsible for his own health and safety and that of anyone affected by what he does or fails to do.

Accident Prevention The development of the necessary degree of safety consciousness and the achievement of high standards of safety depend on foresight, good organization and the whole hearted support of the management and all members of the crew. It


Safety and Security

is, therefore, important that arrangements should exist on every ship whereby the ship's complement can co-operate and participate in establishing and maintaining safe working conditions. Thus, for ensuring that the vessel always operates in a safe and efficient manner, a Safety Committee comprising of a Safety Officer and safety representatives is set up on board. (For details of Safety Committee, Safety Officers please refer to the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen). If the procedure is practiced faithfully on board it will go a long way to minimize or prevent accidents. Accident Investigation The principal purpose of accident investigation, reporting and analysis should be to minimize the potential for a recurrence of such accidents. The causes of all accidents or near accidents (near misses) should be investigated by the ship's safety officer and a full report should be made to the Safety and Health Committee and through the Master, to the appropriate persons ashore. Shipowners should report occupational accidents and diseases to the competent authority (DG Shipping) who is bound to promulgate it so that all concerned are aware. Reports of accidents should be discussed at the Safety and Health Committee meetings on board ship and steps should be taken to minimize the possibility of recurrences. The ILO (International Labour Organisation), a UN body, has drawn up international measures concerning accident prevention and occupational health, in a publication, 'Accident Prevention On Board Ship and in Port; but the publication commonly used by all seafarers is the 'Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen' issued by British authorities. Importance of Adhering to Safe Working Practices It is of utmost importance that all on board adhere to safe working practices, in order to : • Prevent accidents, diseases and other harmful effects on the health of seafarers arising from employment on board ship at sea and in port.

• Ensure that the responsibility for safety and health is understood and remains a priority for all concerned with maritime transport, including governments, shipowners and seafarers; and • Promote consultation and cooperation among governments as well as shipowners and seafarers' organizations in the improvement of safety and health on board ship.


Figure 9.1: Near MISS

After studying this unit, you should be able to • explain the philosophy of safety, concepts of safety and safe working practices, describe the information regarding international concerns for safety and the organizations concerned with safety, list various conventions pertaining to safety, explain the role of international and national bodies concerning safety, describe international measures concerning accident prevention and occupational health, provide information and guidance on procedures to be followed and measures to be adopted for ensuring/improving safety and health on board ship, explain safe working practices for most of the situations that may arise on board ships including the equipment in use for the purpose,

Safety General

• • •

Men have been going down to sea for centuries to earn a living or for adventure. When the Vikings set out to conquer, or Christopher Columbus and Vasco-da-Gama ventured out to discover America and India, respectively, safety was not the most important thing on their minds. Over the years, as seafaring took on commercial overtones, concerns for safety, solely of cargo, began to arise in the minds of merchants who owned the cargo. Then, it dawned on them that the cargo can be safe only if the ship and the seafarer are safe. Subsequently, individuals and states began to put in place certain basic safety measures for ships that belonged to them. Gradually safety concerns crossed international boundaries, until we reached a stage where in recent years, we have international bodies which have been set up solely to regulate safety measures. These collective measures are normally referred to as conventions because they are adopted by convening a meeting of several nations/parties. Of all the international conventions dealing with maritime safety, the most important is the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, better known as SOLAS, which covers a wide range of measures designed to improve safety of ships and the persons who sail in them.

Some important IMO conventions are given in the table. Monitoring of the requirements of the conventions is carried out by Port State Control inspectors who have the authority to detain unseaworthy and unsafe ships. In addition, Dock regulations of individual countries, Code of Safe Working Practices (UK), M and MS Notices issued by administrations and certain ILO regulations covering crew safety have also contributed to minimizing occupational hazards on board ship.


Safety and Security S. No. Title/Year of Adoption#

Table 9.1 Entry into Force# 1980 Addressed technical aspects of ship construction, lifesaving appliances, communication, safety of navigation, carriage of grain and dangerous goods. 1977 Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGS) 3 Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973; as modified by protocol of 1978 (MARPOL73/78) 4 Load Lines, 1966 Load Line Protocol, 1988 1968 1990 5 Tonnage Measurement of Ships 1969 6 Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea, 1974 International Maritime Satellite Organisation, 1976 and its operating agreement (INMARSAT) 8 Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 (STCW) IMDG Code 1984 Established guidelines – left the enforcement to individual states. 1987 1982 1983 Mandatory rules to be observed by ships when navigating in a seaway. Has contributed immensely in preventing accidents due to collisions. Deals with protection of marine environment due to oil discharges, noxious substances, sewage and garbage from ships. Remarks


Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (BOLAS)


Establishes minimum freeboard requirements so that seaworthiness of the ship is maintained in all conditions of loading.



Quantum jump in communications.


1991 Sets out standards for the carriage of dangerous cargo by sea; hence ensuring safety of ships & personnel.



1988 Incorporated STCW provisions. Laid down mandatory minimum standards of competence and rest hours.


ISM Code 1994*

1998 Established measures to prevent human injury and loss of life and damage to environment and property by placing onus on shipowners.


ISPS Code 2001


Stringent security measures as a result of attack of WTC on 11th September 2001.

Notes # Note the long time lag between adoption and bringing into force. These were brought into force as amendments to an already existing convention and hence were enforced within a minimum period. 74

One of the methods for promotion of safety is by the use of safety signs and symbols. IMO has promulgated internationally recognizable signs and symbols. Some of these are given below. You should make it your business to learn to read and interpret these symbols at the earliest. The common colour code is as follows Red — FIRE; Green — SAFETY; Yellow — HAZARD; Blue — MANDATORY.
Table 9.2: IMO Safety Symbols and Signs

Safety General



Safety and Security

Table 9.3: IMO Safety Signs

Safe or entry


safety qulpmen~,


Table 9.4 : Hazard Warnings

Safety General



DANGER Bolt" charging

DANGER Low oxygall Ivv,0 I

M i l ION You wt at-,wITU'l

DA Moving


DANGER Overhead

Ile t Y


WAnNINC Hamrdous Afe-3


qtmrl,lr .

DANGER Dust hazard

DANGER Asbestos

CAUTION Vehicles

CAU'nON Exhaust

st,wp 44,01sway %me t1wdrMIS


PArRi your head

CAUTION Slip hazard



CAUTION Explosive



Explostw'. wisteria'


Safety and Security

DANGER Comptossed 40"S 4



DANGEH Caustic

DANGER Harnd6l -


• qh

OANGi 4 V4*aw









DANGER Low Imsh point

1~A UTION Noise

CAUTjW—I Radiation I risk I

a tolo g"



Table 9.5 : Mandatory Signs

Safety General

Wear heImpt


Safety and Security

Table 9.6 : Rescue Craft Signs


What is an Emergency? An emergency is a sudden state of danger which requires immediate action. Types of Emergencies (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

Safety General

Man overboard Fire Abandon Ship Collision Grounding Foundering (sinking — abandon ship situation) Ingress of water (rupture of sea water line, condenser cover, sluice valve body, filter body/cover) Heavy weather Oil Spills Engine Stoppage in pilotage waters/manoeuvring Steering Failure in pilotage waters/manoeuvring Piracy Attack

(k) (1)

(in) Person Collapsed in Enclosed Space Emergencies have a habit of striking at odd hours — when you least expect them and think everything is going well. The shipboard personnel have to prepare themselves in such a manner that the response to any emergency is fast and appropriate because the safety of your ship and preservation of life on board depends on such actions. Though we all know that these kinds of situations are not routine but appreciating the stakes involved, we keep ourselves prepared to tackle any such situation which may not even arise in our lifetime. The first principle to deal with any emergency is to keep your wits about you and use your common sense. This can only be possible if the standard of your training is appreciably higher than what you need during the emergency. -This is because the right action must strike you without straining yourself to think for which you obviously do not have time. So it must come intuitively to you. This is achieved by repeatedly exercising in all contingencies which can reasonably be expected during such incidents. These drills must be as realistic as possible but most importantly you must think them to be real emergencies and not consider these occasions to be a routine affair. We all are prone to sink into monotony if any task is performed by us repeatedly. This is the arena you have to guard yourself against. In all periods even though the weather may be quite pleasant, simulate the worst conditions of heavy weather, no lights, odd hours and few resources and try to perform rightly. It must be kept in mind that all emergencies will result in a certain amount of shock in the persons involved in these situations.

Since, in an emergency, proper conduct of all tasks is vital, you not only remain responsible for your safety but for the survival of your colleagues and the safety of your ship rests in your ability to take the right action. Crisis management on board is team work and every member of the team must be a thorough professional in the conduct of his designated duties because the chain is as strong as the weakest link in it.


Shipboard Contingency Plans Contingency plans aim to assist personnel in effectively dealing with an unexpected emergency. Their primary purpose is to set in motion the necessary actions to stop or minimize damage and to ensure that the necessary actions are taken in a s tructured, logical and timely manner. The plan must be (a) Realistic, practical and easy to use. (b) Understood by personnel both ashore and on board. (c) Evaluated revised and updated regularly. In the absence of a plan : (a) In the heat of the moment, lack of planning will often result in confusion, mistakes and failure to advise key people. (b) Delays will be incurred and time will be wasted during which the, situation may worsen. (c) As a consequence, the ship and its personnel may be exposed to increasing hazards and greater damage to vessel or her cargo. The contingency plans should identify various types of emergencies which may arise on a particular ship and may include Allocation of duties and responsibilities. Actions to be taken to regain control of a situation. Communication methods within and outside ship. Procedures for requesting assistance. Procedures for notification. Procedures for dealing with media/outsiders. Procedures for dealing with emergencies should, as far as possible. be consistent in a fleet. The most effective organization for dealing with emergency situations should be adopted. A casualty procedure is formulated by management ashore to provide proper backup systems for ships in distress. Such procedures should be tested from time to time by conducting simulated emergencies. In particular, proper procedures should be published and followed for outside assistance, such as the engagement of salvage service. Potential emergency situations likely to be found by a ship should be analysed and procedures for combating them drawn up and practiced at drills. The company's safety manual contains details of contingency planning, emergency organization and other safety advice specific to the company's fleet, complimentary to that available in other publications.

Figure 9.7: Safety First

Emergency Signals These may differ from ship to ship. Your foremost duty is to know them as soon as you join the ship. Generally the signals will be General Emergency/Fire Alarm Meaning Action Life Boat Stations Alarm Continuous ringing of alarm bells followed by seven short and one long blast on the whistle. Emergency situation has arisen or fire has been detected on the vessel. Proceed immediately to emergency muster station. Take your life jacket with you. : Continuous sounding of short/long blasts on the vessel followed by alarm bells. Proceed to lifeboat station. : : Collect life jacket and emergency equipment and prepare lifeboat for launching.

Safety General

Meaning Action

[Note: Order to abandon ship will be given by master verbally.] Other Alarms These apply to specific crew members and must be well understood. Muster Lists/Muster Station Ship specific Muster lists are prepared on every ship defining specific duties of each crew member in clear and concise manner in case of any emergency station. Muster lists must be kept up to date incorporating any changes of crew or equipment on board the vessel. These are posted at conspicuous places on board such as bridge, ECR and one on each deck for easy accessibility. Muster lists will specify fire vessel and will include spec ire and emergency signals followed on board that v the following duties : • • • • • • • • Preparation and launching or survival craft. Closing of watertight doors, scuppers and other openings. Use of communication equipment. Stopping vents and closing manual vent flaps. Isolating electrical supply to the affected areas. Use of fire extinguisher, fire hoses, fireman's outfit etc. and backup. Any special instructions. Muster of passengers (if applicable).

For launching the conventional open lifeboat, the duties are typically allocated as follows : Bowman Clears lifeline, checks falls, ships plug, if applicable passes painter forward, checks tricing pendant and prepares bowsing-in-tackle. Sternsheet Ford Gripes/Pins Aft Gripes/Pins Clears lifeline, checks falls, ships plug, checks tricing pendant, prepares bowsing tackle and ship's tiller. Releases gripes and unships pin to allow the davit be lowered. : Same as above. 83

Safety and Security

Painter Ladder Lowerer Standby

Passes the boat painter from outside the vessel clear of all obstructions and makes fast on main deck Fitts. Lowers boat ladder for embarkation by the lowerer once the boat has taken to water. Lowers the boat first to the embarkation deck and after boarding by the crew to the water level. To collect extra water, medicines and blankets.

For lifeboats ofdifferent designs, i.e. enclosed and free fall types, different launching instructions will apply.
Musters and Drills


Musters and drills are required to be carried out regularly in accordancewith Merchant Shipping Regulations. The guidance contained in this Unit Should be read in conjunction with information and guidance on these relations issued in the relevant Merchant Shipping Notices. Musters and drills have the objective of preparing a trained and organized response to situations of great difficulty which may unexpectedly threaten loss of life at sea. It is important that they should be carried out realistically, approaching as closely as possible to emergency condition. Changes in the ship's function and changes in the ship's personnel from time to time should be reflected in corresponding changes in the muster arrangements. The muster list should be conspicuously posted before the ship sails and should be supplemented by emergency instructions for each crew member (e.g. in the form of a card issued to each crew member or affixed to individual crew berths or bunks). These instructions should describe the allocated muster station, survival craft and emergency duty and all emergency sign--N station and action, if any, to be taken on bearing such signals. An abandon ship drill and a fire drill must be held within 24 hours of leaving port of more than 25% of the crew have not taken part in drills on board the previous month. As soon as possible after joining the ship, crew members should also familiarise themselves with their emergency duties, the significance of the various alarm signals and the various signals and the locations of their lifeboat station and of all lifesaving and fire fighting equipment. All the ship's personnel concerned should muster at a drill wearing life jackets properly secured. The life jackets should continue to be worn during lifeboat drills and launchings but in other cases they may subsequently be removed at the Master's discretion if they would impede or make unduly onerous the ensuing practice, provided they are kept ready to hand. The timing of emergency drills should vary so that personnel who have not participated in a particular drill may take part in the next consecutive drill. Any defects or deficiencies revealed during drills and the inspections which accompany them should be made good without delay.





(f) (g) Fire Drills (a)

Efficient fire-fighting demands the full co-operation of personnel in all departments of the ship. A fire drill should be held simultaneously with the first stage of the abandon ship drill. Fire-fighting parties should assemble at their designated stations. Engine room personnel should start the fire pumps in machinery spaces and see that full pressure is put on fire mains. Any emergency pump situated outside machinery spaces should also be started; all members of the crew should know how to start and operate the pump.



The fire parties should be sent from their designated stations to the selected site of the supposed fire, taking with them emergency equipment such as axes and lamps and breathing apparatus. The locations should be changed in successive drills to give practice in differing conditions and in dealing with different types of fire so that accommodation, machinery spaces, store rooms, galleys and cargo holds or areas of high fire hazard are all covered from time to time. An adequate number of hoses to deal with the assumed fire should be realistically deployed. At some stage in the drill, they should be tested by bringing them to use, firstly with water provided by the machinery space pump and secondly with water from the emergency pump alone. The drill should extend, where practicable, to the testing and demonstration of the remote controls for ventilating fans, fuel pumps and fuel tank valves and the closing of openings. Fixed extinguishing installations should be tested to the extent practicable. Portable fire extinguishers should be available for demonstration of the manner of their use. They should include the different types applicable to different kinds of fire. At each drill, one extinguisher or more should be operated by a member of the fire party, a different member on each occasion. Extinguishers so used should be recharged before being returned to their normal location or sufficient spares should otherwise be carried for demonstration. Breathing apparatus should be worn by members of the fire-fighting parties so each member in turn has experience of its use. Search and rescue exercises should be undertaken in various parts of the ship. The apparatus should be cleaned and verified to be in good order before it is showed; cylinders of selfcontained breathing apparatus should be recharged or sufficient spare cylinders otherwise carried for this purpose. Fire appliances, fire and watertight doors and other closing appliances and also fire detection and alarm systems which have not been used in the drill should be inspected to ensure that they are in good order. either at the time of the drill or immediately afterwards. Additionally the relevant statutory requirements should be complied with.

Safety General



(e) (f)



Survival Craft Drills (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Arrangements for drills should take account 4 prevailing weather conditions. Crew members taking part in lifeboat or life raft drills should wear warm outer clothing and life jackets properly secured. Where appropriate, the lowering gear and chocks should be inspected and a check made to ensure that all working parts are well lubricated. When turning out davits or when bringing boats or rafts inboard under power, seamen should always keep clear of any moving parts. The engines on motor lifeboats should be started and run ahead and astern. Care should be taken to avoid overheating the engine and the propeller shaft stern gland. All personnel should be familiar with the engine starting procedure. Hand-operated mechanical propelling gear, if any, should be examined and similarly tested. Radio equipment should be examined and tested, with the aerial erected, by the Radio Officer or another trained person and the crew instructed in its use. 85

(f) (g)

Safety and Security

(h) (i)

Water spray systems, where fitted, should be tested in accordance with the lifeboat manufacturer's instruction. When a drill is held in port, as many as possible of the lifeboats should be cleared and swung out. Each lifeboat should be launched and maneuvered in the water at least once every three months. Where launching of free-fall lifeboats is impracticable, they may be lowered into the water provided that they are free-fall launched at least once every six months. When rescue boats are carried which are not also lifeboats they should be launched and maneuvered in the water every month so far as that is reasonable and practicable. The interval between such drills should not exceed three months.

(k) Where simultaneous off-load/on-load release arrangements are provided great care should be exercised to ensure that the hooks are fully engaged before a boat is recovered, after it has been stowed and prior to launching. (1) Where davit-launched life rafts are carried, onboard training, including inflation must be carried out at intervals not exceeding four months. Great care should be taken to ensure that the hook is properly engaged before taking the weight of the raft. The release mechanism should not be cocked until just prior to the raft landing in the water. If the raft used for the inflation is part of the ship's statutory equipment and not a special training raft, then it MUST be repacked at an approved service station. Where the handle of the lifeboat winch would rotate during the operation of the winch, it should be removed before the boat is lowered on the brake or raised with an electric motor. If a handle cannot be removed, personnel should keep well clear of it. Personnel in rescue boat or survival craft being lowered should remain seated; keeping their hands inside the gunwale to avoid them being crushed against the ship's side. Life jackets should be worn. In totally enclosed lifeboats seat belts should be secured. Only the launching crew should remain in a lifeboat being raised. During drills, life buoys and lines should be readily available at point of embarkation. While craft are in the water, crews should practice maneuvering the vessel by oar, sail or power as appropriate and should operate the water spray system where fitted on enclosed lifeboats. Seamen should keep their fingers clear of the long-link when unhooking or securing blocks on to lifting hooks while the boat is in the water, and particularly if there is a swell. Before craft in gravity davits are recovered power, the operation of the limit switches or similar devices should be checked. A portable hoist unit used to recover a craft should be provided with a crutch or have an attachment to resist the torque. These should be checked. If neither device is available, the craft should be raised by hand. Where life rafts are carried, instruction should be given to the ship's personnel in their launching, handling and operation. Methods of boarding them and the disposition of equipment and stores on them should be explained.



(o) (p)


(r) (s)


(u) The statutory scale of lifesaving appliances must be maintained at all times. If the use of a life raft for practice would bring equipment below the 86 specified scale, a replacement must first be made available.

Action in the Event of Fire (a) The risk of fire breaking out on board a ship cannot be eliminated but will be much reduced if the advice gi ven elsewher e in the Code is conscientiously followed at all times. Training in fire-fighting procedures and maintenance of equipment should be assured by regular drills in accordance with the section above, but it is important also that access to fire-fighting equipment should be kept unimpeded at all times and that emergency escapes and passage ways are never obstructed. A fire in its first few minutes can usually be readily extinguished; prompt and correct action is essential. If fire breaks out the alarm should be raised and the bridge informed immediately. If the ship is in port, the local fire authority should be called. If possible an attempt should be made to extinguish or limit the fire, by any appropriate means readily available, either using suitable portable extinguishers or by smothering the fire as in the instance of a fat or oil fire in a galley. The different types of portable fire extinguishers on board are appropriate to different kinds of fire. Water extinguishers should not be used on electrical fires. Openings to the space should be shut to reduce the supply of air to the fire and to prevent it spreading. Any fuel lines feeding the fire or threatened by it should be isolated. If practicable, combustible materials adjacent to the fire should be removed. If a space is filling with smoke and fumes, any personnel not properly equipped with breathing apparatus should get out of the space without delay; if necessary, escape should be effected by crawling on hands and knees because air close to deck level is likely to be relatively cleaner. After a fire has been extinguished, precautions should be taken against its spontaneous re-ignition. Personnel, unless wearing breathing apparatus should not re-enter a space in which a fire has occurred before it has been fully ventilated.

Safety General

(b) 4

(c) (d)




(h) (i) Fire Find

Find the fire. Learn of its size, location and combustibles involved. Inform Inform the bridge and sound the alarm immediately – even if the fire appears small. Restrict Restrict the fire by closing doors; isolating fuel and electrical supplies and closing ventilation. Use boundary cooling. Extinguish Extinguish fire by using the correct type and quantity of fire fighting media. Use CABA and protective clothing. GOOD ORGANISATION AND SPEED ARE ESSENTIAL 87

Safety and Security



Merchant Shipping Regulations require employers to ensure that every employee engaged in a specified work process, or who may be at risk from such a process, is supplied with suitable protective clothing and equipment. Overall gloves and suitable footwear are the proper working dress for most work about the ship but these may not give adequate protection against particular hazards in particular jobs. Details of the protective clothing and equipment required for certain specific work processes are listed in a Merchant Shipping Notice, together with the full title of each relevant standard. Specific recommendations for the use of special protective clothing and equipment will also be found in certain sections of the Code but there will be other occasions when the need for such special protection can only be determined at the time by the officer in charge of the particular operation. Protective clothing or equipment does nothing to reduce the hazard, it merely sets up a frail barrier against it. The first step in injury prevention should be the elimination of the hazard to the extent that is reasonable and practicable. Personal protective clothing and equipment should be relied upon to afford protection against the hazards that remain. Defective or ineffective protective equipment provide no defense. It is, therefore, essential that the correct items of equipment are selected and that they are properly maintained at all times. The manufacturer's instructions should be kept safe with the relevant apparatus and when necessary referred to before use and when maintenance is carried out. The equipment should be disinfected as and when necessary for health reasons. . A responsible officer should inspect each item of protective equipment at regular intervals and in all cases before and after use. He should ensure that it is returned and properly stowed in a safe place. Personal protective clothing and equipment should always be checked by the wearer each time before use. All personnel who may be required to use protective equipment should be properly trained in its use and advised of its limitations. Personal protective 'Clothing and equipment can be classified as follows:
Head protection; Face and eye protection (goggles and spectacles, facial shields); Respiratory protective equipment (dust masks, respirators, breathing apparatus); Hand and foot protection (gloves. safety suits, safety belts, harnesses, aprons); Protection against drowning (life jackets,





(f) (g)

buoyancy aids and life buoys).
Head Protection Safety

Helmets Objects falling from a height present a hazard against which safety helmets are most commonly provided. Other hazards include abnormal heat, risk of a sideways blow or crushing, or chemical splashes. These four different types of common risks are given as a guide only and are not intended to be comprehensive. Since the hazards are so varied in type it will be appreciated that no one type of helmet would be ideal as protection in every case. Design details are normally decided by the manufacturer whose primary consideration will be compliance with an appropriate standard. The shell of a helmet should be of one piece seamless construction designed to resist impact. The harness or suspension when properly adjusted forms a

cradle for supporting the protector on the wearer's head. The crown straps help absorb the force or impact. They are designed to permit a clearance of approximately 25 min between the shell and the skull of the wearer. The harness or suspension should be properly adjusted before a helmet is worn. Bump Caps A bump cap is simply an ordinary cap with a hard penetration resistant shell. They are useful as a protection against bruising and abrasion when working in confined spaces such as a main engine crankcase or a double bottom tank. They do not, however, afford the same protection as safety helmets and are intended only to protect against minor knocks. Hearing Protection (a) All persons exposed to high levels of noise, e.g. in machinery spaces, should wear ear protectors of type recommended as suitable for the particular circumstances. Protectors are of three types – disposable ear plugs, non-disposable ear plugs and ear muffs. The simplest form of ear protection is the glass-down ear plug. This type however has the disadvantage of limited capability of noise level reduction. Ear plugs of rubber or plastic also have only limited effect, in that extremes of high or low frequency cause the plug to vibrate in the ear canal causing a consequential loss in protection. In general, ear muffs provide a more effective form of hearing protection. They consist of a pair of rigid cups designed to completely envelope the ears, fitted with soft sealing rings to fit closely against the head around the ears. The ear cups are connected by a spring loaded headband (or neck band) which ensures that the sound seals around the ears are maintained. Different types are available and provision should be made according to the circumstances of use and expert advice.

Safety General



Face and Eye Protection (a) In selecting eye and combined eye and face protectors, careful consideration should be given to the kind and degree of the hazard, and the degree of protection and comfort afforded. The main causes of eye injury are • infra-red rays–gas welding • ultra-violet rays–electric welding; • exposure to chemicals; •exposure to particles and foreign bodies. Protectors are available in a wide variety, designed to the relevant standard specifications to protect against these different types of hazard. (c) Ordinary prescription (corrective) spectacles, unless manufactured to a safety standard, do not afford protection. Certain box type goggles are designed so that they can be worn over ordinary spectacles. Respiratory Protective Equipment Respiratory protective equipment of the appropriate type is essential for protection when work has to be done in conditions of irritating, dangerous or poisonous dust, fumes or gases. The equipment may be either a respirator, which filters the air before it is breathed, or breathing apparatus which supplies air or oxygen from an uncontaminated source. The selection of the correct respiratory protective equipment for any given situation requires consideration of the nature of the hazard, the severity of the hazard, work requirements and conditions, and the



Safety and Security

characteristics and limitations of available equipment. Advice on selection and the use and maintenance of the equipment is contained in the relevant standard, which should be available to all those concerned with the use of respiratory protective equipment on board ship. It is most important that the face-piece incorporated in respirators and breathing apparatus is fitted correctly to prevent leakage. The wearing of spectacles, unless adequately designed for the purpose or of beards and whiskers is likely to adversely affect the face seal. Respirators (a) (b) The respirator selected must be of a type designed to protect against the Hazards being filet. The most common type is the dust respirator, affording protection against dusts and aerosol sprays but not against gases. There are many types of dust respirators available but they are generally of the on-nasal type, i.e. half masks covering the nose and mouth. Many types of light, simple face masks are also available and are extremely useful for protecting against dust nuisance and non-toxic sprays but should never be used in place of proper protection against harmful dusts and sprays. The positive pressure powered dust respirator incorporates a facepiece connected by tube to a battery powered blower unit carried by the wearer to create a positive pressure in the face-piece and thus make breathing easier and reduce face-seal leakage. The cartridge-type of respirator consists of a full face-piece or half mask connected to a replaceable cartridge containing absorbent material and a particular filter. It is designed to provide protection against low concentrations of certain relatively non-toxic gases and vapors. The canister-type of respirator incorporates a full face-piece connected to an absorbent material contained in a replaceable canister carried in a sling on the back or side of the wearer. This type gives considerably more protection than cartridge type. The filters, canisters and cartridges incorporated in respirators are designed to provide protection against certain specified dusts or gases. Different types are available to provide protection against different hazards and it is, therefore, important that the appropriate type is selected for the particular circumstances or conditions being encountered. It must be remembered, however, that they have a limited effective life and must be replaced or renewed at intervals in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Respirators provide NO protection against oxygen deficient atmosphere. They should never be used to provide protection in confined spaces such as tanks, coffer dams, double bottoms or other similar spaces against dangerous fumes, gases or vapours. Only breathing apparatus (self contained or airline) is capable of giving protection in such circumstances.






Breathing Apparatus (a) The type of breathing apparatus to be used when entering a space that is known to be, or suspected of being deficient in oxygen or containing toxic gases of vapours is given.


(b) Breathing apparatus should not be used under water unless the equipment is suitable for the purpose, and then only in emergency. Resuscitators It is recommended that resuscitators of an appropriate kind should be provided when any person may be required to enter a dangerous space. Hand and Foot Protection

Safety General

Gloves The correct type of gloves should be chosen according to the hazard being faced and the kind of work being undertaken. For e.g. Leather gloves are generally best when handling rough or sharp objects, heat -resistant gloves when handling hot objects, and rubber, synthetic or PVC gloves when handling acids, alkalis, various types of oils, solvents and chemicals in general. The exact type selected will depend upon the particular substance handled, and in these cases expert advice should be followed. Table 9.2 Glove Type Leather/cloth Protection Against Rough or sharp edges, splinters, swarf and very cold metals

Rubber (heavy duty type) Live electrical equipment, handling helicopter hook (static) PVC Corrosive solvents/chemicals Heat resistant Long sleeved/gauntlets Ordinary rubber Hot objects in galley, metal work Corrosive and welding In galley and pantry, skin irritation due to soap/cleaning liquid Infection, contagious skin diseases

Surgical Footwear

Foot injuries most often result from the wearing of unsuitable footwearrather than from failure to wear safety shoes or boots. It is nevertheless strongly advisable that all personnel whilst at work on board ship, wear appropriate safety footwear. The hazards commonly encountered cause injury as a result of impact, penetration through the sole, slipping, heat and crushing. Safety footwear is available which is designed to protect against these or other specific hazards, manufactured to various relevant standards appropriate to the particular danger involved. Safety shoes/boots correctly laced and tied should be worn at all times when working including in galleys and store rooms. Care should be taken to ensure that the treads of the sole of the footwear do not become clogged, e.g. with oil residues. Protection from Falls All seamen who are working aloft, outboard or below decks or in any other area where there is a risk of falling more than 2 metres, should wear a safety harness (or belt with shock absorber) attached to a life line. Like wise if a vessel is shipping frequent seas, persons on deck should wear a harness, and, where 91

practicable, should be secured by lifeline as protection from falls and from being washed over board or against ship's structure. Inertial clamp devices allow more freedom in movement.


Table 9.8: Protection from Falls Body Protection

Special outwear may be needed for protection when the sea man is exposed to contact with particular contaminating or corrosive substances. This apparel should be kept for the particular purpose and dealt with as directed in the relevant sections of this Code.
Protection against Drowning

Where work is being carried out overside or in an exposed position where_ there is a reasonably foreseeable risk or falling or being washed overboard or where work is being carried out in or from a ship's boat, a life buoy with sufficient line should be provided. In addition and as appropriate, a life jacket or buoyancy aid should be provided.
Personal Protection

Always • • • • • • Wear a SAFETY HELMET on deck and in cargo, ballast and void spaces. Wear SAFETY SHOES whilst working. NEVER wear "flip-flops" or training shoes on deck. Use SAFETY GOGGLES when grinding, chipping, etc. Wear EAR DEFENDERS in high noise areas, machinery spaces, pump rooms etc. Wear SAFETY HARNESS when working aloft or overside. Wear a BOILER SUIT/COVERALLS when working in machinery spaces, pump rooms or on deck.

Safety General



Figure 9.9 : Think Safety

There are many types of operations on board ship where the routine actions of one man may inadvertently endanger another or when a series of action steps need to be taken to ensure the safety of those engaged in a specific operation. In all instances it is necessary, before the work begun, to identify the hazards and then to ensure that they are eliminated or effectively controlled. Verbal instructions, requests and responses which might be misheard, misinterpreted or not fully remembered are not a satisfactory basis for operations in which lives of men are at risk. Hence, a more effective control can be achieved by the use of a written system which requires step by step formal actions to be taken by those responsible for the work. Such a system may be instituted by use of a 'permit-to-work'. This essentially is a document which sets out the work to be done, and the precautions to be taken in doing it. It consists basically of an


Safety and Security

organized and pre-defined safety procedure. It forms a clear record of all the foreseeable hazards which have been considered in advance and the appropriate precautions which have been determined and shows the correct sequence of operation and precautions. A permit-to-work does not in itself make the job safe, but is a guide dependent for its effectiveness upon the conscientious observance of the set procedure by those involved in the job. The particular circumstances of individual ships will determine the particular areas in which permit-to-work systems can most usefully be adopted but, in general, the following principles should apply: (a) The first and most important step is the assessment of the situation by a ship's officer who is experienced in the work and is thoroughly familiar with the relevant hazards. The information given in the permit should be precise, detailed and accurate. It should state exactly the location and details of the work to be done, the nature and results ts of any preliminary tests undertaken, the measures undertaken to make the job safe and the safeguards that need to be taken during the operation. The permit should specify the period of its validity (which should not exceed 24 hours) and any time limits applicable to the work which it authorizes. The permit should be recognized as an overriding instruction until it is cancelled. Only the work specified on the permit should be undertaken. Before signing the permit, the responsible officer should personally check that all the measures specified as necessary have in fact been taken and that safety arrangements will be maintained until the permit is cancelled. Anyone who takes over, as a matter of routine or in an emergency, from the person who originally issued the permit, should assume full responsibility until he has either cancelled the permit or handed it over to another nominated person who should be made fully conversant with the situation. The person responsible for carrying out the specified work should countersign the permit to indicate his understanding of the safety precautions to be observed. On completion of the work, he should notify the authorising officer.



(d) (e) (f)



SAQ 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) What do the colour codes of IMO safety signs and symbols mean? What are the safety management objectives in the ISM Code? Can Port State Control officers detain foreign flag ships? For what reasons? Why is accident investigation important? What is an emergency? Name 5 different types of emergencies. Why are drills and musters important? What is the importance of personal protection? Name 5 different personal protective equipment and state where you will wear them. What is boundary cooling? What are the requirements of a safety helmet by way of construction? What kind of respiratory protection do you have on board?


[Note : Certain images have been downloaded from the internet to embellish this unit further. We wish to thank the original creators/publishers for allowing us this facility.]

Safety General

In this unit, we have seen that conventions are collective regulation measures that are agreed upon by several countries by convening a meeting. Safety signs and symbols are used for promotion of safety • • • • Yellow sings are advisory and mean "be careful or take precautions" Blue signs are mandatory meaning "take specific action". Green signs mean "emergency escape" or first aid sign. Red signs prohibit you from doing something or tell you to "stop, shut down or evacuate".

Emergency at sea do not come by giving you an advance notice. When they come you have to be ready for them. Shipboard contingency plans assist all persons in effectively dealing with any unexpected emergency. Many accidents take place on board ships due to the carelessness of the ships staff in making proper use of the protective clothes and equipment. Protective clothing and equipment is provided on the ship to protect you from accidents and must be worn/used at all times when at work. Permit to work system is an organized and pre-defined safety procedure which contributes to measures for safe working and must be used where recommended.




10.1 Introduction and Objective

10.2 Access, Transit and Disembarking 10.3 Anchoring and Mooring Operations 10.4 Working Aloft and Outboard 10.5 Manual Lifting and Carrying 10.6 Summary

From the moment any person sets foot on a ship's accommodation ladder, he should be aware that he is entering a potentially hazardous area. This message should be clearly indicated at the bottom on the gangway with personal protective equipment requirements, smoking regulations and restricted access information clearly displayed. Objectives After studying this unit, you should beable to • • • • • explain safety aspects while boarding a ship and while disembarking. move about on board the ship in a safe manner, assist in carrying out the berthing, understanding and mooring operations safely, describe about dangers in working aloft and out board, and explain how to lift and carry weights on the ship without injuring yourself.

Maritime administrations place an obligation on ship owners (and their shipboard representative — the Master) to provide a safe means of access to and from the vessel. This is usually complied with by using an accommodation ladder. It is imperative that the accommodation ladder or gangway is correctly rigged, adjusted to suit the prevailing conditions, well lit and easily accessible. A safety net, correctly adjusted, should always be fitted. • If access is by means of shore facilities, it is usually the responsibility of the master to ensure it is correctly rigged. The safe working load and maximum number of persons allowed on an accommodation ladder must be clearly marked and never exceeded. If access to the vessel is by gangway, gangplank or rope ladder, they must be safely rigged, well lit and in compliance with appropriate legislation. Life buoys with line and quoit attached should be available at all points of access to the vessel and should be of the type with self/water activated lights. Extreme care should be taken when embarking and disembarking any vessel. Whenever a ladder or other means of access is being rigged, the personnel involved should wear the basic safety equipment considered the norm as well as additional safety gear, including safety harnesses and buoyancy aids.

• •


Safety and Security

Safe access and transit routes around the ship should be clearly marked either as painted lines on the deck or by using safety tape. These safe routes should avoid hazards such as cargo lifts, operations, machinery spaces or pump rooms etc. On vessels where cargo operations require personnel to move around the vessel, tape is a better option as it can be moved so as to allow access avoiding ongoing cargo work. Decks should be kept clear, as far as possible, of cargo, debris, tools and similar obstructions, and all potential tripping hazards such as securing lugs, Sounding pipes, tank lids and pad eyes should be painted in a contrasting colour to highlight the hazard. Personnel visiting the vessel, including pilots, superintendents, supernumeraries and shore workers, should be escorted on board by a responsible member of the ship's crew and guided to their destination to avoid hazards. Hard hats should be kept at the top of the gangway in case people arrive without their own. Any ladders, stairways and access routes should be well maintained and well lit. Indeed, all lighting should be regularly checked, particularly prior to arrival in port. If access is required to holds, cargo spaces and the like, for e.g. by surveyors or inspectors, then all the potential hazards should be pointed out and the correct personal protective equipment donned. If the ship owner's requirements are not met by visiting personnel, then access should be denied until situation is rectified.

Whatever the reason may be for individuals being on board ship, they must always be aware of potential hazards and proceed with caution common sense should prevail, as slips and falls cause up to 45% of personal injuries. Far too many injuries, even fatalities, happen when personnel and embarking or disembarking vessels. So, take care! Safe Movement about the Ship • • Seafarers should move about the ship bearing in mind the possibility of an unusual lurch or heavy roll by the ship while at sea. Permanent fittings which cause obstruction and which may be dangerous to vehicles, lifting appliances or persons should be made conspicuous by means of colouring, marking or lighting. Any deck obstructions and head-height obstructions that are a hazard should be painted a bright, conspicuous colour. Head-height obstructions should be padded. The stowage of deck cargoes should take account of the requirement for safe access to crew quarters, for crew working the ship, for boarding of pilots and access to safety equipment. Passageways and walkways are to be kept free from materials; transit areas should be provided with a surface which is slip-resistant in dry as well as conditions. Walkways on deck should be delineated by painted lines or otherwise and indicated by signs. Gear stowed hould be securely fixed or lashed against the movement of the ship. In rough weather lifelines should be rigged across open decks. Seafarers using watertight doors should be accordingly instructed. Power operated or remotely operated doors should have local as well as remote indicators of opening and closing positions. Bridge should be informed on occasions when such doors are closed or opened. Areas of the ship used for loading or unloading, other work processes or transit should be adequately and appropriately illuminated.

• • •

• 98

Cargo hatchways should be protected by means of a coaming or fencing to a height of at least lm above the deck. Hatch covers, pontoons and beams that have been removed should be placed so as to leave a safe walkway from rail to hatch coaming and fore and aft. Any openings through which a person might fall should be fitted with secure guards or fencing of adequate design and construction. Guard-rails or fencing should consist of an upper rail at a height of lm and an intermediate rail at a height of 50cm. The rails may consist of taut wire or taut chain. Safe access should be provided in each hold or space below deck in accordance with SOLAS requirements. No rope ladders to be used. Drains and scuppers should be regularly inspected and properly maintained to ensure that they do not become blocked. In case of double-banking (i.e. two vessels alongside at sea), the vessels with higher freeboard should provide access to and from vessel.

• • •

All Openings must be Properly Guarded

Figure 10.1: Gangway — Properly Rigged with Safety Net

Figure 10.2: Guarding Opening

The fairly routine activities of mooring, unberthing and anchoring vessels often lead to serious injuries and even fatalities. With careful planning and relevant training, most of these accidents could have been avoided. The loads and forces experienced in ship's ropes and wires during mooring operations can be considerable and due caution needs to be exercised at all times.

Safety and Security

Anchoring • All personnel involved in anchoring operations should wear the basic personal safety equipment itemised earlier. Goggles and dust masks should also be worn by all persons in the vicinity to avoid the hazards of flying dust, debris and mud as the anchor and cable is paid out. The anchor should be paid out in a controlled manner, usually on the brake, with continuous communication with the wheel house. • A potential hazard which is not always appreciated is that of sea snakes and although this it not a world wide problem persons involved in anchoring operations and stowing the anchor should be aware of the potential dangers. Personnel should not stand in line with the cable but should instead stand to one side when letting go or heaving the anchor. • The working areas should be "anti-slip" and if raised platforms are used, correctly secured gratings are recommended. Guards on windlasses should be secured and in good condition. Power supply lines or pipes for steam, hydraulic oil, etc., should be maintained in good condition, correctly secured and where necessary protected with covers and insulation. • Anchors should be secured for sea with care. The guillotine should be dropped and secured and additional securing wires arranged so as to avoid the anchors being inadvertently dropped. Spurling pipe covers should be closed and cemented to avoid flooding of chain lockers but this should only be attempted once anchors and cables have been secured. Mooring • Considerable care is required with the stowage of wires and ropes as well as the maintenance of roller fairleads, bits, winch drums, brakes and clutches. • Ropes and wires should be regularly inspected and maintained. They should be carefully stowed, preferably off the deck on pallets or the like, and kept away from moisture, chemicals and other substances which may harm them. Ropes and wires should be protected from direct sunlight whether they be stowed on deck or on reels or drums. Wire ropes should be treated with suitable lubricants which should be worked into the core of the wire to avoid the rope drying out. • When handling wires and ropes, seafarers should wear leather palmed gloves to prevent hand injuries. However when turning ropes on drum ends, extreme care should be exercised as gloves could become entrapped. On such occasions, seafarers may wish to remove gloves. Ropes and wires should be flaked out on the deck prior to port arrival and arranged to help the operation go on smoothly as possible. A person should never stand in the bight of a rope. Sufficient personnel should be assigned to the mooring operation and one person should be designated as winch/windlass driver. • Whilst responsible for driving the winch, he should remain at the control station and in close communication with the officer in charge. All seamen should be aware of the potential hazards and remain in positions of safety whenever possible. Care should be exercised when throwing heaving lines to avoid hitting people with the "monkey's fist"! • It should be remembered that nylon, polyester and polypropylene ropes, unlike natural fiber ropes, give no audible indication of imminent failure due to overloading. If it appears that ropes are coming under excessive strain, the load should be reduced. When a rope is being run on the drum end, a maximum of three turns should be used and this should be controlled by one man, with another coiling the rope as it comes off the drum end. • When alongside, the moorings should be constantly monitored and sufficient personnel allocated to tending and adjusting moorings. This is particularly 100 relevant in tidal waters and on vessels with big loading and discharging rates.

On some vessels, mooring operations can be quite awkward, and on others, such as long haul traders, they can be a rare operation. In either case, the operation should be well planned and all personnel involved should be familiar with the proposed sequence of events and what to do in the event of unforeseen circumstances arising. When making fast a tug, it should be remembered that the ship has little control and that the tug can apply load at any time. Wherever possible, ship's lines should be used, as the ship has very little control over the condition of a tug's wires or ropes. In some parts of the world, a tug's ropes will be in excellent condition, but this will not always be the case.

Safety Deck Operation

In conclusion, good seamanship and the use of the correct personal protective equipment play a vital role in the prevention of injury during mooring and anchoring operations.

Figure 10.3 : Right and Wrong Ways Iof Using Ropes


Safety and Security

(a) A man working at a height may not be able to give his full attention to the job and at the same time guard himself against falling. Proper precautions should, therefore, always be taken to ensure personal safety when work has to be done aloft or when working outboard. It must be remembered that the movement of a ship in a seaway will add to the hazards involved in work of this type. A stage or ladder should always be utilized when work is to be done beyond normal reach. Seamen under 18 years of age or with less than 12 months experience at sea, should not work aloft unless accompanied by an experienced seaman or otherwise adequately supervised. A safety harness with lifeline or other arresting device should be continuously worn when working aloft, outboard or over side. A safety net should be rigged where necessary and appropriate. Additionally, where work is done over side, buoyancy garments should be worn and a lifebuoy with sufficient line attached should be kept ready for immediate use. Men should not work overside while the vessel is underway. Before work is commenced near the ship's whistle, the officer responsible for the job should ensure that power is shut off and warning notices posted on the. bridge and in the machinery space. Before work is commenced on the funnel, the officer responsible should inform the duty engineer to ensure that steps are taken to reduce as far as practicable the emission of steam, harmful gases and fumes. Before work is commenced in the vicinity of radio aerials, the officer responsible should inform the radio officer so that no transmissions are made whilst there is risk to the seafarer. A warning notice should be put up in the radio room. Where work is to be done near the radar scanner. the officer responsible should inform the officer on watch so that the radar and scanner are isolated. A warning notice should be put on the set until the necessary work has been completed. On completion of the work of the type described above, the officer responsible should, where necessary, inform the appropriate officer that the precautions taken are no longer required and that warning notices can be removed. Unless it is essential, work should not be done aloft on a stage or bosun's chair in the vicinity of cargo working. (k) Care must also be taken while work is being done aloft or at a height, to avoid risks to anyone working or moving below. Suitable warning notices should be displayed. Tools and stores should be sent up and lowered by line in suitable containers which should be secured in place for stowage of tools or materials not presently being used. (1) No one should place tools where they can be accidentally knocked down and may fall on someone below, nor should tools be carried in pockets from which they may easily fall. When working aloft, it is often best to wear a belt designed to hold essential tools securely in loops.



(d) (e)




(m) Tools should be handled with extra care when hands are cold or greasy and where the tools themselves are greasy. 102

Safety Deck Operation

Figure 10.4: Use of Cradles and Stages

Cradles and Stages (a) Cradles should be at least 430mm (17 inches) wide and fitted with guard rails or stanchions with taut ropes to a height of I metre (39 inches) from the floor. Toe boards add safety. Planks and materials used for the construction of ordinary plank stages must be carefully examined to ensure adequate strength and freedom from defect. Wooden components of staging should be stowed in a dry, ventilated space and not subjected to heat. Ancillary equipment, blocks and gantlines should be thoroughly examined before use. A defective item should not be used. 103

(b) (c) (d)

Safety and Security


When a state is rigged overside, the two gantlines used in its rigging should at least be long enough to trail into the water to provide additional lifelines should the operator fall. A lifebuoy and line should still be kept ready at close position. Gantlines should be kept clear of sharp edges. The anchoring points for lines, blocks and lizards must be of adequate strength and, where practicable, be permanent fixtures to the ship's structure. Integral lugs should be hammer tested. Portable rails or stanchions should not be used as anchoring points. Beam clamps and similar devices should be used solely for their intended purposes and then only under close supervision. Stages and staging which are not suspended should always be secured against movement. Hanging stages should be restricted against movement to the extent practicable. In machinery spaces, staging and its supports should be kept clear of contact with hot surfaces and moving parts of machinery. In the engine room, a crane gantry should not be used directly as a platform for cleaning or painting, but can be used as the base for a stable platform if the precautions are taken. Where men working from a stage are required to raise or lower themselves, great care must be taken to keep movements of the stage small.

(f) (g)



Bosun's Chair (a) (b) (c) When used with a gantline, the chair should be secured to it with a double sheet bend and the end seized to the standing part with adequate tail. Hooks should not be used to secure bosun's chairs unless they are of the type which because of their construction cannot be accidentally dislodged. On each occasion that a bosun's chair is rigged for use, the chair, gantlines and lizards should be thoroughly examined, and a load test applied before a man is hoisted. When a chair is to be used for riding topping lifts or stays, it is essential that the bow of the shackle and not the pin, rides on the wire. The pin in any case should be seized. When it is necessary to haul a seaman aloft in a bosun's chair it should be done only by hand; a winch should not be used. If a man is required to lower himself while using a bosun's chair, he should first flap both parts of the gantline together with a suitable piece of line to secure the chair before making the lowering hitch. The practice of holding on with one hand and making and lowering the hitch with the other is dangerous.


(e) (f)

Ropes (a) The safety of the man aloft or over side depends upon the strength of the line holding him, whether it is a lifeline to his harness or gantline to a bosun's chair or stage. Many types of rope of both man-made and natural fiber are available, each with different properties and with different resistance to contamination by substances in use about the ship, which may seriously weaken the rope. Guidance on the selection of man-made fibres can be found in the relevant standard. Seafarers should, therefore, be aware of the general limitations of the different types of ropes and the following table is a guide on the resistance of the main rope types to chemical attack.



Table 10.1
Substance Manila or Sisal Polyamide (Nylon) Polyster Polypropylene

Safety Deck Operation

Sulphuric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Typical rust remover Caustic Soda Liquid bleach Creosote, Crude Oil Phenols, Crude Tar Diesel Oil Synthetic detergent Chlorinated Solvents, e.g. Trichloro-ethylene (used in some paint and varnish removers) Other organic solvents

None None Poor None None None Good Good Poor Poor • Good

Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Fair Good Good Fair

Good Good Good Fair Very Good Good Good Good Good Good

Very good Very good Very good Very good Very good Very good Good Good Good Poor




This table is indicative only of the possible extent of deterioration of rope; in practice, much depends upon the precise formulation of the material, the amount of contamination the rope receives and the length of time and the temperature at which it is exposed to contamination. In some cases, damage may not be apparent even on close inspection. (c) Ropes should be stored away from heat and sunlight, and in a separate compartment from containers of chemicals, detergents, rust removers, paint strippers or other substances capable of damaging them. The person responsible for the work being undertaken should ensure that all ropes, lifelines, gantlines, etc. employed for a particular job are resistant to attack by substances that might be used during the course of that job. Ropes of natural fibres, of a mixture of natural and man-made fibres, should not be used for these purposes. Similarly, care should be taken in the selection and use of ancillary equipment such as safety harness and safety nets. Polypropylene ropes which have the best all-round resistance to attack by harmful substances are generally preferred unless they are of a type resistant to actinic degradation, such as those approved for life-saving appliances by the Department of Transport. They should not be exposed to strong sunlight for long periods. They should also be of a type providing grip comparable to that of manila or sisal ropes. Rope of a man-made material stretches under load and the extent varies according to the material. Polyamide rope stretches the most. Rope should be inspected internally and externally before use for signs of deterioration, undue wear or damage. This is particularly important if a gantline has not been used for some time. A high degree of powdering between strands of man-made fiber ropes indicates wear and impaired strength; the internal wear will be greater with ropes that stretch. Some ropes, e.g. polyamide, become stiff and hard when overworked. Before use, lifelines and gantlines, lizards and chairs should be load-tested to four or five times the loads they will by required to carry. Some superficial splashing or wetting of lines by corrosive or rotting substances may be unavoidable during the progress of the work. The ropes



(f) (g)

(h) (i)

Safety and Security

etc. chosen should not be susceptible to damage by the contaminant and it should be sufficient to ensure that any effects of contamination are examined as soon as possible but in any case at the end of a day's work. Mildew does not attack man-made fiber ropes but moulds can form on them. This will not affect their strength. (k) Eye or loop splices in ropes of polyamide or polyester materials should be made with five full tucks each with the completed strands of the rope followed by two tapered tucks for which the strands are halved and quartered for one tuck each respectively. Those portions of the splices containing the tucks with the reduced number of filaments should be securely wrapped with adhesive tape or other suitable material. Splices in polypropylene ropes should have at least five full tucks. The length of the splicing tails protruding from the finished splice should equal not less than three rope diameters. Mechanical fastenings should not be used in lieu of splices on man-made fiber ropes because strands may be damaged during application of the mechanical fastening and the grip of the fastenings may be much affected by slight unavoidable fluctuation in the diameter of the strands.


Portable Ladders (a) A portable ladder should have a clear width of at least 255 nun (10 inches), be soundly constructed and have adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used. A ladder should not be used if any part is defective, for example if any rung depends for support solely on nails. spikes or similar improvisations. (b) All ladders should be inspected at regular intervals and maintained in sound condition. Wooden ladders should not be painted or treated so as to hide cracks and defects. When not in use, portable ladders should be stowed in a dry ventilated space away from heat. A ladder in use should rise to a height of at least 1 metre (39 inches) above the top landing place unless there are other suitable handholds. A portable ladder, whether rope or rigid type, must be adequately secured against displacement as near as possible to its upper resting place. There should be a clearance of at least 150mm behind all rungs. Rigid portable ladders should be pitched at a safe angle between 65 and 70 degrees to the horizontal. They should stand on a firm base and be lashed in position. Planks should not be supported on the rungs of portable ladders to be used as a staging, nor should ladders be used horizontally for the same purpose. A man negotiating a ladder needs both hands free; he should not attempt to carry tools or equipment in his hands. If he is wearing gloves or his hands are greasy, he must take extra care. Working from ladders should be avoided as far as practicable since there is a risk of overbalancing and falling. Where it is necessary, a safety harness with a lifeline secured above the position of work should be worn when working at a height in excess of 2 metres (6.5 feet).

(c) (d) (e) (f) (g)


Employers' Responsibility (a) Many people have sustained serious back and other injuries during manual lifting or carrying operations as a result of accidents, poor organization and




unsatisfactory working methods. Employers should always aim to find safer practicable alternatives to such operations on board ship. Before a person is instructed to lift or carry by hand, the employer should have ensured that the attendant risks to health and safety have been evaluated and due account taken of them in the training provided and the working methods used. When assessing the risks and considering adequate protection full account should be taken not only of the characteristics of the load and the physical effort required but also of the working environment (ship movement, confined space. high or low temperature, physical obstacles such as steps or gangway, etc.) and any other relevant factors (the age and health of the person, the frequency and duration of the work, etc.). Size up the load to be lifted. Look for sharp edges or protruding nails which may cause injury. Take special care with loads having greasy, slippery surfaces or which present other hazards affecting your grip. Wear sensible shoes, preferably with the protected toecaps. Take up a firm and balanced stance with your feet not too wide apart, allowing as straight a lift as possible with comfort. Get close to the load; the further away you are, the harder the lift is. Bend the knees and crouch down (bent knees and a straight back will ensure that the legs do the work) and keep the chin tucked in. Get a good grip on the load with the palms of your hands. Do not use fingers only. Try the weight for a trial lift and be sure you can manage it. If at all doubtful, get help. Lift the load by straightening the legs, keeping it close to the body. Lift to a high level in two stages by using a bench or other support and then adjusting your grip to complete the high lift. To put the load down, reverse the lifting procedures and make sure your legs do the work of lowering. Bend the knees, keep the back straight with the load close to the body. Never carry a load which obscures your vision so that you are unable to see the area over which you are walking. The size and shape of the load are not good guides to its weight, or weight distribution. If this information is not available, a careful trial lift should be made, and if there is any doubt whether the load can be managed by one man, help should be provided.

Safety Deck Operation

A Few Tips

• • • • • • • •

• •

The Right Way

Legs bent. Back straight, using the strong leg muscles to lift.

Figure 10.5: Right Way of Lifting Weight


Safety and Security

The Wrong Way Legs straight. Back bent. The back muscles being used at risk of injury to spine.

Figure 10.6: Wrong Copy of Lifting Weight

SAQ 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

What safety items are used on or near the gangway or accommodation ladder? How would you prevent any person falling into an opening on deck? Name the precautions you would take when in charge of anchoring and mooring operations. What precautions would you take when-handling ropes? Why should you keep clear of a rope that is under strain? When do you use a bosun's chair or stage? What is the difference between them? How would you ensure that a man working aloft does not drop tools? Do you take any extra precautions when a seaman is painting the shipside or on the ship's mast? What would you ensure before employing a seaman to lift and carry a heavy object? Name three types of man - made ropes and three types of synthetic ropes.

0) What are the requirements fora Jacob (coolie) ladder?
[Note : Certain images have been downloaded from the internet to embellish this unit further We wish to thank the original creators/publishers for allowing us this facility.]

Entry to holds and cargo spaces should only be undertaken on the authority of a responsible ship's officer and after making sure that the place has been adequately ventilated and where appropriate tested for noxious gases/oxygent content. Where possible the entry should be made through the permanent means of aces and where necessary lifelines and safety harnesses should be used. All work places would be well illuminated and obstructions are to be well marked. In this unit, you have also learnt about the safe practices which must be followed when anchoring and mooring a vessel. During anchoring, mooring and unmooring operations a suitable number of persons should always be available and responsible officer in charge of the operations should be able to communicate with the bridge team. All equipment, mooring ropes, wires stoppers, etc. which are used during these operations should be regularly inspected and defects found must be rectified. Care must also be taken while working aloft that no one


is working or moving underneath. A person working at height may not be able to give full attention to the job and at the same time guard themselves. A safety harness with lifeline or other arresting device should be continuously worn when working a lot. Men should not work over side when the ship is underway. Many people have sustained serious injuries during manual lifting and carrying operations on board ships. In this unit, you have learnt about the need to plan and organize the movement of loads from one place to another and received some useful hints on safe working methods.

Safety Deck Operation




Structure 11.1 Introduction

11.2 Entry into Enclosed Spaces 11.3 Welding, Grinding and Flame Cutting Operations 11.4 Workshop Practices using Machine and Hand Tools 11.5 Good Housekeeping 11.6 Specialised Ship Operations 11.7 Summary

Despite the fact that the hazards are well known, far too many accidents, injuries and fatalities result from entry into enclosed or confined spaces. Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to • • • • • describe precautions which are necessary before entering enclosed space, explain necessary precautions before commencement of welding, grinding and flame cutting, explain the importance of hot work permit, describe important workshop practices for using hand and machine tools, and expalin precautions observed on some specialized ship.

An enclosed or confined space is one which has, or may have, an oxygen deficiency, explosive atmosphere, toxic atmosphere, or when the condition of the atmosphere is unknown. It is not possible to list all such spaces which may be present on board ship, but such a list must include : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Cargo holds or tanks Deep tanks Void spaces Tanker pump rooms Gas carrier compressor rooms Double bottoms Duct keels III

Safety and Security


Ballast tanks Sewage storage or treatment tanks Inert gas rooms (including scrubbers, etc.) Battery lockers Storage rooms for fixed fire fighting mediums (Le, CO? and Halon) Pressure vessels (including air receivers and boilers, etc.) Coffer dams Cable and pipe trunks Chain lockers Incinerators Compressor and gas spaces Bunker, diesel and oil tanks Gas carrier void spaces

(k) (1) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t)

Any space which has been battened down without full ventilation should be considered an enclosed space or dangerous space and entry must only be made after careful planning and job explanation. Moreover, all safety procedures should have been complied with and an entry permit issued. The atmosphere should be tested and proved safe for access. As a general rule, any space, where the condition of that space is or is suspected of being unable to support human life should be tested prior to entry. The space should be fully ventilated and the ventilation continued throughout any period of entry. When and only when the atmosphere is proven safe, entry should be made without breathing apparatus. Entry should only be made using breathing apparatus when it is impossible to ventilate the space or when a rescue is to be attempted. Many people have been killed over the years trying to rescue a friend or colleague. Always ask yourself this question -- if the air in the space will not support them, why should it keep you alive? In such circumstances, rescues should only be attempted when rescuers are wearing breathing apparatus. The rescue should be well coordinated, controlled and rescue teams should be well practiced. Enclosed spaces are often difficult to access and poorly lit, thus every attempt should be made to make access safe and the areas should be well lit. Often this will require the use of suitably certificated intrinsically safe equipment, either torches or portable lighting. Personal atmosphere testing equipment which can easily be worn is available and such equipment can constantly monitor any space within which the wearer is operating. Various organizations and P & I clubs have formulated safety check lists and cards which set out appropriate safety checks to be completed prior to entry into an enclosed space. A specimen is given below: 11.2.1 Checklist This checklist should be followed prior to entry into enclosed spaces for all ships and tankers, (Detailed tanker specific checklists may be found in International Safety Guide to Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT), an International Chamber of Shipping and Oil Companies. International Marine Forum (OCfMF) publication.) Section One Pre-entry Preparations (To be Checked by Master or Responsible Officer) • • The space should be properly ventilated, tested and found safe. 112

Ventilation should be continued throughout occupancy of the space.

• • • • •

The space should be tested regularly during occupancy. Rescue & resuscitation equipment should be available at the entrance. A responsible person should be stationed at the entrance. A system of communication should be agreed — such equipment must be of an approved type and intrinsically safe. Adequate lighting should be provided and be of a type that is appropriate for the duty.

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations

Section Two (To be Checked by Person Entering the Space) This part of the checklist is a check that the person entering the space has received instruction or permission to enter the space, ensures the persons entering have checked that Section One has been complied with, communication established between themselves and the standby man. Section Three This pertains to breathing apparatus, the operation and testing of them, familiarity with their use and any emergency signals. It is recommended that a safety trolley, or box for vessels where access to main decks is difficult, should be prepared with all the apparatus required for entry. This box should be taken to the point of entry ready for use as required. A safety box should include as a minimum : • Two breathing apparatus • Two spare BA bottles • Safety harnesses/rescue harnesses • Life lines • Two spare torches (suitable for duty i.e. intrinsically safe or as required depending on type of ship, etc.) • Resuscitation equipment • Stretcher The man standing by at the top of the tank should record entry times, advise the wheel house and monitor movements so at all times everyone's whereabouts are known. If at any time the conditions in the space change, the atmosphere becomes suspect or someone feels unwell/appears to be suffering, all personnel should vacate the space and the full procedure re-done. The original of the checklist is to be posted at the entrance of the space. Atmosphere Testing Before any person enters an enclosed space, the atmosphere should be tested. However, the particular tests that will be conducted vary depending on the conditions to which the enclosed space has been subjected. Tests will for instance be different if the space was a ballast tank, cargo hold or fuel tank. The tests available are for oxygen deficiency, flammable gases and vapours and toxic gases and the tests should always be carried out in that order. Ensure that all meters used for testing are checked and properly calibrated. Testing for Oxygen Deficiency Oxygen deficiency tests should be conducted using a recognized, calibrated and fully certificated oxygen meter. Entry should only be permitted if the percentage


Safety and Security

oxygen content by volume has given a steady reading greater than 20%. It is good practice to test the atmosphere at several levels in a space, usually at the top, middle and bottom of a tank. Testing for Flammable Gases or Vapours The meter used for this purpose is the combustible gas indicator or "explosimeter" which can detect the percentage content of the atmosphere of flammable gases and vapours. If for any reason a suitable meter is not available then a space should either be flooded with ballast and then pumped out to induce fresh air in or an external ventilation system must be arranged and the space ventilated for a specified period. This will be dependent on volume air changes. When lower flammable unit readings fall below I%, the oxygen reading is 21% by volume and no toxic gases are present, then the space can be considered safe for entry. Testing for Toxic Gases On many vessels, especially chemical carriers, crude oil carriers and specialist product tankers, toxic substances may be present in closed cargo spaces. Indeed even vessels carrying toxic cargoes as containerized cargo should have testing facilities on board. Seemingly innocuous substances can release toxic substances into the environment. Examples include vegetable or animal oils which can release hydrogen sulphide when they come into contact with sea water. Whenever there is a likelihood or possibility of toxic gases being present, the atmosphere must be tested. Up-to-date internationally accepted exposure level guidelines should be consulted before any entry to a space which may contain toxic gases is considered. It is important to realize a combustible gas analyser will not be suitable for detecting dangerous levels of toxic gases particularly if they are close to occupational exposure limits. Dangerous levels may well be below flammable limits thus often they will remain undetected without the use of specialized toxic atmosphere testing equipment. Generally, all atmosphere analysing equipment should be regularly checked and inspected. Carrying cases and straps must also be checked. Analysers should be regularly calibrated against test equipment and be checked ashore by a shore based calibration hours. Certification must be valid and should be retained on board. Only people fully trained in the use of such equipment should carry out testing of potentially hazardous spaces. Entering Enclosed Spaces The air we breathe contains'-? 1% Oxygen; 78% Nitrogen; and 1% Mixed gases Before Entry (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Always start ventilation of enclosed space well before entry. First test space with an oxygen analyser - required reading 21 %. Then check atmosphere with a combustible gas indicator (explosimeter required reading less than 1%). Check for other toxic gases where appropriate using correct instruments. Ensure no gas will enter from other sources. Establish communication links.


(g) (h)

Have breathing apparatus, resuscitation and rescue equipment checked and ready for immediate use. Complete the entry checklist.

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations

During Entry Maintain ventilation. Maintain communications. Maintain atmosphere checks. Important Compressed air breathing apparatus must be worn if above conditions cannot be assured. Enclosed Space Entry Permit General Location/Name of enclosed space ______________________________ Reason for entry ____________________________________________ This permit is valid from_________ hrs. Date __________(See Note 1) To ______________ hrs. Date____________ Section 1 — Pre-entry Preparations (To be checked by the Master or Responsible Officer) • Has the space been segregrated by blanking off or isolating all connecting pipelines? Yes/No • Have valves on all pipelines serving serving the space been secured to prevent accidental opening? Yes/No • Has the space been cleaned? Yes/No • Has the space been thoroughly ventilated? Yes/No Pre-entry Atmosphere Tests (See Note 2) Readings : Oxygen.................... % vol. (21 Hydrocarbons .....%LFL (less than 1%) Toxic Gases ........... ppm (specify gas) (See Note 3) • Have arrangements been made for frequent atmosphere checks to be made while the space is occupied and after work breaks? Yes/No • Have arrangements been made for the space to be continuously ventilated throughout the period of occupation and during breaks Yes/No • Is adequate illumination provided? Yes/No • Is rescue and resuscitation equipment available for immediate use by the entrance to the space? Yes/No

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Has a responsible person been designated to standby the entrance to the space? Yes/No

• Has the Officer of the Watch (bridge/engine room/cargo control room) been advised of the planned entry? Yes/No • Has a system of communication between the person at the entrance and those entering the space been agreed and tested? Yes/No • Are emergency and evacuation procedures established and tested? Yes/No • Is there a system for recording who is in the space? Yes/No • Is all equipment used of an approved type? Yes/No
Section 2 — Pre-entry Checks

(To be checked by the person authorized as leader of the team entering the space.) • Section 1 of this permit has been completed fully.

• I am aware that the space must be vacated immediately in the event of ventilation failure or if atmosphere tests chsnge from agreed safe criteria. • I have agreed to the communication procedures. •........................................................................................ I have agreed upon a reporting interval of........................ minutes. • Emergency and evacuation procedures have been agreed and are understood. To be signed by Master or Responsible Officer .......................... .................. date........ time ............................................................................ Authorised Team leader .................................... date ........... time............

(a) The entry permit should contain a clear indication as to its maximum period of validity which in any event should not exceed a normal working day. (b) In order to obtain a representative cross-section of the compartment's atmosphere, samples should be taken from several depths and through as many openings as possible. Ventilation should be stopped for about 10 minutes before the pre-entry atmosphere tests are taken.



Tests for specific toxic contaminants, such as benzene and hydrogen sulphide, should be undertaken depending on the nature of the previous contents of the space.

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations

General (a) (b) (c) Welding, grinding and flame cutting elsewhere than in the workshop should be the subject of a 'permit-to-work". Operators should be competent in the process, familiar with the equipment to be used and instructed where special precautions need to be taken. Where portable lights are needed to provide adequate illumination, they should be clamped or otherwise secured in position, not hand-held, with leads kept clear of the working area. Harmful fumes can be produced during these operations especially from galvanizing, paint, etc. Oxygen in the atmosphere can be depleted when using gas cutting equipment and noxious gases may be produced when welding, grinding or cutting. Special care should, therefore, be taken when welding, grinding and flame cutting in enclosed spaces to provide adequate ventilation. The effectiveness of the ventilation should be checked at intervals while the work is in progress. In confined spaces, breathing apparatus may be required. Welding, grinding and flame cutting equipment should be inspected before use by a competent person to ensure that it is in a serviceable condition. All repairs should be carried out by competent person.



Grinding equipment, especially portable grinders, should be fitted with guards that will protect the operator in case of damage/destruction of the disc. Protective Clothing (a) Protective clothing and equipment complying with the relevant standard specifications should be worn by the operator and as appropriate by those with him to protect them from particles of hot metal and slag and from accidental burns and their eyes and skin from ultra-violet and heat radiation. (b) The operator should normally wear : • Welding helmet with suitable coloured transparent eyepiece. Eye goggles or a hand-held shield may be suitable alternatives in appropriate circumstances; Leather working gloves; Leather apron (in appropriate circumstances); and Long-sleeved natural fibre boiler suit or other approved protective clothing.


• • •

(c) Clothing should be free of grease and oil and other flammable substances. Precautions against Fire and Explosion (a) Before welding, grinding, flamecutting or other hot work is begun, a check should be made that there are no combustible solids, liquids or gases, at,


Safety and Security

below or adjacent to the area of the work, which might be ignited by heat or sparks from the works. (b) (c) Welding or other work should never be undertaken on surfaces covered with grease, oil or other flammable or combustible substances. When welding is to be done in the vicinity of open hatches, suitable screens should be erected to prevent sparks dropping down hatching or hold ventilators. Where necessary, combustible materials and dunnage should be moved to a safe distance before commencing operations. Port holes and other openings through which sparks may fall should be closed where practicable. Where works is being done close to or at bulkheads, decks or deck heads, the remote sides of the divisions should be checked for materials and substances which may ignite, and for cables, pipelines or other services which may be affected by the heat. Cargo tanks, cargo holds or other tanks or spaces that have contained flammable substances should be certified as being free of flammable gases before any repair work is commenced. The testing should include, as appropriate, the testing of adjacent spaces, double bottoms, coffer dams, etc. Further tests should be carried out at regular intervals and before hot work is recommended following any suspension of the work. When preparing tankers or similar ships, all tanks, cargo pumps and pipelines should be thoroughly cleaned and particular care taken with the draining and cleaning of pipelines that cannot be directly flushed using the ship's pumps. Welding, grinding and flamecutting operations should be properly supervised and kept under regular observation. Suitable fire extinguishers should be kept at hand ready for use during the operation. A person with a suitable extinguisher should also be stationed to keep watch on areas not visible to the welder which may be affected. In view of the risk of delayed fires resulting from the use of burning or welding apparatus, appropriate frequent checks should be made for at least two hours after cessation of the work.

(d) (e)




Electric Welding Equipment (a) In order to minimize risk from electric shock, electric welding power sources for shipboard use should have a direct current (DC) output not exceeding 70 V, with a minimum ripple. When DC equipment is not available, then AC output power sources may be used providing they have an integral voltage limiting device to ensure that the idling voltage (the voltage between electrode and workpiece before an arc is struck between them) does not exceed 25 V rms. The proper function of the device (which may be affected by dust or humidity) should be checked each time a welding set is used. Some voltage limiting devices are affected by their angle of tilt from the vertical, so it is important that they are mounted and used in the position specified by the manufacturers. The requirement can be affected by adverse sea conditions. A 'go and return' system? utilizing two cables from the welding set should be firmly clamped to the, workpiece. The 'return' cable of the welding set and the workpiece or workpieces should be separately earthed to the ship's structure. The use of a single cable with hull return is not recommended. To avoid voltage drop in transmissions, the lead and return cables should be of the minimum length practicable for the job and of an appropriate crosssection.


(c) (d)

(e) 118

(f) (g)

Cables should be inspected before use; if the insulation is impaired or conductivity is reduced, they should not be used. Cable connectors should be fully insulated when connected, and so designed and installed that current carrying parts are adequately recessed when disconnected. Electrode holders should be fully insulated so that no live part of the holder is exposed to touch, and where practicable, should be fitted with guards to prevent accidental contact with live electrodes and as protection from sparks and splashes of weld metal. A local switching arrangement or other suitable means should be provided for rapidly cutting off current from the electrode should the operator get into difficulties and also for isolating the holder when electrodes are changed.

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations


Precautions to be Taken During Electric Arc Welding (a) The welding operator should wear protective clothing but should additionally wear non-conducting safety footwear. Clothing should be kept as dry as possible as some protection against electric shock; it is particularly important that gloves should be dry because wet leather is a good conductor. An assistant should be in continuous attendance during welding operations. He should be alert to the risk of accidental shock to the welder, ready to cut off power instantly, raise the alarm and apply artificial respiration without delay. The desirability of a second assistant should be considered if the work is to be carried out in difficult conditions. Where persons other than the operator are likely to be exposed to harmful radiation or sparks from electric arc welding, they should be protected by screens or other effective means. In restricted spaces, where the operator may be in close contact with the ship's structure or is likely to make contact in the course of ordinary movements, protection should be provided by dry insulating mats or boards. There are increased risks of electric shock to the operator if welding is done in hot humid conditions; body sweat and damp clothing greatly reduce body resistance. Under such conditions, the operation should be deferred until such time as an adequate level of safety can be achieved. In no circumstances should a welder work while standing in water or with any part of his body immersed. (g) The electrode holder should be isolated from the current supply before a used electrode is removed and before a new electrode is inserted. This precaution is necessary because some electrode coatings have extremely low resistance. Even a flux coating which is normally insulating can become damp from sweating hands and the potentially dangerous. When the welding is completed or temporarily suspended, the electrode should be removed from the holder. Hot electrode ends should be ejected into a suitable container; they should not be handed with bare hands. Spare electrodes should be kept dry in their container until required for use.





(h) (i)


Gas Welding and Cutting Advice on the storage and handling of gas cylinders is given in another section. 119

Safety and Security

(a) (b)

The pressure of oxygen used for welding should always be high enough to prevent acetylene flowing back into the oxygen line. Acetylene should not be used for welding at a pressure exceeding one atmosphere gauge as it is liable to explode, even in the absence of air, when under excessive pressure. Back pressure valves should be fitted adjacent to the torch in the oxygen and acetylene supply lines. Flame arrestors should be provided in the oxygen and acetylene supply lines and will usually be fitted at the low pressure side of regulators although they may be duplicated at the torch.My

(c) (d)

hu band works


f o r t h e H ea l th a n d

Figure 11.1

Hot Work Permit This permit relates to any work involving temperature conditions which are likely to be of sufficient intensity to cause ignition of combustible gases, vapour or liquids in or adjacent to the area involved. Before completing the form, refer to the accompanying guidance notes. General This permit is valid from ........................ ................................................................................hrs. date To ...................... hrs date .................... Location of hot work ............................................................... Has an Enclosed Entry Permit been issued? If NO, give reasons .................................................................... Description of hot work ............................................................. Person carrying out hot work ................................................ Person responsible for hot work ........................................... Person responsible for safety ........................................................................ Section 1 (a) (b) Section 2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 120 Has the equipment or pipeline been gas freed? Has the equipment or pipeline been blanked? Is the equipment or pipeline free of liquid? Is the equipment isolated electrically? Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Has the hot work area been checked with a combustible gas indicator for hydrocarbon vapours? Yes/No Has the surrounding area been made safe? Yes/No Yes/No.

(e) (f) (g)

Is the surrounding area safe? Is additional fire protection available? Special conditions/precautions

Yes/No Yes/No In the circumstances noted it is considered safe to proceed with this hot work. Signed

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations


Person in charge
Section 3

The hot work has been completed and all persons under my supervision, materials and equipment have been withdrawn Person in charge................................... Time .................... Date .....................
Guidance Notes for Hot Work Permit

General Starting/finishing time must not exceed the authorized signatory's/responsible officer's working hours. Specific location of hot work to be given. Description of hot work to include type of equipment to be used. Section I Applies to all hazardous work not involving naked flame or continuous spark production and would include use of electrical equipment, use of air driven rotary equipment, sand or grit blasting, hammering and mechanical chipping and movement of equipment or materials over or near to machinery that is operating. Section II Applies to all hot work involving high temperatures, open flame, electric arc or continuous source of sparks, etc. This type of work includes but is not limited to welding, burning and grinding.

To be filled in whenever any person other than the electrician is to work on any equipment where there could be a hazard of electric shock, if the electrical part is not isolated. (a) This permit is valid from _____________ (date and time) To _____________(date and time) (b) (c) Equipment on which work is to be done __________________ Work is to be done by__________________________________________________________ 121

Safety and Security

(d) (e) (1)

Supply isolated by _________________________________ Work completed and cleared by ___________________________ (Name of the person reporting work completion) Supply reconnected by electrician at _____________ (date and time)

Responsible Officer or Electrician [Note: Permit should be filled and given to person doing the job who must return it to the responsible officer after completion of the work.]

There is a correct tool for every job and any tool being used for a purpose for which it is not designed is a potential hazard. All staff should be trained in the use of both hand and machine tools prior to using them. All tools should be maintained in good working order, only being used for the duties for which they are designed. Operating guides and manuals should be circulated and readily available. All tools should be stowed carefully and on completion of the task in hand they should be returned to the correct storage location, cleaned and prepared for future use. Damaged, worn or potentially hazardous tools must not be used and should be taken out of service. When this course of action is taken the relevant head of department should be advised. The tools should only be returned to service when all faults are rectified. If it proves impossible to repair a toot, it should be disposed of or destroyed. Some faults may be simple to rectify, but if they remain unrepaired they will lead to injuries. Such fault rectification may include dressing chisels, sharpening punches or fitting a new file handle. Hand held power tools can be potentially very dangerous and should only be used in accordance with manufacturers' instructions and operated by experienced and trained staff. Such tools may be driven by electricity, battery or compressed air, but the same fundamental safety rules apply in each case. All p lugs, cables, fittin gs and connections should be regularly checked and any fuses fitted should be of minimum serviceable rating. For work carried out in confined spaces, tools should be of low voltage type—typically 24 volts. If low voltage supplies and tools are not readily available on board vessels, then ship owners must consider the possibility of purchasing portable transformer units and low voltage hand tools. Any equipment used in hazardous areas should be intrinsically safe and maintained correctly. Such intrinsically safe equipment should be labeled with the correct approvals. Operating triggers on hand held power tools should never be "fixed" either by using wire or jubilee clips. This is a very dangerous practice. No maintenance should be attempted on any power tool before it has been isolated from its power source. Even basic operations such as changing drill bits should only be attempted when the drill has been isolated. The improper use of workshop machine tools results in many accidents and injuries and such machine tools should only be operated by trained and competent personnel. In this section, all secured machine tools are included except welding machines which will be considered separately. The first and most important thing any machine tool operator must know is how to stop the machine. Various methods may be employed, including stop buttons, kick bars and emergency stops, to name but a few, but the single most important lesson is this: 122

Never start a machine unless you know how to stop it!

All stopping methods should be clearly indicated. Emergency remote "stops" capable of stopping all workshop machines should be sited around the workshop. Guards should be fitted to all machine tools and no machine should by operated unless guards are in place. Guards should only be of approved designs and must be fully compatible with the machine. Even with guards fitted, the operator should always wear approved goggles whenever there is a risk of eye injury. Artificial lighting in workshop should be carefully selected to avoid the potential stroboscopic effect of fluorescent lights on rotating machinery. As with power took. if a machine is considered defective it should be taken out of service, until it is repaired and tested. In the meantime, it should be isolated and "danger ,notices" posted. Some machines, e.g. pedestal grinding machines, may be belt driven and consequently belts should be well maintained with belt guards fitted. These guards should only be removed when the machine is confirmed fully isolated.

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations

Simple things such as swarf removal, chuck keys left in chucks, unguarded machines and unsecured work pieces still lead to too many accidents and injuries. Clothing should be fastened and hair should be secured or tied up so as to prevent entanglement in rotating machinery. All workshops should be kept clean and tidy with all tools returned to shadow boards, which allow easy identification of missing tools. The work shop should be uncluttered and all benches, decks and machines should be tidied between jobs and each evening. Areas in the immediate vicinity of machines can be enclosed by grid lines painted on the deck within which nothing should be placed or stored. All machines should be cleaned and swept down after use. However, the use of compressed air for this purpose can be very dangerous and must be prohibited.

Good housekeeping is a vital part of shipboard safety management and is an area worthy of great attention. Personal injury statistics indicate that 45% of all seaman injuries are as a result of slips and falls. Good housekeeping must be actively encouraged and senior officers must promote it. All personal should always ensure that they : • Keep the work place clean, tidy and well lit. Always clear up oil spills however small. Clearly mark and effectively fence off opening in decks or gratings. Return tools after use. Promptly dispose of garbage and waste in accordance with legislation. Rectify oil leaks before they become too serious. Buckets or catch pots should be used. Keep all equipment and stores properly secured. The chief officer or his representative should complete evening rounds in a thorough and seaman-like manner and ensure the deck is safe and secure before nightfall. The watchkeeping engineer should ensure that all machinery spaces are clean and tidy during his watch and that all potential hazards are dealt with as soon as they become apparent. On vessels operating unmanned machinery spaces (UMS), the duty engineer should ensure that the engine room is left in a safe condition. It might prove advantageous for the senior engineers to develop a 'pre-UMS checklist' that might prove advantageous that must be completed prior to the engine room going unmanned. The list


Safety and Security

might include checking that all fire alarms are reinstated and that the officer of the watch on the bridge is advised that the engine room is about to be placed on UMS status. Generally, all deficiencies should be rectified as soon as possible. A delay may lead to nn accident and the possible injury of a shipmate. Faulty lighting, damaged hand holds and obstructed stairs may all seem innocuous, but left unattended they are very real hazards. In addition, save-ails should be kept clean and oil free. Buckets or drums of petroleum products used for cleaning purifiers and fuel components should be emptied after use and prior to UMS. Running lights should be operational, and machinery instructions and notices. should be legible as well as clear and concise. If machinery or pipe work lagging is damaged, then it should be correctly repaired. If asbestos lagging has been used on a ship. then it should be brought to the owner's attention and dealt with by professionals. As all seafarers are aware, vessels are seldom still, but in times of rough weather all items on board from cabin ornaments to main engine spares should be correctly secured. Garbage deserves special mention particularly in light of current legislation. Waste should be sorted prior to disposal into plastics, bio-degradable and galley waste. However, some items, including aerosols and batteries should always be segregated and never incinerated on board, but should be retained for disposal ashore. An exploding aerosol is a significant hazard and may seriously injure a friend or colleague. All waste bins, particularly those containing oily rags, cotton waste or machining swarf and that constitute a potential fire hazard should be emptied prior vacating the engine room. Much of this is commonsense. Yet all too often injuries and claims arise as a result of these types of mistakes. How many times have doors been left neither secured open nor shut, but swinging? Yet it is well known that ships roll. How many times have gratings or floor plates been removed and left unguarded, or oil spills left and not cleared up? It is particularly important that all emergency escape routes are kept clear and well lit. Escape hatches should be clearly marked to ensure nothing is placed on hatch lids. This is vital to ensure that escape is possible at all times. To sum up, good housekeeping is essential. Without it, accidents, injuries and claims will always happen.


Figure 11.2

The earlier sections dealt with safety measures connected with all ships in general. The following few paragraphs attempt to give you a very brief insight into special precautions to be observed in ships that are specialized both in the nature of their role and the cargoes they carry. Tankers and Ships that Carry Bulk Liquid Cargo All personnel who work on tankers and similar vessels are required to undergo special training as laid down in STOW 95. This includes training in emergency procedures and the use of special emergency equipment. This training is repeated at regular intervals and also includes first aid procedures for dealing with accidental contact with harmful substances in the cargo being carried and inhalation of vapours. Officers are required to have relevant information regarding the nature of the cargo and the special precautions to be taken during the voyage. Normally no hot work or chipping with hammers is permitted due to danger from sparks. Enclosed space entry on such ships entails extra precautions because dangerous gases may be released or leak from adjoining spaces while work is in progress and frequent testing of the atmosphere would be included in the permit to work system. In addition to the safety regulations imposed by the ISM Code, guidance on the general precautions to be taken will be found in two ICS (International Chamber of Shipping) publications viz. International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) and Safety in Oil Tankers (a handbook for crew members). LPG Carriers Liquified Petroleum Gas Carriers, commonly referred as 'gas tankers', are constructed to very stringent safety standards as laid down in the IMO Code for Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquified Gases in Bulk (IGC Code). In addition, for safe operations, guidance is given in the ICS publications, Tanker Safety Guide (Liquified Gases) and Safety in Liquified Gas Tankers (a handbook for crew members). There are several unique hazards on this type of ship. Contact with cargo, valves and connections may cause cold burns as most of these cargoes are carried at sub zero temperatures. In addition, some cargoes like ammonia have very pungent suffocating vapours; while some cargoes like VCM (Vinyl Chloride Monomer) can cause cancer by contact or inhalation. This involves constantly wearing special personal protective equipment like gas masks, special overalls, etc. Chemical Carriers Chemical tankers generally carry several grades/types of cargo at the same time, which may range from totally harmless to extremely hazardous. Such vessels are also built to very stringent standards laid down by IMO in the IBC Code and BCH Code. As in gas tankers, operation requires the use of special protective clothing and breathing apparatus even in open spaces when operating valves, etc. The MFAG (Medical First Aid Guide) contains instructions on what is to be done in the event of accidental contact with chemical cargoes. Many products carried on chemical tankers are loosely referred to as 'alcohols'. Drinking these would lead to severe injury and even death and hence strict controls are exercised when carrying such cargoes in order to prevent pilferage. Offshore Vessels The existence of oil and gas installations at sea and offshore necessitates different types of vessels for servicing them. These include Anchor Handling Tugs(AHTs), Multiple Support Vessels(MSVs), Auxiliary Support Vessels(ASVs), collectively called Offshore Support Vessels(OSVs), all engaged in supporting the offshore oil

Safety — Miscellaneous Operations


Safety and Security

industry. These vessels often operate in extremely rough weather and the crew are always in danger of being washed overboard due to the very low freeboard or crushed on deck by shifting cargo. Safety precautions include rigging of lifelines on deck, wearing safety harness and lifeline and extra bright illumination during night operations. Advice and guidance on operations is given in Guidelines for the Safe Management and Operation of Offshore Vessels. SAQ 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

What is an enclosed space? What would you do if ventilation stops during man entry? What is the composition of the air we breathe? What protective gear is used during hot work? What would you, as the Chief Officer, ensure at the end of a day's work'? What are the various publications dealing with the safe operations on different types of tankers? What equipment usage could be constituted as hot work? What precautions have to be taken while operating machine tools? What is your understanding of good housekeeping? What kinds off cargoes are carried on board gas tankers? What are the dangers of working on board offshore supply vessels?


[Note : Certain images have been downloaded from the internet to embellish this unit further. We wish to thank the original creators/publishers for allowing us this facility.]

Enclosed space is one which may have an oxygen deficiency, explosive or toxic atmosphere or when condition of atmosphere is unknown. Many such spaces may be found on a ship, e.g. stores, paint lockers, empty tanks,etc. Procedures given in this unit must be scrupulously followed before entering any enclosed space. Any attempt to rescue a person who has collapsed in an enclosed space must be according to a pre arranged plan. Remember on no account should the person stationed at the entrance to the space attempt to enter itbefore additional help has arrived. No one should attempt a rescue without wearing breathing apparatus, rescue harness and a life line. Welding, grinding and flame cutting should be carried out only after obtaining permit-towork and by persons who are competent. Harmful fumes produced during welding and cutting operation can deplete oxygen in the atmosphere. Special care should be taken to monitor the effectiveness particularly in enclosed spaces. Tests for combustible gas should be carried out immediately before commencement of hot work and at frequent intervals as long as work is in progress. All spaces in the workshop should be kept neat and tidy. There is a correct tool for every job and only the appropriate tool should be used. Tools should be maintained in good working order. Manufacturers, instructions for operating and maintenance of machines and tools must be followed. All machines should be cleaned and swept down after use and tools returned to their storage space and secured. Special precautions are to be observed in ships such as tankers, chemical carriers and gas carriers which are specially built and carry special cargoes.




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